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est African Studies

West African Studies

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An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel GeoGrAphy, economicS And Security

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel GeoGrAphy, economicS And Security

SAHEL AND WEST AFRICA

Club Secretariat

a

gl

an

ce


About The Atlas builds on maps and statistics to analyse, from a regional perspective, the challenges facing the SaharaSahel. It describes the Sahara-Sahelian space and geography (Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger and Tunisia), reveals some socio-economic indicators of the area and decrypts the various security (terrorism and trafficking) and development challenges linked to mobility (trans-Saharan routes and trade, migration, nomadism, borders and free movement). A strengthened, consolidated and continuing dialogue among North, West and Central Africa is an essential element for the long term stabilisation of the Sahara-Sahel.

Five leading personalities complete the publication by expressing the region’s key challenges with regard to their Sahel strategies. The Atlas is available in English and French, and the analysis is illustrated with more than 100 maps and 30 figures. This At a Glance edition: • introduces the Sahara-Sahelian space and geography; • presents some socio-economic indicators; and • highlights the various links between mobility, networks and security.

The countries analysed in this study Tunis

Algiers Atlantic Ocean

Rabat

At

MOROCCO

las

Laghouat

Béchar râa

uD

d da

ma Ha Tindouf

Laayoune

Nouadhibou

Atar

Nouakchott

Dakar GAMBIA

Banjul

Arlit Timbuktu

GUINEA- Bissau BISSAU GUINEA Conakry Freetown SIERRA LEONE Monrovia LIBERIA

LIBYA EGYPT

Djanet

Aïr Mountains

NIGER

Niamey

Al Jawf

TOGO GHANA

Yamoussoukro Accra

Faya Largeau SUDAN CHAD

N’Djamena Abuja NIGERIA

Porto-novo Lomé Malabo

CENTRAL AFRICAN REP. CAMEROON

2

Palm grove limit

Other city

Cram-Cram limit

Adrar

SOUTH SUDAN Juba

Bangui

Yaoundé 0

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

National capital

Khartoum Abéché El Fasher

Zinder

Ouagadougou BURKINA FASO BENIN

CÔTE D’IVOIRE

Libyan Desert

Marzuq

Agadez

Gao

MALI Mopti Bamako

Ghat

Tessalit

Tidjikdja

SENEGAL

In Amenas

Tibesti

Ifoghas

Trarza Tagant

Cairo Awjilah

Tamanrasset

Taoudenni

Adrar

Benghazi

Ghadames

n Erg ster Ea

Hoggar Mountains

El Djouf

MAURITANIA

Tripoli

In Salah Tassili n ’Aj jer Reggane

Tanezrouft

Mediterranean

Tozeur

ALGERIA

rg ern E est W Tademaït Adrar Iguidi Plateau Erg Chech Erg

Zouirat Fderik

TUNISIA

500 km

Source: Retaillé D., P. Drevet, O. Pissoat, J. Pierson 2014

Principal physical landscapes

International border

Equator/Greenwich Meridian crossing

African country not included in study

Source: Retaillé D., P. Drevet, O. Pissoat, J. Pierson 2014

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014


Chapters Chapter 1 – Sahara-Sahelian space and geography

Chapter 4 – Ancient and new mobility in the Sahara-Sahel

The characteristics of Sahara-Sahelian space and geography are based on social, economic and spatial mobility. Through a mapping exercise, this chapter describes the SaharaSahel through its ancestral networks, route empires, borders and its history, migratory movements, tourism and conflict and instability.

The different forms of mobility can be understood through social dynamics, namely networks. These networks began developing with trade caravans and have continued to evolve over time. The rationales underlying this activity are based on pastoral mobility and solidarity rather than the relations among states in the region. Political power plays, particularly between Algeria and Libya, interfere in their relations with countries in the Sahel.

Chapter 2 – Socio-economic indicators within Sahara-Sahel countries

Chapter 5 – migration and Sahara

The indicators are analysed through population and economic data. Population data show strong growth in Sahel states and stable growth in North African states, accompanied by intense urbanisation. Gross domestic Product (GDP) figures indicate a contrasting picture, with North African economies having significantly higher GDP growth rates and income levels than Sahelian economies.

