Page 1


p10 Phra s avle r h s pl1 Discussion Types1-4 Vocabulary: Phrases for reactingto an opposingview(Ihof'so e n d fair point, I suppose.But in my view, etc ) Phras al v e r b sp : a s s i va inf init ivfeo r m s g a n o p p o sin vie g w 6 ) Re a ctinto

S tyl e:Longandshortsentences Vocabulary: Similes(oswhiteas snow, etc.)

V ocabul ary: A dl ecti vet o s des c ri be emoti onal states(perplexed,remorseful,d isillusioned, etc.) D i cti onary w ork:Fi nding s y nony ms

p21 Photocomparison Would,pastperfect,future Vocabulary: Phrasal verbs(h1ngout with,kicksb out, etc) in t he pas t ,e t c . (skipschool,etc) Vocabulary: Verb-noun collocations Simpleandc o n t i n u o u s G ra m m aSp r : e cu la tin g forms p e o p le f i De scr ib inpgh o to so f h o m e le ss

A film review e auses U si ngparti ci plcl to i mprove styl e V ocabul ary: A spects of fi l ms (soundtrack,screenplay, etc.)

V ocabul ary: A dj ecti vedses c ri bi ng fi l ms(l ow . budget,wackv,x-roted,etc-) V ocabul ary: Modi fyi ng a dv erbs w i thgradabl e/ non-grada ble adjectives(extremely, foi rly, etc.)

D escri bi ng a pl ace S tyl e:U si ngmoreel aborate vocabul ary (interestin g, Vocabutary: Synonyms coptivoting, 9ripping, fascinating, etc.)

pl ac es V ocabul ary: A dj ecti ves f ordes c ri bi ng (bustling, touristy,sprowling, etc.) (1) prepos i ti ons D i cti onary w ork:D epe ndent (renownedfor, reminiscentof, etc.)

Verbpatterns Dictionary work:Finding out aboutverbpatterns

p33 Negotiation p h r a se s V o ca b u la rCo y: m p a r a tive Vocabulary: Phrases for negotiating(l'llgo atongwiththot,hove wecometo a decision? eIc.) 6i Talkingaboutthe relativemeritsof differentcaf6s

p42 Conditionats 1st, 2nd,3rd and mixed c ondit ion a l s Inversion whenf omitted as long as, supposing, prcvided,unless

p43 Discussion Urbanchange changesto a towncentre O TatkingaboutpLanned Vocabulary: Expressing opinions(Ihol3 howI see it, to my mind, etc,)

p54 Ellips i s Reduced infinitives Omissionof mainverbafter m odalor a u x i l i a rvye r b

p55 Presentation phrases Functional Vocabulary: Changing the subject;Acknowledging an opposing v i e w;Dism issinagn o p p o sinvie g w;Re fe r r ing t o somethi ng sai d earlier to a presentation f) Listening






t : L : rt , t


- I


Topicsentences Vocabulary: neither-..nor,either...or, not only .., but olso, etc.

(lt'sboundto hoppen, Vocabulary: Speculating there'sno chanceof it happening,etc.)

C onsi deri ng thetargetaudi ence Vocabulary: Linkersfor addition(opartfrom, along with, to boot, etc.) Writinga goodopening qualities(altruism, Vocabulary: Personal amiabiIity, trustuvorth in ess, etc.) Vocabulary: Wordfamilies

p54 Repo r t i nsgt r u c t u r e s p65 Photocomparlson Reporting verbs Vocabulary:Synonymsof prize(award,reword,trophy,etc.) Adverbsandreportedspeech Vocabulary: (overthe moon,thrilledto ldiomsfor expressingjoy bits, jumping for ioy, etc.) Conveying tone and e m0t ion (allthesame, Vocabulary: Concession and counter-argument Reporting speechwithout granted,mind you, etc.) usingprecisewordsspoken O Sp e cu la tinagb o u ta p h o to

Styte:Adverbs,adjectives, etc. Vocabulary: Adverbsand adverbphrases (typeand position) Vocabulary: Orderof adjectives Vocabulary: Reporting verbs(groan,etc.) Grammar: Punctuating reportedspeech

p 76 A ddin g e m p h a s i s Cleftsentences phrases Fronting doldid for emotiveor contrastive emphasis

p77 Presentation Eco-friendly tourism to presentations fl Listening Vocabulary: Expressions for describing benefitsand drawbacks (hovea detrimentaleffect,of mutuolbenefit,etc.) Vocabulary: Expressing cause,purposeand result(/eadto, etc.) Vocabulary:Generalising(to o gredtertent,by ond lorge, etc.)

Appropriate probl ems style V ocabul ary: H ol i day andc ompl ai nts Correctlayout Vocabulary: FormaIlanguage Qtrustyou will ensure,we regretto informyou, etc.)

p86 Modal verbs

p87 Stimulus-based discussion VocabuLary: graphsand charts Phrases for describing statistics, VocabuLary: Verbsfor describinglends(rocketed, slumped,etc.) Vocabulary: Phrases for givingestimates(in the regionof, elc.) 5l Talkingaboutdifferentkindsof chart

Overview of modals


F.tsslve -rlrrr il:ii

P art ic iple phrases

P repos it io n i nsr e l a t i v e c Laus es R eLat ivc e la u s e s

p99 Drawingconclusions V o ca b u la r y: Ph r a sefo s r d r a win g lo g icaco l n clusi ons Vocabulary: Vaguelanguage f | Co m p a r inagn dco n tr a stinpgh o to s

0 1 0 9 Pr e se n ta tr o F P a r a p h r a sin a ngdco r r e ctinyo g u r se lf A v oid in rge p e titio n g p r e se n ta tio n s O L iste n into

VocaBUIARY Bu!f { r FP D131


'l i

R ecommendilng ocalmusi cvenuesand Vocabulary:Connotation(attentive/intrusive, restaurants bustling/ crowded,Iight/ insubstontiol, etc.) Layoutof a report V ocabul ary: P eri phrasiand s euphemi sm

Vocabulary: Phrasesfor introductions yourw orkw i thoutdamagi ng E di ti ng the meani ng or flow Grammar: Passivestructureswith believe, consider, etc. Voc abul ar y Adi : ec ti v e- nounc ol l oc ati ons

W r i ti ng a good c onc l us i on Voc abuLar yR : ound up of us eful phr as es and linkers (lt would be hard to deny thot, moreover, etc )

Grammar: l mpersonal struc tures for i ntroduc i ng optnions(lt wouldbe wrongto suggestthot, etc) S tyl e:l Jsi ngstyl i sti caLl a ppropri y ate l anguage (odmittedly, currently, inconceivable, etc) opi ni on s f) E xpressi ng

f) Li s teni ng( 1 01 = di s k 1, tr ac k 1 / 2 01 = di s k 2 , t ra c k 1 )


s s y o u w o rkth ro u g hSo l u ti ons Th i n ka bouty ourpr og re s a A dvonced. A ftercompl eti ng S ki ttsR ound-up 1-4 readeachstat em entand wri tethe num berof t ick s(/) th a t a p p l yto y o u .D o th e sameagai nafterS ki l tsR ound-up 1-10. /= | needm or eor ac ti c e .


I sometimesfind this difficutt.

,/,/./ = No problem!

Skilts Skilts Round-upRound-up t-4 1-10

In Engtish lcan... Listening 82


...understand extended discussions on familiartopics andidentify 1A,1B,7F,2A, speakerviewpoints. 2F,3A,8A ...understand andreactto currentaffairsradioprogrammes. 1C ...followcomplex linesof argument on familiar topics.3F passages. .. understand detailed andlinguistically complex descriptive andnarrative 2C,5A,8F


...followextended speechevenwhenit is notclearly structured. 2C,4A,5F,7F,9F


... understanda wide rangeof broadcastmaterialand identifyfiner pointsof detail.3C, 4C,6C,7C,9C,

82 82

10c Reading

82 82

...scanquicklythroughlongandcomplex relevant texts,locating detail.1D,2D


.. understand magazine articles aboutcurrent issues in whichwriters adoptparticularviewpoints.3D


.. understand factualarticles andreports. !D,4E,6E

c1 c1

.. understand longandcomplex factualandliterary texts.2D,4D,6D,7D,9D,10D ... readreports,analysesand commentaries whereopinionsand viewpointsare discussed.5D,8D, 9G,


...recognise thesocial,potitical or historical background of a literary work.4C,9C

.. readreviewsdealingwith the contentand criticismof culturaltopicsand summarisethe mainviews. 2G


Speaking 82

. . .pr es ent d e ta i tedde s c ri p ti o n s o a n v a ri e tyoffami l i artopi cs.78,2A ,2G,38


...takeanactivepartin a discussion on familiartopics. 1A,1C,2D ...develop a clearargument, supporting myviewsat somelengthwithrelevant examples. !t,28,2F,3A in conversation ...engage on mostgeneral topics.30, 4C,6A,7C,9A,98


c1 c1

...formulate ideasandopinions andpresent themskilfully andcoherently to others. 3C,4A,4B.,4F,5A, 5c,6c, 6F,78,gB,gD,108,10C


. . .giv ea c lea rl yd e v e l o p e dp re s e n ta ti o nh,i g h l i ghti ng poi ntsand rel evantsupporti ngdetai t. si gni fi cant 3F , 5F , 7F ,8 F9,F ,1 0 F

Writing 82 B2

...writea reviewof r fih, bookor play.2G wr it edet a i l e dd e s c ri p ti o nosf re a Io r iimaginary m a e ina eventsi n a cl earconnected t ext.1G.6G


. . .wr it ec lear,w e l l -s tru c tu retedx tsw h i c he x p andand supportvi ew sw i th subsi di ary poi nts,reasonsand

c1 c1 c1

examptes.4G, 9G,10G ...selecta styleappropriate to thereader in mind.5G ...puttogether information fromdifferent sources andrelateit in a coherent summary. 3G,8G I


yourprogress Check

Press @ OxfordUniversity

THtS Ul{ t T |lt Ct UD E S


Vocabulary.prefixes.timeexpressions.adverbcollocations.adiectives describing emotional s t a t e s .s i mi l e s GEmmar. phrasalverbs. talkingabouthabitualactions S p e a k i n g .ta l ki n ga b o u tch i l d h o o memor d ies.talkingaboutinher ited char acter istictal s . k i ngabout . r eacting t h eo r i g i n sof l a n g u a g e. sd i scu ssi on: genetic engineer ing to opposing views Writing. s description of an event

M emorie s the photo school.

n r -


preoccupiedunnerved overwhelmedcircumspect bewilderedwithdrawn

tatkingaboutaspects of O f.Of Listento fourspeakers theirchildhood. Choose the topicwhichbestmatches each speaker. a primary school(classmates, teachers, subjects, etc.) b bestfriends c familyrelationships (games, d favourites food,clothes, films,W shows,books, etc.) e fearsandanxieties (birthdays, t specialoccasions festivals, etc.)

Speakerz! Speakerr! Speaker4!

the phrases the speakers usewiththe O f .Of Complete wordsin the box.Listenagainandcheck. call evocativehindsight ingrained picture recall recoIlectionreminiscetraumatic 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 3 4 5

disorientated distraught

o.N Vocabulary p.131 Builder1.1:Prefixes:

Speaker rI

allthetime finally fornow immediately occasionallynever never-endingrepeatedly then verysoon

overaweduneasy overaweo uneasy

2 Whatothersituations might causesimilar emotions? 3 Whatareyourownmemories of yourfirstdayat school?


andexpressions in the box.

1 Howdoyouimagine thechildis feeling? Usethewordsin the boxto describe hisemotions. i:


(1-10)withthe synonymous 4 Matchthe expressions words

As | , t he t ro u b l es ta rte dw h e n ... W it h, I s u p p o s ei t w a s ... I foundt he wholeth i n gq u i te I can s t ill i t c l e a rl y . ...unt ilit bec am ec o m p l e te L y i n m y me mory. C hr is t m as is a v er y ti me fo r m e . I can' tt o m i n d m a n yd i s a p p o i n tme n ts . I st ill hav ea c lear o f th a t s mi l e . It wout dbe f un t o a b o u tth e g o o do l d d a y s.


timeaftertime at thetime forthetimebeing anymoment now thewholetime

6 7 8 9 10

endless oncein a while notfora moment at once in theend

Complete the textwith words andexpressions fromexercise 4.

A chLldluadvwerwary I grewup in centralLondon, whereit tooktwo hoursto escapefromthe citgbv caror bus.1-, dadusedto take us for a drivein the countrgside but mostof thetime,we staged closeto home.Sothe firsttime I visitedmggrandparents' houseonthe coast,I fellin 2-. 3-, lovewiththeseaside mggrandparents werein theirsixtiesandquitefit andhealthg, sotheg wouldcomewithus to the beachevergdag.I havesuch vividmemories of those4-afternoons that mg sistersandI spentplagingin the sea.Thewaterwas freezing, but sdidthat put us off! Neither didthe largeandpowerful waves,whichusedto knockmeoff jumpupandrushback mgfeet6-. I wouldlaugh, 7 intothewaves-. Wewouldn't wantto leavethe beach,but 8-, sunsetwouldforceus to returnto mV grandparents' houseforthe night. 6 Choose onetopicfromexercise 2 to talkabout. Thinkof threememories to include. 7 F5{18

Workin pairs. Take turnsto beA andB.

S tudentA : Tel lyourpartneraboutyourmemo r ies. I nclude as manvw ordsand expressi ons fr omexer cises 1, 3 and 4 as possi bl e. Thentry to answerB's questi ons. S tudentB : Li stencareful l y. Thenaskyourpar t nert hr ee questi onsabouthi s or her memor ies.

W or kin p a i rs .D i s c u s sth e s eq u e s ti o n s.

f) r.of Li stenagai n.W hatexactw ordsdo t he speaker s useto expressthesei deas? I' vegot the sameki nd of noseas my dad. I' vei nheri tedmy mum' spersonal i ty. W e deatw i th stressfuIprobtemsi n a verysim it arway. | l ookextremelsi y mi l arto my granddad. Otherpeopl ecanseethat my si sterand I ar ef r omt he samefami ty. 6 My brotherdoesnot l ooksi mi l arto anyot herf am ily memoer. betw eenme an d m v dad. 7 | canseecl earsi mi l ari ti es 8 Thehabi tmusthavebeeni nheri ted. 1 2 3 4 5

Writefive sentencescomparingyourselfto familymembers. from your answersto exercise4. Useexpressions TwinsRyanand Leowereborn in Germanyin 2008.


1 W hatphy s ic alan d me n ta l tra i tsc a n b e i n h e ri te d? 2 W hatphy s ic alan d me n ta l tra i tsc a no n tyb e a q u i red? 2

1 My grandmother usedto suckthe thi rdfi ngeron her lef t hand. 2 I' l l oftencal lmy mum to tatkaboutmy pro blem s. 3 P eopl ew ereal w aysmi staki ngus for tw i ns. wearverydifferentclothesfrom my 4 I'd detiberately brother. 5 My si sterw // phoneme l ateat ni ghtfor a chat . 6 My brotheris foreverborrowingmy clothes. 7 My grandfatherwouldinsiston drivingwithouta seatbelt. 8 | usual l yti kethe samemusi cas my dad.

S) r.OZ In pairs,completethe quiz questionsusingthe wordsin the box,then choosethe correctanswers.Listen and check. b a s es c hr om os o me s c o d e g e n o me h e ti x trai t b ecause: 1 DNAis of t endes c ri b e da s th e ' d o u b l e-' a ev er yc ellc onta i n stw o g e n e s . b its structureis arrangedin pairs. c therearetwo differentkindsof DNA. a refo u n di n m o s th u mancel l s? 2 Howm anypair so f c mo re 23 b 46 th a na m i l l i o n a c h e m i c al How m any dif f ere n t 3 , th e fu n d amental o f D N A, a re th e re ? buildingbloc k s c4 ,0 0 0 b40 a4 gene s ,a p p ro x i ma te l ya,re d e s c ri b e di n the 4 Howm any hum an , a c o mp l e tema p o f h u ma nD N A? a 250 b 25, 0 0 0 c 2 5 m i l l i o n w i th: 5 Hum anss har eab o u t 5 0 % o f th e i rg e n e ti ca c him panz ee s . b d o l p h i n s . c b a n a n a s . e s h a re db y b o th p a re n tsc a u s e soffspri ng 6 A r ec es s ivgene which: or physical to hav ea per s o n a l i ty had. a noneof t heir a n c e s to rs had. b onlyt heirgr a n d p a re n ts h a d ,b u t n o t th e i rp a re n ts . c c er t ainanc esto rs


6) 1.03 Listento a dialoguebetweenthree peoptetalking . h i c ho f th e s eth i n g sd o they a b outf am ilys im ila ri ti e sW me nt ion?

Studythese sentences.Underlinethe verb formsfor talking about habitualbehaviour.Matchthe sentenceswith a-h in the chartbelow.




expressing disapproval




{:.i i i tx$tai $i ri i tl *r

s t r ongphy s ic alr e s e mb l a n c e tra i ts s im ilarper s ona l i ty s im ilart as t esan d h o b b i e s a s har edc hit dh o o dh a b i t views s im ilaroot it ic aI a s har edt alent

unr li. B egr nni n g s

d_ g_


i t; };l i l i i l ri q ti ;,\i l tti i l ,' ri .i ri i r,,i

.i r-ti srts:i r.i i i i

F|IfilKIIIClWorkin pairs.Thinkof fiveexamples of things whicha familymemberoftendoesor oftenusedto do.Then verbformsas te[[yourpartner, usingasmanydifferent possible 6. fromexercise


foryourpartner aboutmentalor Prepare an interview physicat fromparents or grandparents. Use traitsinherited andtry to the tistfromexercise 3 to writesixquestions includeexpressions fromexercise 4. ',t

a b c d e f





i,i I


, I



i , ri i'i

rt'li llll






Workin pairs.Taketurnsto beA andB. fromexercise B usingyourquestions B. Student A: Intervlew A'squestions. Useexpressions Student B: Answer andverb formsfromexercises 4 and6 whereappropriate.

I can understqndand reactta an trticLeabant the ariqinsaf Enqlitln

Workin pairs.Lool<at excerpts1-5 and matchthem with the worksof Englishliterature(a-e) from which they are taken. Whichwordsgaveyou the clues? 1 'l nev erhad one h o u r' sh a p p i n e s si n h e r s o c i e ty,and yet my m ind a[ [r oun dth e fo u r-a n d -tw e nhtyo u rsw a s harpi ng o n t he happines o s f h a v i n gh e rw i th m e u n tod e a th.' 2 ' O ! s he dot h t eac hth e to rc h e sto b u rnb ri g h t.' 3 ' Hwat l W eG ar d e n a i n g e a rd a g u m, peodc y inga, n prymgefrunon, h u da apelingas ellenfremedon.'

4 'lt wasthedaymygrandmother exploded.' 5 'Withustherwasa Doctour of Phisik, Inatthisworldnewasthernoonhymlik, Tospekeof phisikandof surgerye, Forhewasgrounded in astronomye.' poem a Beowulf, an epic composed byan unknown author sometimebetween 800and1200. b TheCanterbury Toles,a collectionof storieswrittenin the foufteenth century bythe poetGeoffrey Chaucer. c Romeo andluliet,a ptaybyWitliamShakespeare, written around7594. d GreatExpectations, a novelbyCharles Dickens, written in 1860. e TheCrowRoad,a novelby lainBanks, writtenin 1992. aboutthe originsof $ f .O+ Listento a radioprogramme the English language. Whatarethethreemainphasesin its history? Complete theterms. (alsoknownasAnglo-Saxon) 1 OEngtish 2 MEnglish 3 MEngtish eachsentence withup to f) f .O+ Listenagain.Complete threewords. 1 Before thefifthcentury, the inhabitants of Britainspoke variousLe\ttc \angvagn. 2 WhenBritain wasinvaded byGermanic tribesduringthe fifthcentury, the nativepopulation wentto livein Wales, CornwaIl 3 ManyEngtish wordsderivedfromAnglo-Saxon area reflection of their-. 4 Alongwiththewordforschool, onethingwhichtheAngloSaxons borrowed fromtheRomans was-. 5 TheVikingraiders whocameto Britain around 900mostly partsof thecountry. settled in the5 Fromtheeleventh century English onwards, wordorder became 7 Thewordsbeefandmuttonreflectthefactthat,in the peopte Middte Ages, theweatthiest in Britain were. 8 Theeraof Modern English is generalty accepted to coincide approximately withtheinvention of-. theEnglish language is beingshaped 9 Today, notonlyby people whospeakit asa mother tongue, butincreasingly bythevastnum ber of


Matchwords1-8, whichhaveallenteredthe Engtish (a-h).Canyouwork language recently, withtheirdefinitions out howthewordswereformed? 1 neet 5 newoeat 2 shedquarters 6 slurb 3 peerents 7 glocalization 4 moregeoisie 8 locavores a parents whotryto be liketheirchildren's friends b a suburban areawithverypoorhousing c a W episode whichis shownagainwithextramaterial not previously included d youngpeople whoarenotin employment, education or training e whenmultinational companies local tryto respect customs andsensitivities f consumers whostriveto acquiremorethanothers g people whoonlyeatfoodwhichis produced nearto theirhome h a homeofficein thegarden Howmuchdoyouknowaboutthe originsof your ownlanguage? Discuss the questions withtheclass. your 1 Howmuchhas language changed overthepast1,000 years? Wouldyoube abteto understand a textwritten 1,000yearsago? 2 Whichotherlanguages aremostclosely related to your ownlanguage? Why? 3 Doesyourlanguage contain wordsderived fromLatinor Greek? Giveexamples. 4 Doesyourlanguage manywordsderived from contain English? Aretheyoldor recent acquisitions? 5 Canyouthinkof anywordswhichhavebeenaddedto yourlanguage in thepast5-10years?

