Page 1

“If you want to go fast go alone. If you want to go far go together�

(african saying)


source: OpenIDEO / water storage and transportation, India


INDEX 1

H 2

3

4

C 5

Introduction

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HEAR

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The Hear section is a deep research through problem statements, context and case studies, paving the path for a positive global impact project

Problem statements

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2.1 Foodborne disease

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2.2 Energy poverty

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How to enter an emerging market

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3.1 Design with & for the other 90%

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3.2 Open IDEO: How to solve worldwide challenges

31

3.3 Human Centred Design Process

39

3.4 Entrepreneurs and companies: case histories

42

3.5 What is Democratic Design?

50

Analysis and Planning Area

55

4.1 Mapping the problem

56

4.2 Geographical Analysis

58

4.3 Market Segmentation and BOP customers

60

4.4 Refrigeration in emerging markets

72

CREATE

79

Transforming and translating what I learned and heard into concrete solutions and opportunities

A pot as a life change product for BOP customers

81

5.1 Ceramic filters for water purification

82

5.2 SafiPot product development

92

5.3 Audience and use

110

5.4 SWOT

118


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7

Good intentions are not enough

121

6.1 Micro Finance Institutions

122

6.2 Cross subsidization

126

6.3 One to One

129

6.4 Charity is not an answer

132

Design brief and challenges

135

7.1 How to create a service

136

7. 2 What is a Design Innovation

138

7.3 Design Brief and Concept

140

CoolPotProject, How to improve a billion people’s life 8

D 9

10

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8.1 Mission

144

8.2 Team

148

8.3 The project, opportunities and benefits

150

8.4 A global philanthropic financing strategy action

157

8.5 Growing well being by having a long term vision

164

8.6 CoolPotProject as a social business

172

DELIVER

177

From ideas and prototypes to solutions and plans. Creating a learning plan to measure and continue iterating on the designed system

Designing the Pilot Project

179

9.1 Begin it with the end in mind

180

9.2 How to get money to start?

183

Future prospects

189

Conclusion

193

References

195

Acknowledgements

199


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My thesis The CoolPotProject -“dall’utopia al progetto” is the pillar, exactly “how” I would like the whole project to take shape: from the mission point of view, to the service, to the product, through a business solution proposal. While developing this project I have been talking and keeping in contact with many people from all over the world, to share and discuss many different topics, from business, to intellectual property, through philanthropy, charity, fundraising, design, pilot projects and many others, to have different perspectives and angles on the contours of the same problem.


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1# INTRO Two years and half ago I began a

of the most exciting and accelerating

project that initiated a wonderful

learning process I have ever had in my

period of my life, full of beautiful

life.

learning experiences that brought me

Singularity University is a unique

all around the world.

interdisciplinary, international and intercultural experience

This project is Freeijis: a cooling system

that concentrates on the impact

which uses no electricity.

and opportunities presented by

The method is adapted from the

transformative exponential technologies

evaporative cooling process, melded

that can solve our world’s greatest

with advanced PCM smart materials, to

challenges. Located on the campus

create a new, innovative cooling system

of NASA Ames Research Park in

that improves the quality and length of

Silicon Valley, one of the world’s great

refrigeration without using electrical

epicenters of innovation, Singularity

power.

University offers a 10-week summer

This idea has numerous potential

Graduate Studies Program and

applications in a variety of fields

Executive Programs held multiple

globally, including food preservation

times each year. The mission of the

and transportation, medicine,

SU Graduate Studies Program is to

construction, highlighting the great

assemble, educate and inspire future

potential of transferring knowledge and

leaders around the globe who can

technologies from developing countries

harness the power of exponential

to our own. Due to this project I

technologies to positively impact the

had the chance to win a ten week

lives of a billion people within a decade.

scholarship at Singularity University,

These 10 weeks made me think about

based at Nasa Ames Research Centre

the opportunities of producing and

Park in Mountain View, Silicon Valley.

distributing Freeijis in developing

This “American period” has been one

countries, and the positive impact that

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such distribution could have with BOP

a sustainable business to bring

customers.

refrigeration where there is no

After SU I was really confused by the

electricity, where perishable food

storm of ideas in my head, exponential

causes disease and death in developing

technologies, exponential changes, all

countries, where there’s a real need.

the interesting people I met and all the

While and after I was in San Francisco,

incredible experiences I’ve been living.

I received hundreds of contacts from

It took me awhile to understand how

people interested in knowing more

to come back to reality and decide my

about Freeijis, mostly engineers and

next step.

business people, who wanted to know

Before my SU experience I saw myself

more about the product, and even

filling the “designer” role, almost totally

people interested in investing to

centered on creating projects for clients

produce and sell it in western countries.

(companies, industries or privates), but

I’m still in contact with a few of them,

now I see new possibilities for my role:

because there could be a possible

being part of a multidisciplinary team,

future collaboration: for example with

crafting experimental projects, and

Epta Refrigeration European leader

creating companies with its products.

and global partner in the commercial

I started thinking that the hardest part

refrigeration market and with Giorgio

for us, designers, is not creating new

De Ponti director of ADI Atelier

ideas, concept or projects. Rather, the

Innovazione.

hardest job is to transfer our ideas or

But while I was going deeper

concepts into reality, into products and

and deeper, thinking about the

services, into the market or successful

opportunities for a new and improved

companies.

Freeijis on the market, I wasn’t seeing it

So I decided to keep on developing

as a mass product for western countries,

Freeijis, thanks also to Chiara

but as a product to be addressed to

Giovenzana and Claudia Olsson

explain the basic needs of refrigeration

(Singularity University graduate

in rural communities of developing

students ‘10) who pushed me to really

countries, especially when they don’t

think about the project, in terms of an

even have electricity.

interesting and sustainable business

Thinking more about the potential of

opportunity.

positively impact health and lifestyle of

I started seeing my project as

BOP customers in the third world. This


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project is more than a simple product.

Goals (MDGs) it is clear that there is

Think of it as an ecosystem that could

urgent need to create projects, systems

improve and empower people by

and design solutions for extreme

spreading well being and alleviate

worldwide problems.

poverty: that’s why I started developing SafiPot, a cooling and filtering system

All 193 United Nations member

able to satisfy the basic needs of

states and at least 23 international

refrigeration and potable water.

organizations agreed to achieve these

My thesis The CoolPotProject, from a

goals by the year 2015. The goals are:

utopia to the project is the pillar, it is

Eradicating extreme poverty and

exactly “how” I would like the whole

hunger,

project to take shape: from the mission

Achieving universal primary education,

point of view, to the service, to the

Promoting gender equality and

product, through a business solution

empowering women, Reducing child

proposal.

mortality rates, Improving maternal

While developing this project I

health, Combating HIV/AIDS,

have been talking and keeping in

malaria, and other diseases, Ensuring

contact with many people from all

environmental sustainability, and

over the world, to share and discuss

Developing a global partnership for

many different topics, from business,

development.

to intellectual property, through

CoolPotProject could reduce child

philanthropy, charity, fundraising,

mortality rates, promote gender

design, pilot projects and many others,

equality and empower women, improve

to have different perspectives and

maternal health, ensure environmental

angles on the contours of the same

sustainability and develop a global

problem. In the next page I show a map

partnership for development by

with people I’ve talked with in order to

delivering SafiPots and creating

sustain the project, eventually leading

communities job and entrepreneurship

to a beneficial and sustainable business

opportunities in Africa and India.

ecosystem. I plan to make use this project not just for creating a charity

I divided this work in three sections:

organization, but a sustainable social

Hear, Create and Deliver, as the initial

business.

letters of the acronym HCD, Human

Studying the Millennium Development

Centred Design process.

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The CoolPotProject global networking and support Hear Research & Context

Collaborators & Advisors: Chiara Giovenzana, Silicon Valley, Claudia Olsson, Singapore, Eugenio La Mesa, Social and serial Entrepreneur, Founder and CEO of Cure Thalassemia, Simone Paternich Communication and Product Designer Founder and Chairman of p.èn. lab-multidisciplinary studio in Italy People I started to talk with and who support the project: Salim Ismail, Global Ambassador Singularity University - San Francisco, Peter Diamandis, Founder of XPrize Space and Singularity University - Palo Alto, Kip Stringfellow, Director of International Development Singulairty University - SF, Carlotta Sami, Director of Amnesty International in Italy - Roma, Julian Gorodsky, Psychologist and designer, Professor at the BioDesign and entrepreneurial design for extreme affordability courses at Stanford Design School, Alberta Pelino, YAS young ambassador society - Roma, Massimo Bertani, economist Milano, Luca Escoffier, Entrepreneur and Intellectual Property expert - Trieste, Seattle, Marco Spadaro, IP and Patent Expert - Milano, Divya Sornaraja, engineer - India, Nathana O’Brien, Neuroscience, Policy and Law- New York, Sergio Del Rio, Social Entrepreneur and Industrial Designer - Mexico Ajaita Shah – Founder/CEO Frontier Markets, Priszcilla Várnagy Founder and CEO at Be-novative - Budapest,


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RESEARCH AND CONTEXT 2

PROBLEM STATEMENTS The development of refrigeration enabled safe storage of perishable and high-risk foods, and is necessary for the distribution and supply of safe and equitable food around the world. Diet of people in developing countries, who do not have access to refrigeration, differs greatly from those of living in developed countries. The safe supply of perishable foods to people living in developing countries is thus one of the greatest challenges to achieve, and one of the main reasons why food aid supplied around the world varies greatly. Food and water safety are an increasingly important public health issue, governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to improve it.

PH Alessandro Fuoco / Indian cookstove lifestyle


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2.1

Foodborne disease Foodborne diseases are a widespread

including those caused by parasites.

and growing public health problem,

The high prevalence of diarrhoeal

both in developed and developing

diseases in many developing countries

countries.

suggests major underlying food safety

The global incidence of foodborne

problems.

disease is difficult to estimate, but it

While most foodborne diseases are

has been reported that in 2005 alone

sporadic and often not reported,

1.8 million people died from diarrhoeal

foodborne disease outbreaks may take

diseases.

on massive proportions.

A great proportion of these cases can

It can be assumed that the prevalence

be attributed to contamination of

of foodborne disease in the developing

food and drinking water. Additionally,

world is even higher (1), although it is

diarrhoea is a major cause of

difficult to obtain the data that would

malnutrition in infants and young

support this assumption.

children.

While it has long been considered that

In industrialized countries, the

most cases of diarrhea in developing

percentage of the population suffering

countries are waterborne, Kaferstein

from foodborne diseases each year has

(2) has recently stated that it

foodborne diseases, resulting in 325,000

is a grave mistake to ignore the role of contaminated food and that there is an urgent need to integrate food safety, along

hospitalization and 5,000 deaths, are

with water and sanitation programs,

estimated to occur each year.

as an essential strategy to

While less well documented,

diarrhea.

developing countries bear the brunt

The study found that the major sources

of the problem due to the presence of

of human infection were food and

a wide range of foodborne diseases,

environmental contamination and a

been reported to be up to 30%. In the United States of America (USA), for example, around 76 million cases of

prevent

(1) Kaferstein FK. Actions to reverse the upward curve of foodborne illness. Food Control 2003;14:101-9 (2) Kaferstein F. Foodborne disease in developing countries: Aetiology, epidemiology and strategies for prevention. Int J Environ Res 2003:13(Suppl 1):S161-8


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survey of retail poultry sold in Bangkok

of developed countries are affected

and Nairobi (3) found Campylobacter

by foodborne illness each year, and

species contamination

the problem is likely to be even more widespread in developing countries.

MISTAKES ABOUT FOOD IN D.C.

The poor are the most susceptible to ill

The four most common mistakes in

health. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal

handling and preparing food at home

diseases, for example, are leading causes

are the inappropriate storage of food

of illness and death in less developed

(including inadequate refrigeration, the

countries, killing an estimated 2.1

failure to attain a required cooking and/

million people annually, most of whom

or reheating temperature), any actions

are children. Diarrhoea is the most

that result in cross-contamination,

common symptom of foodborne

and the presence of an infected food

illness, but other serious consequences

handler. In a study of 101 home based

include kidney and liver failure, brain

outbreaks (4), it was determined that

and neural disorders, and death.

inappropriate food storage and

The debilitating long-term

cross-contamination were the most

complications of foodborne disease

prevalent mistakes, accounting for 50%

include reactive arthritis and paralysis.

and 28% of reported causative factors,

Foodborne diseases most seriously

respectively.

affect children, pregnant women, the

In developing countries, factors such

elderly and people already affected by

as poverty, undereducation, poor

other diseases.

hygiene practices, contaminated food,

Developed Countries

water, and eating utensils, and contact with animals and flies that transmit pathogens all play a role in exposing individuals to foodborne disease (5).

Developing Countries

1/3 of the population is affected by foodborne disease each year

Up to one third of the populations

(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11927019 (4) Evans HS, Madde P, Douglas C, et al. General outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in England and Wales: 1995 and 1996. Commun Dis Public Health 1998;1:167-71 (5) Black and Lanata 1995,WHO 1999


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Nearly 90% of child deaths due to pneumonia and diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

Countries with the most rotavirus diarrhea deaths, by number and percentage of global total

source: WHO | World Health Organization


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2.2

Energy poverty percent of the people in the Third World (the 50 poorest nations) have no access to electricity (6), despite decades of

energy consumption habits of larger

international development work.

power is being willfully ignored.

The total number of individuals

Other nations have succeeded in mass

without electric power is put at about

electrification only through large

1.5 billion, or a

quarter of the world’s population, concentrated

scale, top-down efforts by central

mostly in Africa and southern Asia.

rural effort in the 1930s in the United

The problem is most acute in sub-

States and more recently in China.

Saharan Africa, with several entire

But development officials say this

nations there effectively nonelectrified.

model is not suitable for Africa because

In 11 countries, all in Africa, more

central governments there lack the cash

than 90 percent of people go without

to make it happen.

An estimated 79

economies in the climate talks, the report’s authors say they worry that the plight of those without any modern

governments, most notably the mass

electricity. In six of these: Burundi, Chad, Central

The problem is spread across the

African Republic, Liberia, Rwanda and

developing world, but it is particularly

Sierra Leone, 3 to 5 percent of people

severe in sub-Saharan Africa and

can readily obtain electric power.

developing Asia, which together

In 14 nations worldwide, less than

account for 95% of people in energy

10 percent of people have the option

poverty.

to use modern cooking fuels, relying

Without targeted global action, the

instead on wood scavenged from the

International Energy Agency (IEA)

countryside.

estimates that in 2035 there will still

All told, about 2.5 billion people

be one billion people without access

globally subsist on wood or charcoal.

to electricity and 2.7 billion without

With so much attention on the

access to clean cooking fuels.

(6) World Health Organization in ScientificaAmerican “One-Quarter of World’s Population Lacks Electricity” November 24, 2009

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Global Energy Poverty Sub-Saharan Africa

8 585 Latin America

31

85

289 653

936 India

Million people without electricity Million people without clean cooking facilities

source: www.worldenergy.org

423 China


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source: http://occupydesign.org/gallery/designs/what-makes-nation-third-world

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3

HOW TO ENTER AN EMERGING MARKET This chapter will be focus on studying and understanding the most renowned organizations, companies and products case histories on their enter in emerging markets, analysing their success and failures.

QDRUM Millions around the world, especially in rural Africa, live kilometres from a reliable source of clean water, leaving them vulnerable to cholera, dysentery, and other water-borne diseases. Water in adequate quantities is too heavy to carry. The Q Drum is a durable container designed to roll easily, and can transport seventy-five litres of clean and potable water. Rolling the water in a cylindrical container, rather than lifting and carrying it, eases the burden of bringing water to those who need it.

PH QDrum in Tanzania


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3.1

Design with & for the other 90% For the first time in history, the majority

ways to improve access to water, food,

of the earth’s approximately seven

energy, education, health care, revenue-

billion inhabitants live in cities.

generating activities, and affordable

Close to one billion people live in

transportation.

informal settlements, commonly known

Design with the Other 90%: CITIES

as slums or squatter settlements, and

features sixty projects, proposals, and

that number is projected to swell to two

solutions that address the complex

billion by 2030, pushing beyond the

issues arising from the unprecedented

capacity of many local institutions to

rise of informal settlements in emerging

cope (7).

and developing economies.

Lured to the city in search of work

Divided into six themes Exchange,

and greater social mobility or fleeing

Reveal, Adapt, Include, Prosper and

conflicts and natural disasters, many

Access—to help orient the visitor,

urban migrants suffer from insecure

the exhibition shines the spotlight on

land tenure, limited access to basic

communities, designers, architects, and

services such as sanitation and clean

private, civic, and public organizations

water, and crowded living conditions.

that are working together to formulate

At the same time, these informal

innovative approaches to urban

cities, full of culture and life, increase

planning, affordable housing,

opportunities to create solutions to the

entrepreneurship, nonformal education,

problems they face.

public health, and more.

Design for the Other 90% explores a

The United Nations offers an ideal

growing movement to design low-cost

setting to examine these complex issues

solutions for those not traditionally

and connect with stakeholders who can

served by professional designers.

impart real change.

Entrepreneurs, engineers, students, professors, and architects from around the globe are devising cost-effective

Source of the Map: International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2011 (7) Amnesty International Report “Slums and informal settlements” 2011


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1

2

Access

Adapt

Improve access to water, sanitation,

Help residents of informal settlements

food security, electricity, health,

respond to challenges facing their

transportation, and education.

communities

3

4

Exchange

Include

Promote the exchange of design knowledge

Seek to include those who have been

between informal settlements and formal

marginalized by the established city,

cities.

especially the poor, women, and youth

5

Prosper

6

Reveal

Help create work opportunities in

Increase awareness of conditions in informal

informal communities

settlements, which often do not show up on official maps or in census rolls

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1_ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD The One Laptop per Child, or $100 laptop, is a laptop computer designed as an educational tool to bring learning, information, and communication to children in developing countries. OLPC has been an experiment in socially responsible design, in which a nonprofit organization harnesses cutting-edge personal technologies and distributes them on an unprecedented scale. Governments purchase the laptops directly and distribute them to their schools. Nigeria, Argentina, Brazil, Thailand, Uruguay, and Libya are slated to order the first batch of five million units. 2_STARSIGHT The StarSight system combines solarpowered street lighting and Internet access in a wireless configuration, bypassing conventional power and telephone grids. StarSight provides a more secure secure environment, connectivity for building an emerging economy, and emergency communication and lighting for areas hit by disaster. 3_SOLAR HOME LIGHTING SYSTEM Electricity reaches only a limited portion of the world’s population. More than 1.6 billion people worldwide lack connection to an electrical network. Candles and kerosene and oil lamps are still some of the most common options for basic lighting, with dry cells and automotive batteries used to power


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radios, televisions, and small appliances. These sources are lowquality, cumbersome, expensive, and often dangerous, but they are the only available options to rural families, small farmers, businesses, and institutions. The Solar Home Lighting System, a wireless solar power system originally designed for rural and peri-urban customers in India, enables families to improve their productivity by allowing them to pursue income-generating activities in the evening while their children can have better light for studying. 4_MOLADI CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM The multi-award winning moladi construction system was founded in South Africa in 1986 as a method of building cast in place reinforced monolithic structures. The moladi technology was developed as a means to alleviate many of the cumbersome and costly aspects associated with conventional construction methods without compromising on the quality or integrity of the structure. The moladi system constitutes the use of a removable, reusable, recyclable and lightweight plastic formwork mould, which is filled with a South African Bureau of Standards approved and AgrĂŠment Certified aerated mortar to form the wall structure of a house in as little as one day. Each set of moladi formwork panels can be re-used 50 times making the technology cost effective due to its repetitive application scheme, reducing the cost of construction

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and transportation significantly. 5_LIFESTRAW WATER PURIFIER With over 1.1 million people in the world who don’t have access to clean drinking water, water-borne pathogens are a huge problem for the environment and for human health. Fortunately a clever little design has come to the rescue in the form of the Lifestraw. The cigar-sized plastic tool is both a feat of engineering and an inexpensive way to deliver potable water to those who need it. Lifestraw delivers the most basic needs and purifies water from potential pathogens like typhoid, cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea, becoming one of the icons of humanitarian product designby the time the water hits your lips, it’s completely safe and potable. 6_POT IN POT The Pot-in-Pot system consists of two pots, a smaller earthenware pot nestled within another pot, with the space in between filled with sand and water. When that water evaporates, it pulls heat from the interior of the smaller pot, in which vegetables and fruits can be kept. In rural Nigeria, many farmers lack transportation, water, and electricity, but one of their biggest problems is the inability to preserve their crops. With the Pot-in-Pot, tomatoes last for twentyone days, rather than two or three days without this technology. Fresher produce can be sold at the market,


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generating more income for the farmers.

dispose of. It is completely clean and green.