The shared human space is centred on economies and migrations, which are both primarily informal. Starting in the 1960s, the development of the sparsely populated Algerian and Libyan Sahara has depended on labour from the North Sahel. This population redistribution, which has since persisted, served as the basis for diaspora dynamics and reinforced regional integration.

Chapter 3 – Petroleum and networks of influence in the Sahara-Sahel

Chapter 6 – Nomadism and mobility in the Sahara-Sahel

Various oil companies have been established over the years. This chapter analyses the role of Sahara-Sahelian oil in the regional and global economy and market. The oil and gas sector accounted for one quarter of the cumulative GDP of Sahara-Sahel countries in 2013, with Algeria and Libya as the third and fourth largest African producers.

Nomadism and its various forms of mobility and pastoralism connect the Sahara and the Sahel. It has adapted to change through partial, limited sedentarisation and diversified means of livelihoods. This chapter describes the continuity and change of pastoralism, notably social recomposition, migration and the nomadic space.

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

3


Chapter 7 – Borders, cross-border co-operation and freedom of movement in the Sahara-Sahel

Chapter 10 – An institutional point of view on the challenges of the Sahara-Sahel

The cross-border functional dynamics in the Sahara-Sahel are important to understanding borders, cross-border co-operation and freedom of movement. Border regions perform a number of functions in an institutional context, where free movement is subject to the uncertainties of political developments and, more recently, of security concerns. Traffickers’ use of border networks and corridors for various activities that feature differing degrees of violence is an added complication today.

The insights provided by representatives of the EU, UN, AU and ECOWAS illustrate the development and security challenges faced by the Sahara-Sahel. These initiatives call for the strengthening of dialogue among all actors involved to achieve lasting peace and security for the West African population.

Chapter 8 – Security issues, movement and networks in the Sahara-Sahel This chapter describes the evolution of regional instability in the Sahara-Sahel since the 1960s. The analysis emphasises that the nature of conflicts has changed over the past decade. Less locally contained and often cross-border and more violent in nature, these modern-day crises require new institutional responses that can adapt to the flexibility of terrorist networks.

Chapter 9 – Trafficking economies in the Sahara-Sahel

The contributors to this chapter are: • Mr Michel Reveyrand de Menthon, European Union Special Representative for the Sahel; Mr. Jérôme Spinoza, Political Adviser to the European Union Special Representative for the Sahel. • Ms Hiroute Guebre Sellassie, Special Envoy of the United Nations Secretary General for the Sahel. • Dr Ibrahim Assane Mayaki, Chief Executive Officer of the Secretariat of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). • Mr Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo, President of the Economic Community of West African States Commission (ECOWAS).

The nature of trafficking and its geographical scales, as well as its effect in the Sahara-Sahel, are important to the understanding of current mobility and instabilities. The role of trafficking cannot be underestimated both in terms of its structuring or destructuring effects on politics, territories or societies. Trafficking connects the Sahara-Sahel to the world economy, which is an indication of the international scale of national and cross-border issues.

4

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014


spaces and geography An understanding of the Sahara-Sahel on the basis of its social, economic and spatial mobility can help bring together its two sides and reactivate an area of mobility currently viewed as segmented. The main element of this approach is moving beyond two contradictory ways of thinking about space – as production or as movement. The production perspective indicates that bioclimatic zones determining production dominate the geographic understanding of the area. In this view, the 200 mm annual precipitation isohyet is defined as the cut-off point for aridity,

below which farming and herding are no longer possible. The annual precipitation isohyet is often used to delimit the Sahara-Sahel. However, this approach does not fully reflect the reality of the Sahara-Sahel, which is characterised by trade, complementarity and movement. By contrast, the movement perspective indicates that a spatial understanding based on movement or routes sheds light on other opportunities for socio-economic ties and on the vitality of networks.