B A Canadian invention James Naismith wasa Canadian physical education instructor who worked attheYMCA (young Men's Christian Association) training school inSpringfield, Massachusetts, intheUSA. In 1891, hewas a.sked to devise a newsportwhich thestudents couldplayindoors during thewinter to stave offboredom. Naismith came upwith a gamewhichinvolved twoteamsof nineplayers tryingto throw a ballintopeach baskets which werefixedtothewallai either wasloosely based ona game fromhisown 'Duck childhood called ona rock'. 0n 15January 1892, hepublished therules ofhisnewgame, which hecalled basketball. Naismith's handwritten diaries, which werediscovered byhisgranddaughter in2006, reveal thathe

to replace theoriginal baskets. However, it wasanother tenyears before open-ended netsweredeveloped; priorto that,players had to climbupandretrieve theballfromthenetwhenever a basket wasscored.

sport C Anall-American

in thetextwiththeir adverbs 5 Matchthe highlighted equivalents. 1 byandlarge 7 unti di l y 8 paradoxicaily 2 staunchly 9 extensively 3 swiftty 10 unambi gu ously 4 purportedty 11 forwards 5 effectively 12 vaguel y 6 thereby

collocate do notalways Wordswiththesamemeaning we cansayThisis your in the sameway.Forexample, big chance!but not Thisis yourlargechoncel,even A gooddictionary thoughbig andlargearesynonyms. willinctude information aboutcollocations. 6 neadtheLookout!box.Thencompletethe sentences best. with the adverb(a-c)that collocates athletic 1 Thepractice oftakingdrugsto enhance performance is agreedto havebegunin ancient Greece. b generally c chiefly a largely wereproduced, 2 Inthe1930s,thefirstamphetamines for a fewdecades. available butwerenotb broadly c extensively a widely whohadtaken speedskaters 3 At the 1952Otympics, ill. amphetamines became b gravely c solemnly a grimly issued Olympic Committee ln 1968,theInternational werethatathletes its firstlistof substances prohibitedfromtaking. b rigorously c strictty a firmly coaches German swimming ln 7997,twentyex-East giving to their anabolic steroids admitted 1970s. formercharges duringthe c plainty b overtly a openly footballer DiegoMaradona renowned ln 7994, wasbannedfromtheWortdCupfortakingdrugs. b universally c intemationally a globally

wrotean Chadwick Henry named sportswriter a famous In 1905, game English old fromthe evolved thatbaseball irticlesuggesting game's earliest the oneof AlbertSpalding, Thiiupset of tounait"t. resolutely equipment'.He ofsports ptuy.oanda manufacturer in not gamedid originate thatthegreatAmerican Lrir*a to accept prominent ofseven a commission organised SoSpalding America, The baseball' origin'of the'true tJdetermine men patriotic and of ln charge the inthenewspapers' fropa *aswidelyreported baseball Hehadplayed wasiolonelMillsof NewYork. iommision president of fourth the was and CivilWar the during una U.tore investigations commission's The in 1884. teague theNational a mining calledDwainChambers In 2003,a British sprinter it a deadenduntilAbnerGraves, wereessentially time' at the ohio through positive invented steroid. forTHG, a travelling was tested who .ntin.., frombenver his in down He sat it' about c newly freshly b tatety article a newspaper to seea haipened lnthe totheMillsCommission. no[.f,oo* andwrotea iongletter of peoplearewhilethevastmajority 8 Today, he 1859 in Cooperstown at that categoricatly stated Graves letter, opposedto the useof drugsin sport,detection scratching Doubleday Abner called a USarmyofficer hadwatched bodies. forthegoverning remains a realproblem young men other instructing ground and pitchonthe outa baseball c steadily a staunchly b securely andfourbases' players ofeleven withteams howto playbaseball ofroughlymade was used they FiiIIJKIlfd Discussthe questionin groups.Then howtheballthat described Graves commissioners Mills yourideaswiththe class. The rags. compare with andstuffed horse-hide stitched baseball proclaimed promptly They wereelated. andSpalding onesportsothatit no [onger lf youcould'un-invent' in Doubleday' Abner armyofficer, byanAmerican wasinventei whichwouldyouchoose, andwhy? existed, Cooperstowninl8Sg'Theon|yevidenceforthis.wasthetestimony A of witnesses' reliable notthemost whowasperhaps ofGraves, to anasylum hiswifeandwascommitted hemurdered yearlater, insane' forthecriminallY

Readt he t ex t and e x p l a i nth e q u e s ti o ni n th e ti tt e.Thensum up t he ans wert he te x t g i v e s .

Why do some peoptebackdown when facedwith a threat, while othersstandup to it? When givena difficutttask,why do some peopleseeit through,white othersgive up? lt att comesdown to personalityBut wheredoesthat come from? Somescientistsbelievethat most traits are inherited Others take the oppositeview:personality, they say,is formed by our environmentand parentsdo not passit on to their children. The truth is probablysomewherein between.Sometraits are cteartydeterminedby your environment:whateveryour genetic background,if you grow up in Sweden,you'[[ probabty speakSwedish, On the other hand,when it comesto traits like the colourof your eyesor your bloodtype,it is clearthat geneticsaloneaccountsfor them. Thereare alsotraitswhich are partly inheritedbut partlyshapedby environmentyour weight,and evenyour heightand skin colour,are examples. Of course,geneticsand the environmenttogetherare not the full picture.Yourfree will - your abitityto take decisions - is alsoa factor in shapingyour identity,but how big a factor? You'tlhaveto makeyour own mind up about thatl -

Readthe Learnthis! box below and matchone, two or three examples(a-h) with eachtype. a b c d e f g h

Howwell do y o u g e t o n w i th y o u rs i b l i n g s ? P uty ourjac k e to n , w e ' reg o i n go u ts i d e . W ho is goingt o l o o ka fte rme w h e n I' m o l d ? lt ' s nineo' c loc k- ti me to g e t u p ! I don' tt hink ma n yg u e s tsa reg o i n gto tu rn u p . Don'tforgetto take offyour shoes. Howc any ou pu t u p w i th th a t n o i s e ? I ' d lik et o t hink i t o v e rfo r a w h i l e .

ri Phrasalverbs A phr as alv er bi s w h e na v e rbc o mb i n e sw i th an adverb or preposition(or sometimesboth)to createa new m eaning.P h ra s a l v e rbcsa n b e d i v i d e di n to fo ur mai n types: 1 Two-partverbswith no object.Example(s): 2 Two-partverbswhoseobjectcan comebetweenOR afterthe two parts.(However, when the oblectis a pr onoun,i t m u s tc o m eb e tw e e nth e tw o p a rts.) E x am ple (s ): 3 T wo- parvt e rb sw h o s eo b j e c tc a n n o tc o mebetw een t he par t s .E x a mp te (s ): 4 T hr ee- pa vrte rb sw h o s eo b j e c tc a n n o tc o m ebetw een t he par t s .Ex a m p l e (s ):

Unit i. B eginn i n g s

W henphrasal verbs are usedi n passi vest r uct ur es, t he t wo or threepartsstaytogether. All the lights hod beenswitchedoff. Thesamei s true for i nfi ni ti vestructures u nlesst he ohr asal verb bel ongsto type 2. I needto look it up in a Janeis not easyto get on with. dictionory. Readthe Lookout! box.Thenfind phrasalverbs1-8 in the text i n exerci se1 and deci de: a w hat eachohrasalverbmeans. b w hethertheyaretype 1, 2,3 or 4. c w hethertheyareacti ve,passi veor i nfi n it ivest r uct ur es. 1 backdow n 3 seethrough 5 passo n 7 accountf or 2 standup to 4 gi veup 5 growup 8 m akeup Readthe text in exercise5, ignoringthe mistakes.What can identicaltwins tell us about the effectsof geneticsand envi ronment?

Findand correcteight moremistakeswith the word orderof phrasalverbs. Most peoplewould agreethat human behaviouris made oFnp Lrpof a mixture of geneticsand environment.The questionis: can we break down it into its constituent parts and decide which influenceis stronger in certain situations? It's an intriguingquestion,and onewhich will certainly have important consequencesfor our societyif the scientistswho have been looking it into for many years suddenlycome with up a definitiveanswer. For example,if drug addictionturns out to be largely genetic,can we blame a heroin addict for not being able to give up it? If a man is destinedto be a criminal becauseof his DNA, is it morally right to punish him for his crimes, or should societyallow him to get them awaywith? Calculatingthe relativeimportanceof geneticsand environmentis difficult, but in some situations, it is possibleto work out it. Of particularinterest to researchersare identicaltwins who have been brought in differentfamiliesup. It's the differences betweenthesetwins which providethe key: only their environmentscan accountthem for becauseidentical twins share exactlythe sameDNA. W orki n pai rs.D i scussthesequ est ions. 1 W hatki ndof peoptedo you get on w i th b est ? 2 W hi chfamouspeopl edo you l ookup to, and why? 3 Whichof yourpersonality traitswerepassedon byyourparents andwhichcanbe accounted for byyourexperiences?


Discu ssio n Re a dt he f ir s t par agra p ho f th e te x t.W h a ti s u n u s u a about l An d i ,t he m onl< ey in t h e p h o to g ra p h ? a Bef or ebir t h,he wa s g e n e ti c a tliyd e n ti c a ttoa h u man e m br y o. b His DNAwasgene ti c a l leyn g i n e e reto d ma l < eh i m i mmune to c er t aindis eas e s . c HisDNAinc ludesa g e n efro ma n o th e rc re a tu re . Readthe rest of the text. Whichview is closerto vour own o p i n ion?

A lthough it is illeg a l in mostcountries for scientists to alterthe DNAof humaneggsor embryos, experiments on animals areall o we d . In A pril2001thefirs l genetically-mod ie dif monkevwasbornhewascalledA nd i (representi ng'l nserted DNA'backwards). Andi developed froman egg intowhichscientists hadinserted a jellyfish gene;asa resultof whichAndiglowedgreenin ultraviolet light. D a v eKin g a, cam paigner against humangenet ic 'lt is science engineering, saidyesterday: out of controlandat itsmostirresponsible. People should wakeup to thefactthatgenetic engineering of p e opleco u ldb ej ustaroundthecorner.' S i m onFi shefrl o mthe P arkHospital, Nottingh a m, 'We'vebeenstriving responded: for hundreds of t h o u sa n dofs ye a rsto eliminate humandiseas elfs . w ege tto thesta gein humandevelopment whe re t h eonlywa yto do thatisto attacktheerrorsin o u r DNA,thenwe haveto try to attackthoseerrors.I see t h i sasoo siti ve r esearch.'

f) r.os Li stento a manand a w omandi sc- ss- : : - : - : : : of geneti cexperi ments. A nsw erthe questi or s a W ho i s i n favourand w ho i s agai nst: b A t w hat poi ntdoesthe w omanthi nkt-e -: - : - _ : : - : seri ous? W ho makespoi nts1-8, the manorthe w oman?Co*pLe: e the poi ntsw i th the adverbsi n the box. enti rel y freel y geneti cal l y moral l y event uat l, . , real i sti cal l yvi rtual l y w i del y 1 l t' si ndefensi blto e useani mal si n e xper im ent s. 2 l f sci enti sts are al tow edto createdesi gnerbabies,t hen one day,peopl ew ho haven' tbeenmodif iedwill be seenas i nferi or. 3 B y al teri ngour D N A ,sci enti sts w i l t_ be ablet o el i mi natethe mostseri ousdi seases. 4 There' sno reasonw hy parentsshoul dn' tbe ablet o choose w hethertheyhavea babygir l or boy. 5 A rti fi ci atal terati ons to our genesmayhave unforeseen si deeffects. 6 -, sci enti sts w i l l neverfi nd a curefor cancerunless experi ments on ani mal sare permi tted. permi tted,scient ist s 7 l f thi s ki nd of experi ment isw i [[go on to createmonstersby mi xi nghum anand ani maID N A . 8 W e haveto embracesci enti fi cprogress, si n ceit 's i mpossi bl e to hol d i t back. for reactingto an O f .Og Completethe usefuIexpressions opposi ngvi ew .Thenl i stenagai nand check. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

| don' t real l yw i th that. That' si ust an opi ni on- there' sno evi dencet o it . B ut w herew i l l i t ? That' sa fai r poi nt,| . B ut i n my vi ew. . . Thatargumentdoesn' tsense. Y oudon' t to thi ngsto sucha n ext r em e. |w hatyou mean.B ut ... Y oucan' t seri ous.

S tudentA s w ork i n pai rsand S tudentB s w ork in pair s. S tudentA s: Y ouagreew i th the statementbel ow. S tudentB s:Y oudi sagree w i th the statementbet ow. Eachwrite a [ist of pointsto supportyour own position.Use the poi ntsfrom exerci se4 andyour ow n i deas.Com par e your l i st w i th yourpartner.

Designer babies will lead to a healthier and happier population. W orl <i n new pai rsof one S tudentA and one S tudentB . D i scussthe statementi n exerci se6. Use expressi ons from exerci se5 to reactto opposingpoint s.


I can write an effecttve dcscrtpttanaf a,wevent.


Lookat the adiectivesfor describingemotionaIstatesand fi n d pair swit h s im ila rme a n i n g sT. h e ns a yw h e ny o u m i ght experiencethese states. affioyd apprehensive baffled disenchanted disillusioned eager elated enthusiastic iritated n e rv ous per plex e d p e tri fi e d re l u c ta n t re mo rseful re p ent ant t ens e te n i fi e d th ri tl e d u n w i l l i n g upti ght allo\ ed - r r f i J a l e d

Yorrrnigfrllee\annoled or rrritairdii loLrrbrothrrp\a1eo iorrdnrLnic wh rl 1 t ou$r t r Pt f ling1ore v i s e

(wordswiththe samemeaning) Usesynonyms to avoid repetition. A gooddictionary mayprovideinformation aboutsynonyms.

Workin pairs.Choose two 'firsts'fromthe tist !-*iiIfllj belowanddiscuss yourpersonal memories. Useadjectives fromexercises 1-3 whereappropriate. 1 yourfirstdayat a newschool 2 yourfirsttripabroad 3 thefirsttimeyoumeta closefriend 4 thefirstCDor DVDyoueverbought 5 yourfirstromantic date 6 yourfirstdayat work 7 yourfirstvisitto a largecity 8 the dayyougotyourfirstpet Youhavebeenaskedto writean articleforyourschool magazine. Follow the planbelowto describe oneof the eventsthatyouchosein exercise 4. Whenandwheredid it happen? Howoldwereyou? Whoelsewasthere?

Readthe writingtip. Thenlookat the extractfromthe Oxford Advanced Leorner's Dictionaryandanswerthe questionsbetow.

Whatareyourstrongest memories? Whathappened? Howdidyoufeel?


antry m ad . i n d i g n a n t .c r o s s . i ra te All thesewordsdescribepeoplefeelingand/orshowing anger. angry feelingor showinganger:Please don'tbeongry with me o Thousonds oJongrydemonstrutots Iilled the sQuore mad [not beforenounl (informal,especiollyNAnE)angry: Hegot mod andwalkedout o She's mad at me for being late EEE3 Mad istheusualwordfor'angry'in informal AmericanEnglish. Whenusedin BritishEnglish, especially in the phrasegomad,ilcanmean'veryangry': Dad'llgo mad whenheseeswhot you'vedone 'Go mad' canalsomean'gocrazy'or'getveryexcited' indign a n t f e e l i n go r s h o w in g a n g e ra n dsu r p r ise you thinkthat you or sb elsehasbeentreated because unfairly: Shewasveryindignantat the wayshehad been treoted cross (rothetinlormal,espetiallyBr8 ratherangryor annoyed:I wasquitecrosswith him lor beinglate f,EE Thisword is oltenusedby or to children irate very angry:irotecustomers o an irate letterFllfl lrate is not usuallyfollowedby a preposition: Srhe$â&#x201A;ŹJ im+e-withnekboati+

Which of the four synonyms of angry areyou most likely to use 1 if you'resix yearsold? 2 if you'refrom NewYork? 3 i f you' r edes c r ibin g u n fa i rtre a tm e n t? 4 if you'redescribingan extremefeeting? Rewritethe sentencesusingsynonymsto avoid repetition. Usea dictionaryto help you, if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5

The roomwas verylargewith very largewindows. Sh ewas a t hin wom a nw i th a th i n fa c e . My c t ot heswer ewe t a n d my h a i rw a sw e t. | co ulds eet he bea u ti fum l o u n ta i n sa n d b e a u ti fullakes. Whent he phoner a n g ,I a n s w e re di t i m m e d i a te lay n d knew i mm ediat ely t hat s o me th i n gw a sw ro n g . 6 l fo und m y f at her ' sd i a rya n d fo u n da n o l d p o s tc a rdi nsi dei t

Whatothermemories do youhaveof theoccasion? Howdid it end? Whathappened aftenruards? Howdo youfeelaboutit now,looking back? Workin pairs. 1 Lookat yourpartner's notesfromexercise 5 andwrite downthreequestions to ask. 2 Askandanswer youwrotedown. thequestions your your partner's questions 3 Use answers to to addmore details to yourplan. Writean articleof 200-250wordsfollowingyourplan. Remember to usesynonyms to avoidtoo muchrepetition andto includeat [eastonesimile. yourworkusingthe list below. Check

Haveyou !

fottow eathe pl ancorrectly?


usedat l eastone shortsentence to add e m phasisor bui l dsuspense?

tr writtenthe correctnumberofwords? T usedsynonyms? tr i nctudedat l eastone si mi l e? tr

checkedthe spel l i ngand grammar?

EHnn I R e a dth e d e fi n i ti o na n d th i n k of a rgum ent sf or and a g a i n s tc l o n i n g . i klJon; NAmt kloan! noun, verb . noun 1 tbtology'ta plant or an animal rhat is produced naturally or artificially from the cells of another plant or animal and is therefore exactly the same as it t verb lvrtl 1 to produce an exact copy of an animal or a plant from its cells: A team from the UK were the first to successfully clone an animal o Dolly, the cloned sheep

examtask, Lookquicklythroughthetextin the Reading ignoringthe gaps.Whattwo arguments in favourof cloning areimpliedby thetext?Doyouagreewiththem? Dothe Reading examtask.

(A-F) Readthe textcarefully anddecidewhichsentence thatyou bestfits eachgap(1-5).Thereis onesentence do notneed.

$t 50,000for a pet dog, just likeyourlastone Snuppy: the first cloneddog in the world dog-lover hasagreed to pay$150,000 to have A Californian pet in theworld'sfirstcommercial herdeadpit bullrecreated 1 project.! SouthKorean cloning scientists will nowusethe to create tissue to attempt anexactreplica of thepet. RNLBio,basedin Seoul, saidit isalready working on the order. Theworkwillbecarried outbya teamof SeoulNational (SNU) University scientists underthedirection of professor a keymember of theresearch LeeByeong-chun, teamheaded bydisgraced stemcellscientist Hwang Woo-suk. '! Aut theSNUteamwassuccessful in creating theworld's firstdog 'Snuppy'. clone, anAfghanhoundnamed istheAmerican Bernann McKunney womanwhoreallymisses breeds herdeaddog.'I Specific of pitbullarebanned or including restricted in several countries theUK,NewZealand andCanada, butnotin theUSA. RNL's marketing ChoSeong-ryul, director, saidthecompany's ratefor producing success dogsbycloning washighwith one out of wery four surrogate mother dogsproducing around a andMrsMcKunney clonedpuppies.l_.lThescientists are hoping thatat leastoneof these willdevelop intoa healthy puppy. 'lf successful, thiswillmarkthefirsttimethata doghasbeen in a commercial clonecl contract,'Cho sard'Butit won'tbethe lastClonrng isfastbecornrng an rndustry!' nruL Bioplans eventually to {ocus on cloning notonlypets, butalsospecial dogslikethosetrained to sniffoutbombs

at t ached S hei s thoughtto havebecomeespecially to i t afterthepi t bul l savedher l i feuTh snsnslhsrdno attackedher. Thel atterachi evednotori etytastyearwhen his wel[ pubti ci sedbreakthroughs i n cl oni nghu m anst emcells werediscoveredto be fake. Increasi ng demandmeansthe costfor cloninga dog maycomedow nto l essthan $5o,ooo. Thedog,namedB ooger,di ed a yearan d a half ago but hi s ow nerkeptpart of the dog' sear i n cot dst or age. N everthel ess, somepeopl earew orri e dt hat hum an cl oni ngi s an i nevi tabl edevel opment . In this case,ce[[shavebeen extractedfrom Booger's earti ssueand i nsertedi nto the eggsof livingdogs.

thequestions. 4 Lookat thephotoof Frankensteinbelow.Discuss 1 Whatdo youknowaboutthe story? 2 Howdoesit portrayscience andscientists? Dothe Useof Englishexamtask.

Complete the text.Writeonewordonlyin eachgap.

people fie posibility Mony regord rofhumon horror clones ondseeil ososignftol scienlific progress isspirolling 'ofcontrol. Although thisinitiol il is revulsion isunderslondoble, perhops toking things Afler oll, on exlreme. 'innolure: lhey're humon clones olreody exisl colled idenlicol twins, opeople though some findidenlicol Minsunnerving, ond feworeocluolly disgusted bylheveryideoofthem. 65Itt oll eosy lodismiss rloning fteworkofmod frying locreole Fronkensteinlike monslers. scienlisls This imoge 78withthetruth. reoliry hosverylinlem theoim isl0findnewwoys lo combol diseose ondrepoir the ofscienli$s hove suggesled tholbycloning humon body. Some scienlists our twecould holtormoybe reverse lheogeing owncells, pro(ess. prize Theultimote would beo kindofimmortolity. l0 queslion. isonolher lhotwouldbeo goodthingin proclice examtask. 6 Dothe Speaking

Readthe followingstatement. Doyouagreeor disagree withit? Discuss the issuewithyourpartner, responding to theyhave. anycounter-arguments Thecloning of humans shouldneverbeallowed.

THIS U NI T I 1{ Ct UDE S O ' . compoundadiectives . compoundnouns. verb'noun/adjective . phrasalverbs. Vocabulary nouncollocations aspectsof films. adjectives describing films. modifying adverbs Gnmmar. Iike,unlikeandos . narrative tenses. simpleandcontinuous forms. speculating Speaklng. 1611;n*uboutcharacters in filmsand books. talkingaboutTVviewing habits. reacting to literarytexts Writing. s film review

'%* ,-*;+s$&s*

Compound adjectives 1

Howmanycompound adiectives canyoumakeusingthe adjectives andnounsbelow?Howmanymorecanyouadd usingdifferent adiectives andnouns?

to threepeople describing thekindof films 6i 1.07 Listen theylike.Whataspects of thefitmsdo theyparticularly [ike?

big broad cold empty fair kind long narrow single thin wide

btood eyed hair hand head heart teg mind shoutderskin

Rewrite thetextby replacing the underlined wordswith compound adiectives. Youmayneedto makeotherchanges. 0f MiceandMenir a novelb1thaNobet ?riza-r^rinninq author Johnitarnbeck

ryrrefi@grytn 2

Of Mice and Men is a novel by the author John Steinbeck,who won the Nobel Prize. It is set in 1930s California and is the story of two migrant farm workers, GeorgeMilton and Lennie SmaII. George thinks quickl)'. and has a kind heart, and looks after his friend Lennie Small, who is like a child and has a simple mind. Physically they are different too; Georgeis small, with a slim build. while Lennie is tall and his shoulders are broad. They share a dream that one day they will own their own ranch. But it all goeswrong when Lennie accidentally kills someone.The ending breaks )'our heart, as Georgekills Lennie in order to save him from a lynch mob. The novel only has 100 pages,but it is a fantastic read.

the compound adiectives thatthe f) f .OZComplete speakers usewiththewordsin the box.Thenlistenagain andcheck. action time engineeredheart cool man moving narrow raising run self witted 7 2 3 4 5 6

genetically--packed --war m ing slow---m ade q u ic k - -

7 8 9 10 11 72

--h e a d e d alt---down h a i r---m i n d e d --assured

Whichadjectives in exercise 2 canbe usedto describe: a character? b aspects of fitms? 6


adiectives |n Compound 1 Manycompound adjectives consist of a a noun,adiective or adverbpluspresent participle. thirst-quenching easy-going never-ending b a noun,adjective or adverbpluspastparticiple. tongue-tied left-handedwell-paid 2 Whenthefirstelement is an of thecompound adjective, the pastparticiple canbe formedfroma nounratherthana verb. thick-skinned tight-fisted thin-lipped flat-footed pattern 3 Another common + is adiective/number noun.Thenounis always singular. deep-sealast-minuteten-storey a

V oc abularB y u i l d e r2 " 1 :C o mp o u n i3 a !;e 6 ti y s5' " " .l l t.