7_GRAVITY LIGHT

Because there are no running costs after the

This is not an official project made by

initial low cost purchase, it has the potential

“Design for the other 90%� but in my

to lift people out of poverty, allowing them

opinion is the perfect example about this

to use the money they have saved to buy

mission and purpose.

more powerful solar lighting systems in the

GravityLight is a revolutionary new

future.

approach to storing energy and creating illumination. With GravityLight, it only takes a few seconds to lift the weight, which creates enough energy for half an an hour of light, whenever it is needed. It has no batteries to run out, replace or

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3.2

OpenIDEO How to solve worlwide challenges OpenIDEO is a place where people design better, together for social good. It’s an online platform for creative thinkers: the veteran designer and the new guy who just signed on, the critic and the MBA, the active participant and the curious lurker. Together, this makes up the creative guts of OpenIDEO. To become a place where good ideas gain momentum, OpenIDEO depends on participation: your inspirations, his comments, her concepts, our design process. It’s these efforts, these big and small moments of sharing and collaboration, that make this platform a dynamic resource for tackling significant global challenges. IDEO, a design and innovation firm, developed OpenIDEO as a way to include a broader range of people in the design process through inspiration, concepting, and evaluation. Tom Hulme OpenIDEO Founder

Last October I had the pleasure to

OpenIDEO presently has over 36,000

meet Tom Hulme, OpenIDEO Founder,

users from more than 170 countries.

during a startup event (8) in Vienna.

In my opinion it is the fusion between

He was jumping from design thinking

good, smart design and admirable

explanations, to open source projects,

purposes trough a multidisciplinary

to the importance of teamwork on

teamwork.

several business approaches. I’ve been

My doubt is if this worldwide open

impressed from his energy and passion

collaboration/networking could really

about the connection between good

work, because of the phisycal distance

design, sustainable businesses and

from its “team” member.

design with high purposes, focused on

Everyone, all creative thinkers, can be

solving the biggest challenges in the

part of a project in every phase in

world. That’s probably why he founded

remote from all over the world.

OpenIDEO in 2009 with his friend

Could time and physical distances be

Nathan while still working at IDEO.

a problem as a weakness or could this

At that time Tom was the Design

be the best way of creating successful

Director of IDEO London.

projects?

(8) Pioneers Festival October 25/31 2012 Hofburg, Vienna Sources: www.ideo.com; www.ideo.org; www.openideo.com

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How does OpenIDEO work? After a challenge is posted at OpenIDEO.com, the three development phases – inspiration, concepting, and evaluation – are put into motion.

ideas of others), so they created their own.

Principles of the OpenIDEO Community

Community members can contribute

Principle #1: Inclusive

in a variety of different ways, from

Recognize and enable all levels of

inspirational observations and photos,

participation from different disciplines.

sketches of ideas, to business models

It’s about allowing anyone to contribute

and snippets of code.

to the creative process. Whether it’s a

Sometimes this can be in the form of a

great insight, a beautiful sketch, an

comment; other times, it’s building off a

encouraging build, or a few words of

previous person’s work.

praise, the platform allows everyone to

People participating in OpenIDEO can

take part in and feel as if they are a part

provide feedback every step of the way.

of the process.

Between each development phase,

Principle #2: Community-centered

IDEO helps shape the journey through

Remember the core strengths of

framing the challenge, prototyping, and

the community and play to them.

encouraging the conversation.

OpenIDEO is meant to foster a strong,

Eventually a selection of concepts

vibrant, lively community that thrives

are chosen as winners. All concepts

on inspiration — and that we all trust

generated are shareable, remix-able and

will make a difference. Focusing on this

reusable by anyone – in a similar way to

community and its activities is essential.

Creative Commons.

Principle #3: Collaborative Promote teamwork among individuals

Why is IDEO doing this?

and teams by recognizing the many

They believe passionately that

roles that are crucial to each step of

innovation requires collaboration and

the design process. Always choose

that technology can facilitate teamwork

collaboration over competition, and

across great distances. They couldn’t

create an atmosphere for building on

find a platform that accommodated all

one another’s ideas.

of their core needs (which included

Principle #4: Optimistic

being able to split up the innovation

Stay optimistic! You never know when

process into phases and to build on the

a wild idea might enable others to get


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closer to a viable solution. Principle #5: Always

in Beta

Design for continuous improvement and iteration and scale deliberately. That goes for the community, the platform, and these principles. To this end, please email your suggestions for making OpenIDEO better.

Case Histories OpenIDEO These project are made by the OpenIDEO Community in collaboration with IDEO.org: Through Human-Centered Design projects, we’re bringing stability, hope, and dignity to communities around the world that are wrestling with poverty. Along the way, we’re sharing what we learn and accomplish with everyone—so we’re all learning together. IDEO.org Founders IDEO has been working in the social sector for more than ten years. Recently, it became clear that launching a nonprofit organization focused solely on social innovation would allow IDEO to make an even bigger impact on global poverty. Enter, IDEO.org. IDEO.org works with nonprofits, social enterprises and foundations.

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THE CLEAN TEAM (Ghana) IDEO.org designed a new sanitation offering in Ghana that combines product, service and business design. Instead of having to use public latrines, customers receive a toilet in their homes which is serviced three times a week and allows families to pay on an incremental basis. As part of the second phase of the project, IDEO.org was tasked with building out the brand strategy of the Clean Team toilet service, with the goal of reaching 12,000 households by 2013. IDEO.org designed a Clean Team brand that was seen not just as a sanitation business, but also a social business and a sanitation solution set on redefining the status quo. From uniform designs to radio spots, posters to business cards, style guides to toilet stickers, the team designed a complete brand strategy for scaling the Clean Team toilet service in Kumasi and beyond.

2

TANZANIA COOKSTOVES TEAM (Tanzania) IDEO.org worked with the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves to identify opportunities to increase demand for clean cookstoves in Tanzania and beyond. “Do Tanzanian’s live to eat or eat to live? We want to find out more about the meaning of food in Tanzanian culture.” Emily Friedberg IDEO.org Fellow

Clean cookstoves have the potential to improve health by reducing exposure to smoke from traditional fires and stoves, improve livelihoods through increased savings from reduction of fuel use, and benefit the environment through a decrease in emissions. The project team developed a consumer-based understanding of cookstove adoption and presented actionable opportunity areas for Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves and its stakeholders to explore. Although focused on the Tanzanian market, many of the insights and opportunities developed by the team are relevant globally. As part of an eight week project, the team conducted 68 interviews conducting field research in Tanzania.

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3

SMART LIFE TEAM (Kenia) IDEO.org partnered with Unilever, Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) and the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) to design a scalable business in Kenya selling water alongside hygiene and nutrition products. We are in the midst of a global water, hygiene & nutrition crisis. 3.5 people die each year from water-related disease. 1.7 million children under 5 die from diarrheal disease annually. 1 out of 3 people people in developing countries have vitamin and nutrient deficiencies. Globally, there have been mixed results in tackling these challenges and too often solutions have been carried out with siloed approaches. IDEO.org teamed up with WSUP, GAIN and Unilever to tackle this three-fold water, hygiene & nutrition crisis with a human-centered design approach aimed at creating a unified and market-based solution to this challenge. The IDEO.org team began the project by traveling to Nairobi to understand consumers, context and possibilities on the ground in Kenya. The team spent two weeks in Nairobi, where it interviewed 50 people, prototyped 2 fully-functioning kiosks, 1 mkokoteni cart, and 1 delivery service. The team even managed to sell 520 litres of clean drinking water during the research process! After returning to San Francisco to begin the design phase of the project, the IDEO.org team ultimately designed a strong woman-friendly brand coupled with a high touch subscription service for clean water, hygiene, and nutrition products. Over the coming months, the clients will be piloting two versions of


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the SmartLife service in Nairobi with different versions of the following service model: A friendly SmartLife sales agent comes to the customer’s home weekly to take customized orders and provide top quality service. Customers order and pay for a personalized selection of water and health and nutrition products on a weekly basis. Orders are sent to our treatment facility where water is filtered and delivery containers are filled. Water and product orders are delivered by truck and carried into customer’s homes by friendly SmartLife Delivery staff.

What do these 3 sustainable services/ products have in common?

+

The most important key point in common between these projects is the UCD (User Centred Design Approach) that will be explained in next paragraphs. Basically, UCD Human Centred Design is an approach used by IDEO Community designers, entrepreneurs and creative people. They are Hearing from people, living, talking and learning in local areas, Creating ideas, concepts and prototypes, having frequent direct feedback from customers and Delivering a sustainable social business model.

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Human-centered design allows us to create and deliver solutions based on people’s needs. IDEO.org


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3.3

Human Centred Design (HCD) Process Human-centered design is a process

and implementing ideas.

that has been used for decades to

The HCD provides methods to take

create new solutions to design

from one step to the next in each phase

challenges. The process helps people

of the project.

hear the needs of the people and

In the process, the team will move from

communities they’re designing for,

concrete observations about people

create innovative approaches to meet

and their needs and desires, to abstract

these needs, and deliver solutions that

thinking as uncover insights and

work in specific cultural and economic

themes, then back to the concrete with

contexts. Centred in optimism and

tangible solutions.

embracing constraints and complexity,

Human-Centered Design begins with

the HCD process helps users ask

the people you’re designing for —

the right questions. Ultimately, it can

their needs, behaviours and desires.

increase the speed and effectiveness of

You’ll look at the world through this

implementing solutions that have an

“Desirability” lens (picture in the next

impact on the lives of the people these

page) for the duration of your project.

solutions were designed for.

Once you know what’s desirable, you’ll begin to view the solutions through the

The Human-Centered Design Toolkit

lenses of “Feasibility” and “Viability.”

is applicable specifically for people,

The solutions that emerge at the

nonprofits, and social enterprises that

conclusion of your Human-Centered

work with low-income communities

Design project should hit the overlap

throughout the world.

of these three lenses: solutions that are

The HCD process walks users through

desirable, feasible and viable.

the human-centered design process and supports them in activities such as building observation and empathy skills, prototyping, leading workshops,

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3.4

Entrepreneurs, companies & org

case history on how to enter an emerging market There are many organizations,

-Mission/Vision: Our vision is to

companies and products delivered

endow a brighter future to millions of

and developed every year to enter an

households in rural India

emerging market to overcome poverty,

-What it is about: ChotuKool is a

and problems which threaten people

portable cooling solution from Indian

and society.

multinational Godrej & Boyce. It is

What all of these have in common is

a top-loading, compact and portable

a great disruptive mission and vision,

cooling solution does not have a

to create positive impact services, eco

compressor. It weighs only 7.8 kgs.

systems, products or companies to do

There’s a two different variants of the

good.

product: one of 30 litres and the other

I’ve chosen a few different projects

one of 45 litres. The chotuKool idea

analysed by:

was conceived at a workshop with Prof. Clayton Christensen, world’s foremost

-Problem to solve:

authority on Disruptive Innovation

-Mission/Vision:

(DI). It is a classic case of “co-creation”.

-What it is about:

Godrej DI team worked closely with

-Social Impact (How many people has

potential consumers to get insights

positively impacted or could impact):

on their needs, desired solutions

-Marketing and Monetization

and barriers to consumption. The

Strategy: (How to find and have paying

opportunity was shaped up by choosing

customers):

relevant technology, testing various prototypes, evaluating market potential

1_ChotuKool in India (company)

and developing business models.

-Problem to solve: They wanted to

-Social impact: could positively impact

attract non-consumers— more than

a billion (at least) but for now has

80% of Indian households that lacked

impacted 100.000

basic appliances such as refrigerators.

-Marketing and Monetization Strategy:


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The product will be distributed by a micro finance Indian group. The villagers will act as marketers and will earn a commission of approximately $3 per fridge sold. This fridge is targeted at households who earn approximately $5 a day, of whom there are almost 100 million in India. FAILING ACTIONS / SUCCESSFUL ACTIONS -let microfinance groups and institutions get involved (they will be interest to earn and to sell the product promoting by themselves and creating new jobs opportunities) -co-creating: customers are directly involve in the design process -collaboration between research university centre and a big indian firm

source: http://www.innosight.com/impact-stories/chotokool-case-study.cfm

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2_OneLaptop per Child (product)

With a donation of $399 (plus US$25

-Problem to solve: Education as based

1” program, donors received an XO-1

to take out from poverty, hunger and

laptop of their own and OLPC sent

bring equal opportunities

another on their behalf to a child in a

-Mission/Vision: The One Laptop Per

developing country.

shipping cost) to the OLPC “Give 1 Get

Child (OLPC’s) mission is to empower the world’s poorest children through

FAILING ACTIONS

education

-laptop delivered into villages from

-What it is about: a laptop for children.

helicopters: no train to teachers

We aim to provide each child with a

-not well connected, no internet access

rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected

in the rural areas. Bringing a laptop

laptop. To this end, we have designed

without internet or an infrastructure

hardware, content and software

is not solving any problem, but just

for collaborative, joyful, and self-

creating a pollution problem

empowered learning. With access to

-western mindset (design, materials,

this type of tool, children are engaged

use) not taking care of the other

in their own education, and learn,

countries cultures, context needs and

share, and create together. They become

real problems

connected to each other, to the world

-lack of forward looking to predict the

and to a brighter future.

mobile penetration (95% of world’s

-Social Impact: over 2.4 million

population now own a cellphone)

children and teachers have XO laptops -Marketing and Monetization Strategy:

SUCCESSFUL ACTIONS

The laptops are sold to governments, to

Think in big, with high and important

be distributed through the ministries of

purposes, vision and mission

education with the goal of distributing

Business Model G1G1

“one laptop per child”. The laptops are given to students, similar to school uniforms and ultimately remain the property of the child. OLPC accepted direct donations and ran a “Give 1 Get 1” (G1G1) offer starting in 2007.


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3_MassDesignGroup (Organization)

created a self-organized process made by

-Problem to solve: health and self

and Build.

empowerment

We are designers, researchers, and

-Mission/Vision: Build for social

community health experts. Together

Change. We work to improve people’s

with our partners, we listen, plan,

lives through design; to be an example

implement, and advocate for designs and

for how designers can rethink their role

innovations that heal individuals and

in the world.

communities.

MASS Design Group leverages this

Design is never neutral. It either helps

influence as architects to improve

or it hurts. We begin every project with

health and empower. We’ve recognized

immersive research, designing from the

that a fundamentally different model

user first to ensure high impact designs

of practice is needed to truly build

that directly amplify our partners’

better, one that integrates the social

missions.

determinants of poverty or sickness

-Social Impact: has impacted thousands

in order to improve long-term health

of people in rwanda but has the

outcomes and drive social change.

potential to positively impact billions of

-What it is about: Is an organization

people around the world.

created by architects from Harvard

-Marketing and Monetization Strategy:

school to create projects in

They get funds from governments,

collaboration with partners to improve

private investors and institutional grants.

4 key points: Strategy, Design, Advocacy

health in developing countries. They FAILING ACTIONS/ SUCCESSFUL ACTIONS -create a community to build, design and share -is not just an organization to build hospitals in developing world but is a system that could work and be expanded everywhere (system from micro to macro) -start small, but think big (to know how to expand and spread)


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I tried to understand the key points to

company to promote and create new jobs

fail and to succeed, from these three

opportunities)

different experiences, to find out some

-co-create: customers are directly involve

tips. Despite these examples are so

in the design process

different from each other, I think they

-collaboration with research university

have a main goal in common: to build

centres and/or big firms

and create for Social change and good. WHY THEY FAILED: -no connection between product/ company and customers -no education and learning process for users -promising too much: being utopist -having a western mind set, not taking care of other countries’ cultures, context, needs and real problems -lack of forward looking WHY THEY SUCCEED: -creation of a community to build, design and share -creation of a system that could work and be expanded everywhere (from micro to macro) -start small, think big (scalability opportunities) -have a clear WHY: purpose, vision and mission -microfinance groups, governments and institutions involved (to create interest into the product and/or


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What is Democratic Design? Hear Research & Context


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3.5

What is Democratic Design?

Does Democratic Design exists? Something that can ensure customers rights, their will and their decisions? First of all, what is Democracy? From: What is Democracy? Lecture at Stanford University for Humanistic Studies, 2004 We can think of democracy as a system of government with four key elements: 1. A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. 2. The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life. 3. Protection of the human rights of all citizens. 4. A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens. From Oxford Dictionaries: a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives: a system of parliamentary democracy a state governed under a system of democracy: a multiparty democracy control of an organization or group by the majority of its members: the intended extension of industrial democracy the practice or principles of social equality: demands for greater democracy Roald Dahl definition 1998 “Democracy provides opportunities for 1) effective participation, 2) equality in voting, 3) gaining enlightened understanding, 4) exercising final control over the agenda, and 5) inclusion of adults.� The opposite of democracy is autocracy, that is a government in which the supreme political power is concentrated in the hands of one only person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control. Democracy is about participation, inclusivity, equal opportunities and protection of rights.

(...)


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So, until now, the major percentage

design,” meaning that the company

of design approaches has been like an

applies an integrated approach to

autocracy, with decisional power just

manufacturing and design. According

in few hands, and millions of people,

to IKEA, furniture design has to “be

the real customers, not really involved

beautiful, good, and well-priced. Design

in decision making. We should shift

must not be elitist; rather it must be

from autocratic to democratic design.

affordable for everyone.”

I’ve never heard the word “democratic design” but I think it should exist and

And, for some strange reason, the

should spread as a method, with values,

Google search of “democratic design”

a shared vision and mission, maybe as a

gives a Wikipedia hit for Karim Rashid.

Manifesto.

Then I remembered his work for

FROM

TO

Autocratic Design

Democratic Design

Designed by 1

More than 1

Passivity process

Participative

Elitarian Design

Egalitarian Design

Exclusive Design

Inclusive Design

Umbra and it just seemed so logical! It was the lightbulb moment that I missed completely. Democratic design is not dictated by the designer but from people needs! Rashid designed democratic objects such as the Garbo waste can and Oh Chair for Umbra, bobble water bottle and interiors such as the Morimoto restaurant. The most compelling statement Philippe Stark made about democratic design:

Democratic Design Examples

“[My greatest achievement] today is to give

In my opinion there are few examples

a better quality, kill the cost, [and] try to

of democratic design like IKEA:

give some, perhaps, acceptable idea to the

“Having a limited budget should not

most people – which is the definition of

prevent people from creating a beautiful

what I call “democratic design”.

home, with practical and sensible

And now the democratic ecology and

furniture.”

the democratic architecture, which

IKEA contends that it has been

I see.” In my opinion the example of

a pioneering force in sustainable

OpenIDEO is one the most modern

approaches to mass consumer culture.

method of Democratic Design because

Kamprad (9) calls this “democratic

is about inclusivity, being participative, honest and optimist to design for all.

(9) Ingvar Feodor Kamprad is a Swedish business magnate and philanthropist. He is the founder of IKEA, a design retail company.

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4

ANALYSIS AND PLANNING In 1973, social scientists Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber defined wicked problems as those incomprehensibly complex and messy issues we have trouble defining, let alone attempting to solve. Climate change has proven one of the most wicked, as have health care, corruption, and the prison system. Such problems are inherently systemic, with unavoidable social complications that require flexibility and patience. Problems such as poverty, food safety, water and energy access are really wicked problems and they are all connected to each other. But as Rittel and Webber said 40 years ago, formulating the problem by tracing it to its sources is the first step in solving a wicked problem. This chapter is focused on mapping interconnections between problems, trying to understand them from the roots, to plan and take action.

