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night soil and water strike the bottom of the pit, which is any where between 25 to 40 ft deep. A pit of between 2 to 3 ft diameter is manually dug in the soil to the depth of 25 to 40 ft. Digging manually is possible because the soil is made up of dense clay, which does not collapse. Hole in the clay layer is dug so as to reach the sand layer below that. Digging is stopped after removing a few feet of pervious sand layer, which the experienced digger identifies from the fact that the walls of the pit in sand layer start cracking and collapsing. No lining of any kind is used as the clay layer does not crack or collapse even after several years. The pit or borehole is covered with a stone slab which is available locally and has a squatting hole of 4 to 6 inches in diameter. At some places concrete slabs are also provided as a squatting platform. Generally no pan or trap is provided in the squatting plate. The squatting plate has simply a drop hole.

Dhamaka Latrine A G shaped super structure as indicated in drawing is constructed around the squatting plate with bricks or mud blocks. Height of wall may be around 4 to 6 feet. In most of the cases, roof for the superstructure is not provided.


Dhamaka latrines in Rajasthan, India.  
Dhamaka latrines in Rajasthan, India.  

Study about appropriateness of design, possibility of conversion to sanitary latrine and extent of groundwater pollution caused Dhamaka lat...