Workin pairs.Thinkof someone or something thatcanbe described usingthe compound adiectives below. Explain whytheycanbe described likethis. 1 cold-blooded 5 time-consuming 2 absent-minded 6 cut-price 3 tight-hearted 7 remote-controlled 4 long-lasting Make notesunderthe headingsbelowabout a character from a story,film or W programmethat you know.Usesome of the compoundadjectiveson this page. posi ti veaspects 1 C haracter: 2 C haracter: negati veaspects 3 A ooearance Workin pairs.Describethe characterto your partner.C anyourpartnerguessw ho i t i s? o

V ocabutary B ui l der2.2: C ol r$oundnouns:pr .lli

W w

What'son the box?

I tqn discu.r.rtlac ctfcct.r at TY ar. chi l ci rut.

Flil:llKltlGlnsk andanswerthe questionsin exercise4. Give reasons andexamples.

words.Writeoneword 1 Complete thetextwithappropriate onlyin eachgap.

Ioo nrurh IU rnoy resuh t-


thesesentences fromthe listeningwith 6 6) f .OAComplete

whowotrh hours Ieenogers severol '-lelevision o doydo tpeers, likely logroduole their worse olschool ondoreless o The20-yeor neorly 700fomilies in newstudy suggesls. sludy involving moreftonlhreehours fie USA foundthotthose wotching ofTVo doy opost were holfoslikely conlinue lheireducolion highschool. l4-yeor-olds scienlists begon inlerviewing from Infie mid-I980s lheirtelevision viewing hoblts. They olso osked 6/8fomilies oboul porenls ostwhether lheyoungslers hudony lheleens' Thereseorchers diffirulties. conlinued behoviourol ororodemic theteens informolion fromtheporenfs ondinlerviewed collecling 22ond33. utoges ogoin otoge16,ondogoin wokhed hours oneondlhree Aloge14,mo$oftherhildren 'thonfourhours, doy, while l3%wotched more ond oftelevision eorh found less lhononehour. The scienlisls thot30%of l0%wolrhed whowolched more hours oftelevision ologe14 sludenls lhonthree problems yeors, fell hodottenlion ond behind '-subsequenl tonlyl5%of togroduofe byoge22. compurison, orfoiled less thononehour ofTVologe14showed the lhose whowotrhed lotern-. ottenlion deficits some however, soythelinkisuncleor ondmointoin lhollhe 0fher experls, provide relotionship nol slrong evidence o cousol sludy does 'oviewing lelevision otlenlion difficulties. Teens between ondsubsequenl more to leorning disorders might simply be likely wotch o "_ theyfindocfivilies reoding lexlbooks lotofTVbecouse "-os

Iike,unlikeor as.Thenlistenagainandcheck. thatrubbish?' Andshe's, 'Whyareyouwatching Myparents area bitthattoo. I don'thavea TVin mybedroom, Chrisdoes. Wewatchdramas andfilmsmainly, andseries, Heroes. arethe characters. e Thestoriesarefascinating, f Heroes,lost is setin therealworld. a b c d

Readthe Learnthis!box.Matchgaps1-6 withthe sentences (a-D fromexercise6. like, unlikeand as similarities. Wecanuselikeor as to describe 7 likeisa preposition andcomesbefore a nounor oronoun. You'relike a child! 1_ 2 asisa coniunction andcomesbefore a clause (subject andverb/ auxiliary). 2_ She'sscared,os weoll are. conjunction instead We often use llke as a of's 3 lessformal. Hefooledme, like he fooledeverybody. 3 invertthe subjectandverbafteras 4 Wesometimes (butneverafterlike). He'stall, os is hisfother. 4_ unliketo describe Weusethe preposition differences Unlikeyou, I loveAmericoncomedies. 5we canusebe + liketo ln veryinformalspeech, introduce words. somebody's Hewaslike,'l'm so happy!' 6


Discuss thisquestion: Shouldparentsrestrictthe amountof TVtheirchildrenwatch?justifyyouropinions. television. What O f .OAListento threepeoplediscussing reasons for watching TVdo theymention? Choose from: boredom relaxationescapism fillingtime self-educationgettingnews sociaIactivity curiosity andgeneral interest seekingadvice satisfying culturalandaesthetic enjoymentfamilyactivity withthewordsin the box.Usethe Complete the questions correctformofthe verbs. portray rubbish set slushy unwind we[[-drawn 7 2 3 4 5 6 t--..u

DoyouwatchW -? Doyouagreethere'sa lot of on TV? Doyoutikeromantic comedies? Areyoucriticalof thewaywomen on TV? in a TVseries? Canyouthinkof a really character in the Doyoupreferfantasyseriesto W dramas realworld? Unit2. stories



{i r i i n r r r i i r S i r i l r i r , r. ) " i i s s ; r i i r : i i ! i c : t r . i i ti

Discuss witha partner.Doyouthinkmenand womenhavedifferenttastesin filmsandW programmes? Givereasons andexamples.

''iit'i;r*67* I

r i i l fl 'fl ,ttqn/

a:l r i la

i t.

.\tr ti ( l

" 1t't.1 t'( hi t


r ,, l l ,1y

Readthe definitionof the 'GreatAmericanDream'.Towhat extentdo you betievethat the dreamis (a) admirableand (b) achievable?

Makenew collocations. Match1-8 in exercise3 with the verbsand adiectivesbelow.Choosethree and write sentences.

TheGreatAmerican Dream is the belief that every citizen can achieveprosperity and happiness through their own efforts and abilities, irrespectiveof classor race.

a reach b serveon

Completethe text with the correctform of the wordsin brackets.

ArthurMi[[er(1915-2005) is universatly recognised as oneof the greatest (DRAMA) of the '_ twentiethcentury. Mi[te/sfather hademigrated to the USAfrom Austria-Hungary, drawnlikeso many othersby the 'GreatAmerican Dream'. However, he experienced (FINANCE) severe '_ hardship whenhisfamilybusiness wasruinedin the GreatDepression of the early1930s. Mitte/smostfamousptay,Deathof a Salesman, is a powerful attackon the American system, with its aggressive business tacticsandits '_ (INSIST) on moneyand socialstatusas4_ (INDICATE) of worth.In WiLty Loman, the heroof the ptay,we seea manwhohasfatten foul of this system. WiLty is'burntout'andin the ruthless worldof business thereis no roomfor sentiment: if he can'tdo the work,thenhe is no qoodto his 5(EMPLOY), the Wagner Company, andhe mustgo. WitLy is u(PAIN)awareof this andbewildered at his lackof success. Hehidesbehinda smokescreen of [iesandt (PRETEND) to disguise the factto himselfandothersthat he hasfai[ed. Whenit wasfirst stagedin !949, the ptaywasgreeted (ENTHUSE) with 8reviews, andit wonnumerous n(PRESTIGE) titeraryawards.However, Mitle/sviews attractedthe attentionof the Un-American Activities Committee, whichhadbeenset up to investigate American artistssuspected of havingcommunist sympathies. Mitter wasfoundto_ (GUILT) by the UAAC of undermining the American wayof [ife.Theverdictwas,however, later overturned and Mi[[erwenton to write overfifty ptays. Makecollocationswith the wordsbelow.Useverbsfor 7-4 and adjectivesfor 5-8. Findthem in the text. 1 2 3 4


har ds hip attention a c om m i tte e a verdict

5 6 7 8


h a rd s h i p status award s y m p a th i es

c cause d draw

e mari tal f right-wing

g covet ed h consider able

Glossary = si deof the road shoul der = a makeof can S tudebaker = thingsyouputin shoes archsupports andcomfort to fivesupport w i ndshi el=dcarw i ndow Q f .Of Readthe glossary,then listento the opening of Deathof o Salesman.Why does Willy arrive home late? Choosethe correctanswer. 1 H e coul dn' tconcentrate w hi l ehe w as dri ving. 2 H e fel tasl eepw hi l ehe w asdri vi ng. 3 H e w as i nvol vedi n a caracci dent. $ f .Oe Listenagain.Answerthe questions,givingreasons for your answerswhen appropriate. 1 H oww oul dyou descri beW i l l y' sphysi cat an d m ent alst at e? 2 H oww oul dyou descri beLi nda' satti tudeto Wilt y? 3 W hatreasonsdoesLi ndasuggestfor w hat happenedt o W i l l yi n the car? 4 W hatremedi esdoesLi ndasuggest? Glossary to senda w i re= senda tel egram to showthe l i ne= shownewproducts accommodati=ng w i l l i ngto adj ustto the needsof ot herpeople = sadanddi sappoi nted crestfal l en ailur e afteran unexpect fed to tramparound= travelaround; moveabout f) f.rO Readthe glossarythen listento the second extract.Whattwo topicsdo Lindaand Willydiscussat tength? 6) Listenagainand answerthe questions. 1 W hatdoesLi ndasuggestthat W i ttyshoul ddo in or dert o i mprovehi s w orki ngl i fe? 2 H owdoesW i l tyreacton the threeoccasi o ns t hat Linda makesthi s suggesti on? 3 W hatdi d W i ttyand hi s son B i ffargueaboutear lier ? 4 C anyou i denti fythreeoccasi ons w henW i tt yis indecisive and qui ckl ychangeshi s mi nd? triffllflfd

Work in pairs. Discussthe questions.

1 D o you feelsympathyfor W i l tyand Li nda?Why?/ Whynot ? 2 l s theresi mi l arpressure on busi nesspeoplet o succeedin your country? 3 Towhat extentdo you believethat yourfutureprosperity and happi nessdependon yourow n efforts? 4 D oyou agreew i th W i tl ythat i t' s goodfor yo ungpeoplet o movearoundand try out l otsof di fferenti obs?

Unit2.stories (}

o f the F lies 1

youanda groupof Workin pairs.lmagine friendsweremarooned on a smallislandin the middleof the Discuss thequestions: ocean. (b)getrescued? 1 Whatwouldyoudo in orderto: (a)survive? Howwouldyou 2 Whatrules,if any,wouldyouestablish? agreeon them?

2 Readthe extractfromLordof the Fliesby WilliamGolding, ignoringthe gaps.Answerthe questions. 1 Wherearetheboysandhowdidtheygetthere? 2 Whyis Ratphangryat the startof the extract? of thefire? 3 Whatwasthe purpose wasit to keepthefiregoing? 4 Whoseresponsibility of looking afterthefire? 5 WhatwasRalphdoinginstead 6 Howdoeshelustifyhisbehaviour? astheirleader? 7 Whohadtheboyschosen did Jackbreak? of Piggy's 8 Whatpossession 9 WhohetpsPiggyto find hisglasses? for? 10 WhatdoesJackapologise t

(a-h)withthe gaps(1-7) in the Matchthe sentences thatyoudo not need. extract.Thereis onesentence grabbed andputon theglasses. a Piggy stuckhis b Hetooka step,andableat lastto hit someone, fistintoPiggy's stomach. forhiscruet andapologised c Jackturnedto Piggy behaviour. d Theymighthaveseenus. decentanswer. e Theywaitedfor an appropriately roseto a galeof f Hewenton scrambling andthe laughter hysterialo. g Jackwas loudandactive. h Thenhisvoicecameagainon a peakof feeling.

fromthe text. 4 fxplainin yourownwordsthesesentences 1 Thedismaltruthwasfilteringthroughto everybody. (tine23) 2 Therewasthe brilliantworldof hunting,tactics,fierce exhilaration, skill;andtherewasthewortdof longing and (line32) baffted common-sense. misbehaviour, asan addition to Jack's this 3 Heresented, verbaItrick.(tine84) sides 4 Bythetimethepilewasbuilt,theywereon different (tine105) of a highbarrier. in the text: of the followingbehaviour 5 fina examples 1 lack'sviolence andaggressiveness. 2 lack'scruelty. indecision. 3 Ratph's defiance. 4 Piggy's inftexibility. 5 Ralph's forothers. concern 6 Simon's quickly changing moods. 7 thehunters'

Unit2 . Stories

D i scussthe questi ons.Justi f yyour opinions. boysis t ikely D o you thi nkthat a groupof tw el ve-ye ar - old to behavei n the w ay descri bedi n the ext r act ? l f teftto thei row n devi ces,do you thi nk a gr oupof t welveyear-ol dboysi s capabl eof l i vi ngpeac ef ully wit h one another?

A group ofboys havebeenmarooned on a desertisland, followinga plane crash,and are waiting to berescued. In this extractJack and Ralph,strong characters who both want to beleaderof thegroup,comeinto conflict.

I Ralph flung back his hair. One arm pointed at the empty horizon. His voicewas loud and savage,and struck them into silence. 'There was a ship.' s Jack,facedat once with too many awful implications, ducked away from them. He laid a hand on the pig and drew his knife. Ralph brought down his arm, fist clenched,and his voice shook. 'There was a ship. Out there!You saidyou'd keepthe 10fire going and you let it out!'He took a steptowards Jack,who turned and facedhim. 't ! We might havegone home - ' This was too bitter for Piggy,who forgot his timidity in the agonyof his loss.He beganto cry out, shrilly: rs'Youand your blood, JackMerridewlYouand your hunting! We might havegone home -' Ralph pushedPiggy on one side. 'I was chief; and you were going to do what I said.You talk. But you can't evenbuild huts - then you go off rohunting and let out the fire -' He turnedaway,silentfor a moment.'I 'Therewasa ship-' One of the smallerhuntersbeganto wail.rThe dismaF truth was filtering through to everybody.Iack went r5very red ashe hackedrand pulled at the pig. 'The job wastoo much.We neededeveryone.' Ralphturned.

'You could havehad everyonewhen the shelterswere finished.But you had to hunt -' 30'Weneededmeat.' Jackstood ashe saidthis, the bloodied knife in his hand. The two boys facedeachother. There was the brilliant world of hunting, tactics,fierceexhilaration, skill; and there was the world of longing and baffleda 35common-sense.Iack transferredthe knife to his Ieft hand and smudgedsblood over his foreheadashe pushed down the plasteredhair. Piggybeganagain. 'You didn't ought to havelet that fire out. You said noyou'd keep the smoke going - ' This from Piggy,and the wails of agreementfrom some of the hunters drove Jackto violence.The bolting look cameinto his blue eyes.3! Piggysat down with a grunt. Jackstood over him. His voice was asvicious6with humiliation. 'You would, would you? Fatty!' Ralph made a step forward and JacksmackedPiggy's head.Piggy'sglassesflew off and tinkledTon the rocks. Piggycried out in terror: so'Myspecs!' He went crouchingand feelingover the rocksbut Simon, who got there first, found them for him. Passions beat about Simon on the mountain-top with awful wings. ss'Oneside'sbroken.' nI H" looked malevolentlyat Jack. 'I got to havethem specs.Now I only got one eye.fus' you wait -' fack made a move towards Piggy who scrambleds 60awaytill a great rock lay betweenthem. He thrust his headover the top and glaredat Jackthrough his one flashingglass. 'Now I only got one eye.)ust you wait - ' Iack mimickedethe whine and scramble. es']uS'youwait - yah!' Piggy and the parody were so funny that the hunters beganto laugh.Jackfelt encouraged.sl__lUnwillingly Ralph felt his lips twitch;tl he was angry with himself for giving way. 70He muttered. 'That was a dirty trick.' Jackbroke out of his gyration and stoodfacingRalph. His words camein a shout. All right!All right!' 7sHe looked at Piggy,at the hunters,at Ralph. 'I'm sorry.About the fire, I mean.There.I - '

He drew himself up.'2 ' - I apologise.' The buzz from the hunters was one of admiration 80for this handsomebehaviour.Clearly they were of the opinion that Jackhad done the decentthing, had put himself in the right by his generousapologyand Ralph,obscurelp13 in the wrong. oI Yet Ralph'sthroat refusedto passone. He resented,as 8san addition to |ack'smisbehaviour,this verbal trick. The fire was dead.The ship was gone. Could they not see?Anger insteadof decencypassedhis throat. 'That wasa dirty trick.' They were silent on the mountain top while the e0opaquelook appearedin Jack'seyesand passedaway. Ralph'sfinal word was an ungraciousr4mutter. All right. Light the fire.' With some positive action before them, a little of the tension died. Ralph said no more, did nothing, esstoodlooking down at the ashesaround his feet. '! He gaveorders,sang,whistled, threw remarks at the silent Ralph - remarks that did not need an answer, and therefore could not invite a snub;rsand still Ralph was silent. No one, not evenJack,would ask him to r00move and in the end they had to build the fire three yards awayand in a placenot really as convenient. Ralph assertedhis chieftainship and could not have chosena better way if he had thought for days.Against this weapon,so indefinable and so effective,fack was tospowerlessand ragedwithout knowing why. By the time the pile was built, they were on different sidesof a high barrier. Glossary I (to)w ai l= (make) a l ong,hi ghcryof pai nor sadness 2 di smal= mi serabl e 3 to hack= cutwithroufh,heavyblows 4 baffled= confused = makea di rtymark 5 to smudge = cruelandaggnessi ve 6 vi ci ous 7 (to)ti nkl e= (make) a l i â&#x201A;Źht,hi B hri ngi ngsound I to sramble= movequicklyandwithdifficulty, usingyour handsto hel o 9 mimic= copyin a funnywaythewaysb speaks andacts 10 a fal e of hysteri=athesoundof peopl e l aughing uncontrol l abl y 11 (to)tw i tch= (make) ent a sudden, smal movem l wit hout meanrng to 12 to drawoneselup f = standupto one' sful lhe if ht = for a reasonthatwasdifficult 13 obscurely to identify = i l l -mannered 14 ungraci ous andunfri endl y 15 a snub= an i nsul t

Unit2 . Stories

.S rtnr

Na r r a t

te n s e s

I ReadtheAesop's fableandchoosethe moral(a-c)which youthinkbestfitsthe story. a Don'ttryto achieve theimpossible. b lt is easyto despise whatyoucannothave. c Don'tunderestimate thedifficuttv of a task. The fox and the grapes There was once a fox that used to wander far and wide to find food. He would sometimeswalk for days in order find a nice meal. One day,he came acrossa vine branch from which were hanging bunchesof ripe, black grapeswhich no one had yet picked. The fox had been searchingfor food for many days and was almost dying of hunger.He stood on tip-toe and stretched as high as he could, but he couldnt reach the grapes.He tried jumping but still without success. The fox had thought that it would be easyto reach the grapes,and to hide his disappointment he said to himself,'What a fool I am! The grapesare sour.I was going to eat them, but I ve changedmy mind.'And with that. he walked off.

Findexamples of verbforms1-7 in thefablein exercise 1. Whendo we usethem? 1 pastsimple 5 would 2 pastcontinuous 6 usedto 3 pastperfect 7 futurein the past 4 pastperfect continuous Explain the difference in meaning in thesesentences. 1 a WhenJoearrived, I'd madesomecoffee. b WhenJoearrived, I madesomecoffee. c WhenJoearrived, I wasmakingsomecoffee. d WhenJoearrived, I'd beenbakingsomebread. 2 a HespokeJapanese he'dlivedin Japan because fortwo years. b HespokeJapanese because he'dbeenlivingin Japan fortwoyears. 3 a Whatwasthatbookyoureadon hotiday? b Whatwasthatbookyouwerereading on holiday? usedto smokein theoffice. 4 a George b George wouldsmokein the office. 5 a KimandBenmetin 2001andwereto getmarried in 2005. b KimandBenmetin 2001andwereto havegotmarried in 2005. .

4 Complete thefablewiththe correctformof theverbsin brackets. Sometimes twoanswers arepossible. Justifyyour Thenin pairs,writea moralfor thefable. choices. The hare and the tortoise (run) along a path when he 2One day a hare 1(come) across a tortoise. The hare 3(follow) the same (never come) acrossa tortoise route every day and (walk) slowly and the hare 6before. The tortoise 5(begin) to laugh at her. Irritated by the hare, the tortoise 7(challenge) him to a race.The hare 8(never have) any doubt that he was the fastest animal around, so he e(accept) the challenge. After the hare 10(run) for a while, (leave) the tortoise far behind, and he realised that he 11t2(sit) down under a tree to relax for a while. It wasnt (fall) asleep.Although the tortoise long before he 1314(not hurry), she overtook the hare. When the hare 1s(wake up), he 16(realise) that the tortoise 17(beat) him to the finishing line.The hare 18(remember) this experience for the rest of his life.

Usethe informationbelowto writethe fablelhe boywho criedwolf.Usea varietyof narrativetensesand makeany necessary changesto the text.BeginTherewosonce... . The boywho criedwolf A shepherdboy lived in a village. His family lived there for many years.He looked after a flock of sheep.Every day he went to the hillside abovethe village. He was bored. He left his sheep.He ran to the village. He shouted,'Wol{l Wolfl' The villagers heard his cries.They ran to help him. They wasted their time. He laughed at them. He did this two or three times. A wolf really did come. He shouted'Wolfl Wol{l' The villagers ignored him. The wolf killed the whole flock of sheep.The boy didnt cry wolf again.

6 Complete thesesentences in yourownwords.Useasmany verbformsasyoucanfromexercise2. 1 ...because it hadbeenraining. 2 I'd hada terrible dayat school... 3 When| lastspoketo you... 4 | hadn'tbeenfeeling well... ... 5 I'd neverthought 6 As I waswalkingthroughthe park,... 7 | wasto have... FEiTffIIfrl Workin pairsor smallgroups.Inventa fableto illustrate Tetlit to the class. oneofthesesayings. Makehaywhilethesunshines. Lookbefore youleap. Don'tjudgea bookbyits cover. A stitchin timesavesnine. O






Fd|ilfiflfd Workin pairs.Discuss the questions. people 1 Whatproblems face? do homeless 2 Whydo peopte become homeless?


person, Workin pairs.lf youhadto interview a homeless whatquestions wouldyouask?Notethemdown.

8 f) r.rz Completethe speculativesentences.Youcan use morethan one word in a gap.Thenlistenagainand check. 1 2 3 4

Wereanyof yourquestions f) r.rr Listento the interview. asked? Howdidthe girlanswer them? (1-5)withthe correct 4 6) r.rr Complete the phrasalverbs (a-0. prepositions, andmatchthemwiththe definitions Thenlistenagainandcheck. 1 2 3 4 5 6

get sb hang get sth walkk ic ks b hangout -

a b c d e f

starttaking(e.g.drugs) s ta yi n a p l a c e l e a v es u d d e n l y s p e n dti m ew i th ( peopte) makesb leave d e p re s ss b

f) r.rz Listento someonesayingwhat she thinks life is like for the personin the first pictureand why he might be homeless.Doyou agreewith her opinions?