PH Alessandro Fuoco / Selling a chicken in the street, India


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4.1

Mapping the problem: FOOD SAFETY in developing countries

Food safety is a scientific discipline

3_Cook foods for the appropriate

describing handling, preparation, and

length of time and at the appropriate

storage of food in ways that prevent

temperature to kill pathogens.

foodborne illness. This includes a

4_Store food at the proper temperature.

number of routines that should be

5_Do use safe water and cooked

followed to avoid potentially severe

materials.

health hazards. Food can transmit

In 2003, the WHO and FAO published

disease from person to person as

the Codex Alimentarius (11) which

well as serve as a growth medium for

serves as a guideline to food safety.

bacteria that can cause food poisoning.

Researching about this issue I started

In developed countries there are

creating graphs and maps, detecting

intricate standards for food preparation,

their roots. I realized that everything is

whereas in lesser developed countries

so connected that we cannot think on

the main issue is simply the availability

solving a problem without considering

of adequate safe water, which is usually

the whole linked world. Every time that

a critical item. In theory food poisoning

I’m trying to go deeper, focusing on

is 100% preventable.

the problem, the issue gets bigger and

The five key principles of food hygiene,

bigger.

according to WHO (10), are:

So products cannot exist alone, but

1_Prevent contaminating food with

it needs a system, a communication world, a brand. Products don’t exist, everything is a service. We cannot build just a product but we have to create an entire system, brand, service, company.

pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests. 2_Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.

(10) WHO | Prevention of foodborne disease: Five keys to safer food. Who.int. Retrieved on 2010-12-10 (11) The Codex Alimentarius ““Codex Alimentarius and Food Hygiene” (Latin for “Book of Food”) is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety. Retrieved 15 October 2007


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FOOD SAFETY

{

in the top 10 priorities of WHO (World Health Organization)

“Sometimes very simple messages and measures can have a big impact on health protection. These Five Keys to Safer Food have already contributed to the prevention of foodborne illness and deserve to be communicated more widely.�

Foodborne illness cause disease and death

WHY improper handling

hand washing

food storage

preparation

not a good hygiene raw and cooked food together

not proper food storage and refrigeration

not well cooked

{

cultural obstacles*

Margaret Chan, WHO(9) General Director, October 23 2012

NO RESOURCES

=

NO EDUCATION

{

_Low income _Energy poverty _No fresh water _No safe environment and proper products to handle, prepare and storage food

* Etiquette of Indian and African dining: eating with hands


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4.2

Geographical Analysis During the research about foodborne

description of consumers, taking into

diseases and energy poverty, came out

consideration the characteristics of the

the most afflicted countries are India

target population, including education,

and sub-Saharan Africa.

income, family structure, urbanization,

This paragraph is focus on how

race, ethnicity, and mobility.

people’s demographic characteristics,

By dividing population in segments,

lifestyle and behaviour are related to

understanding our customer target will

where they live.

be easier.

It combines geographic with demographic data to yield a richer

Third World + Energy distribution 8 Sub-Saharan Africa

585 Latin America

31

653

423

289 936

China

India

85

Third World Countries

Million people without electricity Million people without clean cooking facilities

source: www.worldenergy.org


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Water stress map

Physical water scarcity Economic water scarcity Little or no water scarcity Not estimated

Global Distribution of Diarrheal Disease Among Children Under 5

Death rate per 100 000 children + 500 100 -< 500 50 -< 100 10 -< 50 < 10

source: WHO | World Health Organization

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4.3

Indian market segmentation India is the second most populous

recording substantial dips in fertility

country in the world, with over 1.21

and growth rates we still have high

billion people (2011 census), more

growth rates in northern parts of the

than a sixth of the world’s population.

country.

Already containing 17.5% of the world’s

India has more than two thousand

population, India is projected to be

ethnic groups, and every major religion

the world’s most populous country by

is represented, as are four major

2025, surpassing China, its population

families of languages (Indo-European,

reaching 1.6 billion by 2050 (12).

Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-

Its population growth rate is 1.41%,

Burman languages) as well as two

ranking 102nd in the world in 2010 (13).

language isolates.

India has more than 50% of its

Further complexity is lent by the

population below the age of 25 and

great variation that occurs across this

more than 65% below the age of 35.

population on social parameters such as

It is expected that, in 2020, the average

income and education.

age of an Indian will be 29 years,

Only the continent of Africa exceeds

compared to 37 for China and 48 for

the linguistic, genetic and cultural

Japan, by 2030.

diversity of the nation of India.

The population growth rate is declining but it is still high enough to indicate

The SEC Classification (15) is the

that the Indian population is likely to

classification of Indian consumers

grow substantially for the coming few

on the basis of parameters based on

decades. The Indian population will

five variables: Income, Household

touch 1.7 or 1.8 billion. Stabilization

Expenditure, Occupation, Education

will come only after 2050-2070.

and Ownership. The number of

There are also large variations in the

Consumer durables (pre-decided from

growth rate across regions (14).

a list) owned by the family. The list

While southern states are actually

has 11 items ranging from “electricity

(12) “India’s population ‘to be biggest’ in the planet”. BBC News. 2004-08-18. Retrieved 2011-09-24. (13) “World Bank Indicators Databank, by topic”. The World Bank. Retrieved January 2012. (14) Article Poles apart - India’s demographic divide K.S. James from the Institute for Social and Economic Change (15) The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC rebased on the SOC2010)


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INDIAN MARKET

{

Segmentation based on the following variables

Geographic

Demographic

Product related

Psychographics

EXTENT OF BENEFITS

Buy luxury goods like cars, PCs and other premium products

Rich

Buy utility durables like motorcycles, refrigerators, washing machines, ...

Consuming Class

“Benefit maximizers”

Have at least one major durable - food mixer, TV, sewing machine, ...

Climbers

Have very basic goods like a watch, radio, table fan

Aspirants

Own and consume pratically nothing

“Cost-benefit optimizers”

“Cash-constrained benefit seekers”

“New entrants into consumption”

Destitute

“Not get into consumption” PRICE ABLE TO PAY 1995

2002

2010

Our segmentation Target Source: Market structure construct by value Orientation, Sameer Mathur


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and agricultural landâ&#x20AC;? to cars and air conditioners. There are 12 grades in the new system starting from A1 to E3.The list of items are: Electricity connection, ceiling fan, LPG stove, two wheeler, colour TV,

Gender

Male 52%

Female 48%

refrigerator, washing machine, personal computer,four wheeler, air conditioner and agricultural land. These grids are used to determine the consumption preferences, and purchasing power of households, and are common tools used by social and business researchers

Urban 24%

working in India. The SEC grid does not use family income levels as a measure as this data is hard to collect

Where they are living

and it has been demonstrated that

Rural 76%

education levels and occupation criteria in India are better determinants of consumer preference. The population has been segmented into 5 classes of consumers group (16) addressing what they can afford and

Richest 14%

what they are interest in. It came out that our segmentation target is the bottom line (destitute and

Poorest 26%

Fourth 17%

aspirants) where people donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even know the existence of a refrigerator. Having them as target could mean to

Middle 20%

Second 23%

create a new market and empower their lifestyle and health.

(16) Marketing researches by Sameer Mathur Marketing Professor Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, India


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Population Composition in India 2000 / 2025 / 2050

Males 0-19

Females 0-19

Males 19-64

Source: http://www.population-growth-migration.info/

Females 19-64

Males 65+

Females 65+


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WHO ARE THE BOP?

estimated 4 billion people around the

The Base of the Pyramid (BOP)

world who are poor by any measure

includes 732 million people living on

and have limited or no access to

less than $3,000/year in villages and

essential products and services

urban slums throughout India. The

such as energy, clean water, and

great majority of men and women

communications. Globally, people in

work in agriculture, animal husbandry,

this socioeconomic group earn US$1

factories or own rural shops.(Ernst and

to US$8 in purchasing power parity

Young, The Retailer, October 2009)

(PPP) per day. Yet these households

Rural consumers total 45% of the

often pay higher prices than wealthier

country’s total GDP.

consumers do for lower-quality goods and services because of anticompetitive

-Approximately 72% of the total India

markets. The rural Indian BoP market

population live in 600,000 villages; and,

as households spend less than INR

about 8% of the total population live in

3,453 Indian rupees (US$75) on goods

4,738 semi-urban towns

and services per month. This definition

-The median age group is is 27.5.

represents a market of 114 million

-Average household size is 4.8.

households, or 76 percent of the rural

-An average of 2.72 children are born to

population. (CDF/IFMR “Power to the

every adult woman.

People” Study).

-At 61%, the overall literacy level in

Who are these people? They are

India is well below Unesco’s target

farmers, factory workers, they are

threshold of 75%. Literacy among

working in government offices, drivers,

women is just over 50%.

they are domestics. They typically pay

-There are over 112 “mother tongues”

for services and goods like water, like

with more than 10,000 speakers; and,

health care, like housing, and they pay

33 languages spoken by one million or

30 to 40 times more than their media

more persons.

class correspondents are paying.

-Indicators of human poverty suggest

Poor are also willing to make and

that 16.8% will not survive past the age

do smart decisions , if give them the

of 40; and, 47% of children between the

opportunity (microfinance example).

ages of 0-5 are underweight for their

In the next pages few pictures about

age.

BOP customers and few insights from

The BOP customer refers to the

their habits and customs.


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Tanzanian farmer $ 0.20 a day

Pakistani woman entrepreneur $ 2.00 a day


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African factory worker $ 1.80 a day

Indian small business owner $ 3.00 a day


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The economics of Poverty Global Population (bn)

Income per day (US $)

> $ 50

1.5

$4 - $50

2

$1 - $4

{

< $1

4

World population growth

Billions 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

Developing Countries

2000

2050

Industrialized Countries source: Acumen Fund


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SPACE IS LUXURY

PEOPLE LIVES IN 13 M 2

LIVING ON THE FLOOR


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HEAD TRUNK

BOP AS MIGRATION POP

BIG FAMILIES

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BUYING DAILY FOOD

LIVING ROOM TURNED INTO EVERYTHING

LIFESTYLE HAS APPEAL


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WOMEN ARE THE ENERGY

HOLD INTO TRADITIONS

RELIGION FIRST OF ALL

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4.4

Refrigeration in emerging markets Here will be listed our possible direct

_Description: cooling refrigerator with

competitors to understand the market

potable water made out of clay.

opportunity, their target, products,

Through the evaporative cooling

brand, etcetera...

system the water stored in the product

The direct competition (also called

will evaporate and cool the inner part

category competition or brand

preserving food. No electricity required.

competition), where products which

Design as a small standard western

perform the same function compete

front door refrigerator.

against each other. For example, one

_When it started: Mr. Manshuk Lal

brand of pick-up trucks competes with

Raghavjibhai Prajapati from gujarat

several other brands of pick-up trucks.

(India) born in a family of clay pot

Sometimes, two companies are rivals

maker.

and one adds new products to their

â&#x20AC;&#x153;At the year of 1989 i started making

line, which leads to the other company

tavdi (tawa) from the taraquta mud i got

distributing the same new things, and

unbelievable response from market then i

in this manner they compete.

started to develop at 1997 launched mitti

In this case the research has been

cool water filter successfully then after at

focused on products to refrigerate,

2002 i launched mitti cool refrigerator.

with cheap price (under 100 dollars),

In 2004 mitti cool (non stick tawa) 2005 I

no electricity required or a kind of

got award from national and state rural

autonomy from electricity, made out of

development now I am roaming all over

clay, for developing countries.

india with my different artistic products now days i got orders from abroad and

The direct Competitors are Mitticool

peoples like to use my natural refrigerator

and ChotuKool both in India.

/ filter.â&#x20AC;? _Weight: 20 Kg

1_Mitticool, by Mansukhbhai

_Dimension: Height 18.5 inches Width

Prajapati (India)

11 inches Depth 11 inches


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_Capacity: About 20 litres of water, 5 kg of vegetables, fruits and 5 litres milk or any liquid material can be kept inside the refrigerator _Temperature: 10 degrees _Materials: Different types of clay _Number of parts: 4 _Price: Rs: 2500/- per unit + Rs.600 approx. (for door delivery) (35 to 85 euros) _Business Model: Mitticool is a product of Mitticool Clay Creation company that sells mitticool and other clay products to store and cook food and filter water. They have a standard business based company _Main customer: Ministry of rural development of India, Khadi bhandar,dealers throughout India _Main markets: North America, Eastern Europe, Africa, Mid East, Western Europe, Northern, Europe, Southern Europe _Export percentage. 11% - 20%

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2_ChotuKool, made by Innosight_

around rural India, observing the daily

India

routines of villagers. Using our “jobs-to-be-

_Description: portable top unit

done” approach, he and the Innosight team

opening, uses high and insulation to

witnessed how rural consumers purchased,

stay cool without power and consumes

prepared and stored food and drinks.”

half the energy used by regular

_Weight: 9 kg

refrigerators. Runs on a cooling chip

_Dimension: Height inches Width

and on a fan, has the option to run on

inches Depth inches

a battery too. Works on electronic chip,

_Capacity: 30/45 lt

no compressor or refrigerant

_temperature: cools to 5 to 10 degrees

_When it started: The idea to address

with electricity up to 4 degrees, without

the basic refrigeration needs of rural

electricity around 10 degrees but it will

families in India began in 2006 at a

go up the temperature in one/two days

disruptive innovation workshop led

over 15/20 degrees

by Professor Clayton Christensen of

_Materials: plastic and metals

Harvard Business School through

_number of parts: 20

Innosight. The Innosight team began

_Price: 3500 RS (50 euros)

its work by imagining living in a home

_Business Model: Innosight suggested

without a refrigerator.

options for a new kind of financing

“Electricity is unavailable or unreliable in

plan and low-cost distribution system

many rural parts of India, where families

that generates profits. Moving beyond a

earning under $5 per day can’t afford

single-state test market, Godrej is now

major appliances. Could a community

in the process of expanding distribution

step up and help create a solution? Godrej

using community networks. Godrej

Vice President G. Sunderraman led trips

& Boyce is on pace to sell 100,000 ChotuKools in only its second full year on the market. Through post office and monthly bazaars, the postman will source business, book orders, collect order and deliver the product in rural and semi urban areas, NGO’s, express parcel post service. _Main customer: Households and shops _Main markets: India _Export percentage: no export


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STRENGTH

WEAKNESSES

-it does not require any

-fragile (made of clay)

maintenance

-no transportable

-made by an indian clay

-heavy

potter (trust and fidelity) -number of parts

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

-create lighter body to

-low price of other

make it transportable

refrigerators -electricity spreads

Price

Weight

Temperature

Sustainability Design

Production BModel

STRENGTH -low maintenance cost -strong materials -easy to move and transport -light -Operates on electricity and battery

WEAKNESSES -number of parts -is not independent from electricity

OPPORTUNITIES -export in other developing countries -create a family of products

Price

Weight

Temperature

THREATS -low price of other refrigerators -evaporative cooling refrigerator mass production

Sustainability Design

Production BModel


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Both these products and businesses had a great success in India _10.000 Mitticool sold in 2 years _the CEO created a family of products to cook, store food and filter water _relationship with research centres and national foundations _international recognitions and cover press

Why succeed? _Indian innovator with Indian influences and taste (texture and colours over products) _trust on Indian manufacturers _the design reminds a standard refrigerator (as designed by a western/developed mind-set) creating a “richer” status symbol for who owns it _the company created a new business model to distribute, manufacture and deliver products _2012 International Edison Award

Why succeed? _Trust on renowned Indian brand as Godrej _Co-creation (insights and convalidation directly from customers, who helped to develop the products) _Product design communicates a status symbol (shapes, materials and way of use) _handleable product easy to use and move

In the next page there is a list of similar projects with no electricity required, made out of clay, cheap prices for developing and developed countries. They are not on the market because of no funds and few because they’ve stacked in the concept phase. 1 Pot in pot, Mohammed Bah Abba (Africa) the first cooling refrigerator with evaporative cooling system which has a patent. Now is not in the market; 2,3 cold block+ cold vegetable box, David Weatherhead (UK); 4 Medicine Fridge, Adam Grosser (Stanford, USA); 5 Solar Powered Fridge, Emily Cummins (UK); 6 Ice Cloud, Fanni Csematony (Electrolux concept); 7 UpScaleZeer, Oliver Pyntz (UK); 8 Thermodinamic cooler, Rochus Jacob (USA)


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5

A pot as a lifechange product for BOP customers At least 80% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day. BOP households have a right to access the goods and services that will positively impact their lives and the lives of their children. Our collective responsibility is to: 1 find innovative ways to overcome the barriers that prevent access; and, once access is gained, 2 to ensure the quality and integrity of products we offer to people with very limited means. Anything less would destroy the fragile trust that must exist if we are to realize the goal of an educated and empowered citizen.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Design has a social function and its true purpose is to improve peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives.â&#x20AC;?

Nokia Design Manifesto In my opinion, as designer, we should re-think projects for that 4 billion people BOP to really improve their lives for daily activities. Starting from Freeijis, developed 2 years ago, this is the opportunity to develop a new project with a slightly different goal: improve BOP customers lives in their daily activities by equipping them with a product that can store cool food and filter water. This section is focused on developing the product, based on target and use, by treating the poor as customers, not as charity recipients.

PH Alessandro Fuoco / Murugan Kitchen in Tamil Nadu, India


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5.1

Ceramic filters for water purification as opportunity According to the World Health

number of people who have a reliable

Organization (WHO), contaminated

source of safe drinking water is a key

drinking water is one of the leading

component in reducing diarrheal

causes of preventable deaths,

disease prevalence.

worldwide.

The need for improvements in safe

“Every year more than five million

drinking water worldwide has recently

human beings die from illnesses linked to

received an increasing amount of

unsafe drinking water, unclean domestic

attention as a high priority global

environments and improper excreta

health topic. Goal Seven on the

disposal,” says WHO.

United Nations list of Millennium

In fact, over 2 million deaths occur each

Development Goals is to halve, by

year from water-related diarrhoea alone,

2015, the proportion of people without

caused by pathogen contamination in

sustainable access to safe drinking

the drinking water.

water and basic sanitation. In order to

Over 4 billion cases of diarrhoea occur

achieve this goal, it will be necessary

worldwide each year, which result in

for nearly 100 million people to gain

about 2.2 million deaths. Approximately

access to an improved drinking water

86% of those deaths occur among

source every year. Although this

children under the age of five years.

appears to be a costly goal, the World

Diarrhoea not only leads to mortality

Health Organization estimates that

in young children but also contributes

every $1 U.S. dollar invested will yield

to a host of other health problems,

an economic return of between $3 and

such as malnutrition. Approximately

$34 U.S. dollars.. As we improve the

88% of diarrheal disease is related to

most basic of services for the nations

unsafe water and lack of sanitation

in the developing world, we’ll increase

facilities. An estimated 1.1 billion

their ability to be true global trade

people worldwide do not have access

partners in a way that will benefit all of

to clean and safe water. Increasing the

the world’s citizens.


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source: www.safewater.org

As Freeijis is mostly made in clay, I

manufactured in England to prevent

started thinking that a ceramic filter

the outbreak of cholera. Since then,

could be incorporated in this new

ceramic water filtration has seen

product.

continuous improvements and it is

How to combine storage and

still used to solve the issue of unsafe

refrigeration with water filtering?

drinking water around the world.

I started researching if this method was

I red many worldwide reports of

improving effectively people health in

organizations, projects and missions

developing countries.

that use ceramic filters for water

Ceramic water filtration has been

purification, and thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a really high

available commercially for about

percentage of improvement on the

200 years. It was originally mass-

population health.

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One recent report of 2010 from

services also influenced health of this rural

Princeton University, Ohio State

community.

