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The other possible option could be a compost toilet (ecosan). However in this case, the operation and maintenance demands very high motivation levels. As such in these districts, these may not prove to be an appropriate technology as a mass measure. Under the circumstances, bore hole latrine seems to be a desirable technology for this region. It will have to be accepted. However, the risk assessment factors stated earlier must be remembered. These risks could be i. from toilet seat and ii from contamination of ground water. We have to accept the risk, with clear mandate for increased level of monitoring and mitigation efforts. In places where shallow pit latrines are possible, this design may not be approved. While using this technology, some changes are necessary. Dhamaka toilet as it stands today cannot be termed as sanitary. However, with some modifications it can be very easily converted to a sanitary latrine. The toilet seat component needs modifications so as to minimize contaminations from surface of the seat. Further, as stated earlier, a very rigorous monitoring of ground water would be essential. 12. Modifications in toilet seat portion Avoiding microbe spread via toilet seat or drop hole can be avoided if suitable modifications are carried out. This can be done by providing latrine pan with water seal trap for the toilet seat. Goose neck pans with incorporated traps made out of C.C. mosaic material, ceramic or LLDPE plastic moulded pans can be fitted. If the toilet seat is placed offset, routine pan and trap with necessary pipeline can be fitted.


Dhamaka latrines in Rajasthan, India.  

Study about appropriateness of design, possibility of conversion to sanitary latrine and extent of groundwater pollution caused Dhamaka lat...