5 6 7 t.'


1-5 witha-e to makecollocations fromthe listening. 5 tvtatch 1 sk ip a one'sdrughabit 2 l o os e b rough 3 feed c change 4 k ic k d one'sdrughabit 5 sleep e school

qui teyoung. Thi smany lt he' shad a parti cul arlhard ti fe. lt he hasenoughl ayersto keepw arm . H e' ssi tti ngon a bunkbed i n w hat' s a nightshelt er of someki nd. |he hasn' tbeensi tti ngtherefor l on g,and he doesn' tspendhi s daysthere. H eto haveany possessi ons w i th him . |life is prettytoughfor him. i f he' srun aw ayfromhomefor somer eason. -

Workin pairs.Saywhat you think life is like for the personin the secondpictureand why he might be homel ess.

photosstartbysaying Whencomparing whatis similar anddifferent aboutwhatyoucanseebeforeyoustartto offeropinions or speculate aboutotheraspects ofthe photos.

6 FJt:nfiilfdWorkin pairs.Readthe speaking tip andthe taskbelow.Talkaboutthe mainsimilarities anddifferences between the photos.Usethe phrases in the boxto helpyou. . o mp a rea n d c ontrast Th ephot oss howh o m e l e s sp e o p l e C th e phot os ,and s a yw h a ty o u th i n k ti fei s l i k efo r th ese p e opleand whyt he ym i g h tb e h o m e l e s s . D es c r ibing s imilar i ti e sa n d d i ffe re n c e s The mostobvioussimilaritybetweenthe photosis (that)... Theohot osar es im i ta ri n th a t ... Themostobviousdifference betweenthe photosis (that)... , w h i l e /w h e re aisn th e o th e r,.. . In t he f ir s tpic t ur e... Phot o1 s hows. . . P h o to2 , o n th e o th e rh a n d ,s h o w s...

perfect Weoftenusethepresent simpleandcontinuous whenspeculating aboutphotos.


Inyourpairs,turnto page142anddo the picturecomparison task.

U ni t2'St or ies

Workin pairs.Discussthe questions.

ln which paragraphdoesthe writer:

1 Hav ey ou s eena n yfi l m sre c e n tl yi,n th e c i n e maor on the T V ?Didy ou enf o yth e m?W h y ? /Wh yn o t?U s eth e i deasi n t he boxt o helpy o u .

1 tal k aboutthe fi l m' sstrengths? 2 gi vea bri efsummaryof the ptot? detai laboutthe fi tm,s uchas t he t it le 3 gi vebackground and di rector? l cton the fi l m? 4 gi vehi s/heroveralverdi 5 tal k aboutthe fi l m' sw eaknesses?

s oundt r ac k ac ti n g l o c a ti o n s s p e c i a l e ffe c t s storyl i ne play s c r een 2 W ho ar ey ourf a v o u ri tefi l m s ta rs ?Wh a td o y o u [i ke aboutt hem ?

Completethe sentenceswith the words in the box. adaptati on box-offi ce del i vered enhanced gr oss l ocati on mi scast sequel sequence set t ing supporti ng tw i sts unfol ds

Readthe film review.Howwouldyou describeit? Find evidencein the text for your opinion. 1 2 3 4

very positive fairly positive [ uk ewar m negat iv e

FItM Review I'm a big f an of t he I n d i a n aJ o n e sm o v i e ss, o l w a s fi rst i n the queue at the box office when lndianaJonesand the Kingdom of the CrystalSku//wasscreenedat our localcinema.Likeits blockbusterpredecessors, it's directedby StevenSpielberg and starsHarrisonFordin the title role as an archaeologistadventurer. Set in 1952 at the heightof the Cold War;most of the actiontakesplacein the junglesof SouthAmerica.The plot revolvesaroundthe raceto find a crystalskull,whichthe villainousSovietofficerlrinaSpalko(CateBlanchett)wants to get her handson in order to harnessits mysticalpowers. Needlessto say,at the end of the film the goodiescomeout on top, find the skulland restoreit to its rightfulplace. Despitevery good performancesfrom Fordand young, upcomingactor ShiaLaBoeu[who playsa leather-jacketed biker,and some pretty effectivestate-of-the-artspecial effects,the fllm is let down by the rather convolutedand farfetchedplot. In fact after about an hour;the film abandons any pretenceof a story and descendsinto a sequenceof high-speedcar chases,fights,stunts,and encounterswith red ants and quicksand. As adventuremoviesgo, it's fairlyentertaining, but nowhere nearas good as the first three instalmentsin the Indiana Jonesseries.But if it's pure escapismyou're after and you can totally suspenddisbelief,this film'sprobablyfor you.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 72

A s the story, the paceof the actionquickens. Thefi l m i s an s of l an Fl emi ng' best - selling novel. Therei s a carchasei n the openi ng of t he f ilm . Thefi tmw asshoton i n the mount ains of Scot land. K ei raK ni ghtl ey w as badl y i n the r oleof t he villain. A n i nstant hi t w hen i t w as rel eased, t he f ilm went on to over$200 mi l l i on. performances Thefitm was let down by below-average by the cast. A fternumerous and turns,there'sa nail- bit ing fi nal e. The backstreetsof NewYorkprovidethe perfect for this film noir. B radP i tta fi ne performance i n the leadingr ole. Themovi ei s beauti ful ty fi tmedand by digit at technol ogy. TheTwoTowersis the to the highty-acclaimed Fellowshipof the Ring.

What is the functionof the sentencesin exercise4? Putthem underthe correctheadi ng.

In a review, we usethepresent simpletenseto describe theplotof a film,bookor play. Workin pairs.Readthewritingtip,thendescribe tffflffi theplotof a filmto yourpartner, withoutusingthenamesof any of thecharacters or actors.Canyourpartnerguessthefilm?

In pairs,lookat the adjectives for describing films.Which (Some aspects of films(f -l) cantheybe usedto describe? adiectives candescribe morethanoneaspect.) big-budgetdisappointing edgy epic far-fetched fast-movingflawed frighteninggripping light-hearted low-budgetmoving powerful predictableserious third-ratethought-provoking violent wacky X-rated 1 2 3 4 5

theperformance of theactors the story thefitmin general thescreenplay specialeffects

Youcandescribe aspects of a filmmoreaccurately and subtlybycombining adjectives withmodifying adverbs suchas: o (little)bit notporticulorly notvery quite fairly pretty rather very extremely Remember thatthe adverbquitecomesbeforethe indefinite article: It'squitea slow-moving film. Readthewritingtip andrankthe modifying in order, adverbs fromthe strongest Thenfindexamples to theweakest. of someofthemin thetexton page22. . .

p.132 Vocabulary Builder2.3:Modifying adverbs:

F{:i'ilKftrd Workin pairs.Thinkof a fitmthatyou haveboth seen.Talkaboutthe fitmusingadiectives fromexercise 1 andmodifying adverbs. ' l :',,.t'1 ri '.



' ,' - r




', :

' ' . '.o"

Wecanuseparticiple clauses ourwriting to improve style. Thisfilm wosreleased in 2002andwosan instantsuccess. -)Releasedin 2002,thisfilm woson instantsuccess. Hancock starsWiilSmithandis a superhero adventure that left me cold. ) StarringWillSmith,Hancock is a superhero adventure thatleftme cold. Useparticiple clauses to rewritethesesentences that introduce films. 7 SovingPrivateRyanwasdirectedbythree-time academy awardwinnerSteven andis oneof themost Spielberg gripping warfilmsevermade. 2 Thelncredible Hulkwaspannedbythe criticswhenit was firstreleased, butit wasa boxofficehit.

3 Ti tani ci s one of the mostsuccessfut fi tmsof all t im e.and w on el evenOscars. 4 ForrestGumpfeaturesTomHanksin the titte roleand is my favouritemovieof at[ time. 5 TheMistwas adaptedfrom the StephenKingnoveland is a terrifyinghorrorfilm. Match1-8 with a-h to makesentencesthat give overall opinionsof films.Whichonesare (a) positive?(b) negative? (c) lukewarm? lf you havean aversionto pointlessspecialeffects, Not the greatestfilm evermade, Forhardcorefantasyfans, Thi smovi ei s, qui tesi mpl y,fantasti cand Thereare someni cemoments, lf like me you are a loverof feel-goodmovies, Thefi tm i s w el lw orthseei ng, D espi tebei nga l ow -budget art-house fi l m ,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

thi s i s one of the mosti mpressi ve movi esyou'llsee. thi s fi l m i s not for you. but it's marredby poora performance fromthe lead. thi s fi l m w on' t Ii veup to al l the hypesurrounding its release. e i f onl yfor the dazzl i ngspeci aleffects. f thenyou w on' t regretgoi ngto seethi s fi l m . g but w orththe pri ceof admi ssi on. h l thoroughl yrecommend i t. a b c d

Make notesabouta fitm that you haveseen.Followthe plan below.

1 Background information aboutthefilm(title,genre, director, basedon a book?date?otherinteresting facts?). 2 A briefsummary of theptot. 3 Thefilm'sstrengths andweaknesses. 4 Youroverall verdict on thefilmanda recommendation (positive or negative). Writeyourreview(200-250words).Usethe notesyou made in exercise 6. yourworkusingthe listbelow. Check

Haveyou fotlowed the plancorrectly? ! ! I !

writtenthecorrect numberof words? included at leastonemodifying adverb? grammar? checked thespelting and

U ni t2 . St or ier





1 Add a prefixto the wordsin the box and use them to completethe sentences.

thesentences. Usea pastor present 5 Complete formfor describing habituat actionsin thefirstgapandlikeor osin the secondgap. 1 Whenmygrandfather wasyounger, he work a tenniscoacheverysummer. 2 Mysisterlosinghertemper thesedays,lust ourmuml 3 Tom'sa goodtennisplayer, buthe behave

awed easy occupied orientated nerved Harryknew he'd madea mistake,so he felt veryr.,rri., ,: when h i s bos sc alledhim i n to h i s o ffi c e . 1 J ac ks oonbec a m e i n th e n a rro ws tre etsofthe c it y .He r ealis e dh e w a sc o m p l e te l [o y s t. 2 O t iv iawast oo w i th h e r n e w b o v fri e ndto not ic et hat her mo th e rw a s i l t. 3 lt wast he f ir s tt i m e s h e ' ds u n gi n p u b ti c ,s o s h ew as c om plet ely w h e ns h ew a l k e do u t o n stage. 4 T hedoc t or ' sf ai l u reto m e e th e r e y e sd u ri n gth e appoint m ent G ra c ec o n s i d e ra b l y .

EE! ]tr

a chi tdw heneverhe tosesa gam e.

I 4 Don'tworry.

EE! Ttr 6

EE! ]tr Matchthe adiectives(1-5) with their opposites(a-e).

serious a betievable b dult c perfect d high-quatity e

g n p p rn g flawed th i rd -ra te far-fetched l i g h t-h e a rte d

EE! ]tr 4

Comptetethe sentenceswith the adverbsin the box. categorically ironicatly loosely promptty widety 1 ThefitmA BeautifulMind is basedon the tife of J ohnF or besN a s h . 2 T heat hlet ef inis h e dth e ra c ea n d c o l taosed ont ot he t r ac k . 3 T heideat hat hu m a na c ti o n sa re re s p o n s i b lfo e r cl i mate c hangeis nowa c c e p te d . 4 W it t iam ' sbos sre fu s e dto g i v eh i m a payri se. He s aid it was im p o s s i b te . yet 5 V anG oghis one o f th e w o rl d ' smo s tfa mo u sp a inters, he o n l ys o l do n e p i c tu rew h e n h e w as ati ve.



put on st andup t o

1 My si ster' sgot tw o chi l dren,so w henshegoesout I always 2 | was goingto carrymy jacket,but when I saw it was rai ni ngI deci ded 3 P ol i cehavenot yet foundthe personresponsible f or t he burgl arybut the case. H erfatheri s verydomi neeri ng, but she' sst ar t ed and tel l hi m w hat shethi nks. Thecourtprovedthat she had l i ed.Thest or yof her husband' sdi sappearance to obt ainhis lif e i nsurance money. W henMi keaskedH ol l vto movei n w i th him she saidshe

artificial(make) ( m ind ) 1 int ot er ant 2 pleasing(warm) 3 s ens ible( head ) 4 mean(fist) 5 intetligent(wit) 6 scary(raise)

1 2 3 4 5

Completethe sentenceswith the correctform of the phrasal verbsin the box.Wherepossibleuse an objectpronoun. l ookafter l ooki nto makeup thi nkover

2 Usethewordsin brackets to formcompound adiectives whicharesynonyms of thefirstword.


making mistakes

that w hen I w asyourage.

EE! 7


Completethe text with the correctpast tenseform of the verbsin brackets. (wait)for his girlfriendfor Garywas fed up. He 1(nott ur n up) .Just overan hourand she sti l t2(contempl ate) goi nghome,shewalked as he I roundthe cornerl ooki ngpl easedw i th herselfHer . sm ile 4(vani sh), how ever, w henshe sawt he expr ession on Gary'sface. ' W hat' sw rong?'she asked. ' Y ou' rel ateagai n,'he sai d. ' N o, I' m not,'she repl i ed,' Thecl ocks5(be)earty!' last night.You6-

EE! ]tr


( go back)






Speaking 1 Workin pairs.Decidewhatthe threemostimportant personality traitsareforworkingin a large,office-based company. yourideaswithanotherpair.Canyouagreeon a 2 Compare 'top three'? ioint

Reading 3

Lookquicklyat the four extractswritten by four different p e o pleand dec ide :

1-8, choosethe correctextract(A-D). 4 Forquestions Whichwritersaysthatheor she: 1 resoonds wetlin difficult situations? jobdemanding 2 doesnotfindhis/hercurrent enough? 3 haslivedin severat different countries? 4 hasthetechnical skillsnecessary? 5 co-operates weltwithotherworkers? 5 initiatty workedin education? 7 is keento raisehis/herleveIof English? 8 hasa goodknowledge of thebusiness asa whole?


a what type of text they are all from b w hat t he t opicof e a c hp a ra g ra p hi s A

r r r t . rl r . . / . r 'n t , i .ttlf 1 ; b t ,i .r cif' ' tl"tr tcr ' "' "ltcc:It1 .rh6;', I t i l l . , 1 1 t r i t r J l ett ,t2 p r c7 ' r tr lft | .:,tt1r Il;i a titlttt 2!r1','tr i t L l h i r t t l l e r l l c( tlttlltttii( tllIcr r ;kilj i d tr L l' .1 iri l 'L in a tt"tlt, I "r rtt l "'i l l 1 1 ! t ; I 1 a L l t, \ . r r l tv t r /cr e r tr t' .t "' .L il to ( h ' ;tt' t !l tc 1 ,1 t' ,;r k r ' r l / , r i i . ; t i i r l t 1 1 ' t',1 1 ' ;' 1 - "' ;l( lt) " j t 1 . 1tltiL :| . ,l, .ln tl ccn tf i' :< p i' :te c!i r^,t!i t 1 a "tbi!tti, l l r L , ' fl l i t r l r i l n t' i iL l.r r h "r t t ,1 Pr a ,ttilq !li ' tprri tttl ' ll' t"! e L n t;r L :^ 'cthrti tl b ' littt i ( !"iL IL J ' ' ti i n r i r i i . r t b , ' t ' , 4 i tu ,, tle t ti' 1 h f ' :1 1 t!:' ,ic - ' r r i ,tb tli l i i :.

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Having worked at a comparably-sized logistics company In Rigaformorethanthreeyears. lfirmlybelieve thatI havethe necessary programming skills forthisposition at lnterpost. I am

ftin Whichof the extracts f) r.rf Listento a iob interview. exercise write? 3 did Edgars

English-speaker, I amalsofluentin Latvian (mymother tongue) andRussian, andI havea sound knowledge of French at the of challenge joboffered a degree mycurrenl Although my to broaden I need where a slage nowreached slarl,I have further' my skills to develop order in horizons professional In company. io a larger lo move Thatis whyI amkeen in English thata highlevelof fluency I amarvare addition, to is whyI intend which professionally, is a greatassel counlry an English-speaking in of twoyears a minimum spend skills' mylanguage lo perfect

6 f) r.rl Listenagain.Answerthe questions. 1 Whatis themainpurpose of Edgars'visit to theUK? 2 Whatjokedoestheinterviewer makewhenthey're talking hometand? aboutvisitsto Edgars' continue whenthe 3 Whydoestheinterviewer theinterview firealarmfirstsounds? 4 Whydoestheinterviewer offerEdgars theiobandpress himfora response, rather thanwaitingfora letterto be sent? in What assistance offerEdgars 5 doesthe interviewer relation to accommodation?

Writing D

Affer graduatingwitha degreein C,omputer 3ciencefoom Universityin myhomecountryof Lifhuania, I completed a postgraduate diploma in webdesignatthe University of Manchester, This ledto a teachingpostat lne sameinstitution.AFler four yearsin academia, I decided on a changeof directionandapplied for variousjobs in the commercial sector.I relocated to Madrid fo workfor a largeadvertising agencyaslneir headof weo aevelopment, a positiont foundbothchallenging andenjoyable

youareEdgars. Writean account of yourjob 7 lmagine interview as partof an emailto a friend.Writeabout: . yourfeelings before theinterview. r whathappened duringtheinterview. r whathappened at theendof theinterview. . howyoufeeIaboutit now,tooking back.



l - 'r r

Exnm 2 Canyougiveanyexamples of: (a)'urbanmyths'(strange well-known storiesthatmanypeoplebelievebutareunlikety to betrue)and(b)'lnternet myths'(stories spread viathe Internet whichturnout notto betrue)?


Dothe Useof English examtask.

Completethe text with the correctform of the words in brackets. ln 2O O 7 a r um ou sr p re a db y c h a tro o ms a n dte x tmessage hit t he pr ic eof ba n a n a fro s mC h i n a ' sH a i n a ni s l a n dThe . m es s ages c laim e dth e fru i tc o n ta i n evdi ru s e th s a tborea (SIMILAR) strong1to SARS, the severerespiratory 2( lLL)whi c hh a sk i l l e dh u n d re dos f p e o p l ew orl dw i de. 3( P RO D U CoE) f th e b a n a n aisn H a i n a ns a \/th e 4( RE S ULpI ri c es l u mpc o s tth e mu p to 2 0 mi l l i on y uan( U5$2. 6m) a d a y .C h i n a ' A s g ri c u l tu re Mi n i s tr di y smi ssed (T R U E). the S A RS c laimas c o mp l e te l5yOffi ci ats (SC IEN CeEv)i d ence claim edt hatt her ew a sn o 6 to (TOTAL) supportthe rumourand that it was/without (P O S SIB LE foundat ion. T heya d d e dth a ti t w a s8 for) h um anst o c ont r a cat p l a n tv i ru sT . h eb a n a n afe a rscomeami d i nt er nat ional c on c e rnosv e rta i n te dC h i n e s e x p o rt s, i ncl udi ng e( A LLE GE o f )p o i s o n si n p e tfo o da n dto o thpaste. 10(RECENI Thestate-own ed ChinaDailynewspaper c r it ic is ed China' fso o ds a fe tyre g u l a to rs a n dc a l l e don the g ov er nm ent t h i n e sceo n s u m ers. t o do m o reto p ro te cC 3

f ) r . r + Do t he L i s te n i n ge x a mta s k .

L is t ent o a r adiop ro g ra m m ea b o u ta n u rb a nm y th.C hoose the correctanswer(A-D). 7

TheNewYorkTimesreportabout alligatorsstatedthat A t he f ir s tat l i g a tosr i g h ti n gto o k p l a c ei n a s ew age. B one of t hos ew h o fi rs ts a wa n a l l i g a tow r a s ki Ll ed. C one wasf irs ts e e nd u ri n ga p e ri o do f c o l dweather. D loc aIaut ho ri ti e re s fu s e dto i n v e s ti g a te th e matter.


S om eof t he p e o p l ea t B ro o k l y nMu s e u ms ta t i on A s aidt he an i m a lth e y ' ds e e nw a s e x tre m e ly bi g. B wit nes s eda n a l ti g a totra r n s p o rte o d n a tra i n. C t r iedt o t r a pth e a n i ma li n a ru b b i s hb i n . D pr ov ideda n e x p l a n a ti o fo n r th e a n i m a l ' sp r esence.

3 A c c or ding t o a p o p u l a rm y th ,a l l i g a to rs i n th e sew er A r epr oduc eadn d l i v e di n ta rg eg ro u p s . B had beenin tro d u c e d to fi g h t ra ts . C wereof a type specificto NewYork. D c lim bedup i n to p e o p l e ' sto i l e ts . 4

S c ient is ttshin k A alligat or g s ro wto o b i g to fi t i n to s e w e rs . B t her e' sno fo o dfo r a l l i g a to rs i n s e w e rs . C s ewer sar eto o c o l dfo r a l l i g a to rs to b re e d . D t heyneedt o d o mo rere s e a rc h i n to th e myth.

examtask. 4 oo the Reading

Readthe text. Decidewhich sentencepart (A-J)best fits eachgap (1-8). Thereare two optionsthat you do not need. An articlein the Japanese MainichiDailyNews(which cl ai msmerel yto ' that appearedi n a m agazr ne calledFushigiKnuckles) tettsthe storyof the attemptto i ntroduceW ormB urgersi n Japan.A food com pany,so the storygoes,tri edto marl < et w ormsas fo od f or hum an consumpti on becauseof thei rhi gh nutri tional value.Wor m B urgerscontai nedgroundw orms(i nsteadof beef l,chopped oni ons,w heat,fl ourand egg- w i th a ti ttl em it kt o m akeit go dow nmoreeasi ty.Themagazi nenotest hat 2t he W ormB urgerendedup as a maj orfl op.Thecom panyhad beentargeti ng w omenand youngpeopl e ,but appeart o havestruggl ed to overcome the i mageof wor m st - . It' s possi bl ethat the storyi s true,but i t i s m or et iket ya recycl i ng of the ol d W ormB urgerurbanmyt ho- . Thi surbanmythstartedw hen papersrepor t edt hat f ood sci enti sts w ereexperi menti ng w i th earthwor mas s a sour ce of protei n.Take,for i nstance, thi s arti cl eth at appear edin a numberof A meri cannew spapers i n mi d-Decem ber , 7975. t-the ' Thel ow tyearthw orm, fi sherman, is bur r owing i ts w ay i ntothe w orl dof bi g busi ness,and m aybe put t o w orksoonto hetpman growcrops,di spo seof gar bage and evensati sfyhi s di etaryneedfor protein.lf pr oducedin suffi ci entquanti tyat a costcompeti ti ve w it h ot herpr ot ein materi al s, w ormscoul dbe usedas feedfor pet s,poult r y, per centof a fi sh and otherani mal s,u-. S eventy- t wo w orm' sdryw ei ghti s protei n.' A ftera few arti cl esti kethi s had appeared, it was sim plya matterof ti me beforetal esbeganto sprea dof M cDonalds /-. and otherfast-foodchai ns H ow everwor , m sar e a muchmoreexpensi ve sourceof protei nthan beef ,so there' sIi ttl ereasonto fearthat fast-foodchainswi[ [st ar t paddi ngthei rburgersw i th w ormsu-. A B C D E F G H I J

i n the nearfuture secretl yusi ngw ormsi n thei rburgers i nsteadof protei n fromthe tate1970s i gnoredby al mosteverybody but repl aci ng the beefw i th w orms despi tethe besti ntenti ons be repeati ng a report as a bizarrefood as w el l as food for peopl e




Vocabutary.verb(+ adjective) + nouncollocations.setphrases.phrasesrelatedto friendship . literaland figulativelanguage.comparative phrases.phrasesfor negotiatinS.a61aa,'u"r tot p l a ce s. describing ( 1) d e p e n d e nptre p o sitions Gnmmar. contrast:presentperfectsimpleand continuous.verbpatterns Speaking.talkingaboutretationships. negotiation Writing. sn 3,11.1" a place "bout

i tqn tal k abaLttdi fferent k-it,,al.; af rel ati anslitp,

Relationsh ips 1

Matchtheverbs(1-9)withthe nouns(a-i)to formcommon expressions.