The “geographic” Sahel

Average annual rainfall (mm/year) 0

50

200

400

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

600

and more

Source: UNEP, Environmental Data Explorer – http://geodata.grid.unep.ch

5


Is the Sahara-Sahel empty, as is often claimed? The answer is yes if we refer to the population density per square km. The Atlas suggests another image in calculating the number of inhabitants per km of road or trail. This illustration shows, in the area thought to be empty, significant population densities along the routes. For Sahara-Sahel inhabitants, the territory is bound to the road. Ultimately,

the space between the roads is of very little importance. Along this network of roads we find a large number of towns and we have to bear in mind that most Sahara-Sahel residents are town-dwellers. Often, these towns are oases whose location is determined not by the presence of water, but rather by their function as stopovers, or as transit and trade locations.

Linear density of population Number of inhabitants by linear km of road (including Saharan trails)

Algiers Tunis

0-80 Rabat

80-180 180-600

Tripoli

600-2 500 2 500-6 000

Béchar

6 000-72 000

El Golea

Key cities (more than 10 000 inhab.)

Hun Adrar

Tindouf

Laayoune

Sabha

Reggane

Marzuq Arak

Ghat Al Jawf

Zouerat Nouadhibou

Birak

Tamanrasset

Atar

Nouakchott

Timbuktu

Gao

Agadez

Dakar

Abéché

Mopti Bamako

Niamey N’Djamena

Source: DIVA, 2013 (www.diva-gis.org/gdata)

6

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014


Algiers Alger

Trans-Saharan commerce according to Monod’s circulation zones Fès

Mogador

Dr

Tunis

aa

d an

fi Ta

fel

Tripoli

t

Benghazi

Ouargla

Ghadames

Touat

Fezzan Tidikelt Ghat

I II

Koufra

III

Al Qatroun

Adrar

Tibesti

Kawar Tidjikja Oualata

N

cir iger

cle

Faya

Aïr

Hausa lands

Bornu

Waddai

Darfour

Cities and rest stops

Sedentary cores

I

Western zone, Moorish

Trans-Saharan routes

Oasis cores

II

Central zone, Tubu

Dry zones

Saharan empty areas

III

Eastern zone, Touareg

Source: Drozdz M. 2005, geoconfluences.ens-lyon.fr, ENS-Lyon / DGESCO

City population

Cities 10 000 - 50 000 50 000 - 100 000 100 000 - 350 000 350 000 - 1 million 1 - 2 million 2 - 4 million more than 4 million

Other city

Source: Natural Earth 2013 (www.naturalearthdata/downloads/10m-cultural-vectors/10m-populated-places/)

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

7


the population and the economy The countries of the Sahara-Sahel are classified into two groups: The Sahara-Sahel covers 9.6 million km², more than twice the area of the European Union and representing nearly • North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia), and one-third of the African continent. Since the partition of Sudan, Algeria is the largest country in Africa in terms of • the Sahel (Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Chad). surface area, with 2.4 million km 2. The four North African countries have a combined surface area of 4.8 million km 2, The population and Algeria accounts for 50% of this. In 2012, the combined population of the 8 Sahara-Sahel countries was 136 million. The 4 North African countries Urbanisation has been the most important manifestation of have a combined population of 88 million, almost double population dynamics observed over the past half century in the combined population of its four Sahelian neighbours West Africa. Although Sahelian countries still have some of the lowest levels of urbanisation in the world, the pace of (48 million). urbanisation has been astonishing. The level of urbanisation Between 1990 and 2010, the population in the Sahel grew in the Sahel increased from 2% in 1950 to 25% in 2010. by an average annual rate of 3.3%, almost doubling from The urban population increased 46-fold, from 250 000 to 23.7 million to 45.2 million inhabitants. By contrast, growth 11.6 million people, at an average annual rate of 6.6% per year. rates in North Africa slowed down to 1.5% (from 63.3 million to 85.4 million inhabitants) during the 1990–2010 period. Population by country, 2012 North Africa (88 million inhabitants)

Algeria 38.5

Morocco 32.5

Tunisia 11

Libya 6

Sahel (48 million inhabitants)

= 1 million

Niger 17

8

Mali 15

Chad 12.5

Mauritania 4

Source: SWAC/OECD based on WDI 2014, World Bank

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014


Surface area by country and region (in million km2) Sahel (4.8 million km2)