University, University of Agriculture,

In next page are presented different

Abeokuta, Nigeria and the Ministry of

kind of products with ceramic filters for

Health, Nigerian Federal Government

water purification.

says that:

Usually there are three different kind of

Field study and surveys were conducted

ceramic water filters:

to evaluate interdisciplinary parameters

1_ simple ceramic;

influencing the health of people using

2_ combination of ceramic with

ceramic filters for water purification.

colloidal silver;

A total of 52 families were distributed

3_ combination of ceramic with

with filters at Eweje Village, Odeda local

colloidal silver and activated charcoal.

government area, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Usually these kind of product are

Surveys contained questions related

delivered as charity mission but one

to hygiene, health, water source and

initiative has been really interesting:

treatment, socio-economic and educational

Potters for Peace.

status of people and their use of clay

Potters for Peace is a nonprofit

ceramic water filters. Several parameters

organization that has created a

were studied including time of use of

network of potters and other relevant

water filter, maintainability, education,

parties to improve quality of life and

societal economics, and social the status

preserve tradition using local skills

of the people using the filters. There was

and materials. PFP manages projects

interdependence between these parameters.

that help local potters to improve

Health of the Eweje village community

and market their products. PFP is

was greatly influenced by the number of

best known for their work in water

people using the filter, the time of filter

treatment, which has influenced water

usage, education, maintainability, access

treatment systems worldwide. The

to medical facilities, and economic status.

treatment strategy follows a Point-

A novel multi parameter multivariate

of-Use (POU) water treatment design

regression approach clearly enumerates

that uses ceramic water filters. Unlike

the hierarchy of the effects of the

other similar organizations, PFP does

influencing variables on the health of

not manufacture these filters, but

Eweje community. Apart from population

instead helps local communities to set

and time of filter use, access to medical

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produce and sell the filters.

organization of Potters For Peace and

“Our goals are to offer support, solidarity

works on projects together with PFP.

and friendship to developing world potters;

PWB is based in Enderby, British

assist with appropriate technologies

Columbia, Canada with offices in Clare,

sustained using local skills and materials;

Nova Scotia and Ningming, Guangxi-

help preserve cultural traditions; and

Zhuang, China.

assist in marketing locally, regionally and internationally”.

COLLOIDAL SILVER BENEFITS

The goal of PFP is; Potters Teaching

“Yes, colloidal silver is saving lives

Potters, Technical and Design

around the world. And it could be

Assistance, Fuel Efficient Kilns,

used to save millions more lives, if

Alternative Fuel Burners, Local

the technology were introduced into

Ceramic Raw Materials Research and

the poorer villages of more and more

Marketing.

developing nations.”

Potters Without Borders registered

Government health authorities know

as a Non-Profit society in British

this is true, because for years they’ve

Columbia, Canada in 2006 is the sister

even used colloidal silver to purify

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water aboard the Space Shuttle.

is indeed spreading, but mostly in

And both NASA and the Russian space

commercial products used in domestic

program have used colloidal silver on

households:

their manned space flights.

“Silver is employed as a bactericide

What’s more, in Europe, almost all

and algaecide in an ever increasing

ocean-going ships use colloidal silver to

number of water purification systems

keep their onboard drinking water pure

in hospitals, remote communities and,

and safe from bacterial contamination.

more recently, domestic households. Silver ions have been used to purify

For years the group Potters for Peace

drinking water and swimming pool

have been showing villagers in remote

water for generations…

areas of developing countries how to

But expensive commercial products are

make ceramic water filters infused with

not what villagers in remote areas of

colloidal silver to provide their villages

developing nations are in need of.

with fresh, clean, and germ-free water.

They need simple colloidal silver-

And starting in 2006, U.S. troops

making technology, and education in

have been helping Iraqi villagers use

how to use that technology for their

that same crude but highly effective

maximum protection and benefit.

technology to protect themselves from

That’s one reason why, over the years,

bacterially contaminated water.

The Silver Edge has given away many

So silver’s use as a water disinfectant

simple, battery operated colloidal silver

is well-known – so well-known, in fact,

generators to missionaries working in

there’s truly no reasonable excuse for

remote villages in developing countries.

not utilizing this technology in more

These have been used to make colloidal

areas of the world.

silver to help purify drinking water,

Groups like Potters for Peace are doing

and also to use as an infection-fighting

so, by sending people into remote areas

agent whenever antibiotic drugs are in

to teach villagers how to make and

short supply.

use the colloidal silver-impregnated

The technology for making colloidal

ceramic water filters in order to protect

silver is simple. It is effective. And it

themselves from contaminated drinking

truly works.

water. According to The Silver Institute, the use of silver as a disinfectant agent


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METHOD OF ACTION

carbon need to be replaced periodically because the carbon becomes clogged

As with most filtration methods, water

with foreign material.

is carefully introduced to one side

There are also portable ceramic filters,

of the filter, which acts to block the

such as the MSR Miniworks, which

passage of anything larger than the

work via manual pumping, and in-line

pore size. Typically bacteria, protozoa,

ceramic filters, which filters drinking

and microbial cysts are removed but the

water that comes through household

filters are not effective against viruses

plumbing. Cleaning these filters is the

since they are small enough to pass

same as with the clay pot filter but

through to the other “clean” side of the

also allows for reverse-flow cleaning,

filter. Ceramic water filters (CWF) may

wherein clean water is forced through

be treated with silver in a form that will

the filter backwards, pushing any

not leach away. The silver helps to kill

contaminants out of the ceramic pores.

or incapacitate bacteria and prevent the

This filtration type does not remove

growth of mold and algae in the body of

chemical contaminants per se. However,

the filter. The two most common types

some manufacturers incorporate a

of CWF are pot type and candle type

high-performance activated carbon

filters. CWF systems consist of a porous

core inside the ceramic filter cartridge

ceramic filter that sits on top of a plastic

that reduces organic & metallic

or ceramic receptacle. Contaminated

contaminants. The major risks to

water is poured in the filter and passes

the success of all forms of ceramic

through the filter into the receptacle

filtration are hairline cracks and

below. The receptacle usually is fitted

cross-contamination. If the unit is

with a tap. Contaminants which are

dropped or otherwise abused, the

larger than the minute holes of the

brittle nature of ceramic materials can

ceramic structure will remain in the

allow fine, hard to see cracks, and can

top half of the unit, which can be

allow larger contaminants through the

cleaned by brushing the inside of

filter. Extensive work on brittle nature

the top section with a soft brush and

and fracture toughness of these clay

rinsing it out. Hot water and soap can

ceramic water filter materials.[1] Also,

also be used. Some ceramic filters (like

if the “clean” water side of the ceramic

ceramic candle filters) also use active

membrane is brought into contact with

carbon which absorbs compounds

dirty water, hands, cleaning cloths, etc.,

such as chlorine. Filters with active

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If such contact occurs, the clean side

benefit of clay workers in developing

of the filter should be thoroughly

nations to sustain their businesses.

sterilized before reuse. BENEFITS, DRAWBACKSA AND DEVELOPMENT AND EXPANSION

APPROPRIATENESS

Several Universities including MIT;

The benefits of ceramic filtration are:

Universities of Colorado; Princeton

 Proven reduction of bacteria and

University; University of Wisconsin-

protozoa in water

Milwaukee; The Ohio State University;

 Simplicity of use and acceptability

Universities of Tulane, West Virginia,

 Proven reduction of diarrheal disease

North Carolina in the US; University of

incidence for users

Delft, Strathclyde in Europe, USAID,

 Long life if the filter remains

UNICEF, Zamorano University in

unbroken

Honduras, Rafeal Landivar University

 A low one-time cost

in Guatemala, Earth University,

The drawbacks of ceramic filtration are:

Institute of Hydraulic resources, Red

 Not as effective against viruses

Cross, Engineers Without Borders,

 No residual protection-- can lead to

United Nations, Countries in Africa

recontamination

like Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso,

 Variable quality control for locally

Kenya etc. and Countries in Asia like

produced filters

Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Sri

 Filters can break over time-- need for

Lanka, India, Vietnam etc. and NGOs

spare parts

are supporting the expansion of the

 A low flow rate of 1-3 liters per hour

use of ceramic filters in drinking

for non-turbid waters

water development initiatives; most

 Filters and receptacles must be

commonly, in the form of clay pot

cleaned regularly, especially after

filters Ron Rivera was a key proponent

filtering turbid water

and innovator in the field as part of

Ceramic filtration is most appropriate

the group to take the ceramic frustum

in areas where there is capacity for

shaped(pot) filter across international

quality ceramics filter production,

borders and helped developing nations

distribution network for replacement of

to provide cheap high quality potable

broken parts, and user training on how

water.Ron Rivera is not only credited

to correctly maintain and use the filter.

with this but also taking Potters of Peace worldwide for the good and

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5.2

SafiPot product development The word SafiPot combines Safi that

_ space is a luxury

means fresh and pure in swahili, an

_ BOP is also a migrant population

african slang, with the word Pot.

_ holding stuff on the head

The idea is to develop a product based

_ eating on the floor

on Freeijis evaporative cooling system,

_ numerous families

to store and cool food, with ceramic

_ lifestyle has appealing

filters for purify water.

This immersion is the ‘Fish Bowl’

Both these process, “to cool” and “to

principle taught by Prof Shiba. We

filter”, need clay.

can not understand the life of fish

Combining these two processes we

in the water, unless we dive into the

could provide refrigeration and the

fishbowl! Observation and interview

fundamental need of potable water.

skills learned from VLFM program

With one product the rural customer

were used to gain deep insights of the

in developing country can immediately

BOP consumers in their natural habitat,

improve his life and health.

there are many latent needs and almost invisible insights that we need to

Cultural researches (articles, websites,

discover to really answer to daily needs.

companies, similar products) done by

SafiPot is not a refrigerator or a

people who spent long time in the field,

water filter. It is a different category.

to gain deep consumer insights and

Different in technology, size, structure,

learn about people habits and lifestyle

performance and value proposition

of rural India and Africa, show that:

to consumers. Hence I tried to have a

_people purchase their needs for the

breakthrough approach to market the

next one or two days at a time

product.

_people live in small dwellings of 150

This product can impact the living

sq ft (13.935 m²)

standard, livelihood and Lifestyle

_ the living room turns into the

of households at the bottom of the

bedroom in the night

pyramid.


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The product bounds are (from insights

The product could be produced and

to product features):

assembled locally, using local materials

­_easy to transport (to joint or to pile)

in rural areas where thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy

_top opening (conserves cold air and is

poverty.

more indicated for indian and africans

The design is addressed to a family of

habits)

4/6 people and it can contain 8 litres of

_the inner part in touch with food must

water and 25 litres of food.

be hygienic

It is possible to split the product

_the volume of the inner part for food

in different elements to improve

must be around 30/45 litres right size

transportability, and it also grants

for daily needs

an easier and cheaper method of

_easy and intuitive to use and to

production. The few elements are

maintain (clean and fix)

assembled by the customer, he just

_easy to produce in few steps and few

has to add a little wood stick, for the

elements in developing countries

top, and coconut filaments as ropes, to tie up the elements. The are visual affordance on the design of the product

THE CONCEPT

to help the customer assemble it. Manageability, efficiency, simplicity and

The concept is to create a transportable

intuitivity are the main key point of the

and maintainable design, easy to

product.

produce in local villages in developing

The main goal is not just delivering

countries like Africa and India.

this product to improve health, by

The main idea, to cool, store food

preventing water and food borne

and filter water, has been realized

diseases and diarrhoea, but is also to

by splitting the product in three

create a network of people who can

basic elements, to make production

produce, promote and deliver the

and transportation easier in rural

product in rural areas, creating new job

communities.

and entrepreneurship opportunities.

The tree clay vertical elements, two to

In the following pages I explain how it

refrigerate food and one to filter water.

could be produced in loco.

SafiPot is a cooling system which uses no electricity and can purify water.

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easy to: use pile transport assemble join maintain fix Materials: Ceramic, colloidal silver, water, natural ropes, wood and caulk materials

G F A: wood stick for the top B: ceramic top

C: ceramic colloidal silver filtering cavity D, D1: ceramic cooling cavity

E: the water tank (plastic or ceramic)

F: natural ropes to tie the whole structure G: activated charcoal

H: tap locally available

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A Ø400

125

FRONTAL VIEW

A UPPER VIEW

Ø400

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SECTION A - A

10

6.00

54

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450

Ă&#x2DC;250

3.00

450 VOLUMETRIC INFORMATIONS COOLING CAVITY: 10 mm thick of ceramic. Inner glaze inside for hygienic maintenance of food. Each cavity can contain 7 litres of caulk material. the empty cavity is around 5,3 kilos

FILTERING CAVITY: 10 mm thick of ceramic. Inner glaze and immersed in colloidal silver. It contains 6,8 litres of water (it is less deep than cooling cavities because of the bottom filter), empty structure weights about 5,8 kilos

THE WATER TANK (plastic) 3 mm thick can contain 12,5 litres of water and it weighs about 1,8 kilos THE WATER TANK (ceramic) 12 mm thick can contain 9 litres of water and it weighs about 7 kilos COOLING SECTION can contain 21 litres of food

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EVAPORATIVE COOLING

phenomenon in which evaporation of

METHOD PLUS CERAMIC WATER

a liquid, typically into surrounding air,

FILTRATION

cools an object or a liquid in contact with it. Latent heat, the amount of

Two years ago while I was developing

heat that is needed to evaporate the

Freeijis as product I’ve been searching

liquid, is drawn from the air. When

many articles, experiments and

considering water evaporating into air,

books about this system and during

the wet-bulb temperature which takes

my bachelor thesis I’ve developed a

both temperature and humidity into

technology to improve this system

account, as compared to the actual air

through the four main variables that are

temperature (dry-bulb temperature), is a

influencing the efficiency of the system:

measure of the potential for evaporative

ventilation, materials, humidity and the

cooling. The greater the difference

product surface.

between the two temperatures, the

Now after all the knowledge and

greater the evaporative cooling effect.

expertise that I’ve developed in months

When the temperatures are the same,

of research I’ve been thinking on how

no net evaporation of water in air

to to create one product to cool food

occurs, thus there is no cooling effect.

and to filter water to drink.

The wet-bulb temperature is essentially

And I’ve realized while I was studying

the lowest temperature which can be

the ceramic water filters that this was

attained by evaporative cooling at a

possible by ingenious way of designing

given temperature and humidity. A

the solution.

simple example of natural evaporative

Here is how it works:

cooling is perspiration, or sweat,

The vertical walls are all full of water

secreted by the body, evaporation of

the filtering cavity just by water and the

which cools the body. The evaporation

two cooling cavity water and the caulk

rate depends on the temperature and

mixture of natural materials. So the

humidity of the air, which is why sweat

water inside the cavity will evaporate in

accumulates more on hot, humid days,

vertical and it will sweat in horizontal

as it does not evaporate fast enough.

through the porous ceramic walls and

The function system of the water

it will cool inside continuously using

purification by ceramic filters is

water to operate.

explained in “method of action” chapter

Evaporative cooling is a physical

5, paragraph 1.


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WATER PURIFICATION

REFRIGERATION PROCESS

PROCESS

1

30°

1.3 micron pore size filters out larger dirt particles, larger bacteria, and parasites.

2 Silver impregnation produces a hostile environment for bacteria, preventing any bacteria present from reproducing; the bacteria soon die.

3 ½ inch of activated charcoal improves the taste and color of the water.

Colloidal silver filter

10°

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PLASTIC OR CERAMIC WATER TANK AND WHY? CERAMIC

PLASTIC

PRO

CONS

PRO

low price

fragility

lightness

costs

heaviness

hygienic

ecological

ecological

CONS

difficult to produce

IS AN ECONOMICAL, ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL DECISION


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MATERIALS

and changes in the burnable decreased effectiveness of the filter. Method of

The majority of used materials for

silver application and shape of filter

SafiPots are: ceramic, colloidal silver,

did not impact filter effectiveness.

water, caulk materials and natural ropes

A maximum flow rate of 1.7 l(-hr)

materials.

was established as a potential quality

CERAMIC

control measure for one particular

Ceramic pots are made from local clay

filter to ensure 99% (2- log(10)) removal

mixed with a combustible material like

of total coliforms. Further research

sawdust, rice husks or coffee husks.

is indicated to determine additional

The clay and combustible material are

production variables associated

sieved through a fine mesh, and then

with filter effectiveness and develop

mixed together with water until it forms

standardized filter production

a homogeneous mixture. The mixture

procedures prior to scaling-up.

is pressed into shape using a mold.

In the end of the research is clear

When the pot is fired in a kiln, the

that in every developing country

combustible material burns out, leaving

thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the possibility to create good

a network of fine pores through which

quality ceramics filters production

the water can flow through.

but taking care of following ceramics

The quality of ceramics in this product

standards, equipment design, filtration

is essential because for cooling must be

instruments and water purification

porous but not too much and it must

standards.

filter water to make it potable.

COLLOIDAL SILVER

Scaling-up ceramic filtration is

Ceramic filters with the silver coating

inhibited by lack of universal quality

have consistently tested to 99-100%

control standards. In the report

removal of bacteria and parasites. These

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Effect of production variables on

filters also eliminate the suspended

microbiological removal in locally-

sediments in the water, including any

produced ceramic filters for household

organic compounds that are adsorbed

water treatmentâ&#x20AC;&#x153; they investigated

to the particles. Colloidal silver is

filter production variables to determine

sometimes applied to the ceramic pot

their effect on microbiological removal

after firing or added to the clay mixture

during 5-6 weeks of simulated normal

prior to firing. Colloidal silver is an

use. Decreases in the clay: sawdust ratio

antibacterial which:

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-Disables the enzyme that pathogenic

high permeability, capillary properties

bacteria and fungi use for oxygen

and porous as a sponge. These kind

metabolism, thus suffocating them.

of materials during freeijis project

-Destroys pathogens with an electric

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve detected are sand, cork oak, glass

charge, causing their internal protoplast

wool, ceramic fiber and PCM. The

to collapse.

most successful have been PCM (Phase

-Renders pathogens unable to

Change Material) but this material is

reproduce.

create in labs, is not cheap and could

-Kills parasites while in their egg stage.

not be the best choice to be part of a

Pathogens and suspended material

perfect ecologic product.

are removed from water through a

So the idea is to find a similar

combination of biological and physical

performance material in nature and

processes. Quality control on the size

experiment with different of these

of the combustible materials used in

materials. The materials that are easy

the clay mix ensures that the filter

to find in nature and that could be

pore size is small enough to prevent

experiment are: sand, coconuts fibers

contaminants from passing through

and cork oak with water. But maybe

the filter. Colloidal silver aids treatment

during the experimentation and a pilot

by breaking down pathogensâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; cell

project we could find other solutions

membranes, causing them to die.

to this material usage and see the convience of using PCM from the economical and ecological sides.

CAULK MATERIALS These materials are important for the cooling process and for the maintenance of the cold temperature

LOCAL MATERIALS TO COMPLETE

inside. The characteristics of these

THE DESIGN

materials are: high thermal resistance,

To complete the top we need a little


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stick of something rigid and wood

sisal has many uses, including paper,

could perfectly answer to this need.

cloth, wall coverings and carpets.

To complete and assemble the product thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the need to tie with ropes and in

CONSTRUCTION OPERATION OF

nature thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s many ways to answer to

LOCAL PRODUCTION

this and two of the most common and easy to find naturally are:

This a concept of how it could be

//Coir is a natural fibre extracted

produce in rural area in developing

from the husk of coconut and used in

countries but a quality control process

products such as floor mats, doormats,

to ensure filter effectiveness is required.

brushes, mattresses, etc. Technically,

The production is about the cooling

coir is the fibrous material found

and filtering cavity and of the top.

between the hard, internal shell and

Materials and facilities required are:

the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses

_clay,

of brown coir (made from ripe coconut)

_combustible material (e.g. sawdust,

are in upholstery padding, sacking and

rice husks, coffee husks),

horticulture. White coir, harvested from

_Colloidal silver, Lid, 20-30 liters

unripe coconuts, is used for making

ceramic or plastic container with tap,

finer brushes, string, rope and fishing

_A ceramic factory requires at least

nets.