Workin groups.Lookat the photosandanswer thequestions. 1 Whatkindof partnership doeseachphotoshow? 2 Whatqualities areneeded to makeeachpartnership successfu [? 3 Whatotherkindsof partnership canyouthinkof?What qualities do theyrequire to be successful?

Collocation: verb+ noun 1 voicea a friendship 2 form b yourmind 3 offer c a dispute 4 pay d thefavour 5 take e a setback 6 resolve f attention g advice 7 return 8 speak h control suffer 9 i anopinion I + nouncollocations areatso ;;'l Someverb+ adiective common. Lookforthesein yourdictionary andin texts ,.=



l"r -*-i

(1-5)mentions f) r.rS Listenagain.Saywhichspeaker thesethings.Thenanswerthequestions. a gettingdepressed L_l (AboutwhatT) b beinglikea married couple L__l(lnwhatway?) c theirdifferent backgrounds L__l(Whatarethey?) d a partner's initatinghabit LJ (Whatis it?) e havingto be careful whatshesays L__l(Why?)

IOU l â&#x201A;Źi l d,

f; J

Overtheyears,theysufferedsomemajor setbacks. Paycloseottentionto whatl'm aboutto tell you.

Readthe Learnthis!box.Thencompletethe sentences with expressions fromexercise 4. 1 lt'simpossibte to a close withsomebody youhavea lotin common. unless 2 In anyfriendship, onepartner is always stronger andtends to of therelationship. 3 lf you'rewitha friend,it's alwaysOKto an honest


$ f .f S Listento fivepeoptetalkingabouttheirpartners. (1-5)withthe kindsof partnership (a-D Matchthe speakers gave you theyaredescribing. Whichwords a clue? a co-presenters of a newsprogramme L_j b iointownersof a ctothesshop L_l c a composer andlyricist L_l d co-stars of a stageplay L__l e a pairof circusacrobats L__l f a rattydriveranda navigator L__l


4 A friendship thathas a maioris stronger thanonewhichhasnot. 5 A friendwillnevergetannoyed or upsetwithyoufor constructive 6 Theeasiest wayto ais to ignoreit and pretend is wrong. thatnothing


Workin pairs.Doyouagreeor disagree withthe statements in exercise andexamples. 5?Givereasons possible I disagree withnumber 1. I thinkit'sperfectly to forma closefriendship withsomebody whois verydifferent fromyou.In fact,somepeoplesaythat'opposites attract'!


Vocabulary p.132 Buitder3.1:Setphrases:

Unit3.Partners (}

w Friends

I c q n d i s ctti s the meantng and impartawe af /liendship.

In pairs,discuss thisquotation by C.S.Lewis, authorof TheChronicles of Nornia.Doyouagreewith it? Can yougiveanyexamples of howfriendships in yourownlife began?


back down inside out through to up

Friendship is born at that moment when one person says to another:'What! You,too? I thought I was the only one.'

1 Asfriends, morethantenyearsandwe've we goknowneachotherevenlonger thanthat. years,butin the 2 Wehaven'tfalten at all in recent past,we'vehadour-s and-s. 3 We'veevenhadtheoddset-overthevears. 4 We'vebeenso muchtogether. problems 5 Recently, at workhavebeengettingme. 6 She'salways beensomebody I canreally open 7 lt'seasyto talkto closefriendsbecause theyknowyou

2 Readthe song.Howwouldsumup the meaningof the lyrics?

I twrn ta YauL When I'm last Ln the rain, In yaur eyetI knnw I'lLf.nd the ltght ta liqht My wqy. When I'vn scared, LqtiAg4ylald, When wry warl,/ it 9atn4 crazy,yo^ cat tur4 [t all araund And when I'm dawn yau'retltere; pushingnte ta tlrc tap. lou're alwaysthere:gtvinj wreall you qot. Far a shieldfou tl49garn, far a friend: for a love Ta keep Me ta,fe and warrn, I turw fo yot4. Far the strengthto be ttratry; For the wtll tn Asyryry, For everythingyau da, that's trtte, For everytlatn4 I turn ta yol4. WhevtI lasethe wrll ta I tusl reath {or yau and IJq4L reqch the sky 4qatn. I can da anyflttnq, 'Caus ey our lav e i- rta a m a z i n q ;' c a r$ yetu r l o v ei tupi rcs ntc. And I needa fvicnd, yau'rcalwaysan nt'ysi/e, -*hew 7iving me faitl.eta get wte thrauqhthe ntght For the arur ta be my sheltertlarauqhall tht Far truth that will ncverchanqe, Far sovneane ta leatt ott, Far a heart I tan, rely on through.anytl'ttnq, Fa r t he ane who I cq wra t ta ... I tt.trwto y1u.


phrases Exptain the underlined in yourownwords.


Workin pairs.Howmanyothersongscanyou yourideaswiththeclass. thinkof aboutfriendship? Compare a friend.Whichof Q f .f e Listento a womandescribing thesewordsandphrases bestdescribe thatfriend,andwhy? anacquaintance anassociatea childhood friend a classmatea crony a fair-weather friend a familyfriend a friendof a friend a soulmate a workmate oneof a close-knit circle(offriends)

Unit3 . Partners

theseexcerpts fromthe description f) f .f e Complete usingwordsfromthe box.(Youneedto usesomewords morethanonce.)Then[istenagainandcheck.

8 S he' sverydependabl e, and honest-


of the presentperfectin exercise 7 Lookat the examples 6. Tryto explainthe choiceof thesimpleor the continuous form.UseGrammar Reference 3.1on page119to helpyou. I


perfect Grammar Buitder 3.1:Present simpie p.I X9 andcontinuous:

Exptain thedifference in meaning between sentences a and b in eachpair,if thereis any. 1 a I'vespenta lot of timewithmybestfriend. b I'vebeenspending a lotof timewithmybestfriend. 2 a We'vedriftedapartsinceleaving school. b We'vebeendrifting apartsinceleaving school. 3 a Howlonghaveyoubeenworkingin lT? b Howlonghaveyouworkedin lT? 4 a Haveyouseenthegirlin theftatbelowus? b Haveyoubeenseeingthegirtin theftatbetowus? a 5 Haveyoubeenwearing the coatI boughtyou? you Have b wornthecoatI boughtyou?

9 Lookat the boxin exercise 5 andchooseonetypeof friend fromyourownlife.Writedownfivekeypointsaboutyour relationship withthatperson. Tryto includeappropriate phrases fromthe songandfromexercise 5.


Workin pairs.Taketurnsto beA andB. StudentA: Usingyournotesfromexercise 9, tellyour partner aboutyourfriend. Thenanswer B's ouestions. StudentB: Listencarefully to yourpartner's description. Thenaskthreequestions aboutthefriendusing perfect thepresent simpleor continuous. For examole:

'1;1i i l r r r i - i 11 j)lrllr

FTiLilKTIIFExplainthis slightlyalteredquotationfromthe lrishwriterOscarWildein yourownwords.Whatdoesit tell youabouthisattitudeto marriage?

Bigamy is having one husband or wife too many, So l's monogamJz FEI:ilmlH Workin pairs.Lookat the chartaboutweddings in Britain.Present it contains to anotherpair. the information WEDDING VENUES

church licensed venue abroad RegistryOffice

licensedvâ&#x201A;Źltuâ&#x201A;Ź= a non-retigious venue(e.9.hotelor restaurant) whjchhasbeengranteda licenceto perform weddingc er em on i e s Registry0ffice (or RegisterOffice)=a municipaloffice whichperforms non-religious wedd'ing ceremonies and also officiallyrecordsbirths,deathsand marriages Fill]liKilfd Work in pairs. Comparethe informationin exercise2 with your own country.Answerthe questions. 1 Ar et he bas icc hoi c e so f v e n u eth e s a m e ?Ex p l a i nany differences. 2 Doy ou t hinkc hur c hw e d d i n g sa re m o reo r l e s sp o p ul ari n your country?Why? f) r.rZ Listento a newsreport.What is it chieflyabout? a th e r is ingc os tof w e d d i n g si n B ri ta i n b Br it is hhabit sand a tti tu d e sc o n c e rn i nw geddings c th e dec liningpopu ta ri ty o f w e d d i n g si n B ri ta i n f) r.rZ Listenagain.Are the sentencestrue or false accordingto the report?Correctthe falseones. t 4 2 perc entof m en a n d w o m e nw o u l dl i k eto l o s ew ei ght b ef or et heirwedd i n g . 2 C ouplesget t ingm a rri e di n te n dth e w e d d i n gto c o st,on a v er age, f 10, 500. 3 Th es ur v eyonlyinc l u d e dme n a n d w o m e nb e tw e enthe a gesof 20 and 34 . 4 N ear lya quar t erof b ri d e sp a ymo reto w a rd sth e w e ddi ng th an t he gr oomdo e s . c ouplest e n d to h a v es h o rte re n g a g e m e n ts 5 Younger than o tderc ouoles . 6 A t ot of m en s aidt h e yw o u l dmo s tl i k eth e i rb ri d eto l ook Ii k eK at eW ins leto n th e i rw e d d i n gd a y .


fl l


l i l :l l l i ,r r tr

Ff[il[I[Im Work in pairs.Answerthe questionsand justify your answers. 1 Wouldyou payfor any beautytreatmentsbeforeyour w eddi ngday?W oul dyou w antor expectyourf ianc6( e) t o? 2 l f you get marri ed,w hi chcel ebri ty w oul dyou m ost[ iket o you resembl eon yourw eddi ngday?W hi chcetebr itwould y mostl i keyourfi anc6(e) to resembl e? O f .f e Listento six peopletalkingabout differentaspects of weddingsand marriage.Choosethe correctanswers. 1 A man i s tal ki ngaboutw eddi ngs.W hatofte nspoilst hem , i n hi s ooi ni on? a the musi cduri ngthe eveni ng b the standardof food at the reception c a fami l yargument 2 A w omani s tal ki ngaboutthe ageyou can l egallym ar r yin the U K .W hati s her opi ni onof the l aw ? a S hethi nksthe ageshoutdbe rai sed. b S hedoesn' tthi nk parentalconsentshou ldbe needed. c S hebel i evesthe exi sti ngl aw shoul dremain. 3 A man i s compl ai ni ng aboutcoupl esw ho ch ooset o m ar r y i n a church.W hyi s he cri ti cal ? a H ethi nkseveryone shoul dhavea ci vi lcer em ony. b H ethi nkstheychoosei t for the w rongreasons. c H e doesn' tbel i evei n maki ngrel i gi ous vo ws. 4 A w omani s di scussi ng supersti ti ons surrounding marri age. W hati s her atti tudeto them? a S hei s determi ned to fol l owthem as muchas oossible. b S hedoesn' tbel i evei n them but thi nksthey'r ewor t h fotl ow i ngas partof tradi ti on. c S hethi nksthey' reri di cul ousand refusest o f ollowt hem . 5 A man i s expl ai ni ng the tradi ti onalorderof speeches at a B ri ti shw eddi ngrecepti on. W hi chthreepeoplegive soeech es? a the bestman,the bri deand the groom b the bri de' sfather,the groomand the bestm an c the bri de,the bri de' sfatherand the bestm an 5 A w omani s tatki ngaboutunusualw eddi ngvenues.What i s her atti tudeto them? a S hethi nksthat the moreunusualthe ven ueis. t he better. b S hethi nksi t i s vervromanti c. c S hethi nkspeopl el ust do i t for publ i ci ty. Ffilill[Ifd

Work in pairs.Answerthe questions.

1 W hati s the i dealageto get marri ed,i n youropinion? 2 D o you knowany supersti ti ons connected to weddingsin your country? 3 W hathappensat a typi calw eddi ngi n yourcount r y?( Think aboutthe ceremony, the recepti on, the gue st s,gif t s,et c. )

Lr nit3 .Par i ner .s fh

!W i t,tt,,

Loveconquers atl

y 11,,/g7.',1,1t i u', ;l t 1c t

t'c ," i ( ! 16 4l ,l ,.t

1 F|i[-flKIIfd Workin pairs.Discuss whatproblemsmightbe experienced bytwo peoplewantingto bea coupleif: a they'refromdifferent continents. b theyfollowdifferent religions. c oneis froma richfamilyandtheotherfroman ordinary working-class family.

;1r .:r '

Love and War

2 FnffiKIIIA Shareyourideasfromexercise1 with the class. Decide whethera, b or c wouldcreatethe mostproblems. Wouldyoupersonally bewillingto facetheseproblems for the rightperson? ,

Readthetextquickly. Whichof the problems fromexercise 1 did EhdaaandSeanface?

trueor false?In 4 Readthe textagain.Arethe sentences whichparagraph A-K canyoufindevidence to supportyour answers? 1 At theirfirstmeeting theattraction between Seanand Ehdaa wasphysicat. 2 Thewriterfindsit surprising thatthearmywasnotmore supportive of therelationship between SeanandEhdaa. commanding officer madeit impossibte 3 Sean's forSean andEhdaa to seeeachotherafterthewedding. 4 AsEhdaa setoffto be reunited withSean,shewas preoccupied withtherisksof thejourney. patroIknewthatthesecret of Sean's 5 Members wedding wasgoingto takeplace. 5 Seantooktimeofffromhisarmvdutiesin lraoin orderto bewithEhdaa. in Ehdaa's 7 Thefactthattherehasbeenmediainterest storymakesit easier forherto enter,|ordan. foundit difficutt 8 SeanandEhdaa to communicate with eachotherwhentheywerefaceto face. 9 Thearmyoverestimated the strength of feelingbetween SeanandEhdaa. 10 Therulesof themilitary forbidsoldiers frommarrying local civilians whiteon activeservice. 11 Seanfeelsstightty awkward whenhe is reunited with Ehdaa in lordan. hisreligious 12 Seanchanged beliefs before marrying Ehdaa.

Manymilitary wordsandphrases canbe usedin a literal militaryevents,or in a figurative senseto describe sense otherkindsof events. to describe Literal:Caesor's ormiesoutflanked theirenemyand attackedthemfrom behind. Figurative: ThePrimeMinister'sonnouncement has outflanked his opponents, whowereplanningto raisethis veryissuethemselves.

Unit3 . Partners

per haps, A Theysayal l ' sfai ri n l oveandw ar;unl ess, it i nvol ves the U SA rmy.A yearago,w henan Am er ican sol di erfel li n l ovei n B aghdad, hi scommander or der ed hi mnotto marry.W hatw as a heartsi ck soldier t o do? W el l ,S gtS eanB l ackw ell aunched l a secr etm ission to marrythe lraqiwomanhe loved.That'swhen the Armycamedownwith bothbootsandordered B l ackw elhome, l 11,000 ki l ometres fromh is br ide,Ehdaa, apparentlnever y to seeheragai n. B B uttherew as onethi ngthe A rmydi dn' count t 's - t hatlove,of somethi ng el setheysayaboutromance course,conquers al l .l t' s6 a.m.i n B agh dad andEhdaa B l ackw eli sl donni ng a bul l et-proof vest.She'sf illed with hopefor a new future,evenas shewavesgoodbye to everythi ng shehaseverknow n.E hdaais m akinga runof 500ki l ometres throughthe danger of s t he Sunni Tri angl e, tryi ngto reachhernewA merican husband, t he onethatthe A rmyorderedoutof herl i fe .'Som et im es, youjustfall in loveandyou don'tknowwhy.I think 'l thinkwe'remeantto be it'sourfate,'saysEhdaa. together. I just can'twaitto see him.' C Thedreami s to bri ngtogether tw o l i vest hatcouldntbe moredifferent. Ehdaagrewup wealthyin a countryat w ar.S eangrewup peaceful liy, n a w orking- class ar ea i n Fl ori da. H e l i stened to countrymusi c;shelist ened to S addam. S hew entto medi calschoolhe ; heldt o a f am ily tradi ti on, fol l ow i ng hi sfatherandsi x unclesint ot he military. D A fterthefal lof B aghdad, B l ackw ell anded l in oneof , thosepl acesw herethetensi onw as gre at estBaghdad's bi ggesthospi tal0ne . day.ami dthe chao s,in walked Ehdaa,a younglraqidoctor.'Tobe honest,when I first mether,I was like,you know,she'svery,veryattractive, butyou knoq what'sthe pointof tryingto starta 'Andt he m or e rel ati onshiover p here?'recal l sB l ackwell. we talked.the morewe startedto learnabouteach other,andi t di dn' ttake l ongfor,youkno w,em ot ional attachment to growthere.'

E 'l s aw a t all,s hy ,h a n d s o me s o l d i e r. H e h a dth e mo st beaut if ul ey esI h a de v e rs e e n ,' s a yEh . d aa s d a aEh hadnev erm etan Ame ri c a n b e fo rei n h e rl i fe .Bu t s oon,s hewas s e e i n gth i sA m e ri c a n e v e ryfe w d a ys. B lac k well hadbe e ni n l ra qo n l ya fe w w e e k sb, u t bet weenpat r olsa n dw e a p o n sra i d ss, h e ' db ri n gh i m hom e- c ook ed m e a l sa n dh o u rso f c o n v e rs a ti o' ln . st ar t edt hink ingw, h a tw e a red o i n gi s i m p o s s i b l e . l' m M us limandh e ' sa C h ri s ti a n I' .m l ra q ia n dh e ' s Am er ic an. lt jus tc a n ' th a p p e ns,'a y sE h d a a' l.t d i d . Lov ec anpr odu c em i ra c l e sI .d o b e l i e v th e i sn o w .' F Afterthreemonthsof war-zonedating,Blackwell took t he plunge- k ee p i n go,f c o u rs ew, i thl o c a tra l d i ti o n, n s k e dm a nwher ea m ar r iag p e ro p o s ai sl a q u e s ti o a t o- m an.B lac k w eal l s k e dE h d a a 'bsro th e r, w h oto l d h im ,' l' d be hono u refo d r y o uto m a rrym y s i s te r.' But u nderloc allar y a Mu s l i mw o ma nc a nma rryo n l ya Mus limm an.S o Bl a c k w esl lto o db e fo rea n l ra q ij u dge a nds aidin A r ab i c':T h e re 'osn l yo n eG o da n dth a t's G odandM ohame ids th e m e s s e n g eorf Go d .' T h r ough t hos ewor ds .B la c k w e b l l e c a mea Mu s l i ml.t w a s a c onv er s ion of c o n v e n i e n cneo, tc o n v i c ti o n . G Thec ouplewas re a d yto s a y ' l d o ' w h e nBl a c k w el l ' s c om m anding of f i c e sr te p p e d i n .T h e rew a s n o r egulat ion again sat m a rri a g eb,u tth e b a tta l i o n c om m ander was w o rri e dth a t,i n a w a r z o n ei,t w o ul d be a danger ous d i s tra c ti o S n .o h e o rd e re dBl a c k wel l notto get married.'Wewere broughttogetherby s om e,s om ehigh efo r rc eth a no u rs e l v e sa ,n di t w a s m eantt o be, 's ay sBl a c k w e l'lAn . dI w a s n ' tg o i n gto let anybodystopthat.'Forthe firsttimein his career, S gtB lac k well s e to u tto d i s o b e a y n o rd e r.0 n a s i z zl i ng l i tha s m a ll A ugus m t or ningh,e w e n to u to n p a trow team,Thesoldiersresponded to a rocketattack l a d ea n B utont he way b a c kto b a s eth , e p a trom unauthorised detourto a restaurant. H Twosoldierswith heavyweaponsstoodguardoutside. B lac k well wentin toth e c o u fi a rdw h e reEh d a aw as w ait ingwit hherf a m i l ya, j u d g ea, n da p a i ro f ri n g s. F r iends t r ans lateth d e A ra b i cv o w sa n dre c o rd e o dn tapeones m allm o me not f p e a c ei n a l a rg e w r a r.l t endedwit ha k is so n th efo re h e a da,n dth e nB l a c kw el l l i thh i ste a m .H eh a s n 'st e e n w entbac kon patrow E hdaain oer s ons i n c e 0. n c eth e b a tta l i ocno mmander foundoutaboutt h ew e d d i n gBl , a c k w ew l l a se x i l e d to B aghdad ls lan di n th el l g ri s R i v e r. H o w e v en r,o c har ges wer ef ile da g a i n sBl t a c k w e lal ,n di t ma yb e thatthe Armylustwantedthe wholethingto go away. gotaw a yw i th n o mo reth a na re p ri m a n d B lac k well andlef tt he m ilit a ry w i tha n h o n o u ra b d l ei s c h a rg e . I B uts ixm ont hsafte rh i sw e d d i n gBl , a c k w esl la i d goodby teo hismo th e a r n dh e a d e db a c kto w a rd sth e w ar z onehe hadr e c e n tl lye ft.Eh d a ae, s c o rte d by herlit t lebr ot her, s p e dp a s tth e w a r z o n e so f F a l l u jah andRam adi t owa rd sth e re n d e z v o uosn th e b o rd e r bet weenlr aqandJ o rd a nSo . o nth , e 1 1 ,0 0 0 -k i l o m etre separation is cut downto a stretchof highway, 80 k ilom et r es long.

guardssearchthe carthreeti mes,and A t the border, pul l sE hdaaandher bro t heraside Jordani an i ntel l i gence for questi oni ng. Therei s no guarantee thatshewill m ake i t outof l rao- S addam di dn' al t l owdoctorsto h ave passports. S hespendsthreehoursgoi ngnow h er e, when the i mprobablhappens; e oneof the guardsrec ognises her froman arti cl ehe readaboutan l raoiw omanwho m ar r ied an Americansoldier. And in thisdustylittleoutpost, fame i s a passport. E hdaaconti nues on herj ourneya ndat ' S hel oo ks. just l ast,i n Jordan, the coupl earereuni ted, as beauti ful as thefi rstti meI sawher.I feelso comf or t able. It'slikeI haven'tbeenawayfromherfor six months,' says B l ackw el l .