North Africa (4.8 million km2) Libya 1.8

Tunisia 0.2

Mali 1.2

Mauritania 1

Morocco 0.4

Niger 1.3

Algeria 2.4

Chad 1.3

Source: WDI 2014, World Bank

Population growth and total population in North Africa and Sahel, 1950–2012 2.3 Population growth and total populatio in North Africa and Sahel, 1950-2010 % 3.5

38.3

45.2

Sahel

32.3

3.0 29

37.7

48.7

2.5

63.3 23.7

18.6 2.0

14.9 12.3

North Africa

75.2

1.5 85.4 79.7 1.0

0.5

14.9 Total population in million 0 1950–60

1960–70

1970–80

1980–90

1990–00

Source: SWAC/OECD based on DESA UN, World Population Prospects: the 2012 Revision

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

2000–05

2005–10 * * The population figures correspond to end of period values.

9


Evolution of country population (in million)

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Morocco 9

Algeria 38.5 12.3

15.9

19.8

26.2

31.7 Morocco 32.5

Algeria 8.9 11.3

14.7

19.5

24.7

28.7 Niger 17.2

Mali 4.6 5.1

5.7

6.7

8.1

11

Tunisia 3.1

Mali 14.9 3.9

4.4

5.8

8

10.3

Niger 2.6

Chad 12.5 3.3

4.4

5.8

7.8

9.6

Chad 2.5

Tunisia 10.8 3

3.6

4.5

6

8.3

Libya 1.1

Libya 6.2 1.4

Mauritania 0.7

2012

0.9

2.1

1.2

3.1

1.5

4.3

2

5.2

2.7

Mauritania 3.8

Source: DESA UN, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision and WDI 2013, World Bank

10

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel Š OECD 2014


Urban areas in the Sahel, 1950 – 1980 – 2010 1950

Number of inhabitants

10 000 – 15 000

100 000 – 300 000

15 000 – 50 000

300 000 – 1 million

50 000 – 100 000

> 1 million

MAURITANIA NIGER MALI CHAD

1980

2010

Source: Africapolis - SWAC/OECD 2014

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

11


The economy although its GNI per capita exceeds that of Mauritania by 260% (and those of Chad and Mali by 400%).

The Sahara-Sahel encompasses economies that are of diverse sizes and levels of development. In 2012, the combined GDP of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia surpassed that of its southern neighbours (Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) by a factor of 11. Chad, Mali and Niger are low-income countries, whereas Libya is a high-income country. Morocco is the only North African country that is still a lower-middle-income country,

Over the last two decades, the real GDP growth rate of Sahelian countries exceeded that of North Africa. Since 2000, GDP growth has further accelerated in the Sahel and averaged 5.5%. With the exception of Niger, all Sahel countries grew faster than their North African neighbours.

The Sahara-Sahelian GDP divide Sahel (32 billion USD)

North Africa (412 billion USD)

Niger 7

Chad 11 Mali 10

= 5 billion Algeria 208

Morocco 96

Libya* 62

Tunisia 46

Mauritania 4

* latest data available 2009

Source: SWAC/OECD based on WDI 2013, World Bank

Per capita income GNI per inhabitant (Atlas method, current USD) 14 000 high income 12 615

12 930

10 000

8 000

6 000 upper middle income 4 150 4 110

4 085

lower middle income 2 950 2 000 low income

1 035

1 110

740

660

Chad

Mali

0 Libya*

Tunisia

Algeria**

Morocco

Mauritania

370 Niger

* 2009 data; ** 2011 data Source: SWAC/OECD based on WDI 2013, World Bank

12

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel Š OECD 2014


2.18 Per capita real GDP growth rates 1970-2012

Per capita real GDP growth rates over the past four decades (annual average) % 6 Chad 4

Morocco Tunisia

3.4 North Africa average** 2.6

Libya* Mauritania Algeria

2.1

2 0.6

Mali

0.6

0 Sahel average -0.8

-2

1970-80

1980-90

Niger

-0.3

-1.0

1990-00

2000-12

-4

* Data for Libya 2000–2009 ** North Africa average excluding Libya

Source: SWAC/OECD based on WDI 2013, World Bank

Two important challenges Mobile and flexible criminal networks and trafficking at the regional scale For a long time, geographers have identified the complex relationship between mobility and territory. Social networks have played a major role in enhancing mobility and exchanges as well as erasing the very notion of borders. Historically, the Sahel and the Sahara were linked by networks of pre-colonial empires founded on movement or, more accurately, on the control of roads and trade. Today, the spatial organisation of the Sahara-Sahel captures the new An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

conditions of the globalised world where places primarily function through the intersection of flows, such as the flow of goods and people. The development of urban centres, social networks and traders is at the nexus of all these flows. Criminal networks – terrorism and the trafficking of arms, drugs and human beings – are taking advantage of this spatial and social structure.