100 m2 of covered area, 15 to 20 ton

//Sisal is an agave that yields a stiff fibre

hydraulic press (can be fabricated

traditionally used for rope and twine,

locally), _Filter molds (can be fabricated locally) _Mixer for clay and combustible material (can be fabricated locally) _Hammer mill (can be fabricated locally) _Kiln with an internal area of at least 1 cubic metre (can be fabricated locally) _Racks _Work benches _Miscellaneous tools (e.g. traditional pottery tools)

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A professional potter with experience

husks and water to form a mouldable

in collecting clay, making ceramic

paste

articles, semi-industrial or mass

3. Forming clay cubes for pressing

production is required. Assistants,

4. Pressing of clay cubes into ceramic

preferably potters are required. Skill

filter form

and quality control in manufacturing is

5. Surface finishing and labelling of

essential to ensure optimum pore size,

pressed filter elements

flow rate and effectiveness.

6. Drying of pressed filter elements – to

Working with presses and kilns is

remove initial excess water

potentially hazardous and adequate

7. Firing of filter elements in kiln – to

safety precautions should be used.

finish dehydration and vitrification

The lower container, lid and tap

8. Flow-rate testing of fired filter

can usually be purchased locally or

elements

could be transported there. The clay

9. Painting of silver biocide solution on

and combustible material are sieved

surfaces of filter elements and „shape‟

through a fine mesh, and then mixed

quality check

together with water until it forms a

10. SafiPots ready to be delivered

homogeneous mixture. The mixture is pressed into shape using a mold. When the pot is fired in a kiln, the combustible material burns out, leaving a network of fine pores through which the water can flow through. Colloidal silver is sometimes applied to the ceramic pot after firing or added to the clay mixture prior to firing. Quality control on the size of the combustible materials used in the clay mix ensures that the filter pore size is small enough to prevent contaminants from passing through the filter. 1. Preparation of raw materials: clay powder, ground rice husks; water and laterite powder (optional) 2. Mixing clay mix components - clay powder, laterite (optional), ground rice


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ONE DISASSEMBLED SAFIPOT

One SafiPot needs: 6% 12%

54% ceramic (top, filtering and cooling cavity) 12% insulating materials (cavities) 12% water (for ceramic)

12% 54% 4% 2% 10%

10% plastic (tank, tap) 6% colloidal sliver(ceramic filter) 4% natural material (wood, coconuts filaments) 2% activated charcoal (filter)


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PRODUCTION PROCESS 1# EXTRUSION

Refrigerating Cavity

{

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Filtering Cavity

1# PRESS + DEHYDRATION + FURNACE Ceramics Top

The ceramic top will be produce just by pressing with calc, wood or metal moulds


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2# PRESS

3# UNION + DEHYDRATION

4# FURNACE + GLAZE


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5.3

Audience and Use The poorest 40 percent of the world’s

level refrigerators in India cost Rs

population accounts for 5 percent of

6000+ (80 euros). The billion plus

global income. The richest 20 percent

people at the Bottom of the Pyramid

accounts for three-quarters of world

(BOP) cannot afford this money. Many

income.

do not have even access to grid power.

According to UNICEF, 22,000 children

Yet their daily life can significantly

die each day due to poverty. “And they

improve, if they can store some milk,

die quietly in some of the poorest

daily vegetables and fruits without

villages on earth, far removed from

spoiling. Is it possible to make this

the scrutiny and the conscience of the

‘essential luxury’ affordable and

world. Being meek and weak in life

accessible to the people at the Bottom

makes these dying multitudes even

of the Pyramid?

more invisible in death.”

Who are these people? They are

But who the poor are? We are talking

farmers, factory workers, they are

too often about this strong huge

working in government offices, drivers,

masses of people yearning to be free,

they are domestics. They typically pay

but actually on a macro level 4 billion

for services and goods like water, like

people on earth make less than 4

health care, like housing, and they pay

dollars a day, that’s what we talk about

30 to 40 times more than their media

and think about the poor.

class correspondents are paying.

But if aggregate that is the third largest

Poor are also willing to make and

economy in the world and most of

do smart decisions , if give them the

these people are going invisible.”

opportunity (microfinance experience

Jacqueline Novogratz Founder and

Kiva or Grameen Bank).

CEO of Acumend Fund

So the places where energy poverty, food borne disease and lack of

Over 80% of the population of India

refrigerators are a huge problem is in

does not use refrigerators. The entry

India and in Sub-Saharan Africa


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STREET MERCHANT

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HOW IT WORKS? The customer will assemble the elements and will activate the system: 1_ join the vertical walls on the base 2_take natural cables as coconut filaments and tie the elements 3_insert the water in the cavity and local caulk materials 4_wait few hours: water is ready to drink and food can be insert

PHASE 1

PHASE 2


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PHASE 4

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LOCAL TRANSPORT SOLUTIONS


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3kg

16kg One SafiPot = 19kg 2.30 m 1.5 m

1.5 m

60

on a little OXCART

1180 KG If the elements would not be

stacking they were 30 instead 60


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3m 1.5 m

1.3 m

70

on a PICK UP

1377 KG If the elements would not be

stacking they were 42 instead 70

4m

2m

1.5 m

140

on BIG OXCART

2754 KG If the elements would not be

stacking they were 72 instead 140


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5.4

SWOT analysis SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT

place the team at a disadvantage relative

Matrix) is a structured planning

to others

method used to evaluate the Strengths,

// Opportunities: elements that the

Weaknesses, Opportunities, and

project could exploit to its advantage

Threats involved in a project or in a

// Threats: elements in the environment

business venture. A SWOT analysis

that could cause trouble for the

can be carried out for a product, place

business or project

or person. It involves specifying the

Identification of SWOTs is important

objective of the business venture or

because they can inform later steps in

project and identifying the internal

planning to achieve the objective.

and external factors that are favourable

First, the decision makers should

and unfavourable to achieving that

consider whether the objective is

objective. The technique is credited to

attainable, given the SWOTs. If the

Albert Humphrey, who led a convention

objective is not attainable a different

at the Stanford Research Institute

objective must be selected and the

(now SRI International) in the 1960s

process repeated.

and 1970s using data from Fortune 500

Users of SWOT analysis need to ask

companies.

and answer questions that generate

Setting the objective should be done

meaningful information for each

after the SWOT analysis has been

category (strengths, weaknesses,

performed. This would allow achievable

opportunities, and threats) to make

goals or objectives to be set for the

the analysis useful and find their

organization.

competitive advantage.

// Strengths: characteristics of the

In this case the SWOT is made to

business or project that give it an

analyse the product compare to other

advantage over others

competitors and possible future

// Weaknesses: are characteristics that

opportunities.


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Helpful

Harmful

STRENGTH

WEAKNESSES

transportability, low costs, electricity independent,

weak brand image, consumer behaviour pattern, price conscious people,

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

S W O T

refrigeration+potable water, reliable supply, potential rural market,

untapped rural market in India

and in Africa, Potential market in

other developing countries, creating a new emerging market, employment,

villagers earning money distributing and promoting,allow customizing, educate BOP customers about the product

and improvements in daily activities,

conversion of MFIS to logistics partners

fragility,

no competitors, low price of other refrigerators, illiteracy

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6

Good Intenstions are not enough If you give a man a fish, you feed him for a day. But if you give him a fishing rod, you feed him for a lifetime. My main goal is to deliver SafiPot to BOP customers, because I really think it would be an outstanding empowering opportunity for them. It could prevent water and food borne disease, give potable water, alleviate poverty, let children go to school, create new jobs and generally spread global well-being. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a huge amount of different ways to materialize this purpose: from marketing to businesses solutions such as microfinance institutions, microcredit, cross-subsidization and one for one. Even the best purpose, goal and mission could not be enough if not translated from western to rural mind set, always keeping in mind that every decision is not just a temporary solution but a long term choice that shapes the vision.

PH source WHO World Health Organization


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6.1

Micro Finance Institutions The modern use of the expression

credit but also savings, insurance, and

“microfinancing” has roots in the

fund transfers.”[16] Many of those who

1970s when organizations, such as

promote microfinance generally believe

Grameen Bank of Bangladesh with

that such access will help poor people

the microfinance pioneer Muhammad

out of poverty. For others, microfinance

Yunus, were starting and shaping the

is a way to promote economic

modern industry of microfinancing.

development, employment and

Microfinance is usually understood

growth through the support of micro-

to entail the provision of financial

entrepreneurs and small businesses.

services to micro-entrepreneurs and

Financial Needs for poor people

small businesses, which lack access to

In developing economies and

banking and related services due to the

particularly in the rural areas, many

high transaction costs associated with

activities that would be classified in the

serving these client categories. The two

developed world as financial are not

main mechanisms for the delivery of

monetized: that is, money is not used

financial services to such clients are

to carry them out. Almost by definition,

(17) relationship-based banking for

poor people have very little money. But

individual entrepreneurs and small

circumstances often arise in their lives

businesses; and (18) group-based

in which they need money or the things

models, where several entrepreneurs

money can buy.

come together to apply for loans and

In Stuart Rutherford’s recent book

other services as a group.

The Poor and Their Money,(17) he cites

For some, microfinance is a movement

several types of needs:

whose object is “a world in which as

-Lifecycle Needs: such as weddings,

many poor and near-poor households

funerals, childbirth, education, home

as possible have permanent access to

building, widowhood, old age.

an appropriate range of high quality

-Personal Emergencies: such as

financial services, including not just

sickness, injury, unemployment, theft,

(17)Robert Peck Christen, Richard Rosenberg & Veena Jayadeva. Financial institutions with a double-bottom line: implications for the future of microfinance. CGAP Occasional Paper, July 2004, pp. 2-3. (18) Stuart Rutherford. The Poor and Their Money. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2000, p. 4. isbn =0-19565790-X


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harassment or death.

Grameen is derived from the word

.Disasters: such as fires, floods, cyclones

gram which means “rural” or “village”

and man-made events like war or

in the Bengali language.

bulldozing of dwellings.

The system of this bank is based on the

-Investment Opportunities: expanding

idea that the poor have skills that are

a business, buying land or equipment,

under-utilized. A group-based credit

improving housing, securing a job

approach is applied which utilizes

(which often requires paying a large

the peer-pressure within the group to

bribe), etc.

ensure the borrowers follow through and use caution in conducting their

Poor people find creative and often

financial affairs with strict discipline,

collaborative ways to meet these

ensuring repayment eventually and

needs, primarily through creating and

allowing the borrowers to develop

exchanging different forms of non-

good credit standing. The bank also

cash value. Common substitutes for

accepts deposits, provides other

cash vary from country to country

services, and runs several development-

but typically include livestock, grains,

oriented businesses including fabric,

jowlier, and precious metals.

telephone and energy companies. Another distinctive feature of the

Microfinance experts generally agree

bank’s credit program is that the

that women (19) should be the primary

overwhelming majority (98%) of its

focus of service delivery. Evidence

borrowers are women. The origin of

shows that they are less likely to default

Grameen Bank can be traced back

on their loans than men.

to 1976 when Professor Muhammad Yunus, a Fulbright scholar at Vanderbilt

Case Study

University and Professor at University

1_The Grameen Bank is a Nobel

of Chittagong, launched a research

Peace Prize winning microfinance

project to examine the possibility of

organization and community

designing a credit delivery system to

development bank started in

provide banking services targeted to

Bangladesh that makes small

the rural poor. In October 1983, the

loans (known as microcredit or

Grameen Bank Project was transformed

“grameencredit”) to the impoverished

into an independent bank by

without requiring collateral. The name

government legislation.

(19) Organizations like Kiva, Wokai, and numerous others have created direct lending pathways, mostly facilitated through the Internet, allowing private individuals to contribute to a loan for a borrower in another country especially for wemen for their loyalty. These loans, however, are not guaranteed through any government regulated agencies and individuals take on the risks for default.

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source: www.socialbusinessforum.com


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source: www.socialbusinessnews.com

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6.2

Cross subsidization Cross subsidization is the practice of

cases, there is a universal price ceiling

charging higher prices to one group

for the services, leading to cross

of consumers in order to subsidize

subsidies benefiting the areas where

lower prices for another group. State

the costs of provision are high.

trading enterprises with monopoly

According to the Finnish member of

control over marketing agricultural

parliament, political economics author

exports are sometimes alleged to cross

and statistician Osmo Soininvaara,

subsidize, but lack of transparency in

cross subsidization causes welfare

their operations makes it difficult if not

losses. Even if there were reasons for

impossible to determine if that is the

subsidizing bus or train ticket prices

case. Consider the example of going

on sparsely populated areas, it is better

to dinner with 2 of your friends. Leo’s

to collect the required money by

meal costs 15$, Lin’s meal costs 20$,

general taxes instead of raising prices

and your meal costs 25$. The total bill

on profitable areas that better suit for

is then $60 and everyone decides to

collective traffic. He also notes that in

split the bill evenly: everyone pays $20.

sparsely populated areas cars are often

In effect you are undercosted, and Leo

more ecological than buses.

is cross-subsidizing you. An example of cross subsidization may occur in the

Case Study

banking industry. Fees associated with

Cure Thalassemia is a Social Business

maintaining a low account balance

(as defined by the Nobel Prize

(below $1,000 for example) are charged

Yunus), whose goal is to cure as many

to these customers to maintain their

thalassemia patients as possible,

profitability.

who can’t afford the cost of the

In many countries, telecommunications

cure, through cross-subsidization.

(including broadband accesses), postal

Thalassemia is the world’s most

services and collective traffic among

common genetic deadly blood disorder.

others are cross subsidized. In some

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worldwide; it is prevalent in emerging

people, so it is possible to have units

countries like Southeast Asia and

with 2 beds for paying patients and

Africa. Every year more than 100,000

1 for poors. The gross margin on the

thalassemia babies are born worldwide,

first 2 beds provides resources to cover

and most of them die.

costs on the third bed. Such a model

The Problem

has been already successfully proved in

The patients for all their life need

the region by Aravind Eye Care, and at

regular blood transfusions every 3

Grameen Eye Care Hospital by Nobel

weeks, daily drugs and regular iron

Prize Yunus.

chelation therapy. The only permanent cure available is the Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT), invented in the 1980â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s by Prof. Guido Lucarelli. BMT costs are mostly related to the personnel. In India, where the personnel cost is definitively lower, the total BMT cost is about $22,000 which is one tenth of the western countries level. Such a reduced price, however, is largely unaffordable by the vast majority of the population of low income countries who live with less than $700/year. The Solution Cure Thalassemia (CT) is a financially self-sustainable Social Business (as defined by the Nobel Prize Yunus) non-dividend non-loss company, that is setting up state-of-art BMT specialized 3 beds medical units in India by leveraging a crosssubsidization business model. In fact, since thalassemia is a genetic disorder, rich people are affected just as poor

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6.3

One for One The one-for-one social enterprise

away more than 1m pairs of shoes in

model has caught on in recent years

40 countries. The premise is simple:

for obvious reasons. Critics have long

customers buy a pair of shoes and a

attacked traditional international aid

pair of shoes are then given to a child

with its donations to poorer countries

in need. Now the company has ventured

as ineffective, condescending and

into eyewear. For each pair of glasses

creating a culture of dependence.

purchased, someone else receives a pair

In an era where social media opens a

of prescription glasses or medical care

window into regions away from our

that improves his or her sight.

computers and smartphones, people

Toms is among similar one-for-one

want assurance that the money they

ventures that allow consumers to

choose to donate will be put to good

behave like philanthropists. Ark

use. The $10 text-to-Haiti model made

Collective sells backpacks and then

mobile telephone customers feel

turns around and donates another to a

helpful but there was little evidence of

poor schoolchild in the United States.

its effectiveness other than the line item

Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Baby Teresa distributes a

on the monthly wireless bill.

baby romper in developing countries

Enter the one-for-one model, which

when one is purchased online. And in

has caught fire in recent years thanks

exchange for buying a dapper cashmere

to Toms Shoes of Santa Monica,

necktie from Figs, a child elsewhere

California. Blake Mycoskie launched the

receives a school uniform that his or

company after a 2006 trip to Argentina,

her family could otherwise not afford.

where he witnessed the hardships

Giving one product away for every one

of children who grew up barefoot.

sold has its benefits, but some believe it

He returned a year later with 10,000

ignores the deeper roots of poverty.

pairs of new shoes for children, and a

The good intentions of Toms also draws

company, and movement, were born.

considerable ire for its plaster-like

Since 2010 the company has given

approach to the problems that result

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from walking around barefoot. When

may want to ask the child who had

that child outgrows a pair of shoes,

gone barefoot for years whether that

the health problems from contracting

donation of shoes will doom him or

hookworms or dangers of stepping on a

her to a life of dependency. There is a

hypodermic needle in a garbage dump

chance, after all, that the child would

do not go away. Other companies are

be able to attend school or even start a

taking the one-for-one model a step

micro-enterprise with that immediate

further by creating jobs in the regions

boost of confidence due to that new

in which they are donating goods.

pair of shoes. If one-for-one companies

Warby Parker, for example, operates

can inspire more investment and

a one-for-one business model similar

jobs, and then eventually cease those

to Tom’s. But in addition to donating

donations, the one-for-one model could

eyeglasses, the company also works

leave a long lasting and beneficial

with entrepreneurs in developing

impact. Buying a pair of TOMS makes

countries and trains them on how

a consumer feel like a philanthropist.

to start their own businesses selling

At the end of the day, that’s what really

prescriptive eyewear. Those businesses

attracts consumers to one for one

in turn open a market by selling

products. The impact those donated

affordable eyeglasses to a population

shoes, or the donated whatevers, has

that otherwise could not afford them.

or doesn’t have on a impoverished

The reality is that one-for-one

community thousands of miles away

complements the changes underway

won’t likely come into question.

in the developing world as more

So, this begs the question: what one-

people are lifted out of poverty not by

for-one business model is going to have

donations of aid, but social enterprise.

the biggest impact? You might look

Critics of one-for-one who slight the

to Warby Parker and see tremendous

movement as plastering over the cracks

potential for building a business while also taking a real punch at poverty, since by giving sight to those who would otherwise not have glasses, they’re also enabling them to do tasks they couldn’t otherwise do. That will lead to being able to work, or to read, and to grow their communities.


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Low positive social impact

3

1 2

One4One Backpack distribution

Give 1 Get 1

One4One+Eyewear medical

Slow

Fast

Grow

Grow

5

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One4One uniforms and education. 1tie: 1uniform: 1education

4 Buy a pair Give a Pair+train to open eyewear business. We’re building a company where we’re excited and proud to come to work every day. We think it’s good business to do good.

Make shoes and jobs in Africa. Africa not as the next China but the next Italy quality of products

High positive social impact

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2005

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2

2006

2007

2008

4

2009

5

2010

2011

Number of initiative increase and increases the high positive social impact

These initiatives as a growing trend as philanthropy

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6.4

Charity is not an answer When I’ve first seen all this “good” and

different problems.

positive organizations and companies

Combating cancer is a relatively

doing good for destitute people, to feed

simple scientific problem, while global

them with food, to give them shoes to

poverty requires more than a scientific

walk with, to give them clothes and

operation, or finding a better way to

etcetera... I was positively impressed for

manage world resources.

their efforts but then their efforts are

Combating poverty involves slow

just for a temporary alleviation and not

processes of political, cultural and

something that can last longer.

social change, with many stakeholders,

The food you gave them will finish and

significant opposition and serious

shoes and clothes will not fit anymore

issues of self-determination and

the child. Charities often target

coercion to be navigated.

symptoms, not causes!

And long-term campaigns pose another

Charity usually helps the recipient with

ethical problem: should we spend to

their problem, but it doesn’t do much

make a better world in 10 years’ time if

to deal with the causes of that problem.

that means that people who we could

Particular aspects of this are dealt with

have fed starve to death tomorrow?

in the next two topics.