In a sense, the B l ackw el lare s exactl yw hatthe Pent agon haddreamed of at the startof the w ar - A merican sol di ers embraced by l raq.l t seemsi roni cthatwhent he gotw hati t w anted,at l easton a smal sl cale,it mi l i tary manoeuvred to di vi de, onl yto be outfl anked by a soldier w ho w oul dnotdi sobey the ordersof hi sheart.


Readthe reading tip on page30.Complete theseverb-noun collocations fromthetext. a to a (secret) mission b to a bullet-proof vest c to anorder d to on oatrol e to _ to an attack f to-adetour g to guard h to charges

6 Complete the sentences withcollocations fromexercise 5. Arethe phrases usedliterallyor figuratively? 1 Onthewayhomefromschool, intotownto buy wea newvideogame. 2 Thechiefexecutive wasaccused of negligence, butbypointing outthattheevents in question occurred before histermof employment began. 3 Threemembers wereseverely of thebattalion reprimanded foraftertheygaveunauthorised interviews to theoress. governments 4 SomeAfrican malaria to eradicate by 201.5. 5 Theymeton thestepsof theArtInstitute of Chicago, wheretwobronze lionsoutside theentrance. 6 Someareasof townareconsidered thatpotice so lawless going officers areinstructed to before on foot patrot.

7 F{E:ilKIIG Workin pairs.Thinkabouta storyyou know whichinvolves lovetriumphing overobstacles. lt couldbe a truestory,a bookor a film.Answer the questions. 1 Whatexactty werethe obstacles? 2 Howdidthecoupte manage to overcome them? 3 Whatisyouropinion of thestory?

I FifilKTIfA Workin pairs.Presentyourstoryto the class. l _l ni t 3. P rrtnprc





I ust orvariety o.fvcrb patterns

Whenyouworkcloselywithsomeone, whatkind of persondo youworkbetterwith?Givereasons. a a familymember c a n a c q u a i n tance b a closefriend d a stranger 3 Complete thetextwiththe infinitive, baseform(infinitive withoutfo),pastparticipleor -ingformof the verbsin brackets. Thendescribe thetwins'working relationship in yourownwords.

entry.Doesthisverbtakean infinitive 4 Lookat the dictionary or -ingform?Howdo you know? post'pone /pa'spaun; NAmF pou'spoun/ verb - sth (tol until sth) to arrange for an event, etc. to take place at a later time or date EIE pur oFF: lvNl The game hos already been postponed three rimes. o We'll have to postpone the meeting unt| next week o lv -ingl lt w6 an unpopular decision to postpone building the new hospital.---<ompare cANcEL > post pone ment noun lU,Cl: Riots led to the postponement of local eletions.


1 2 3 4

Like many identical twins, Helen and Morna Mulgray are used to '-_=-.--_ (do) things together. They have always (watch)the same enjoyed2television programmesand have tended 3(read)the samebookstoo. (pursue)the They even choseasamecareeras teachers.Now, at the age of 68, being retired has allowed them (focus) on a mutual hobby: 'Weboth spent 31.years6(work) as Engtish teachers,so we've alwaysbeen keen on 7(write)i said Morna. (get) their novel, It took the twins five years 8e which is entitled No SuspiciousCircumstances, (pubtish). Atthough the finat detaits of the agreementwith (be) finatised, they their pubtisher have yet 10(be) fotlowedby at teasttwo more. anticipatethe book 11Morna, who is the elder by ten minutes, said: 'Weboth sit (be) closestto at the laptop, and whoeverhappens72(type) just startsi Helen the computer or feels like 13added:'Occasionallythere are smatt disagreementsover the text but ...'She lets her sister1a(finish):It rarety happensl

3 Findoneverbin thetextfor eachverbpattern(1-5).Usethe verbto makeyourownexamplesentence. 1 verb+ infinitive decide:Wedecidedto get morriedin lune. 2 verb + object+ infinitive

persuade: My sisterpersuaded meto takeup aerobics. 3 verb + object+ baseform

make:Myparentsmademe learnthepiano. verb (+ object)+ -ing form imagine: I con't imagine (my brother)becomingrich. verb + object+ past participle have: She had her car stolen lastweekend.

$r am r na B r u i l d e r3 .2 :Ve rbp a tte rn s{ t): p . 1i 9

Unit3 . P ar tn e rs

Usea dictionaryto find out if the verbsin the box: take an infinitive. take an -ing form. take either,with no differencein meaning. take either,but with a differencein meaning. claim demand fail guarantee hate love refuse remember risk stop try

V erbpatternscan i ncl udepassi ve,perf ectand cont inuous forms of the infinitiveor -ing form. She claimsto have met Leonalewis. (perfectinfinitive) The window oppeors to have been broken deliberately. (passiveperfectinfinitive) 6

Readthe Look out! box. Then completethe text with the infinitive or -ing form of the verbs in brackets.You may need to use passiveand/or perfectforms. SamandDavewereoneofthemostpopular singingduosofthe 1960s.Theirliveperformances wereso goodthatsomeotherstars oftheirdagrefused1[book]onthesamebillin casetheg weremade2second-rate. In hisautobiographg, [look] 3the bossof Atlantic Records remembers [impress] bgSamandDave's'harmong andgoodwill'on stage.In fact,the two performers wereonlgpretendinga[have]a good srelationship. Offstage, theuwerehardlgmanaging terms.WhenDaveshotandinjuredhisown Istag]on speaking ?wifein a domestic dispute, Samgaveup 6[trgJ ang kind of relationship with his partner. Although Dave ImaintainJ (forgive) seems8bg hiswifeshortlgaftertheshooting, Samrecallss[disgust]so muchbgtheeventthathetold 'l'llsingwithgoubut l'llneverspeakto gouagain.'And Dave: thegwenton 10he claims11[performJtogether, speak] a word to Dave forthe next twelvegears. Inot


(2):p.120 Builder Grammar 3.1:Verbpatterns

Workin pairs.Tellyourpartnersomething thatyou: 1 regretnothavingdone. 2 canimagine having beensaidaboutyou. 3 weretaughtto do bya relative. 4 wouldhatebeingmadeto listento. 5 hopeto bedoingin fiveyears'time.

*ql-rr (

Negotiation Fifililfifl Workin pairs.Lookat the photosin exercise 2. Match1-8 witha-f to makecomparative phrases and decidewhichcaf6eachphraseis liketyto applyto. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

moreattentive l i v elier mo r eaf f luent larger moreaffordabte h i ghers t andar dso f mo r elaid- bac k mo r eup- m ar k et

a b c d e f

atl ri il


1 W hatfeaturesw oul dyouri deaIni ghtctubhave? 2 W hatdo you i magi nearethe bestand w orstaspect sof w orki ngi n a ni ghtcl ub? 3 D o you thi nkow ni nga ni ghtcl ubi s an easywayt o m ake money?W hy?/W hynot?

p o rti o n s hygiene staff a tmo s p h e re c l i e n te l e d ri n k s

mlj|lKllfd lmaginethat you and your partner are going to opena new ni ghtcl ub.D eci deon: 1 2 3 4 5

2 Flil-ilKllfd Workin pairs.Compare andcontrastthe photos. Whatkindof peoplewouldyouexpectto findat eachcaf6? Whichcaf6wouldyoupreferto visit,andwhy?


youarebusiness partners 3 Fnl]|lKllfd Workin pairs.lmagine whoplanto buya caf6.Whichof thefactorsbelowdo you thinkis mostimportant? Givereasons. 1 l o cat ion 2 size 3 i n t er naIdec or at io n

4 e x te rn aal p p e a ra n ce 5 name 6 quatityof staff

partners 4 f) r.rf Listento two business discussing three caf6s.Whichdo theydecideto buy?Whichtwofactorsfrom exercise 3 leadto the decision? a TheSoupBowl b Mario's c TheCorner Caf6 5

f) Comptetethese usefulphrasesfrom the dialogue. Th e nl is t enagainand c h e c k . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

So , let ' slookat t he d i ffe re n t Wh atput s m e i s ... Atl in , it is n ' tv e rya p p e a l i n g . | thinkwe s hout d o n toth e n e x to o ti o n . Thisone hasquit ea l o t fo r i t, i n m y o p i n i o n . C any ou t hink of an y? | su ppos et her ear e a ro u n dth a t. | think it ' s def init e ty c o n s i d e ri n g . On r ef lec t ion, m ay b ew e s h o u l d th a f o n fi o n So, hav ewe a decision? I'ttgo wit h t h a t.

ml:l?fKllfd Workin pairs.Ask and answerthe questions.

a name. the typeof cl i entel eyou w i shto attract. the typeof musi cyou w i tl pl ay. the i mage:i nternaIdecorati on and externaappear I ance. w hatfood and dri nkyou w i l [ offer.

FdfilfKllfd With your partner,imagine now that you have receivedsuggestions(1-5) from a marketingagencyfor improvingthe profitabilityof your new club. Discusseach suggestionand decidewhich one you are goingto choose. Thi nkaboutquesti ons(a-e) bel owand i ncl udephr asesf r om exercise5. a Witlit be popularwithyourclientele? b Witlit be easy/difficult/cheap/expensive to organise? c Willit be popular/unpopular with localresidents? d Wittit be moreattractive to peopleon theirown/ingroups? e W i l ti t be profi tabl e? W hy?/W hynot?

Fancq dress nigllt!


Differentthemeeochweek t5 entrg fee t50 prizefor the winning costume

llanny hout! Halfnficedfinlslrom7- I n.m.eueru euening.

e Srrt+las flqh"l U


iJnitr.Partne. /-F


F|Il-ilKIflA Lookat the photos in the article.Which town wouldyou preferto visit?Givereasons. Readthe article.Foreachtown, saywhich of the topics b elowar e m ent io n e d . a b c d

eat ingout ar c hit ec t ur e night lif e s hopping

e f g h

sport e x c u rs i o n s c u l tu rea n d a rts s u rro u n d i nlga n d s c a pe

The Cotswoldsregion in the centre of Englandboastssome of the most exquisitesceneryin the country,as well as some of the quaintestvillages,renowned for their golden Cotswold stone.Alternatively,if shopping and nightlife are more your scene,both are readily availablein some of the largertowns. Why not base a visit around two contrastingtowns?They make perfect partnersfor the ideal holiday!

Burford Y ouc an liv enup a d e s c ri p ti o n b y g o i n gb e y o n dbasi c voc abularand y u s i n gmo ree l a b o ra tew o rd sa n d phrases. . o mp a re : Thisals o helpst o a v o i dre p e ti ti o nC Thereare a lot of shops in the town centre. Thetown centreboastsan impressivearray of shops. Readt he wr it ingti p . T h e nl o o kth ro u g hth e a rti c l eand fi nd: t a y so f s a y i n gth a t th e rei s/area l ot 1 at leas tf our diffe re nw of s om et hing. 2 as m anydif f er e nat d j e c ti v eas s p o s s i b l ew h i c hhavea bas em eaningo f ' a ttra c ti v e ' .

Rich in history,Burford is situatedtwenty miles north of Oxford and is reminiscentof a town from a storybook.The High Street,which slopesgently down to the willow-fringed River Wi n d r u s h , i s l i n e d o n e i t h e r s i d e w i t h g o l d e n sto n e h o u se s, some of which date back to the fifteenthcentury. Often describedas the southernBatewayto the Cotswolds, Burford is ideally placed for excursions,whether it be on foot, by car or by bicycle. Explorethe picturesquecountrysideof c e n t r a l E n g l a n d ,w h e r e i d y l l i c v i l l a g e st u c k e d aw a y i n w o o d e d valleys are waiting to be discovered

W or kin pair s .Us i n ga d i c ti o n a ryto h e tpy o u ,d e ci dew hi ch synonym(a-c) is teasttikelyto be apptiedto a town or city. W hatels em ightit d e s c ri b e ? 1 2 3 4

interesting: a large: a old: a modern: a

captivating b considerobleb oncient b up-to-date b

fascinatingc immense c ontique c current c

gripping vast historic contemporory

Rewritethe sentences,going beyondbasicvocabulary. Try n o t t o us et he s amep h ra s em o reth a n o n c e . 1 T her ear ea lot o f o l d , a ttra c ti v e b u i l d i n g so n th e HighS t r eet . 2 T her ear ea lot o f l a rg e m , o d e rnb u i td i n g si n th e f inanc ialdis t ri c t. 3 T hepor t hasa l o t o f i n te re s ti nhgi s to ry . 4 T her e' sa lot f or y o u n gp e o p l eto d o i n th e to w n centre. 5 T her ear ea lot o f mo d e rnIn te rn ect a fe sn e a rth e stati on. 6 A lot of c ult ur ei s o n o ffe ri n th e th e a tred i s tri c t. ${trTKnTd Workin pairs.Describesomeof the attributesof your own town or city,or a placeyou knowwell, usingthese from the article. expressions 1 lf is y ou rth i n g ,th e n ... 2 lf is / ar em o rey o u rs c e n e th , e n ... 3 F ort hos es eek i n g

Cheltenham lf shopping is your thing, then Cheltenham,on the western edge of the Cotswold region, has a Breatdeal to offer,from fashion to furniture and from accessoriesto antioues.The Beechwood ShoppingCentre,a stone'sthrow from the train s t a t i o n ,h a s a w e a l t h o f w e l l - k n o w n s t o r e s ,w h i l e fo r th o se seekinga more individual purchase,Suffolk Streethas a parade o f s m a l l , i n d e p e n d e n ts h o p s . By night, the streetsof Cheltenhamare teeming with Iife, and thanks to the wide variety of ven ues offering after-hours e n t e r t ani m e n t , c l u b b e r sa r e well provided for. The town also catersfor couples,anct w h e t h e ry o u w i s h t o d i n e at a romantic hide-awayor a b u s y b i s t r o ,y o u 'l l f i n d y o u r s e l fs p o i l e df o r c h o i c e .


uni:'i " pai*rers

( qr 1 t / , t r l t ( a \ p( lt t lar

ArtICle dbAut A

1 6 t t t I d c s l i 't c l t a r t .

Workin pairs.Lookat the adiectives places. for describing Dividethemintotwogroups:positiveandnegative. Which adjectives couldgo in eithergroup,depending on your opinion? affluent bustling cosmopotitancrowded deprived desolatehigh-risehilly historic industrialisotated picturesqueremote rundownsprawlingthriving touristy vibrant wel[-connected F{il-{K[fd Compare andcontrastthe two photosusing adjectives fromexercise 1. Answerquestions 1-4 below.

Findexpressions 1-12 in the articleon page34 andwrite the missingpreposition. 1 renowned throw 7 a stone's 2 rich8 teemi ng 3 reminiscent 9 thanks 4 tined 10 well provided 5 to dateback77 to caterplaced 6 ideally 72 spoi l tchoice Complete theseexpressions witha preposition. Usea dictionary. with 1 buzzing 5 to be home 2 to ptayhost6 bl essed 3 steeped 7 to date 4 to harkbackI to take pri de Completethe sentenceswith expressions from exercise5. a C hel tenham i s 1to the w orl d-famous Chelt enham 2racetrack. EveryMarch,the racetrack to the annualC hel tenham Festi valw. hi chl to 1902. b Theresi dents of B urfordoi n theirt own, w hi chi s 5i n hi story.TheB ayTreeH o t el,which 6fromthe si xteenthcentury,mai ntainsm any ori gi nalfeaturessuchas stonefl oorsand openf ir eplaces. Readthe task below.In pairs,choosethe two townsyou are goingto write about and makenotes.Usethe topicsin exercise2 on page34 for ideas.

1 Wh ic hplac ewouldy o u p re fe rto v i s i t?Gi v ere a s o ns. 2 Wh ic hplac ewouldy o u p re fe rto l i v ei n ?Gi v ere a s ons. 3 Wh atdo y ou im ag i n ew o u l db e th e a d v a n ta g easn d d i s adv ant ages of li v i n gs o me w h e re i s o l a te d ? 4 Wh atdo y ou im ag i n ew o u l db e th e a d v a n ta g easn d disadvantages of livingsomewheretouristy?

A d i c t ionar yent r ywi l l o fte ni n c l u d ei n fo rma ti o na b o ut prepositionsthat go with that word.Tryto learnthe word . k ea n o te a n d t he pr epos it ion to g e th e a r s a p h ra s e Ma o f th em as y ou c om ea c ro s sth e m.Wri ti n ga n e x a mpl e se n t enc ec an helpt o fi x i t i n y o u r me mo ry . Readthe writingtip. Thencompletethis sentenceusing informationfrom the dictionaryentry below. C h e lt enham benef i ts


e x c e l te n ttra n s D o rtc onnecti ons.


. verb\-t-or-tt-) 1 [VN]to be usefulto sb or improvetheir life in someway: Weshouldspendthe moneyon somethtng that w iII benefit everyone

W ri tean arti cl efor an i n-fti ghtmagazi ne exto lt ing t he virtuesof two contrastingtownsin your region.

Workin pairs.Writeyourarticle(200-250words). 1 Useyournotesto writeaboutonetowneach.Tryto go beyondbasicvocabulary. your 2 Swapyourworkandmakesuggestions forimproving partner's writing. 3 Worktogether to writetheintroduction. yourworkusingthe listbelow. Check

Haveyou mentioned a rangeof attractive features for ! eachtown? written thecorrect number of words? ! gone beyondbasicvocabulary? ! prepositions? used the correct I checked thespetting andgrammar? !

2 [v] - (from/bysth)to be in a better position becauseof sth: better position becauseof sth: I4lhoexactly stand.sto benefitfrom thesechange s?

Unit3.Par r ner s f}

EHn 3 Lookat the photo from a newspaper you story.What do think the story might be? Usethe expressionsin the box to help you. ch it dhoods weet h e a rts ro ma n c eb l o s s o m e d d ri ftapart mut uallov e t o t i e th e k n o t

friends.'l'hetrvo lost touch rvher-r fackicrrovedon to secondary school.For 26 yearsJackierirn a rescLlchorre frrr rabbitsin Hythe, a coupleof hundred miles arvavfron-rJohn.After being rcunited ou the Iuternet,the couplearrangedto meetup irr Soutl-ranrpton. '\\re knew we kx'ecleachother beforerveevenmet up,'saiclfohn. So,takingdrasticsteps,fohn resignedfrorn his job and sta)'edin Sor,rthampbn. l)espitethe obstacles they had to overcome,and the peoplethev hurt, JackieanclJohnboth firmly believeit u'asall


examtask. 2 Dothe Reading

Readthetext.Forquestions 1-8, choose thecorrect maybe chosen couple(A-C).Thecouples morethanonce. A BeatriceBallott,84, first met 87-year-oldIvan Hicks in 1942 when shewasa clerkin a bank in Oudtshoornand he was stationednear the towrl as part of his training for the RAF.The pair met at a party and their romancesoonblossomed, but n'hen Mr Hicks rvasstationedback in Englandthel'drilled apart. Eventuall)',they both married,although they stayedin touch over the yearsrvith lettersand cards.However,u'hen Mr Hicks' wife passedarr'aylast 1'earhe set about going through his diary ar-rdit was then that he can-reacrossMs Ballotts telephonenurnber.After his daughterHazelcontactedher for him, the trvo arrangedto see eachother.They quickh'realised that their mutuallovefor each other was still present.The pair happilytied the knot on Saturda,v, September 26th. B Childhoodsrveethearts SueHammond and Chris Osnrenthave nrarriedafierbeingreunitedr.iathe Internet30 yearsafterthev first met. Rornanceflrst blossomedbet'rveen the couplewhcn thev werc l5-year-oldpupilsat HighfieldComprehensive Schoolin Newcastlc, in the north-eastof England.But afterthey left school they didn't sete)'eson eachother again until last year,rvhenthev madecontacton the FriendsReunitecl website.Both Chris and Sueweresinglefollorvingthe break-upof their ntarriages. Thev chattedto eachother everydav for nvo months using rvebcams bcforeSusantravelledto Chris'snervhome on the oppositesirle of the rvorld.Shespeut nvo lveeksin S,vdney beforereturning to the UK, but then atierfbur painfulmonthsapartfrom Chris,she madethc decisionto ernigrateto Australiafor a nervlife rvith the man shelovecl. C A nrirn hasleft his n'if'eafier rneetinga childhootl srveetheart he hardnot scenfor nearlyhalf a centLrry.fohn Pearceir'alkeclout on his rr'if'eof 20 vearsto rneetup with old friend JackieButt irntl rreverwent backhomc.They met eachother on the Friends Reunilecl website,the lnternetsitewhich putsold schoolfriends backin tor.rchrvith eachothcr.JackieanclJohnmet at prinrrrv schoolin Ph'mor.rth in l9-52at the ageof fir'cirnd cltrickll'becante

W hi chcoupl e: 1 neverhad a peri odw hentheyw erenot i n cont act ? p the f eet ings 2 pri ori ti sed thei row n rel ati onshiover of others? 3 fi rstmet outsi deE ngl and? 4 w eretemporari lseparated y afterseei ngeachot her agai n? 5 both got di vorcedbeforegetti ngbacki n t ouch? 6 di d not re-establ i sh contactonti ne? 7 met at secondary school ? 8 l i vedi n the samecountryw hi l eapart?


tr I T I T

tr I

examtask. 3 Dothe Useof English

Somelinesof thetextarecorrect andsomecontain an extrawordwhichshouldnot be there.Crossoutthe extra wordsandtickthe lineswhicharecorrect. aremanycustoms andsuperstitions associated 0 There '/ mostof whichhadoriginated centuries 00 withweddinSs, wasseenasa timewhen a wedding 1 ago.Inthepast, thatwereparticularly susceptible to badluckand 2 people spirits. Some traditions, such as the bride isnotbeing evil 3 groom in her wedding seen by the dress before the 4 ceremony, are known throughout the UK and many other 5 parts world may be of the too. Others regional or can 5 even fromgeneration withinfamilies to generation 7 maintained or specific theyarewidespread to a smallgroup, 8 Whether inthebelief thattheywillbringthe 9 theyaremaintained tothecouple ata timewhen 10 goodluckandhappiness forthebetter. hopefully Inthe 11 theirlivesarechanging, proposals weremore 12 daysgoneby,whenmarriage groomsenthisfriends theprospective or his 13 formal, of hisfamilyto represent hisinterests to the 14 members brideandherfamily. lf theysawa blindman, 15 prospective woman during theirjourney it was 16 a monkora pregnant thatthemarriage wouldbedoomed 17 thought to failure asif theirlourney, 18 theycontinued sotheyhadto gohomeand pigeons lf,however, theysawgoats, 19 startagainl or these weregoodomens whichwouldnotbring 20 wolves, to themarriage, 21 goodfortune

TH IS U I { I T I NCT UD ES .' . 5ynelymsof chonge. nounsformedfromverbs. expressions Vocabutary with chdrge. adjective. . expressing nouncollocations opinions. linkingwords. ,eltherlnor,eitherlor, not onlylbut also . speculating (degrees of probability) GEmmar. comparative andsuperlative forms. reducedrelativeclauses.conditionals Speaking. 1311;69 change. talkingaboutprotestand protestsongs. discussion: plansfor "bout urbandeveloDment wlltlng. a discursive essay

Describing change

I cqn descrLbethe PracerJof chanTe.