13


Trafficking in the Sahara-Sahel has been facilitated by intense spatial mobility and continuous circulation relying on old influential networks. In some cases, trafficking has even enjoyed the support of local communities. The crisis in Mali has made the effect of trafficking visible, particularly its link with the financing of Salafi jihadists. Trafficking also raises questions regarding economic ties on both sides of the Sahara. The Maghreb is the point of origin and reception

of trafficked products, which take place along traditional trans-Saharan trade routes. Adapting policies and strengthening co-operation among neighbouring states, securing borders, preventing criminal development and formulating appropriate responses to flexible and mobile criminal networks to control national territory are particularly important challenges for the region.

Boko Haram NIGER Zinder Diffa

Maradi

CHAD

Sokoto Sokoto Katsina Katsina

Kano

Zamfara

N’Djamena

Jigawa

Yobe

Maiduguri

Kano Kebbi

BENIN

Gombe Kaduna

CAMEROON

Bauchi

Jos

Niger

Adamawa Plateau

Kwara

Abuja Nassarawa

Oyo

Taraba Osun

Kogi

Ekiti

Main area of activity of the sect 2014 Benue

Ondo

Ogun Lagos

Ebonyi

Anambra Imo

Bayelsa Rivers

Arms trafficking Nigerian states with Sharia law

Enugu

Edo

Delta

Geographic origin and diffusion of activities of the sect since 2009

Ethnolinguistic areas Abia

Cross River

Akwa Ibom

Kanuri Hausa Yoruba Ibo

Source: SWAC/OECD 2014

14

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel Š OECD 2014


The ephemeral Azawad Area controlled by Ansar Dine

LIBYA

Surge by Ansar Dine

ALGERIA

MNLA progress Azawad Touareg

Tamanrasset

Town attacked by the MNLA since january 2012 Town captured by the MNLA and Ansar Dine (between February 8 and April 3, 2012). Taken over by Ansar Dine after austing the MNLA (between March 18 and October 1, 2012) Attack or kidnapping claimed by AQIM between 2007 and 2012

Tessalit Ti-n-Zaouatene Aguelhok

MAURITANIA

Arlit Anéfis

Border Road Timbuktu Goundam Niafounké

Niger

Kidal

Gao

Diré

Léré

Agadez

Bourem

NIGER Ménaka

Ansongo Andéramboukane

Towns and cities

MALI

Douentza Mopti

More than 1 million Ségou

More than 100 000 50 000 - 100 000 10 000 - 50 000

BURKINA FASO

Niamey

Other locality

Nguru

Sokoto Katsina

Koutiala Bamako

Zinder

Maradi

Birnin-Kebbi

Ouagadougou

Gashua

NIGERIA Gusau

Kano

Sources: Retaillé D. and O. Walther, New ways of conceptualizing space and mobility 2012; Africapolis - SWAC/OECD 2014; Natural Earth 2013

Transnational nature of instability and the responses Identifying responses to the security challenges undermining the stability of the Sahara-Sahel must be done in a transnational manner through strong regional co-operation and co-ordination. Security challenges affect not only North, West and Central Africa but also the international community. Institutional cross-border and/or regional responses should be based on a thorough understanding of the nature of terrorism and trafficking in the Sahara-Sahel. An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

There are numerous initiatives. The United Nations, the African Union, ECOWAS and the heads of state of 5 Sahelian countries – Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger (G5 Sahel) – have formulated regional strategies aimed to stabilise and develop the Sahara-Sahel. Many multilateral institutions are committed to working alongside them, with the European Union at the forefront along with the main development banks (World Bank, African Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, etc.).