Let’s agree that the purpose of giving to

It certainly is true that some charities

charity is to solve particular problems

do stopgap or ‘band-aid’ work, either

and choose the problem of world

exclusively or some of the time.

poverty. Let’s also agree that we want

But in fact, a lot of charity work

to do the most effective thing to help

is devoted to dealing with the

reduce world poverty.

fundamental causes of problems: for

Charitable giving may not be the most

example trying to reduce global poverty,

effective way of solving world poverty.

or doing research into diseases like

Indeed charitable giving may even

cancer.

distract from finding the best solution

These two examples highlight very

- which might involve a complex


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rethink of the way the world organises its economic relationships, and largescale government initiatives to change peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s conditions. If that is so, then the effort put into charity might be better devoted to pressuring governments to bring about needed change. And governments might be more likely to focus on dealing with poverty if they werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t being helped by charities. One for One strategy for me is a charitable action and the way that TOMS use to deliver products I think is really unfair for destitute people and for local shops businesses, what I liked about One for One strategy is what Warby Parker is doing: using One for One campaign to give not just glasses but also, medical assistance and train to low-income entrepreneurship. That can really help to alleviate poverty and bring a positive change to developing countries population.

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7

Design brief and challenges After the experience of developing Freeijis Project for western countries I started exploring the opportunity to develop a sustainable business by delivering SafiPot to low-income rural communities with the highest water and food borne diseases percentage and energy poverty issues. The goals are to:

1 # Spread no-electricity-required refrigeration products to families in need (energy poverty, high level of water and food borne disease) 2 # Create a sustainable social business, not as charity, to built an ecosystem that gives fishing rods and not just fish 3 # Create connections between developed and developing countries to create awareness on global problems/challenges and how be part of the change.

PH Caterina Falleni / Family in Zanzibar


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7.1

How to create a service A product cannot exist alone, but it

services, retail spaces, and everything

needs a system, a communication

that has a technological foundation.

world, a brand. Products don’t exist,

So all of these things is going to make

everything is a service. So we cannot

a service and ultimately a service is a

build just a product but a total system,

coexisting system of interactions and

a brand, a service, a business, a

infrastructure that allows people to get

company as Richard Eisermann says:

in touch with the brand.

“every business is a service”. No matter who you are, and what you, you’ll do ultimately a business, develop a product and a service and the 3 most important things in developing a service are: People, technology and business. The

Design challenges How might we create a service as a

sustainable business to deliver and sell food storage for low-income rural

anchor for people is the experience so

and urban areas? Do they need this

there’s a big conversation that happen

product? How could we educate on

all around here and the most important

the benefit they could have using this?

is between people and business that

How might we have income based on

is where the brand happen and is

low-income customers? How could

created. So the company is going to promise something that these people are going to experience. Conversation between people and technology it’s

we distribute and deliver products in rural areas in developing countries? How could we give fishing rods

really about interactions, because when

instead of just fish that is not a looking

people trying to use technology, they

forward action? How could we create

need to interact with it, and technology

a connection between developing and

also allows interaction between

developed countries to aware and to

people, and that’s a very important

alert about this action and how to

aspect of services. And down between business and technology we have infrastructure, all the stuff that the business has thats technically produced

take part of it? How might we involve rural and urban areas in solving and preventing foodborne diseases? How

that is ultimately delivered to people:

might we improve food safety in

websites, brochures, products, retail

developing countries?


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wants, needs, desires

People What do they want?

Brand

Infra structure

service

Biz

Should we do it?

Tech

Process

Marketing, Business Process, Vision/ Strategy/Ambition, Work Environment, Organisational Structure, Resources (Time, Money, People)

How do we do it?

Manufacturing Process, Manufacturing Technology, Supply Chain Management, Materials, Automation

source: Richard Eisermann

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7.2

Design Innovation “Where you innovate, how you innovate, and what you innovate are design problems.”

Tim Brown, 2005

Innovation is driven by three forces:

needs of users and creating successful

business, technology and people.

products or services that fulfil their

_Business investigates the viability of

desires. This in turn creates competitive

new products or services;

advantage for organisation.

_Technology explores the feasibility of new products or services;

Understanding end user is key to

_People judge the desirability and

achieving design innovation, and the

usability of new products or services.

process to get there is design thinking.

(in the next page Venn diagram from

Design thinking is the process that

Institute of Design at Stanford).

provides context for innovation efforts.

New innovation occurs at the

Design thinking often begins by simply

intersections.

identifying a problem and seeing an

For example, process innovation

opportunity. Hate something. Change

might occur at the intersection of

something.

business and technological innovation. Functional innovation between technology and people creates the interfaces we use to interact with technology. Marketing innovation occurs between businesses and people, enabling branding and emotional connections. Design innovation occurs in the “sweet spot” in the middle. Design innovation only occurs by understanding and anticipating the

“I have always thought design was 98% common sense and 2% aesthetics. It’s the same for business except the magic ingredient is vision. Design and business are totally interlinked and one cannot run one without the other.”

Sir Terence Conran


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Venn diagram from Institute of Design at Stanford

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My purpose, cause and belief as a Design Brief Create

What

Design needs and ordinary products (for daily survival or basic well-being)

Create a design group/studio

How Thinking differently and out of the box

Why

Designing life change products

Everything we do is positive or negative but never neutral. I believe we can, individually or better in a group,

positively impact life of people. I would like to create a meaningful action, not as charity, but as an ecosystem to

give fishing rods and not just fish.

Human Centred Design Process

I would like to create a connection between developed and

developing countries to

create awareness and sensibilization to global problems/challenges and find a way to let both world feel to be part of a positive meaningful change.

I would like to create

opportunities and well-being trough

Well design products

my projects, products or services

Meaningfull brands and products

Going into the field to understand and analyse problems and needs

Social Business Benefit Corporation

Create a community with similar beliefs

One to One Action write a Manifesto

Microcredit


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Concept create a

Service to GIVE immediate benefit A product to store, cool food and filter water

Train young entrepreneur to develop their business to bring on and spread this project

{

Instruction on how to fix it and use it

long term benefit

Well-being, Education and Job opportunities

Create a trust and long term action

How?

to developed countries

material product

immaterial service

A product One for One business to store, cool to sell a product food and store they can own and water as a social opportunities and meeting point hope they can finance to reflect on to family in need in global problems developing countries

{

developing countries

SELL

Awareness, consciusness and philantropy

Create awareness and feedback action of philantropy

People donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t buy what you do, but buy why you do it! Simon Sinek


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8

CoolPotProject, How to improve a billion people’s life The current world population is 7,096,890,406 billion people (worldometers source now 9/2/2012 time: 00.27) and is a continuous increasing number. One billion people is just an hypothetical number of people that we could help improving life by creating a real disruptive solution on solving the biggest challenges that are afflicting our globe. Design could improves people life in their daily activities, but what does it mean to design? In my opinion to be a designer that can improve people’s lives means to be curios, genuine, honest, etic and brave a person that knows the vision and is continuously dreaming of an utopic world. During a Lectio Magistralis of Filippe Daverio I’ve been struck by this phrase: “who is an utopist can make projects and design who is not an utopist can make products”. Even if this phrase sounds a little bit simple and superficial I think that is completely the truth and I think that a designer that wants to make a good difference and change positively people’s life needs to be a big utopist!

“Design is the human capacity to shape and make our environments in ways that satisfy our needs and give meaning to our lives.” John Heskett PH source: IDEO.org


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8.1

The Mission “We must become the change we want to see.”

Mahatma Gandhi

The vision defines where you are going

1 billion people who drink water that is

and the mission describes how to get

likely to make them sick _Every 20 seconds,

there. First of all, not inspiring. Second,

a child dies as a result of poor sanitation.

in today’s fast-paced world, both the

That’s over 1.5 million preventable and

vision and mission need to be flexible.

tragic deaths each year. _1 billion people

The same is true for the how. How you

lives in energy poverty living in the

execute your ideas today will change

darkness _1 billion people dye each year for

drastically tomorrow, and that’s how

foodborne disease preventable illnesses

it should be. The best businesses are flexible and nimble. They aren’t focused

Together we can make a positive change One Pot at a Time.

on the how and where, instead they are

While these statistics are scary, they’re

focused on the why and a manifesto is

not irreversible. With a little help we

all about the why. I see the mission as

can literally save lives. All great change

a manifesto of the initiative as a set of

is created by the sum of small humble

beliefs and a way of life. A manifesto is

steps. Technology can empower and

something people can emotionally buy

liberate. A single, effective product has

into. It’s hard to buy into a mission and

more potential for worldwide impact,

vision statement. Manifestos keep you

by providing clean water, food, shelter,

on the right path while giving you the

or income, than any other existing

flexibility to deliver something amazing.

development approach. Through the

The majority of our world’s population lacks access to life’s basic needs. _by 2025, two-thirds of the

introduction of inexpensive and simple

world population could face water scarcity

people around the globe can be

stress conditions. That’s potentially over 5

dramatically improved. Our

billion of us. _1/6 people worldwide do not have access to clean water. That’s almost

yet life-altering products the lives of more than 2 billion poverty-stricken

mission is to treat the poor as customers, not as charity recipients.


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THE MAJORITY OF OUR WORLD’S POPULATION LACKS ACCESS TO LIFE’S BASIC NEEDS

1 BILLION people lives in energy poverty in the darkness dye each year for preventable foodborne disease do not have access to clean water

Together we can make a positive change, ONE POT AT A TIME www.coolPotProject.org

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THE MISSION The CoolPotProject mission is to spread wellbeing, reduce poverty and generate opportunities in the developing world, through SafiPot local production and sale. The core values are:

OPPORTUNITY We provide the tools for artisans, entrepreneurs and customers to make their own change. That change creates a ripple effect of health, social connection and economic activity across communities, with more goods and services being sold and more opportunities generated every day.

INCLUSIVENESS We want to apply an open and creative approach to co-operate all together: designers, entrepreneurs, customers, supporters, staff and partners, to create an impact greater than we are each capable of alone. The idea is to work to build a society that lifts people up, using innovative design thinking and business practices to reach individuals in need on a large scale.

MARKET-CREATION Social enterprise is about making markets work effectively for everyone and creating a system for lasting change. We believe there is a viable market for high-quality, affordable refrigeration and water filtering products at the base of the pyramid. Everyone deserves the basic potable water and refrigeration access that allow them to live up to their potential.


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CoolPotProject.org distributes wellbeing and alleviate poverty by

One opPOrTunity to One BE PART OF A POSITIVE CHANGE

be forward looking with us! www.coolPotProject.org

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8.2

Team “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success”

Henry Ford

Teams play a very important role in

equity and camaraderie, essential for a

organizations as well as our personal

motivated workplace.

lives. The above proverb by Henry Ford

-

can very well highlight the importance

is a better way to work!

of working together in teams. Team work is essential in corporates for better output and a better bonding among employees. Teamwork: -

creates synergy – where the sum is

greater than the parts. -

Supports a more empowered way of

working, removing constraints which may prevent someone doing their job properly. -

Promotes flatter and leaner

structures, with less hierarchy. -

Encourages multi-disciplinary work

where teams cut across organizational divides. -

Fosters flexibility and

responsiveness, especially the ability to respond to change. -

Pleases customers who like working

with good teams (sometimes the customer may be part of the team). -

Promotes the sense of achievement,

When managed properly, teamwork

“What matters is working with a few close friends, people you respect, knowing that if times did turn bad these people would hold together.”

Richard Branson

Not all teams are made up of friends. Nor, for that matter, do they need to be, in order for them to be effective. Teamwork does however, have the potential to foster a fulfilling, meaningful way of working together. It’s not necessarily an easy option, nor a panacea for all organisational ills. However, working with a group of people, on a worthwhile activity, with a common goal, can be one of the most rewarding and enjoyable aspects of work. It is essential to build a good team to make succeed the project!


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8.3

The project, opportunities and benefits The CoolPot Project has the main

long term benefits by delivering the

goal to distribute SafiPot products

product and teaching to young local

to families in need in developing

entrepreneurs how to start their own

countries, to allow positive changes and

business.

opportunities to take place in their life.

The following pages explain in graphs

We want to deliver well-being and

and text how to structure the process to

alleviate poverty by distributing these

achieve the goal.

products and by teaching low income local entrepreneurs how to start their

The Microfinance opportunity

own business, selling SafiPots at

Instead of taking financial support from

affordable prices.

developed countries, it will come from

SafiPot can prevent many water and

a micro finance institution as partner,

food borne diseases. Food can be stored

which could lend money to local

and cooled without electricity, saving

entrepreneurs, train them and sustain

the time used by family members to buy

the business development from the

food or look for food every day: it can

cradle.

be used to get education and give job opportunities.

The OPO model

Water is filtered by the ceramic filter

Can we change the world one pot by

cavity giving potable water in every

one?

home.

The OPO (One opPOrTunity to One) is a project to finance the

To make the project a sustainable

CoolPOTProject cause.

business we should follow two main

Each product purchased will give an

paths: Micro finance institutions

opportunity for a better future to a

collaboration or One to One strategy.

family in need.

Both solutions can have short and


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I believe in both these opportunities,

about world global problems, to be

the most important thing is to have a

aware that also a small step and a little

real long term solution to problems

daily action can have a huge impact on

passing through a short term benefit.

the other side of the world. These customers will have a direct

THE BENEFITS

feedback of their action with picture

The CoolPotProject brings a short term

and reports by the CoolPotProject,while

and long term benefits to families in

distributing and training in Africa and

need in developing countries and a

India.

philanthropic feeling for customers in

The net benefit of our activities is

developed countries.

nothing less than a fundamental

The short term action is to deliver

improvement in the lives of those who

SafiPots to store, cool food and filter

need it most.

water, to provide basic refrigeration needs to rural families in India and

In three words CoolPotProject.org is

Africa: less waste of food, less water and

about growing wellbeing, making a

food borne diseases and higher comfort

positive change and being part of the

to household.

change.

The mission is to treat the poor as customers, not as charity recipients. The long term action is to train low income young local entrepreneurs how to start their own business, selling other SafiPots at affordable prices. That means education, job opportunities and well being. The western customers will make a philanthropic action by purchasing products that allow finance support to deliver products in developing countries and to train local entrepreneurs. For western customers being part of this positive change and action, means to take an active position on the cause and belief. It means to be aware and conscious

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long term benefit

.org

distribute

SafiPots

to families in needs

=

to address the basic refrigeration and potable water needs to BOP customers, to prevent water and food borne and waterborne diseases

train local entrepreneurs to start their own biz

=

education, job opportunities, dignity

to grow wellbeing and alleviate poverty

{

CoolPot Project

{

short term benefit

Create


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With every product a customer will purchase CoolPotProject will give an opportunity for a better

Create

future to a family in need. It will grow awareness, consciousness and philanthropy feeling

The OPO model

1=1+

start their own biz

to fund

start local production with local ceramist artisans

Local entrepreneurs networking

to promote to sell to deliver Microfinance Institution as partner Partnering with a microfinance institution or an NGO will be good for funds, local connections and organization

Global positive impact for BOP


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How it works Create

CoolPot Project .org

donates safipots and funds from the sales of each purchased product to families in need in Africa and India

OPO or MFI provides safipots and training to low-income women entrepreneurs in developing countries to start their own biz of SafiPots

LOCAL WOMEN* ENTREPRENEURS sell safipots for an affordable price so that people who live on $ 4 a day can afford the product, creating jobs and foster economic development

grow wellbeing

COMMUNITY is able to purchase affordable safipots that help them in their everyday lives, lifestyle and status by storing and cooling food, filtering water and preventing foodborne disease

*Yunus, Muhammad (25 March 1997). World in Focus: Interview with Prof. Muhammad Yunus “Because women, we saw all along the way, have longer vision, want to change their lives much more intensively.” As of April 1, 2012, 80.46% of Kiva’s loans have been made to women entrepreneurs. Kiva emphasizes supporting women because women can gain the most from microcredit. Patriarchy and a strict division of labor still dominate the societies of many developing countries, and women often suffer the most from poverty because scarce resources are often allocated to a family’s males, rather than its females


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How could we give by OPO? Create

Customers Customers purchase a CoolPotProject product

One Pot to One

BUY GIVE

The CoolPotProject provides SafiPots and/or funding to non-profit partners (local microfinance institutions)

“LIKE US” is very important! every 20 LIKES the CoolPotProject will DONATE AN EXTRA safipot

We work with partners that use pots to create jobs and foster economic development.

TRAIN Local partners CoolPotProject’s non-profit partners provide SafiPots and training to low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries to start their own business selling SafiPots

Customers will see the impact of their action

SELL

Entrepreneurs

BUY

Community

Local entrepreneurs promote and sell affordable SafiPots, as a trust and fidelity action, earning a livelihood serving individuals in their communities who otherwise would not have access to basic refrigeration need and drink potable water

Individuals who previously couldn’t afford basic refrigeration need are able to purchase and use the product they need to store, cool food and drink potable water


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in 3 words is to

grow wellbeing

make a positive change

be part of the change


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8.4

A global philanthropic financing strategy action This project started 2 years and half

Gates and Warren Buffet, most people

ago and the main goal of that product

are familiar with the concept of modern

was to create an aware and conscious

philanthropy, which generally refers

western customer, about electricity

to the act of providing grant dollars in

usage and waste. Now the main goal

order to achieve a desired outcome or

of the project has a little shifted to

impact for people and communities.

those people who really need this kind

Organized philanthropy has grown

of product because they are living in

dramatically over the past few decades.

energy poverty and they could prevent

According to the Foundation Centre,

many preventable diseases.

in 1975, almost 22,000 foundations

So this opportunity of OPO model to

accounted for $1.94 billion in annual

finance the project is not about money

giving; in 2009 there were well over

and business decisions, but is more

75,000 foundations that contributed

about closing the circle I started getting

nearly $43 billion. Foundation assets

different realities with opposite needs

have also swelledâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;growing from

closer (one with waste, the other with

$30 billion in 1975 to more than

lack of electricity and resources).

$680 billion in 2009. As the number

The philosophy behind selling products

of private foundations increases, the

in developed countries to finance this

diversification of the ways and means

initiative is to involve people both

through which people give is also on

mentally and physically by purchasing,

the rise. Significant developments

using and having trust in the cause.

include the creation of charitable

THE GROWING TREND OF PHILANTHROPY Before understanding why philanthropy is a growing trend the idea of philanthropy has changed in the last decades. Thanks to media coverage of large donors such as Bill

gift funds operated by large financial institutions; the rapid growth of donor-advised funds at community foundations; the popularity of online giving and use of social media to support causes; and the expansion of pooled funds such as giving circles. While organized philanthropy

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continues to grow and adapt to ever-

Changes in amount and source of

changing social and economic trends, it

wealth are giving rise to a new type

is important to note that contributions

of donor – one who is younger,

by individuals remain by far the single

typically (but not necessarily) self-

largest source of charitable dollars in

made and socially conscious. The new

the United States, accounting for more

philanthropists want to be engaged

than 75 percent of total giving each year.

in their giving, using their business experience and expertise to support

A recent UK report about philanthropy

the charity more closely. They also are

has individuated 10

trend in European philanthropy budding

willing to invest a significant amount

interest by individuals has been

costs – and take significant risks to test

matched by a growing philanthropy

innovative ideas. Importantly, because

infrastructure to support their giving.

they are private individuals, they are

There also is more media coverage

able to take risks that government and

of philanthropy, and in 2005 UK

many foundations, who are accountable

Government renewed its commitment to

to other stakeholders, simply cannot.

supporting charitable giving, laying out its vision and priorities in A Generous Society. Here we look at some emerging trends in British philanthropy.

of capital – including funding core

3. More people are giving during their lifetime More people are choosing to give during their lifetime, rather than

1. Private wealth is increasing

through a one-off legacy bequest. They

There has been a dramatic increase in

want to experience the joy of giving

the number of wealthy individuals as

and of the relationships they develop

well as a shift in source of wealth in

– with charity staff, beneficiaries and

Britain: 15 years ago, 75% of the Sunday

other donors. More people are talking

Times Rich List had inherited their

publicly about their giving, providing

wealth and 25% were self-made. Today

role models to new givers.

that ratio is reversed. Meanwhile, the number of billionaires in the Rich List grew by 25% to 68 in 2007, while the country’s richest 1,000 increased their fortunes by 20% to almost £350 billion.

