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g. Private tube wells may also be randomly monitored by microbiological and chemical examination. h. Suitably modified Dhamaka latrine may be considered appropriate only in areas where top layer of soil consists of clay which is grossly impervious to water. It is not desirable in areas with water permeable upper soil strata. Where soil conditions permit shallow twin pit latrine is advisable. i. PHED, Govt. of Rajasthan can decide on areas where only bore hole latrines are suitable, based on hydrogeological data, considering that bore hole latrine is a less desirable technology to be used only where it is inevitable. j. Changeover from Dhamaka to septic tank, in areas with low soil permeability for water should be actively discouraged by active IEC campaign. k. Modifications to existing Dhamaka toilet seat can be encouraged by IEC efforts and possibly by providing incentive from various possible sources. l. For new constructions for BPL households, modified Dhamaka should be insisted upon, for disbursement of the incentive. m. Rajasthan government, at present, has fixed the norm that in villages with less than 4000 population, house hold drinking water connections should not be given from village water supply schemes. Due to this rule, the number of private tube wells increase and the use of ground water for drinking purposes increases, irrespective of the potability state of ground water. It may be desirable to change this rule. It will be conducive to improved health status of the community. n. It was felt that grass root level functionaries of NGOs working with government for TSC work were not very conversant with merits and demerits of various on site technologies. Orientation and training of such personnel is advisable. This can be done even for grass root level personnel of PHED, involved in TSC work. o. It may be pointed out that above mentioned measures might only delay the ground water contamination. These will remain as short term risk management methods. Once nitrates increase in ground water, it is permanent. In given soil conditions and the necessity for sanitation measures, in long term, ground water is not likely to remain potable. Hence, sanitation and drinking water supply in these regions will have to be planed comprehensively by reviewing all technologies with a long term perspective.

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Dhamaka latrines in Rajasthan, India.  
Dhamaka latrines in Rajasthan, India.  

Study about appropriateness of design, possibility of conversion to sanitary latrine and extent of groundwater pollution caused Dhamaka lat...

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