Readthe quotation fromGeorge Bernard Shaw andanswerthe questions.

Some people see things as they are and say,'Why?'I dream of things that never were and say,'why not?' 1 Howcouldyouparaphrase thewriter'sattitudeto change? ls hegenerally in favourof it or against it? 2 Whatis yourownattitude to change? Whichpartsof your lifedo youpreferto remainconstant? 2 Complete eachpairof sentences withoneverbfromthe box in the correctform.Usea dictionary to helpyou. adapt adjust alter convert evolve modify refine transform

4 $ r.zO Writenounsformedfromtheverbsin brackets. Thenchoosewhichcollocation thespeakers used.Listen againandcheck. (adapt) 1 film/screen (alter) 2 significant/minor (transform) 3 complete/radical (modify) 4 stight/smatt (adjust) 5 process/period of(refine) 6 make/require some (convert) 7 undergo/experience a(evolve) 8 theory/process of Workin pairs.Describe the changes that havetakenplacein the photos.Useverbsandnouns fromexercises 2 and4. Giveyourpersonal opinionof the changes.

1 a Thissofaintoa bed. b Lastyearmyuncle to Cathoticism. 2 a Thenovelwas forthe screen. b Mycousin couldn't to lifein France. 3 a Nothing canthefactthattheworld'spopulation is increasing rapidty. b WhenI metHarry,he had beyondrecognition. a Yogahasherlife.She'sbecome muchcalmer andmoreoositive. b Scientists cannow humancellsfromonetype intoanother. a Zoologists believe thatbirds fromdinosaurs. b American footbatl fromrugbyandsoccer. a Crude oitisto makepetrolanddiesel. b Thetawneedsif it'sto be completely effective. a Thisknob thevolume on theW. b lt tooka moment formyeyesto to the brightlight. 8 a In Brazil, manycarshavebeento runon ethanol. b lt'spossibte to genetically cropsto makethem moreresistant to disease.


talkingaboutthings f) r.ZO Listento fourspeakers andpeoplethathavechanged in someway.Sayif the speakers are: 1 positive aboutthechanges. 2 negative aboutthechanges. 3 neutral. .s

Vocabulary p.733 Builder4.1:Expressions withchange: Unit4.changes (\


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1 Compare thetwo photosandusethewordsbelowto say years. whatimagetheyconvey of childhood andteenage Doyouthinkit is accurate? lf not,suggest whatotherwords portrayal. wouldgivea moreaccurate carefreefrustratedidte idyttic innocent joyfut tistless 2 Readtheseopinionsabouthowpeoptechange asthey (a-h).Saywhetheryouagreeor disagree become teenagers withthem,andtry to thinkof examples. youareprobably a Emotionally, at yourleaststableduring yourreenage years. b Oneofthehardest thingsaboutbeinga teenager is leaving behindthesecurity andcomfort of chitdhood. yourteenage years, youbecome c During moreandmore you. awareof theworldaround youhavethe d Whenyou'rea teenager, themorefriends better. youaren'tquitesowilting your e Asa teenager, to involve parents in yoursocial[ife. yourparents' f Youbecome lessandlesslikelyto accept withoutquestioning opinions them. g Theolderyouget,the moreyoustartto haveyourown ootntons. h Theworstthingaboutbeinga teenager is thatyouhaveto workmoreandadultshelpyou[ess. Rewrite thesentences usingthewordsin brackets, andthe in exercise examples 2 to help.Don'tchange the meaning! Thensaywhetheryouagreeor disagree witheachone.Give reasons. 1 lt becomes steadily moredifficult to makenewfriends years. (lessand[ess) duringyourteenage Asyoustartto go outmore,moneybecomes morecentral to yourtife.(themore) Fewthingsaremoreimportant to teenagers than (oneoD friendship. Teenagers wantto havethemostfashionable clothes (thebetter) possible. youaremoresensitive Asa teenager, to criticism thanat anyothertime.(atyourmost) youbecome Asa teenager, a bit moreunwilling to follow (notquiteso) orders. l . i l i t r t - r r r i i i $ i : li$ 9 1 ' r l.\: i r i i r r $ : s . ' . 1, l t.)

Unit4. Chanee s

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f) f .Zf Listento threeteenagerstatkingabout how their liveshavechangedsincechildhood.Matchtwo sentences with eachspeaker(1-3). H e/S hecl ai msto be l esschi tdi shthan mo stt eenager s? H e/S heseesfami l ymembersfar l essand fr iendsf ar m or e? He/Shehasbecomeslightlymoreindependent by working? y bl am ef or H e/S hethi nksparentsaregeneral lto arguments w i th thei rteenagechi tdren? e He/Shedoesnot haveso manyfamilyarguments as before? f H e/S hebel i evesthat havi ngmoremoneywouldm ean fewerfamilyrows? a b c d

Lookat these phrasesthe teenagersuse for modifying comparativeand superlativeadjectives.Add them to the correctplacein the tist below. a gooddeal a bi t so a l ongw ay marginally far and away only very

: *

modifying superlatives 1thebest / easity the 2best

i*. d


the bestby farI by miles/ bya mite / by3 modifying comparatives no better[than...] asgood[as...] I 45/ veryslightlybetter a littte/6_ / a tittlebit better ratherbetter notquiteas/ notquite/ not7bad[as...] (quite)a lot better much/ farI afarsight/ an awfullot/ 8better

Wecanonlyputverybeforea shortsuperlative form,nota superlative withmosf.Wealsouseit withfrsf. Myparentswalkedin ot theveryworstmomenL It wastheveryfirsttimel'd spenta nightawayfromhome. 6 F ilKTIfE Readthe Lookout! box.Thendiscussyourown ideasabouthowpeoplechangeastheybecome adults ratherthanteenagers. Useexpressions fromexercise 5 and discuss thetopicsbelowor yourownideas. famityrelationships fashion freedomfriendship monev work




lr'l r,/,11 iri iril(.ft

FTfiKiIII Workin pairs.Readthe lyricsof StrangeFruit. Discuss whatyouthinkthe'strange fruit'areandwhatthe songis about.Thenshareyourideaswiththe class.

StrangeFruit Southern trees bear strange fruit Blood on the leaves,and blood at the root Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees Pastoralsceneof the gallant south The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth The scentof maenolia sweet and fresh lhen the sudclensmell of burning flesh Here is a fruit for the crows to pluck For the rain to gathel, for the wind to suck For the sun to rot, for the tree to drop Here is a strange and bitter crop $l tzz Listento part one of a radio programmeabout StrongeFruit.Wereyour ideasin exercise1 correct?

N a m esof peopt ean d p l a c e sc a n b e d i ffi c u l to t u n d erstand wh e ny ou heart hem.Be fo reIi s te n i n gl,o o kth ro u g hthe q u e s t ionsand pr on o u n c ea n y n a m e si n y o u r h e a d . $l tzz Readthe listeningtip. Thenlistenagainand a n swert he ques t ion su s i n gth e n a m e si n th e b o x .(O neof the answersrequirestwo names.) Ab elM eer oool A b ra mS m i th L a u raD u n c a n L e wisA llan T hom a sSh i p p 1 Underwhosenamewas the songStrongeFruitfirst o ubt is hed? 2 Whatwast he r ealn a meo f th e w ri te r? 3 On whos em ur derw a sth e s o n gb a s e d ? 4 Who first sangStrangeFruit?f) f .Zf Readthe sentencesbelow.Thenlistento part two of the radioprogramme.Are the sentencestrue,falseor is the answernot stated? 1 Bar neyJ os ephs oto n td Bi tl i eH o l i d a ya b o u tth e s o n g. 2 In m os tnight c lub a s t th a t ti m e , b ta c ka n d w h i tec u stomers weresegregated. 3 Holidaywas too frightenedto singStrangeFruitin lub. Jos ephs on'nightc s Th e s ong r ec eiv e d 4 a v e ryg o o dre c e p ti o n th e fi rs tti me Hot idayper f or m e d i t. I re j u d i c e fo r th e d e a tho f h er father. 5 Hot idayblam edr a c i a p 5 Rec or ding S t r ong eF ru i tl e dto th e te rmi n a ti o o n f Hol i day' s re c or ding c ont r actw i th C o tu mb i a . 7 StrangeFruitwasgenerallyregardedas one of Holiday's fi nes tr ec or dings . g e song 8 ForHolidayt,he em o ti o n aeI ffe c to f p e rfo rm i n th p a s s e d . y e a rs b e c am eev ens t r o n g ear s th e

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Complete thetextwiththecorrectform of thewordsin brackets.

SI]IGI]IO F||BGHA]IGE Thestoryof the Americanprotestsonggoesback (StcNtFtcANCE) furtherthan StrongeFruit. 'Afterthe foundingof the UnitedStatesin 1776,songs werewrittenby slavesin protestagainsttheir2 (CAPTIVE). Songslike WeShollBe Free and SteolAwoy hadtheirrootsin religiousmusic,but theirmessage (POLITICS). was more tOnesong,calledFollow the DrinkingGourd,evencontainedcodewordsthat (FREE) helpedslavesescapeto oin the Northby describing landmarks alongthe routethey neededto follow. Duringthe nineteenth century,protestsongsfeatured (ABOLISH) a varietyof subjects, including the 5of u(PERFORM) slaveryand votesfor women. often took well-known existingsongsand wrotetheirown words,a traditionwhichcontinues to thisday. (ECONOMY) The/hardshipof the Great Depression in the 1930sprovedfertilegroundfor the protestsongand a new themeemerged:unionismand workers'rights.Later,in the 1960sand197Os, singers from differentmusicalgenresunitedin theirt(CONDEMN) of the war in Vietnamand in theirsupport for MartinLutherKingJr and the CivilRightsmovement. Today, Americanmusicians of everygenrecontinue to write protestsongs.Somehavean e(ENVIRONMENT) message, for social otherscampaign justiceor againstwars.Whetherit is possibleto change the worldwith a songis hardto say,but songwriters who are part of thistraditioncertainlyfeelthat it is their duty to try. FEhilffIfd Workin pairs.Discuss the questions. Give examples wherepossible. 1 Howmanyprotest Whatarethey songsdoyouknow? protesting about? 2 Aresongsan effective methodof protest? What advantages mightsongshaveoverotherformsof protest? 3 Whatothermethods of protest arethereandwhichis the mosteffective, in youropinion? pastor present, 4 Arethereanysingers, fromyourown country whosesongsoftenhavea serious message? 5 lf youweregoingto writea protest song,whatwouldit be Invent about? a titteandthinkof someoossible [inesfor yoursong.

L,' i t l .. r lr : , 1got f - - F

direction 1

I can uno{erttandand react to an article about Jame(newha'smadea radicalchanqein tlaelrltfe

Workin pairs.Readthe quotation fromRaymond Chandler. Doyouagreewith it?Givereasons.

Ability is what you're capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it. 2 Lookat the photoandthefirsttwo linesof the article. Predict whatthetextis about.Thenskim-read it andcheck yourideas. 3 Readthe textandchoosethe bestanswers. playedtennisbecause 1 As a child,Jaeger a shewantedto bethebestin theworld. b herparentsput pressure on herto play. c shewantedto escapefromheroverbearing father. d shewantedto develoo a 'killerinstinct'. gaveup tenniswhenshe Jaeger a starteda children's charity. b gotfedup withthe competitive atmosphere on the tenniscircuit. c suffered an injury. d realised thatshewanted to hetppeople. Whenshestoppedplayingtennis,shewaspleased because she a hadputheramazing talentto gooduse. herambition b hadachieved of beating Biltie-Jean King. c no longerenioyed theapplause. d coulddo something different withherlife. Whatdid AndreaJaeger keepsecretfor nearly twentyyears? a herfrequent arguments withherfather b thefactthatshedeliberately lostan important match c a closefriendship withMartinaNavratilova d herambition to do something different withhertife WhenJaeger looksbackat the past,she a believes shecouldhavewona totof GrandSlams. b wonders howsuccessfuI shemighthavebecome. c hasno regrets. d wishesshehadn'tbeeninjured. WhenJaeger returned to Wimbledon, she a wassurprised thattheguards didn'tknowwho snewas. b wasoverwhelmed bythefactthattheguardstreatedher tikeroyalty. c wasbitteraboutthefactthatshehadwasted heryouth. d wasdetighted at thewaythattheguardstreatedthe children shewaswith.

Unit4 . Changes

(1-8)withthe nouns(a-h)to make 4 Matchthe adiectives collocations fromthe text. 1 enforced a teenager 2 uplifting b environment c father 3 impressionable 4 stormy d chitdhood 5 overbearing e lourney 6 brief f retirement g row 7 competitive protracted h relationship 8 Workin pairs.Retellthe storyof Jaeger's lifeso far usingthe collocations fromexercise 4. Lookat the example of a reduced relativeclausefromthe text.Expand it intoa full relativeclause. required lacked thekillerinstinct of greatchampions. ,|aeger Findthreemoreexamples of reduced relativeclauses in the text(lines72-!8,24-29,60-65)andexpandthemintofull relativeclauses. a$

1 2 3


p.121 Builder relative Grammar 4.2:Reduced clauses:

Workin pairs.Answerthe questions. you Do Why?/Why admireAndreaJaeger? not? peopledevote Whydon'tmorefamous theirlivesto goodcauses? Doyouthinkthatyouwouldbewillingto giveup fameand fortuneanddevoteyour[ifeto peoplelessfortunate than yourself? Why?/Why not? 'Kidsshouldbe drivenbytheirowngoalsandtheirown passion, notbysomeone else's. That's whenit becomes dangerous.'To whatextentdo youagreeor disagree with view? Jaeger's

t â&#x201A;Ź

Liflttcs'tars -/ [-




r Andrea lostin theworldof teenager Jaegerwasa tormented professional tennis.Nowshe'sat peacewithherself. afterherenforced Attheageof41 andnearlgtwodecades retirement fromthegame,Jaeger nowrunsa charitg s thatsheset upto helpchildren lt hasbeen withcancer. journegof a long,sometimes tortuous, oftenuplifting glimpsed dimlg as an sacrifice ontheroadto a destingshe impressionable teenager lostin an adultworld. a stormgrelationship Alongthewagshehadto reconcile ro withheroverbearing father, Roland, andadmitto losing finalof matches on purpose, amongthemtheWimbledon Jaeger 1983.Through a painfulandalltoobriefchildhood, discovered shehadfewequalsat hittingtennisballs,but In lackedthekillerinstinctrequired of greatchampions. rs thewomen's bg ChrisEvert,Billielocker-room, inhabited the JeanKingandMartinaNavratilova, fifteen-gear-old competitive foundherselfoutof stepwitha ruthlesslg environment.

thinksI'm mg hotelroomall night,going,"Well, evergbodg ao greatbecause I wonthe match,butwhataboutthe person minded losinglessthan I beat?How's shefeeling?"'She didJaeger heropponents did.0nlgthreegearsago,though, losing admitto deliberatelg thefinalof the 1983Wimbledon through a tournament shehadblasted Championships, +s withoutlosinga set.0n theeveof thefinal,aftera protracted rented rowwithherfather, shewasshutoutof thefamilg's housein Wimbledon. Jaeger wentto knockonthedoorof the to be onlgpersonsheknewin thestreet,whichhappened finished Navratilova. Thenextdagthethree-time champion so Jaeger off in 54 minutes. 'l neverlookedbackon mUtenniscareeruntilthisgearand sags. I'veneverwondered howgoodI couldhavebeen,'she 'lf I'dstagedouttherefortengearsandnotbeeninjuredand I thinkI wouldhavelosta bitof mg wonalltheGrand Slams, ss soul.Professional thisis mg tenniswasmUteenage calling; Whenmgteenage gearsweredone,it wastime adultcalling. to moveonto something else.'

'l didn'tjointhecircuitto be No1',shesags.'ljoinedbecause zoI wasgoodenough thegameto pleaseher to.'Shealsoplaged 'Kidsshouldbedrivenbgtheirowngoalsandtheir parents. whenit becomes That's ownpassion, notbgsomeone else's. dangerous,'she sags.

is nowmeasured in lessstarkwagsthanthe Success Raising moneU forhercharitg numbers on a scoreboard. oo requires preparation qualities easilg anddiscipline, fromthetenniscourt,butthesoundof laughter transferable ranch at thefoundation's comingfromthechildren on holidag her bU a to shoulder Jaeger tookthefirstopportunitg offered in Colorado througheachdag.Mangof nearAspen echoes zsinjurg,sustained at the French 0penin 1984,to pursuethe letaloneexperienced themhaveneverseena mountain, lifethatsecretlg shehadalwagsbeenwantingto lead.She es raftingdownthe Roaring ForkRiver, withJaeger asguide. - initiallg withhercareer set upthe LittleStarFoundation passenger bg a fellow on a Recentlg shewasrecognised risk with cancer or at earnings 1.38m to help children of $ planenotfor beinga formertennischampion, butfor running in thecommunitg. progress in her her,a signof a cancercharitg. Thatpleased " ownlifetoo. so'WhenI gotinjured, sheexplains. to be honest,I wasrelieved', 'Evergone tennis,butwhen wasapplauding meforplaging zo A fewUearsagoJaegerreturned to Wimbledon withsome I wasinjuredlthought,"Finallg, I cangoandbeme."I was gate guards notonlg ill kidsandthe onthe of herterminallg givena giftto plagtennis,butit wasn'tmgrightto sag herbutgavethechildren bagsof sweets.'There recognised whetherI hadit forfiveUearsor 50 gears.I beatBillie-Jean guards in saluting werethese alldressed uniformpracticallU rs Kingon Centre how mang people can Courtat Wimbledon the kids.Mgkidsthoughtthegwerethekingandqueenof Wimbledon? evensauthegplaged zs England,' Jaeger sags.'lf it tookallthosehoursof training alltheanguish, to getto this,it wasworthit. anddiscipline, 'Mgdadwasa brilliant howwell coachandmg mumenjoged a Wimbledon final.' I didnlloseangthing bglosing andI wassittingin weweredoing.Mgsisterwasat Stanford ?

' fP

u n it a n g e s C}

) Workin pairs.Tryto answerthe questions. warm-blooded or cold-blooded? 1 Weredinosaurs 2 Whenandwhydidtheybecome extinct? in Readthe textandfindtheanswers to the questions 1. exercise

It isa scientific factthat dinosaurs suddenly became extinct about 65 years million ago.Many palaeontologists believe thattheextinction was bya giantmeteor caused intotheEarth. crashing On thefaceofit,it sounds an unlikely explanation, but dinosaurs werea highly successful species thathad forabout ruledtheEarth years, 160million andit's difficultto account fortheir prettydrastic disappearance unless something tookplace. sudden question intriguing iswhatwouldhavehappened Butanequally werestill if themeteorhadmissed itstarget? Suppose dinosaurs today, human race have roaming theEarth wouldthe managed them?lt wasthought for a longtimethat to evolve alongside werecold-blooded andwouldneverhavesurvived dinosaurs an lceAge.However, morerecentresearch hasrevealed that dinosaurs werein factveryadaptable, andsomemayevenhave believe beenwarm-blooded. Somepalaeontologists that,had wouldhavecontinued themeteornothittheEarth, dinosaurs to it'sunlikely thrive,meaning thatwe'dseemanyof themammals Andif therewereno thatwe nowrelyon for foodandcompany! sheep, cowsanddogs,wewouldn'thavewool,milkor'man's if themeteorhadn'tstrucktheEarth, bestfriend'.ln alllikelihood, wewouldntbearoundtodayto speculate on howthingsmight haveturnedout. of structures 1-5. Whichreferto In thetext,findexamples (a)the past(b)the presentor (c)the pastandthe present? 1 2 3 4 5

a second conditionat a thirdconditional twomixedconditionats clauses introduced twoconditional bywordsotherthanif clause wherei/is omittedandthesubject a conditionaI andverbareinverted

R ew ri tethe sentences usi ngmi xedcond it ionals. 1 Y oudi dn' t l i sten,so you don' t knoww hat t o do. 2 K atefai l edher dri vi ngtest [astw eekso she'sr et aking i t i n l ul y. becausehe refusest o payanyt ax. 3 H e' sbeenprosecuted 4 | don' t ti kehi m becausehe w as rudeto m e. 5 H i si nj uri esare moreseri ousbecausehe wasn'twear ing a seatbel t. 6 | forgotmy keysso I can' tget backi nto t he house. Rewritethe sentencesusingan inversionin the conditional cl auseand omi tti ngf. 1 l f you shoul dneedto makeany photocopies, t her e'sa photocopi er outsi demy offi ce. 2 P l easecontactheadoffi cei f you shou ldneedt o m ake a comol ai nt. 3 l f K urtC obai nw ereal i vetoday,he' d be over40. 4 l f i t w eren' tfor the factthat she' smarriedt o t he boss. she' dneverhavegot the i ob. 5 l f I' d know ni t w oul d rai n,I' d havetakenan um br ella. I couldnever 6 l f i t hadn' tbeenfor my parents'generosit y, haveaffordeda new car. Completethe sentencesin your own words. FfifilTm Compareyour answerswith your partner. 1 2 3 4 5 6

l f onl y I had moreti me, ... l f I hadn' tstudi edE ngl i sh,... l f teenagers aren' tal l ow edenoughfre edom ., . . U nl essw e act now .... A s [ongas the w eatherdoesn' tchang e,. . . H ow l w i sh ...

Rewritethe sentencesusingthe wordsin brackets. 1 I' d neverhavefi ni shedthe j ob w i thoutyour help.( i0

2 l f w e don' t hurry,w e w on' t get to the air por ton t im e. (unIess) 3 You can borrowmy MP3 ptayer,but you must give it back to me tomorrow.(providedthat) 4 E veni f therew erei ntel l i gentl i feout ther e,how couldwe makecontact?(supposi ng) 5 Fol l owthe di recti onsI gaveyou and you can'tgo wr ong. (as tongas) 5 Forhi m to haveadmi ttedhe w asw ron gwould havebeen totallyout of character.(iflit) FTfiltnlfd Workin pairsand discussthe questions. How might things be/have been differentif ... 1 w e coutdtravelbacki n ti me? 2 we stoppedeatingmeat? 3 we could live for ever? hadn' tbeeni nvented? 4 comD uters had not di scovered A meri ca? C ol umbus 5 5 di nosaursw eresti l lal i ve?


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Discussion 1


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Workin pairs.Answerthe questions. (a)overthe lastfew 1 Howhasyourtownor citychanged (b)overthe lastfewdecades? years? youropinion. 2 Arethechanges forthebetter? Justify areyouin favour otd,dilapidated 3 Ingeneral, of renovating buitdings or of knocking themdownandreplacing them? Givereasons foryouropinion.

Putthe expressions fromexercise 5 in the correctplacein the chartbelow. A Givingopinions oneadvantage of (that)... onedrawback of (that)... Persona[[y, I thinkthat...