2. A new type of donor is emerging, altering the giving landscape

4. Views on the amount of wealth parents should pass on to their children is changing Especially among the self-made, more individuals are choosing to give much of their wealth ‘back to society’, through either legacies or lifetime giving. They


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will provide for their children, but

Philanthropists are embracing new

charity is also important. A 2000 Lloyds

ways of giving, such as venture

TSB survey revealed that over half of

philanthropy. They also are utilising

people with liquid assets of £250,000 or

new types of charity financing –

more would prefer to either spend their

including loans and equity – to support

money or give it to charity rather than

charities and social enterprises, filling a

to their children.

gap in the funding market. Meanwhile, charitable banks have been established,

5. Givers increasingly want to see the impact of their donations

enabling social investors to help disadvantaged communities to achieve sustainable economic growth.

As they become more sophisticated

of their support. This goes beyond

8. There is a growing range of charitable services that help donors to give effectively

outputs, such as the number of people

There is a growing infrastructure of

helped, to address the longer-term

charities and professional service firms

outcomes and impacts on beneficiaries,

to support and promote effective giving,

such as improved health or self-esteem.

and to help new and existing donors

Donors are also demanding increased

to take a more informed and strategic

accountability and transparency from

approach to giving. Meanwhile, private

charities. They want to be confident

banks are expanding philanthropy

that their money is being used both

services to their high net-worth clients.

and strategic in their giving, donors increasingly want to see the impact

effectively and efficiently.

6. More donors are giving together More donors are joining together to leverage their funding and to share learning. These include ‘giving circles’ such as The Funding Network, as well as funding vehicles such as ARK and the Private Equity Foundation.

9. Information flows are improving Publicly available information on charities generally has been wanting. However, this is changing with improved quantity and quality of information flows in the sector. These include online resources, such as the Charity Commission’s Register of Charities, GuideStar UK and Intelligent Giving, as well as research into

7. Innovation in charity financing is growing

different areas of charitable activity

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and tailored advisory services for donors

needed in the domestic environment,

from NPC and Geneva Global.

that has a similar cooling and filtering processes to SafiPot.

10. Individual giving is becoming increasingly important to third sector organisations

Using Semprini approach described

The recent growth in the number of

of the identity of the product and the

newly wealthy individuals represents a

meanings behinds decisions, shapes

new and potentially significant income

and materials are transformed into

source. Importantly, private individuals

stories and then into project proposal.

provide charities with unrestricted,

The values of the possible products is

sustainable and predictable income.

durability and sustainability, simplicity,

They also play a critical role in

necessity, quality and positive change,

maintaining the independence of the

all these values are transformed into

voluntary sector, especially as more

stories as past references, natural

charities are delivering public services

materials (not so much treated),

on behalf of government.

recognizable presence and future

in â&#x20AC;&#x153;la marca postmodernaâ&#x20AC;? the values

reference. These values and stories are WHY SELLING PRODUCTS IN

becoming something more concrete as

DEVELOPED COUNTRIES TO

easy aesthetic with pure shapes, light

FINANCE THE COOL POT PROJECT

opaque ceramics, wood, metal and well

As just seen, the philanthropy trend is

design product.

growing.

Every product could be enumerated

The CoolPot Project is about 50%

to give a feedback to the impact of the

short term benefit, 30% long term

action, plus pictures from delivery and

benefit for developing countries, and

training actions in developing countries.

20% philanthropic action by western countries.

But who will design and choose

By purchasing a product the person will

these products? Until now I founded

not just buy something, but the mission,

the pillars of how the values and the

made of values, beliefs.

meanings of these products could be.

We want to sell something that is not

And I think it could be interesting to

just an excuse or a pretext to do good,

involve other people in this process

but is something that can remind to the

by an open and inclusive way of

philanthropic action with real benefits.

designing.

Something that is daily used and daily

There are two main ideas: one is about


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from values, to stories to the design

VALUES

STORIES

DESIGN

durability, sustainability, simplicity, necessity, quality, positive change,

values to communicate

past references, natural materials, decisions and comb, recognizable presence, future references

transforming values

pure aesthetic, opaque ceramic, wood, metal, light colours, well design product, enumeration

the pot concept


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creating a group of young and renowned international designer to create a serie of products with similar values, communicate and believe in the same mission. The second idea is to create a world wide contest to challenge international students and professional designers, thinkers, engineers to create a product that could finance the delivery of SafiPots to BOP customers, giving them job opportunities. In both these ideas the goal is to design a product, service, video or campaign to aware developed countries customers about world wide challenges and problems like: water, food, environment, security, education, energy, health, waste, transportation, and reuse.


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How to encourage philanthropy to finance the project Create and find people who believes in what we believe? By creating an open and inclusive solution approach involving creative people and creating worldwide initiatives as:

1

2

Create an International design contest to challenge students and professionals designers, thinkers and creative people

Involving young and renowned international creative people to support our cause and

TO Design and create a product, a service, a video a campaign about creating awareness in developed countries customers about the worldwide challenges and problems that are afflicting our world as:

Poverty

Water

Food

Environment Education

In this way we will create a networking

Energy

Health

of people who believes in what we believe helping us creating awareness of global problems and to spread wellbeing and alleviate poverty

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8.5

Growing well being by having a long term vision

We often measure well being as

Chaupal (India).

happiness or satisfaction with life. The

The research team are developing a

search for happiness is often confused

model to assess well being that could

with the pursuit of pleasure, but

help development projects evaluate

wellbeing is about more than living ‘the

their work’s impact on people’s quality

good life’; it is about having meaning in

of life so they can develop more

life, about fulfilling our potential and

effective poverty-reduction projects.

feeling that our lives are worthwhile.

Data is being collected from 700 people

But wellbeing is changing by the

in rural communities in Zambia and

context, by cultures and different habits

India across two years. This is being

so for me wellbeing is about fulfilling

used to explore how they understand

my self but for malimino who lives in

and experience wellbeing and how this

Tanzania wellbeing is to have food every

connects to their pathways into, within

day or for abdulla in India is to have a

and out of poverty.

television in his house.

The research has developed and is

Dr Sarah White is leading Wellbeing

testing a multidimensional model of

and Poverty Pathways, a three-year

wellbeing that includes both subjective

international research partnership

and objective perspectives. Work with

generating evidence about the

Non-Governmental Organisations will

relationships between poverty and

adapt that model for use in monitoring

wellbeing in developing countries.

and evaluating development practice.

The funded project involves

Dr White believes that measuring

collaboration with Brunel University

wellbeing at a local level can make a

(UK), the GB Pant Social Science

real difference.

Institute (Allahabad, India), as well

“A focus on wellbeing asks what people

as Non-Governmental Organisations

would like, what they aspire to. This

Oxfam Hong Kong, Hodi (Zambia) and

isn’t just a matter of changing the


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words: meetings to discuss wellbeing

good. But what makes life good?The

bring a new energy and excitement into

Wellbeing and Poverty Pathways model

what have been rather tired, problem-

involves both objective (how things

focused discussions.

are) and subjective (how people think

“It can also encourage a more ‘joined

and feel) dimensions. It considers

up’, holistic approach to policy, and

these across seven key areas of life - or

lead to asking how programmes

domains - that contribute to wellbeing.

are implemented and the terms of interaction between staff and the

THE SEVEN DOMAINS OF

people they serve. This draws attention

PERSONAL WELLBEING

to the need to consider the quality, not

We imagine wellbeing as involving a

just the quantity, of what is provided

series of layers, from the top layer of

and the process of implementation, not

the external environment that people

just the end results.”

inhabit right down into the interior of

Wellbeing is experienced when people

how people feel in themselves.

have what they need for life to be

The NGOs model looks at four layers,

• The eight points of the star show physical environment

eight domains of personal wellbeing

e ur uc t tr as in fr political system

• between the different domains

Physical &

y

andinterchange between its different

m

dynamic, rather than static, with flow

o on

• The model should thus be seen as

Agency &

self-worth

ec

broader environment

environment

Competence &

• between different people • between people and the

Local

mental health

Close

services

which emerges through interaction:

Resources

e m

• Wellbeing is viewed as a process

gi

achievement of wellbeing

re

the external factors that affect people’s

meaning

Economic

y

• Around the perimeter are some of

Values &

lic

environment that enables and constrains wellbeing

po

• The outer circle indicates the

participation Social

relation connections peace/conflict

ci

so

t

ns

i al

ns

io

t itu

elements • All of this is culturally embedded source: Wellbeing and Poverty Pathways NGO’s

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which together capture both objective

What this all means for how people are

and subjective dimensions of wellbeing:

in themselves

Layer 1. The enabling environment and

Since wellbeing is grounded in specific

reflections on it

contexts, appropriate indicators need to

What is out there (an objective account

be generated locally.

of collective provision) and what

The table below shows possible

people think of what is out there

indicators to illustrate the layering

(subjective reflection on collective

approach across the eight domains of

provision)

personal wellbeing.

Layer 2. Objective wellbeing

These graphs show the patterns of

What people can get of what is out

wellbeing generated by applying the

there (personal)

model in Chiawa, Zambia, in 2010.

Layer 3. Subjective reflection on

Reflecting the poverty of people in

objective wellbeing

the area and low levels of government

What people think of what they can get

services, access to resources is

Layer 4. Subjective wellbeing

the lowest scoring domain. As expected,


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single women are in general

to be assessed across different domains,

shown to be doing less well than

while also recognising relations

married women, and men are doing

between them.

best overall. The gender difference is

But is also evident that people who can

most striking in the domain of agency

have resources will have a better health,

and participation. Also, perhaps

will be able to have close relationships

surprisingly, it is married women who

and social connection.

report themselves least satisfied with

We could improve well being by

their close relationships. So after this

creating a network of entrepreneurs,

research is evident that Wellbeing is

artisans and microfinance institutions

complex and multifaceted, it cannot be

to collect resources for individuals

captured by a single indicator. It needs

and families, that will influence social

Patterns of wellbeing in Chiawa, Zambia, 2010 Values

Resources

Self-worth

Health

Close relationships

Participation

Social connections

Scores are aggregate for all items within one domain (six items in

each with scores out of five giving a total of 30 maximum for each)

Single Women

Married Women Married Men

source: Wellbeing and Poverty Pathways NGOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

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connections close relationships first,

of Entrepreneurs.

health and self worth then.

Ceramic Artisans: _Receive the know-how to build

PARTNERSHIP AND NETWORKING

SafiPots _Follows standard quality of products

The problem size is too big for being

mostly for ceramic filter

handled just by a small organization.

CoolPotProject Artisans will be in

We need help, we need to partner

connection with local entrepreneurs

with organizations that have deep

that will commissionate the ordered

infrastructure and deep relationships

number of SafiPots directly to artisans.

with communities where they work.

Entrepreneurs:

The idea is to deliver the tools to create

_Conducts marketing & educational

the product locally to artisans and tools

outreach

for entrepreneurs to manage promotion,

_Promote & sells SafiPots

sales and deliveries.

CoolPotProject Entrepreneurs generate

The importance to partner with local

awareness and provide access to

institutions, organizations and NGOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

SafiPots products in hard-to-reach

is essential to have infrastructures

communities across the globe.

and closer relationships with local

BUSINESS IN A BAG

communities.

Each entrepreneur and artisan receives

LOCAL ENTREPRENEURS AND

his or her own Business in a Box, a

ARTISANS

microfranchise sale kit containing all

To reach the hundreds of millions

the materials needed to build, market

of low-income consumers in the

and sell SafiPots.

developing world, we need to empower

Entrepreneurs undergo a few days

local individuals to launch their own

training in business management and

businesses, selling a simple yet powerful

receive close, ongoing support from

tool like SafiPot.

staff. Equipped with their Business

The CoolPotProject will directly

in a Bag, Entrepreneurs conduct

manage a comparatively small corps of

educational outreach on water

Entrepreneurs and artisans who sell

and foodborne diseases and offer

SafiPots. To efficiently address the scale

informations in their communities.

of the need in the developing world,

To maximize their efforts,

we need to partner with like-minded

CoolPotProject entrepreneurs will

organizations who produce and sell

partner with reputable local institutions

Safipots and manage their own network

such as schools and churches to spread SafiPots benefits.


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The CoolPotProject Create

Local Partners NGOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

MicroFinance Institutions Organizations

TO have ongoing support

deep infrastructure

deep relationships with communities WITH

local entrepreneurs business bag

local ceramic artisans

to produce to promote to sell Immediate health benefits, social connections and resources

OPPORTUNITIES TO MAKE AN IMMEDIATE POSITIVE CHANGE

maker bag


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THE MODEL The CoolPotProject addresses the basic refrigeration and water potability needs by delivering affordable SafiPots to individuals in the developing world with a network of local entrepreneurs using a scalable model that reaches more people every day. The Model rests on these four pillars:

PRODUCT

DELIVERY

SafiPot reflect basic needs which influences wellbeing

Empowers local entrepreneurs and artisans to provide SafiPots to low-income communities around the world

INNOVATION

IMPACT

By crossing points and staying close to customers we develop the most effective ideas

Feel well to do well. A simple â&#x20AC;&#x153;potâ&#x20AC;? can make a profound impact


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Why does the CoolPotProject sell SafiPots rather than give them away for free? // Sustainability & Scale: Hundreds of millions of people in the developing world lack access to affordable refrigeration and potable water, a market failure that dwarfs the availability of philanthropic dollars. By correcting the market failure at the heart of the problem, social enterprises initiatives like the CoolPotProject make change on a truly global scale â&#x20AC;&#x201D; far beyond the capacity of traditional charity. // The sale of products in developed countries enables the CoolPotProject to recover a portion of the cost of the operations. The remaining portion of the budget is covered through the philanthropic support of individuals and foundations. // Empowering the poor as consumers: Vanity is not monopolized by the rich. Like any consumer, consumers at the base of the pyramid prefer to select their own products, which is often not possible with donated products. // Create opportunity for entrepreneurs: A CPP Entrepreneur earns $1-2 for every SafiPot sold, creating an exciting income-generating opportunity for our growing network of entrepreneurs.

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8.6

CoolPotProject as social business Combining the best practice from business and charity

A social business is a non-loss, non-

access, and environment) which

dividend company designed to address

threaten people and society; not profit

a social problem. The profits are used

maximization

to expand the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reach and

_Financial and economic sustainability

improve the product/service.

_Investors get back their investment

Social Business in an enterprise that

amount only. No dividend is given

matches socio-environmental goals

beyond investment money

typical of the Public Sector and of

_When investment amount is paid back,

Third Sector Organizations with the

company profit stays with the company

economic sustainability and efficiency

for expansion and improvement

of a traditional enterprise.

_Environmentally conscious

The resources invested in a Social

_Workforce gets market wage with

Business, unlike those employed in aid

better working conditions

or charity projects, keep on generating

_â&#x20AC;Śdo it with joy

socio-environmental benefits thanks

There are two different types of Social

to the auto-sustainability of Social

Business, Type 1 and Type 2:

Business and can be recouped by the

1_Refers to social businesses that

investor. Professor Yunus (Muhammad

create a product which has a direct

Yunus is a Bangladeshi banker,

social impact. For example, Shakti

economist and Nobel Peace Prize

doi, the fortified yogurt, directly fights

recipient. He developed the concepts

malnutrition.

of microcredit and microfinance) wrote

2_Social business functions as a profit-

the seven principles that every Social

maximizing business, except that all of

Business must follow:

the net-profits are placed into a trust,

_Business objective will be to overcome

which will help a disadvantaged group

poverty, or one or more problems

of people, or a profit making business

(such as education, health, technology

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If we break social design down into

15 countries and 60 industries working

tactical core elements, we see clearly

together toward 1 unifying goal: to

how itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s comprised of three very distinct

redefine success in business.

components: identity, conversation, and

One of the most important things is

community. Put another way: ourselves,

for every business to measure what

other people, and the conversations we

matters -- not just profits, but impact

have with them.

on our communities, employees, and

WHAT IS A BENEFIT CORP?

the environment.

B Corps are certified by the nonprofit

WHY DO THIS?

B Lab to meet rigorous standards of

Measuring what matters helps to attract

social and environmental performance,

and retain the best talent.

accountability, and transparency.

It demonstrates its company walks its

Today, there is a growing community of

talk about being a better company.

more than 600 Certified B Corps from

It gives employees who care about this

source: www.socialbusinessforum.com

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an opportunity to engage and to lead. It allows us to benchmark performance and gives tools to set goals for improvement. Harvard Business Review says that Millennials, which represent roughly 50% of the global workforce, want work that connects to a larger purpose. Hewitt Associates says that Companies with higher levels of employee engagement outperformed the stock market by nearly 20%. In my opinion the idea of creating a social business it completely fit with the mission, the cause and my belief. WHAT IS A SOCIAL ENTERPRISE? A social enterprise is an organization driven by a social or environmental purpose that uses business principles to sustain and grow their operations. Social enterprises lie at the intersection between traditional businesses and non-profit organizations. Like a nonprofit organization, the social purpose is the organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reason for being. Like a traditional business, social enterprises use market-based principles to recover the cost and strategically expand their operations. A key characteristic of a social enterprise is that earnings are reinvested into the organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operations rather than distributed to shareholders. The CoolPotProject will reinvests proceeds from the sale into scaling operations combining best practice from business and charity.

The 7 tips from muhammad yunus social business. Source: http://sbflorence.org/


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source: www.socialbusinessforum.com

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9

Designing the Pilot Project Pilot programs are trial versions of a major program that are launched to a small group of users or to a specific geographic area and evaluated to determine the value of rolling out the program nation or international-wide. A pilot project refers to an initial roll out of a system into production, targeting a limited scope of the intended final solution. The scope may be limited by the number of users who can access the system, the business processes affected, the business partners involved, or other restrictions as appropriate to the domain. The purpose of a pilot project is to test, often in a production environment, whether the system is working as it was designed while limiting business exposure. A perfect phrase that can recap the concept of a Pilot Project is:

Build small, make it infinitely expandable, make it affordable to the poor

Jaquelin Novogratz CEO of Acumen Fund

PH source: IDEO.org


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9.1

Begin with the end in mind â&#x20AC;&#x153;A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.â&#x20AC;? Lao-tzu Chinese philosopher I never started a pilot project, but I

in five different areas outside of

usually think beginning from the end,

Antananarivo, with a common focus

and the large amount of different paths

being ecotourism, medicinal plants, and

that a project could follow.

experimental agriculture as alternatives

In this case, CoolPotProject could

to environmental degradation for local

follow several different paths, starting is

communities. One of the main areas

half of the job. As the chinese proverb

it serves is the Vohimana Reserve,

says we have to start from a step even if

adjacent to Andasibe-Mantadia National

it is a journey of thousand miles.

Park. Arieal was interested in Freeijis

This journey will start by a pilot project

and how it could impact the rural

to understand if the designed system

communities in Madagascar. We started

can work and how it can be improved.

talking about her past experiences with

Before start spreading and scaling

really extreme situations like when she

the project, it is essential to test the

was in Chad in refugees camps and why

prototype in loco for correct functioning,

she decided to move in Madagascar and

usability and feasibility.

why she dropped her safe job in Italy as

After this initial phase of product

manager in a company. Well at the end

testing we could think about the

we end up talking about a Pilot Project

financial side, product acceptance and

in Madagascar with theNGO support

penetration. Few weeks ago Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been

of infrastructure, people and deep

contacted by Ariela Ferraris Italian

connection with local communities. So

President of Homme et Environnement

even if before this event I knew that

a non-governmental organization based

a pilot project would be essential, at

in Antananarivo, Madagascar, with the

this moment I realized that this could

mission of developing economically and

happen before I was expecting it. So I

ecologically sustainable management

started really thinking on how the pilot

of the natural resources in parts of

project could move forward and here

Madagascar. The organization works

are some steps and things that I could


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take in consideration:

Between point 4 and 5 thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the

1_create the implemented prototype

possibility to create a crowdfunding

with ceramic filter, test it, and

campaign which shows we have

implement it again

consolidated the work, spotlighting the

2_create a schedule and a list of

positive impact that this project could

materials and goods that can be found

have on rural communities.

in Madagascar, search about local

Presenting the whole project to

environmental and climatic aspects,

social investors or to governmental

create a team of people that can go in

institutions for example in Brussels

Madagascar to analyse the effectiveness

at UN or at European Commission to

of the project in communities families

the Development and Cooperation

as designers, engineers, anthropologists,

department that usually distributes

ecc..., look for a little fund to sustain

funds could be an opportunity beyond

the initial small scale local production

the Crowdfunding campaign.

costs

One problem that could appear

3_In Madagascar create network and

during the PP is the distribution

knowledge about local skills to build

and promotion phase because of the

SafiPots to start a small production of

absence of infrastructures for delivery

5/10 products

and distribution (i.e. no streets, no

4_test and experimentation of the

electricity).

efficiency of the product and deep

For instance one company addressing

learning process with customers about

a rural emerging market in India,

their needs, habits and daily activities

decided to choose as delivery partner

applying an inclusive way of improving

the biggest Post Office company in the

the product with them

country.