15


The bearers of these strategies meet regularly, but operational and co-ordination challenges remain immense. The difficult question of how to distribute tasks among the institutions has not yet been decided.

Nigeria is taken into account only accessorily. How can the necessary co-operation between Maghreb and Sub-Saharan countries be developed? Last, there is the complex issue regarding the simultaneous implementation of security and development actions.

Is the geographic scope of responses well suited? How can Nigeria especially be well considered in these strategies?

Cocaine flows Transit areas

TUNISIA

Transatlantic flows Regional flows

MOROCCO

Main coastal transit countries

ALGERIA

LIBYA EGYPT

WESTERN SAHARA

MALI MAURITANIA

NIGER SUDAN

SENEGAL

CHAD

CAPE-VERDE

Highway Ten

GAMBIA GUINEA-BISSAU

GUINEA

CÔTE D’IVOIRE

SIERRA LEONE

Name given by the cartels to the maritime route along the 10°N parallel

BURKINA FASO

LIBERIA

BENIN

NIGERIA

TOGO C.A.R.

SOUTH SUDAN

CAMEROON GHANA

Source: UNODC 2013

16

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014


Niger faced with regional threats

LIBYA

ALGERIA

NIGER

Arlit Kidal Agadez

MALI

Agadem

CHAD

Niamey Dosso

Zinder

Maradi

Diffa

Sokoto Kano

Maïduguri

N’Djamena

BOKO HARAM Abuja

NIGERIA

Ethnolinguistic groups

U

HAUS A

EG

TUB

TO

R UA

KA

NU

RI

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel © OECD 2014

Saharan zone: less than 200 mm of rainfall per year; approximately 600 000 km² and less than 0.5 million inhabitants in its Nigerien part. Uranium mines and oil.

Area regularly food and nutrition insecure

Sahel’s vulnerable zone: the interannual variation of the length of the rainy season exceeds 30%. Approximately 5 million rural inhabitants in its Nigerien part, predominantly agro-pastoralists.

Regional diffusion of instability

Area of conflict / instability

Involuntary migration

17


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West African Studies

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel GeoGrAphy, economicS And Security While the Sahara-Sahel region has experienced recurrent episodes of instability, the recent crises in Libya and Mali have increased the level of violence. These two crises have reshaped the region’s geopolitical and geographical dynamics. The current crises are cross-border and regional, and addressing them requires new institutional responses. How can the countries that share this space – Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger and Tunisia – in collaboration with other countries of the region, such as Nigeria, work together towards its stabilisation and development? Historically, the Sahara plays the role of intermediary between North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. Even before Roman times, the area was criss-crossed by roads, principally serving a military use in this period. Today, commercial and human exchange is vibrant, founded on social networks. These networks have more recently been used by traffickers. Understanding the nature of this trafficking, the geographic and organisational mobility of criminal groups, as well as migratory movements is of strategic importance. This work aims to contribute towards this objective and to help inform the Sahel strategies of the European Union, United Nations, African Union and ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) in their attempts to forge a lasting peace. This Atlas proposes a cartographic and regional analysis of security and development issues. It provides objective information for the necessary dialogue between regional and international organisations, states, researchers and local stakeholders. part i. reactivating a space of fragmented circulation Chapter 1. Sahara-Sahelian space and geography Chapter 2. Socio-economic indicators within Sahara-Sahel countries Chapter 3. Petroleum and networks of influence in the Sahara-Sahel part ii. Securing the Sahara-Sahel by integrating its social and spatial mobility Chapter 4. Ancient and new mobility in the Sahara-Sahel Chapter 5. Migration and the Sahara Chapter 6. Nomadism and mobility in the Sahara-Sahel Chapter 7. Borders, cross-border co-operation and freedom of movement in the Sahara-Sahel Chapter 8. Security issues, movement and networks in the Sahara-Sahel Chapter 9. Trafficking economies in the Sahara-Sahel Chapter 10. An institutional point of view on the challenges of the Sahara-Sahel

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Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel - at a glance  

Based on a spatial and regional analysis, the Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel proposes a new reading of the region's mobility and security challen...

Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel - at a glance  

Based on a spatial and regional analysis, the Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel proposes a new reading of the region's mobility and security challen...

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