5_After this product inclusive development with customers we can

Some organizations solved this

really start the pilot project teaching

problem by affiliating and creating

and learning to and from local artisans

partnership with widespread

and entrepreneurs on how to improve

organizations and institutions like

the whole system of: production,

Postal Services or local entrepreneurs

promotion and sale. Testing on the field

that could reach local people easier

with the real customers is essential to

than who was not living there.

understand tons of informations that otherwise, we would never know.

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1# create the prototype, test it, implement it

2# team building, location studies, seek money

3# local production (Madagascar?) 5/10 products+networking

4# Test and implement with customers

* 5# Improve the whole ecosystem

*

opportunity to crowdund and to present the project to social investors and governmental org with convalidations of customers and a functional prototype that could really positively impact BOP customers health and lifestyle


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9.3

How to get the money? Sometimes it proves easier to raise the money for a project than to make the project a success. We need a financial help to start all

European and Italian kind of grants

this project and to support all the

and usually are given with no interest of

stuff we need to initiate, starting from

getting back money or being part of the

the PP itself, up to sustaining all the

organization taking equity.

other expenses until the company/

In the private sector there are many

organization will be self sustained by

organizations as Ashoka, Acumendfunf,

customers.

Women Venture Fund, Enel, Dell and

I think there are several possibilities,

many others.

and the most common and maybe

In my opinion the most interesting

possible shots are to start a Kickstarter

organizations are Ashoka and

campaign, looking for national and

AcumendFunf for their real interest

international grants or directly trying to

and commitment in having a big

involve social investors to get started.

positive impact on solving the most urgent social worldwide problems.

1_GRANTS

Ashoka: Innovators for the Public

There are plenty organizations and

is a nonprofit organization based

institutions worldwide giving grants

in Arlington, VA, USA, supporting

and recruiting for fellows programs. I

the field of social entrepreneurship.

would divide the grants into: public and

Ashoka was founded by Bill Drayton

private and with equity and no equity.

in 1981 to identify and support leading

The perfect situation for the

social entrepreneurs through a Social

CoolPotProject would be to have money,

Venture Capital approach with the

mentors and advisors for starting the

goal of elevating the citizen sector to a

PP as a social business, with no equity.

competitive level equal to the business

In the public sector there are few

sector. The organization currently

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operates in over 70 countries and

and pool their money, usually via the

supports the work of over 2,000 social

Internet, to support efforts initiated by

entrepreneurs, elected as Ashoka

other people or organizations.

Fellows. Ashoka also creates what

Crowd funding is used in support of

it calls “mosaics” of best practices

a wide variety of activities, including

that map the commonalities and

disaster relief, citizen journalism,

intersections of key principles that

support of artists by fans, political

guide Fellows’ individual solutions (20).

campaigns, startup company funding,

Ashoka’s initiatives include

movie or free software development,

Changemakers, Youth Venture, and Full

inventions development and scientific

Economic Citizenship. Acumendfund

research.

is a non-profit global venture fund that

The two most know crowdfund

uses entrepreneurial approaches to

websites are: kickstarter and indiegogo

solve the problems of poverty. Its aim

Crowdfunding and philanthropy

is to help build financially sustainable

A variety of crowdfunding platforms

organizations that deliver affordable

has emerged to allow ordinary web

goods and services that improve the

users to support specific philanthropic

lives of the poor. Acumen Fund is a

projects without the need for large

501(c) organization headquartered in

amounts of money.

New York, with regional offices in India,

Global Giving allows individuals to

Pakistan and Kenya.

browse through a selection of small

Both these organizations fund projects,

projects proposed by nonprofit

startups and companies by country

organizations worldwide, donating

or by portfolio (categories as energy,

funds to projects of their choice.

housing, health, education...) after

Microcredit crowd funding platforms

an approved application that is an

such as Kiva (organization) and Wokai

Executive summary of a business plan.

facilitate crowd funding of loans

Other

managed by microcredit organizations in developing countries.

2_CROWD FUNDING

The US-based nonprofit Zidisha offers

Crowd funding (alternately crowd

a new twist on these themes, applying a

financing, equity crowdfunding, or

direct person-to-person lending model

hyper funding) describes the collective

to microcredit lending for low-income

effort of individuals who network

small business owners in developing

(20) Drayton, W: “Everyone a Changemaker: Social Entrepreneurship’s Ultimate Goal”. Innovations, Vol. 1/No.1, p. 80-96, 2006


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countries. Zidisha borrowers who pass a

author James Surowiecki in his book

background check may post microloan

The wisdom of crowds, thereby placing

applications directly on the Zidisha

financial backing behind ventures likely

website, specifying proposed credit

to succeed. Proponents also identify

terms and interest rates. Individual web

a potential outcome of crowdfunding

users in the US and Europe can lend

as an exponential increase in available

as little as one US dollar, and Zidisha’s

venture capital. One report claims

crowd funding platform allows lenders

that If every American family gave

and borrowers to engage in direct

one percent of their investable assets

dialogue. Repaid principal and interest

to crowdfunding, $300 billion (a 10X

is returned to the lenders, who may

increase) would come into venture

withdraw the cash or use it to fund new

capital Proponents also cite that

loans. Some organizations try to make

a benefit for companies receiving

crowd funding playful. Raise5 allows

crowdfunding support is that they

individuals to microvolunteer as a way

retain control of their operations, as

to fundraise small amounts of money,

voting rights are not conveyed along

and Charitykick has users microfund

with ownership when crowdfunding.

“dares”.

While this does not usually apply to

Pros and cos of crowdfunding

artists and charitable organizations,

Proponents of the crowd funding

a disadvantage for business is the

approach argue that it allows good

requirement to disclose the idea for

ideas which do not fit the pattern

which funding is sought in public when

required by conventional financiers

it is at a very early stage. This exposes

to break through and attract cash

the promoter of the idea to the risk of

through the wisdom of the crowd. If

the idea being copied and developed

it does achieve “traction” in this way,

ahead of them by better-financed

not only can the enterprise secure

competitors. For crowdfunding of

seed funding to begin its project, but

equity stock purchases, there is some

it may also secure evidence of backing

research in social psychology that

from potential customers and benefit

indicates that, like in all investments,

from word of mouth promotion in

people don’t always do their due

order to reach the fundraising goal.

diligence to determine if it’s a

Another potential positive effect is the

sound investment before investing,

propensity of groups to “produce an

which leads to making investments

accurate aggregate prediction” about

decisions based on emotion rather

market outcomes as identified by

than financial logic. Crowdfunding

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draws a crowd, investors and other

investors. Since those in the secondary

interested observers who follow the

market are considered investors,

progress, or lack of progress, of a

speculators are also investors.

project. Sometimes it proves easier to

There are many different classes of

raise the money for a project than to

investors and they are not mutually

make the project a success. Managing

exclusive:

communications with a large number

-Individuals gambling in games of

of possibly disappointed investors and

chance. -Individual investors (including

supporters can be a substantial, and

trusts on behalf of individuals, and

potentially diverting, task. There are few

umbrella companies formed by two or

successfully crowd funded case history

more to pool investment funds)

in the last months that have in common

-Collectors of art, antiques, and other

the goal to positively impact BOT

things of value -Angel investors

customers, one is the Gravity Light,

(individuals and groups) -Sweat

already mentioned in Design with & for

equity investor -Venture capital funds,

the other 90% chapter, ($399,590 raised

which serve as investment collectives

of $55,000 goal) a light for countries

on behalf of individuals, companies,

in energy poverty and a low cost

pension plans, insurance reserves, or

land mine detonator (4,169 Backers >

other funds. -Businesses that make

£119,456 pledged of £100,000 goal).

investments, either directly or via

3_SOCIAL INVESTORS

a captive fund -Investment trusts,

If this company will raise money from

including real estate investment trusts

investors needs to be really careful on

-Mutual funds, hedge funds, and other

choosing who, when and why

funds, ownership of which may or may

Usually An investor is someone who

not be publicly traded (these funds

allocates capital with the expectation

typically pool money raised from

of a financial return. The types of

their owner-subscribers to invest in

investments include, — gambling and

securities) -Sovereign wealth funds

speculation, equity, debt securities, real

Then there’s something that I really

estate, currency, commodity, derivatives

like called Socially responsible

such as put and call options, etc.

investing (SRI), also known as

This definition makes no distinction

sustainable, socially conscious, “green”

between those in the primary and

or ethical investing, is any investment

secondary markets. That is, someone

strategy which seeks to consider both

who provides a business with capital

financial return and social good.

and someone who buys a stock are both


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How to get the money? Deliver

{ Grants

Public

Private

European Commission, UN, Europeans and National ministers, regional grants

Pro & Conts

usually no equity, platform and networking for developing the project and the pilot

Crowdfunding

Ashoka, AcumendFund, Enel, dell, Dell, Women’s Ven, Cartier Womens Initiative, etc...

long waiting, long applications to

Kickstarter, Indiegogo, Eppela

Pro & Conts short time to get money if it is a successful campaign, customer convalidation (aggregate prediction and bet)

if it is a early stage project could be a problem for the IP, from statistics it’s easier to raise money than to make the project successful, so will taught to manage a large amount of disappointed supporters and investors

Investors

How to find them?

-look for avviate social business and see who is the investors -go to events, conferences and initiative about social entrepreneurship -watch out for info and connection on internet, facebook, twitter and other blog or websites

Pro & Conts

the “quick” money

you are bond with your investor he will be involve in many decision making situations and equity


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10

Future Prospect This section is to make clear that this project hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really start yet, but what I begun are the foundations to start something real, as an organization or a company. My goals for the next 12 months are to create a social business to improve peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life by giving SafiPots in developing countries, and the steps are: _ Creating a mini production to test on the field the product in small scale to improve and enhance the development and the system itself _ Understanding the acceptance and fidelity key points to work on, about the whole system in the developing countries _ Establishing the social business and extend the team _ Getting funded _ Creating a community around the CoolPotProject mission to prepare and create awareness for the entrance on the market. These goals are pretty complex to achieve without a structured organization of time, general sources, established work team, and real money to fund and get started. In the following pages a schematic diagram presents the possible steps to achieve the main goal.

PH source: WHO World Health Organization


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NEXT STEPS

How to achieve the goal?

#1 #2 Pillars Looking Constitution for Grants

thesis as pillar to start. Define the team work and fund the company

social investors, application to national and international organizations grants (ashoka, acumen fund, ..) and contest. Crowdfunding in this phase is not the right moment because thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not so many proofs for customers to trust in us

#3 #4 Product Test on field development and networking

prototyping and implementing products with a mini production in Italy. In the meanwhile we need to start creating the network to organize the pilot project, choosing the place and instauring people connection between us and local entrepreneurs, local potteries, non-profits and micro finance institutions, choosing partners and defining the pilot

the pilot can s a limited num products and number of cus This will be ne understand th of the ecosyste implement the directly with c


start with mber of a limited stomers. ecessary to he dynamic em and to e product customers

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#5 Consolidation

#6 Campaign Launch

If we still need money to go forward, now is the perfect time to start a crowdfunding campaign with pictures and video of our pilot project. Now is time to consolidate the connections of the whole system from partners, to institutions, to the organization based in developing country, while starting the collaboration with a communication design group to start the campaign

#7 Assessments and improvements

to launch in Europe and America Here will start the One opPOrTunity to One project delivering funds and products to families in needs in developing countries for every product purchased in developed country

this phase is to make stable and improve all the aspects of the system from the product sells, to distribution, to train, to marketing and to communication


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“Chi ha un’utopia fa progetto, chi non ha un’utopia fa oggetto” Philippe Daverio


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#CONCLUSIONS To quote Winston Churchill, “Now this

be a real positive herald for change. Its

is not the end. It is not even the beginning

mission: to spread wellbeing and alleviate

of the end. but it is, perhaps, the end of the

poverty, is such a large field of action that

beginning.”

it leaves us many open doors for future

I started this thesis with the dream of

possibilities. “Dall’utopia al progetto”,

taking a step forward to bring this service,

the subtitle of this work, comes because

product and idea to the real world; and I

everything started two years ago from

still believe this could really happen. After

the utopia that we (developed countries)

plenty of research about experiences,

could live happier in a world with less

organizations and companies, and their

waste of electricity consumption: this

efforts to enter an emerging market, it

transformed into a project that allows

still seems really hard to me, and maybe

BOT customers, and perhaps eventually

too abstract, but I think it is important to

also western customers, to live “electricity

work to understand the whole ecosystem,

free”, having a basic cooling and potable

inch by inch, starting, first of all, with

water system. Now, with this project, the

one little step. Another key point to the

circle started two years ago closes by

success of the project is building a great

doing the “One opPOrTunity to One”,

team to work together on the project,

because it could really bring together

with whom I can share opinions, learn

the two worlds, with opposite problems

and take action.

but of the same importance, getting to

I believe that is possible to work in

know each other more deeply and with a

different places and countries, but in

pragmatic feedback. As Philippe Daverio

the long run physically disparate teams

says “Chi ha un’utopia fa progetto, chi non

could ruin the project, the efforts and

ha un’utopia fa oggetto”, (“he who has

the energy/synergy of people. So I

a utopia can create a project, he who

think people should have a physical

doesn’t have an utopia can create an

place to work to collaborate and create

object”) because the utopia is the only

together to make the project happen.

key for the education of tomorrow.

The CoolPotProject is something that

Luckily I always identified as a real naive

could have a bigger role than delivering

utopist, and I am confident that this

SafiPots and creating job opportunities

feeling will allow me to create projects

by fostering the rural economy: it would

and not objects.

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References

#REFERENCES ARDEN, Paul 2006 Whatever you think, think the opposite 2007 It’s not how good you are, it’s how good you want to be BAUMAN, Zygmunt 2007 Consuming life (tr. It. Consumo, dunque sono, Bari:Ed. Laterza) BUBBICO, Giovanna 1997 Arte e tecnica della ceramica, Bologna: Demetra CARLI, Fabrizio 2000 Elettrodomestici spaziali, Roma: Castelvecchi CRESCENZI, Marco 2012 Social Innovation e Social Business, nuove relazioni per co-progettare il cambiamento ed uscire dalla crisi DAVOLI, Pietromaria 1993 Architettura senza impianti - aspetti bioclimatici dell’architettura preindustriale, Firenze: Alinea Editore DRAYTON, W. Everyone a Changemaker: Social Entrepreneurship’s Ultimate Goal. Innovations, Vol. 1/ No.1, p. 80-96, 2006) FAJANS P, Nguyen Thi Thom, Whittaker M, et al. 2007 Scaling-up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes. Geneva, World Health Organization

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FEIGENBERG, Benjamin 2011 Building Social Capital Through MicroFinance. NBER Working Paper GALLINO, Luciano 2003 La scomparsa dell’Italia industriale, Milano: Einaudi HARTMANN A, Linn J. 2007. Scaling up: a path to effective development. 2020 Focus brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington HOFFMAN, Reid 2012 The start-up of you. New York: Crown of Business LEONI, Carlo La conservazione degli alimenti tra storia e cronaca, tratto dal sito KAHNEMAN, Daniel 2012 Pensieri lenti e veloci, Milano: Mondadori YUNUS, Muhammad 2003 Banker To The Poor: Micro-Lending and the Battle Against World Poverty, Bangladesh 2010 Building Social Business: The New Kind of Capitalism That Serves Humanity’s Most Pressing Needs MANZINI, Ezio e VEZZOLI, Carlo 1998 Lo sviluppo di prodotti sostenibili, Milano: Maggiori MORACE, Francesco 2006 Living trends. I 5 scenari e le 10 tendenze della domesticità e dell’abitare, Milano: Scheiwiller NORMAN, Donald 2007 The design of future things (tr. it. Il futuro del design, Milano: Ed. Apogeo) RIES, Eric The Lean startup machine, How today’s entrepreneurs use continuos innovation to create radically successfull businesses, New York: Crown Business


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References

ROGERS EM. 1995 Diffusion of innovations, 4th ed. New York, Free Press ROVESTI, Guido 1917 Conserve alimentari in guerra RUTHERFORS, Stuart 2000 The Poor and Their Money. New Delhi: Oxford University Press SEMPRIMI, Andrea 2006 La marque, una puissance fragile (tr. it. La marca postmoderna.Potere e fragilitĂ della marca nelle societĂ  contemporanee, Milano: Ed. Franco Angeli) SPURLOCK, Morgan 2005 Super size me (tr. it. Ingrassami Milano: Ed.Feltrinelli) STUART, Tristam 2009 Waste, (tr.it. Sprechi, Milano: Bianco & Volta) UPHOFF N, Esman M, Krishna A. 1998 Reasons for success - learning from instructive experiences in rural development. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, CT WUJEC, Tom 2011 Imagine, Design, Create. San Francisco: Melcher Media

REVIEWS ExpandNet, World Health Organization. 2010. A field-based and participatory approach to supporting the development of scaling-up strategies. ExpandNet, World Health Organization. 2010. Beginning with the end in mind: planning pilot projects and other programmatic research for successful scaling up ExpandNet, World Health Organization. Nine steps for developing a scaling-up strategy. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 Review of Philanthropy in UK Higher Education: 2012 status report and challenges for

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the next decade. September 2012 Toolkit for monitoring and evaluating household water treatment and safe storage WHO/UNICEF, 2012 International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment, Volume 20, Issue 3, 2010 Ceramic Water filtartion Handbook, Resource International Development Cambodia, February 2009 IDEO Human-Centered Design Toolkit, 2012

WEBSITES http://www.who.int World Health Organization (WHO) Food Safety and food-borne illnesses http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs237/en/ US National Library of Medicine, Nationl Institue of Health, Food safety and foodborne disease in 21st century homes http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2094945/ FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators Marrakech, Morocco, 28 - 30 January 2002, Foodborne disease http://www.worldcoal.org Gloabl energy poverty http://www.sustainableenergyforall.org/ http://designother90.org/ http://events.nationalgeographic.com/events/exhibits/2010/04/28/design-other-90/ http://expandnet.net/tools.htm


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#ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor Prof Simone Paternich for encouraging and guiding me through this part of my life and I hope will continue after the end of the university our mentoring/friendship relationship.

Here I would like to thank Francesco Mosconi, Chiara Giovenzana, Eric Ezechieli, David Orban and all Axelera members who gave me one of the best opportunity of my life and if without it maybe this thesis wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even exist.

I also want to thank all my friends, colleagues and professors at Singularity University who helped in a big way to open my mind in a full immersion of crazy exponential happy experiences during last summer.

An uncountable thank is to ISIAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s staff and lecturers for these five beautiful years and an honest and authentic thank to my FavouriteISIOTS in particular Fra, Ale, Frangy, B, Sara, Bea e Cecca who have been capable to stamp in my mind these five university years as something memorable, unique and unforgettable!

The execution of this work would not be possible without the patience, the support and the love of two of the most important person of my life Lorella and Alessandro.

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Caterina falleni ISA Master Thesis