Lookat the plansforthe redevelopment of a towncentre. Howmanyof the buildings andfacilitiesin the boxcanyou find?Whichcanyoufindin yourtownor city?

B Agreeing/Partially agreeing That'showI seeit too. I go alongwiththat. C Disagreeing I don'tacceptthat. I disagree withtheviewthat... D Conceding a point True. you'reright. Yes,I suppose Yes,I hadn'tthought ofthat.

artscentre disabled access chainstore cycleracks independent market shop landscaped area open-air multi-storey carpark pavement crossing caf6 pedestrian pedestrianised mall street periodbuitdings shopping park waterfeature skateboard Howwouldyoudescribe in the the plans?Usetheadiectives boxto helpyou. charmingchic chitd-friendly contemporary drab fullof characterfunctional impersonalold-fashioned quaint soulless stateof theart trendy

Workin pairs.Eachchooseoneplanfromexercise 2 and thinkaboutits merits.Thinkaboutthe drawbacks of your partner's plantoo.Consider the questions belowandmake notes.Youranswers to exercise 4 witthelp. 1 Whichwouldbe betterfor (a)youngpeople(b)famities (c)etderty people? 2 Whichis visuallymoreattractive?

$) r.z+ Listento two peopletalkingaboutthe changes thatarebeingproposed in picture2. Whatbenefitsand drawbacks forthe newbuildings do theymention? theseexpressions fromthe dialogue. $ r.z+ Complete Thenlistenagainandcheck. 1 (tha0wouldseemtikethebestto me. 2 Tomy a carpark... , building it at all. 3 That'snothow| 4 That'sa-ooint. 5lcouldn't-more.


Discuss the planswithyourpartnerusing yournotesfromexercise 7. Giveyouropinionandreactto yourpartner's pointsusingexpressions from andphrases exercises 5 and5.



Workin pairsanddiscuss thequestion. Thinkaboutthetopics in the boxbelow.

How might the world be different a hundred years from now? clothes communications computerseducation environmentfamilylife food heatth language leisure money politics religion transport work Readthe modelessay,ignoringthe gaps.Matchparagraphs 2-4 withthreeof thetopicsfromexercise 1.

Readthe writingtip. Matchfiveof sentences a-f withthe gapsin the modelessay. Whichtopicfromexercise 1 does the othersentence match? powerof computers a Assuming thattheprocessing continues to increase at its current rate,theirimportance in theworldwi[[alsogrow. years, b Withina hundred scientists willatmost certainly haveeradicated mostcommon diseases. c Theincreasing congestion on ourroadswilIhaveled newformsof transoort. scientists to develoo yearsfromnow,I imagine d lf I amstiltalivea hundred the placefromhowit is today. worldwill be a verydifferent e Broadly speaking, thekindsof changes thatI envisage happening wilImaketheworlda betterplaceto Iive. yearsin thefuture, f I imagine that,a hundred fashions will hugely. havechanged Workin pairs.Choose threetopicsfromexercise 1 which arenot in exercises 2 or 3. Writea topicsentence to begina paragraph for eachone.

t ! Scienceand technologywill continueadvancrng pace,and there will doubtlessbe at an ever-increasing inventionsand discoverieseverydecadewhich will affect every aspect of our lives. Z E n hundredyearsfrom now,they will in all probability be far more intelligentthan humans.Consequently, our attitudetowardsthem may change:we may regardthem eitheras friendsor as potentialrivals!We will use them not as only as sourcesof information,but also as sourcesof wisdomand advice a ! New forms of syntheticmaterialwill no doubt have been invented,and these could revolutionise clothingin the same way that the inventionof both nylonand Lycradid in the twentiethcentury.Havingsaid that, designershave a habit of looking to the past for inspiration,so in the twentysecondcentury,peoplecould be wearingjeansor even nineteenth-century suits and dresses. 4 ! eartlcularlypopularwill be vehicleswhich allow commutersto fly to work rather than sitting in a traffic jam. The vehicleswill as likelyas not be poweredby magnetism or some other force which neitherrequiresfuel nor creates pollution. 5 ! However,some may make it worse lt is impossible to predict the future with any certainty.There will be many unforeseendevelopmentsin the world and some of these



Eac hpar agr aphin a n e s s a ys h o u l dc o n ta i na ' to pi c sent enc e'whic he x p re s s eth s e ma i n i d e ao f th a t p ar agr aph. T hisu s u a l l yg o e sa t th e b e g i n n i n gT. opi c sentencesmakethe essaveasierto fotlowfor the reader. Unit4. Chang e s

Makeyourwritingmorefluentby usingthe following linking wordsto joinideastogether: neither ...or even... ...nor... either...or ... both...and... notonly...butalso... ...ratherthan... Readthewritingtip.Thenfindan example of each expression in the modelessay. Whichtwoaresimilarin meaning? Explain the meaning of the others. Rewrite the twosentences as singlesentences using fromthe writingtip. expressions 1 Computers arebecoming morepowerful. They're becoming cneaper. 2 Sooncomputers maybeableto holdconversations with jokesmayalsobe possible. humans. Telling 3 Wemaynothaveto usea mouseor keyboard. Wemaybe ableto control it withourmind. maydemand bettertreatment. 4 Computers Theymay demand equalrights! thatcomputers wil[neverthink 5 Somepeoplemaintain like people. Theysaythatcomputers willneverhaveemotions. 5 Super-powerfuI computers willbe incredibly useful. Or perhaps they'llbe incredibly dangerous to mankind. FfihHlmfd Workin pairs.Discussthe questions, then yourideaswiththe class. compare 1 lf a newkindof material forctothing wereto be invented, whatdo youthinkit mightbe tike? 2 Whatnewkindof vehicle wouldbe mostuseful. in youropinion? if computers 3 Doyouthinkit matters become more intettigent Givereasons. thathumans?

I can w ri tc a distursive essay

discussing whatlifemight f) f .ZS Listento twoteenagers yearsfromnow.Number be likea hundred the ideasin the orderthat your hearthem. a Hum ansm ightha v ec ro s s -b rew d i th a l i e n sa n d d ev elopedgr eens k i n ,s c a l e sa n d a n te n n a e . b Hum ansm ightha v eb e c o mee x ti n c t. c A chip in the brain mightallow 2417 lnternet a c c es sin y ourhea d . d H um ansm ightha v emo v e dto a n o th e rp l a n e t. e H um ansm ightbe b a l d a n dv e ryp a tea s a re s u l t o f liv ingin s pac e . f

Car sm ighthav eb e e nb a n n e dc o mp l e te l y .

g Childr enm ightbe a b l eto p l u gs o m e th i n gi n to th eirbr ainins t ea do f g o i n gto s c h o o l .


tr I I

Workin pairs.Planthe following es-' How might the world be differe" : - - - : -!: ii : --r 1 U seyourtopi csentencesfro= ' = -::: - -- Li* P aragraph 1: Introducti on P aragraph 2: Paragraph 3: Paragraph 4: P aragraph 5: C oncl usi on : 2 B rai nstorm i deasfor eachparag' = -: .- : .: : - +the essaypl an.D eci dehow l i ke . :]r- i i -- : - : ooi ni on.



Workin pairs.Decide whichideasin exercise 1 arethe most andleastliketyto happen,in youropinion.Orderthemfrom 1 (mostlikely)to 7 (leastlikely). Wecanusea rangeof expressions forspeculating abouteventsin thefuture, depending on howliketywe believethemto be. It could/mighthappen. It maywellhappen. It'sboundto happen. It'sverylikelyto happen. It will (olmostdefinitely)happen. It willprobablyhappen. There's a (faint)chanceit mighthappen. There's(olmost)no chanceof it happening. Readthe Learnthis!box.Putthe phrases in approximate (Someexpressions orderof likelihood. arealmost synonymous.) Rephrase the ideasfromexercise 1 usingsuitable expressions fromthe Learnthis!box,dependingon how likelyyouthinkeacheventis. There's a faintchance thathumans might havecross-bred withaliens.

Lookbackat the modelessayon page44.Complete these wordsandphrases whichall mean'(very)probably'. 1 -less 2 as-as3 more--not 4 noprobabitity 5 -

Workingindividually, writean essayof 200-250words yourplan.Remember following to usesuitableexpressions fromthe Learnthis!boxandexercise5. Workin pairs.Swapessays work. andcheckyourpartner's

Hasyourpartner fottowed theessayplancorrectly? ! ! I ! !

writtenthecorrect numberof words? usedexpressions fromtheLearnthis!box? usedlinkingwordsfromthewritingtip on page44? checked thespelling andgrammar?


LITGUAGE;{ffl q, ,-4 ** Vocabulary




Completethe sentenceswith a suitableform of the verbs in the box. â&#x201A;Ź'ffur pay resolve return speak suffer Dor ahad had e n o u g ho f p e o p l eo tte r' ,n h e,ir a d v i ceon how to br ingup her s o n . 1 K ier an' sr ela ti o n s h i p a s e tb a c krecentl y. His girlfriendhas beentransferred to Boston. 2 W henc hoos i n gfu rn i tu refo r a n e w h o u s ei t' s i mportantto y o u rmi n d a n d m a k ea i o i n t d e c i si on. w a te re do u r g a rden.W e 3 Las ts um m e ro u r n e i g h b o u rs t h e fa v o u rb y l o o k i n ga fte rth e i rd og. l ast 4 T hedis put eo v e rc u s to d yo f th e c h i l d re nweekin c ou rt. 5 Tinagetsfuriouswith her boyfriendbecausehe never a tte n ti o nw h e ns h ete l l sh i m w h a tto do.

Etr! ]tr (1-5)withtheiropposites (a-e). 2 tvtatch the adiectives 1 well-connecteda old-fashioned 2 affluent b drab 3 chic c thriving d sou[less 4 picturesque 5 rundown e remote 6 futlof character f deorived

EE! ]tr t

clean go know rain retire stay 1 My boyfriend to the gym recentlyto get fit. 2 We eachothersi ncew e st ar t edschool. out her cupboard sso her clot hesar e 3 S arah all overthe floor. to theirsecondhomeon the coast. 4 My parents everydaythis weekand the forecastfor 5 lt tomorrowis also prettybad. 6 | w i th a cousi nw hi teI l ookf or a f lat .

EE! ]tr thesentences withthe correct formof theverbs. 6 Complete (play)basketbaltwith 1 Heclaims KobeBryant. 2 Thetravelling isn'tmuchfun,butI don'tmind(takeout)fordinnerwhenI goawayon business. firstimpression wasthatthevictim 3 Thedetective's . (push) appeared her.She'sonlypretending 4 lgnore . (cry) (keep) lmagine 5 | trulyadmireIngridBetancourt. hostage in thejungleforsixyears!

EE! ]tr 7 Choosethe correctadverb. 1 Hefinished theracein justundertwentyseconds. Hewas easily/ by a milethefastest. 2 Footbatl isa longway/ a gooddealmoretiringthancricket. 3 Webeatthemby 10-1.Ourteamwasthebestfarand awayI by miles. ribis onlymarginally 4 A broken / quitemorepainfulthan justbruising it.

Completethe sentenceswith a suitablepreposition. There'sa new Asianrestauranta stone'sthrow 1my hous e.T hank s2a n e ffe c ti v ea d v e rti s i ng campai gn, p e o p l eo n th e o p e n i n gni ghttast it wast eem ingI week .lt c at er s4 a l l ta s te si n A s i a nfo o d - C hi nese. T haia n d Vi e tn a m e s-e a n d th e o w n e rtakespri de J apanes e, 5greetingall the guestsas they arrive.

EE! 4

Completethe sentenceswith the presentperfectsimpleor continuousform ofthe verbsin the box.


@w 8

Completethe sentenceswith the nounform of the verbsin the box.

Completethe sentenceswith the correctform of the verbs.

1 T het own c en treh a d u n d e rg o n a e c o mp te te s inc eI wast h e rel a s t. 2 T her ehasbe e na s m a l l to th e p l a nsfor the new s t at ion. f h o w ro teth e s ta ge3 lt wast he au th o rh i ms e l w of t he nov e[ . 4 I'm lookingfor a firm to carryout the toft.

lf I d had(have)my car serviced,it worr\dn'1 havaL,roKen down(not breakdown). (not happen)if you 1 Thatacci dent (took)at the road! (notdi scover) people 2 l f peni ci l ti n (sti tldi e)fromsi mpl ei nfecti ons. (runout),ho wwill elect r icit y oi t3 S upposi ng (generate)? (use)carslessif more 4 People (i nvest)i n pubti ctransport. (notevacuat e)m, or epeople 5 H adthe area (die). -

EEI ltr

EE! ]tr

adapt affi

convert modify transform

t hi s ti e. E nt er ing t he ha l t,h e ma d ea s m a l la { u s i ma nto

Language R e v i e w 3 -4





$gmw" I-4



--. H e usedto l i vei n a smal lfl a: - -= . , Ini ti atty, S tuartand hi s gi rl fr;E3- - ' S tuartbel i eveshi s si tuati oni s . = -. :' A t Fl atN i ghtFever,peopl er,,' i :---, for somew here to [i ve. 6 Fl atN i ghtFeveri s a ' ti ve'versr - :' . : ' , ,. , happensetectron i cal l y. 7 K ari mGoudi abyarguesthat cr r: s - : : - :' di ffi cul as t fi ndi ngthe ri ghtrr,,i i:'e ' -:.:" -

1 Doyouthinkyouwouldbe an easyor difficultpersonto sharea flatwith?Givereasons. 2

S ayw hethersentences 1-7 are trre 1 S tuartcoul daffordbetteracc:* 2 3 4 5

Readthe text. In what way is FlatNight Feversimilarto a speed-datingevent?

Listening 4

Ecgz's: - : :^ = :'.-.' to a dialogue between O r.ze Listen peoplein hisnewflat.Whoarethey?Ci'c:s='-:a bankempl oyee a housemate a .â&#x201A;Ź E -: : - the tandtady the l etti ngagent the p,;:-= -

StuartKelly,51,earnsf28,000a year,yethecan'tfindanywhere 'Back decent I'dberich, to livein London. homein Edinburgh 'l started goesnowhere,' butheremymoney helaments. in outrenting a grubby roomwithnolockin anoldmansion whereI hadproblems Lewisham, thenI moved to Belgravia, paying withthelandlady. f800permonthfora l amcurrently I have rather roomin Whitechapel. Intheprocess, smallsingle lostaboutf500in non-returned deposits andthelike.Now mygirlfriend butshewontbe wantsto comedownto London earning anymoney to startwith,andI lustcanlfinda double roomwecanafford.l'm in prettydirestraits, to behonest.' a WestEnd Whichiswhyheisspending theevening atSound, fora newandunusual nightclub in Leicester Square, thevenue typeof eventcalledFlatNightFever. People Thisistheproperty of speed-dating. world'sversion withrooms namebadges andsit to letputon orange-coloured to thepart attableslabelled north,south,eastor west,according Those whoare of townwheretheiraccommodation islocated. circulate round looking for places to live(whitenamebadges) theirorange-badged those tables, in thehopeof convincing counterparts thattheywouldmaketheidealflatmate. 'lt worksbothways, theevent's organiser, of course,'explains 'The PaulCurry,of accommodation website person looking fortheroommightnothitit offwiththeperson offering theroom,either. Thatisthepurpose of thisevent: to prevent whichistrek having to dothatthingwe'vealldone, halfway across London to seea flatyouhate,livedin bypeople youwishyou'dnever met.' 'Thisisn'tanevening outof,'says wemakeanymoney EasyRoommate's founder KarimGoudiaby, whousually charges getting for thisintroduction service viaemail,withsubscribers thecontact details theywantto of theflat-seeker or flat-owner see.'Thisshows wearemorethanjusta property bulletin board: wewantto ensure wematchuparecompatible. thatthepeople Justasyouwouldchoose a wifewithgreatcare,soyoushould choose a flatmate withgreatcare,too.'


i ' -i - : - <i f) r.ze Li stenagai n.A re the sentences answernot stated? 1 MostofE dgars' possessi ons aresti i - -. 1 2 Tomashasbeenl i vi ngi n the housei c' - -' = " , ' 3 Thebankw on' t l et E dgarsopenan a.:. --' formati ob offeri n w ri ti ng. 4 E dgarshasto paya l argerdeposio-r t :' = --: - : = - . - : = doesn' thavea bankaccount. 5 Tomashasnot had any probl emsw i th t' e -: ; - : : - - r 5 The[andl ordsometi mescal l sbv unexD â&#x201A;Ź::: 7 E dgars'l etteri sfromthe personthat i nte-. - - - , ", =

Speaking 6 Workin groupsof four. o S tudentsA andB :Y ouareftatmates. l ooki -a'- ' - - = *: '2 tenant. o S tudentsC and D : Y ouare both orosoecti '.:,:e- =- . =. keento sharew i thstudentsAand B .Y ouca - - . : - : - e, ', ' personas. . S tudentsA andB : l ntervi ewstudentsC ano D i- . . '- e ti me.A skthem questi onsaboutthei rperso - a : , . : - e ' habi tsand anythi ngel sethat occursto vo- - - : - : : . aboutthetw o candi dates and agreew hi ci -: - : . : : : : . 3:

Writing 7

Readthe task belowand makenotes. Y ouhavebeenaskedto w ri tea shortarti cl efor a t r avel magazi ne aboutthe di fferentareasof yourtown and wher e the bestol acesto rentw oul dbe.

to i ncl udeone or t wo 8 W ri teyourarti cl e.R emember recommendati ons and gi vereasonsfor them. a

C heckyour progress:p i -i

EXAM 4 Youare goingto reada text called 'Tr opic aI weat hera t th e P o l e s ' D . oy o u th i n k i t w i tt be mai nl y about the futureor the past?Givereasonsfor your answer.

Readthetext.Decide whether theinformation in each (1-8) is true,falseor notstated. sentence TrueFalseNotstated 1

surprised tofindcoatat

Readthe text in the Readingexamtask quicktyand check your answer.

2 Thefossilsthat theyfoundcouldonly havebeencreatedin a warmerclimate.I 3 S hackl eton achi evedthe mai n obj ecti veof hi s expedi ti on. I 4 Mostsci enti sts bel i evethat conti nental dri ftexpl ai nsthe fossi l s

Alway sr eadt r ue/fa l s es ta te me n tsb e fo rere a d i n gthe you te x t c los elyT. hatw a y ,y o u k n o ww h a t i n fo rma ti o n a re [ ook ingf or . Re m e m b eth r a t i n o rd e rto b e ' tru e 'or 'fat s e' t, he inf or m a ti o ni n th e w h o l es e n te n c eh a sto match e xac t lywhat is in th e te x t o r b e e x p ti c i tl yc o n tra di cted by i t. lf neit heris t he c a s e ,c h o o s e' n o t s ta te d ' .D o n o t be mi s t edby indiv idu a tw o rdas n d p h ra s e s .

thatwerefoundinAntarctica. climate much became colder. 7 j ohn Tardunoi s a C anadi an sci enti st empl oyedby a uni versi ty i n N ewY ork. 8 S ci enti sts are not exactl vsurew hat a chamososaur l ooked[i ke.

Tropical weather atthePoles WHENErnest Shackleton andhismenmarched towards theSouthPole in December 1908, theycameacross something entirely unexpected. glacier Afterscaling thevastBeardmore ontheedgeof thepolarplateau, theyfoundseams of coalamidthesnowandice.Theyalsofound impressions of leaves in sandstone boulders nearby andevenfossilised woodfroma coniferous tree.

putforwardhistheoryof continental Fouryearslater,AlfredWegener driftwhich,it waslaterrealised, couldexplain thebalmyclimate: Antarctica hadbeenwarmerbecause it wasoncemuchcloser to the Eventoday,someschoolchildren equator. aretaughtthatcontinental driftprovides a complete for a warmer explanation Antarctica. grewaround However, thefossiltreesShackleton's teamdiscovered 250millionyearsago,whenAntarctica wasbarelycloser to theequator thanit istoday. What'smore,thecontinent reached itscurrentposition roughly100millionyearsago,andanever-growing listof fossil years findsdatefrom100to q0 million ago.During thistime,when dinosaurs roamed thealmost subtropical forests of an ice{reeAntarctic, conditions ontheothersideof theplanetwereevenmoreremarkable: theArcticOcean wasa gigantic freshwater lakeinfested withcrocodilelikereptiles. Themostevocative imageof a warmArctichasemerged fromthework of JohnTarduno of theUniversity of Rochester, NewYork.Formorethan a decade, Tarduno hasbeenhunting for fossils onAxelHeiberg lsland justwestof Creenland. in theCanadian Arctic, Theisland wasalready wellwithintheArcticCircle 90 millionyearsago.Histeamhasfound bonesandevenpartial skeletons of a crocodilelike creature called fromthisperiod. a champsosaur Thechampsosaur wasa fish-eating reptileupto 2.4metres longthatprobably lookedmuchlikethegharials of India.Because thesereptiles wouldhavereliedon theirenvironment to staywarm,conditions in thefarnorthmusthavebeenfarhotterthan today.








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TheA rcti cw as oncei nhabi tedbv


Do the Readingexamtask.

Theconclusion wasextraordinary butinescapable: Antarctica wasonce warmandforested, conditions thatcouldhardlybemoredifferent to the far-below{reezing midsummer weather thatforcedShackleton's teamto turnbackbeforereaching theirgoal,Howwasthispossible?



5 Thedi nosaursthat usedto l i vei n A ntarcti ca becameexti nctw henthe 6


S hackteton and hi s menw ere


trt r tr trT tr

D o not be throw nby unknow nw ords.Y ouc an of t enuse the contextto guessthei rmeani ng,ei therpr ecisely or a p p roximate[y.


R eadthe examti p. Thenfi nd w ords1-3 i n th e t ext and choosethe meani ngw hi chmakesmostsensein t he cont ext . 1 'scaling': a finding b climbing c leaving 2 'balmy': a worm b cold c freezing 3 a'gharial' is a type of: a lake b bone c reptile


Do the Useof Englishexamtask.

C ompl etethe secondsentencei n eachpai r so t hat it meansthe sameas the fi rst. 1 W e' dhavearri vedon ti me i f our car hadn'tbr okendown. Had arrivedon t im e. 2 A s I spendmoreti me onl i ne,I' m fi ndi ngit easierand easi erto usesearchengi nes. Themore to usese ar chengines. 3 I' l l meetyou i n tow n unl essi t' s rai ni ng. Provided In IOW n. 4 | onl y recogni sedGeorgebecausehe w aswear ingt he j acketI' d gi venhi m. l f Gpnr op recognised him . 5 S ki i ngi s moredi ffi cul w t henthe snowi s ver ysof t . It i sn' t is verysoft. 5 S hew ri tessongsand pl aysseverali nstr um enttsoo. N ot onty i nst r um ent s.


r rysy31dwaridioms. verb-noun . phrasesfor Vocabulary collocations.sexualdiscrimination . personal qualities. wordformation(1). linkingwords:addition stlucturing a presentation . for + noun/pronoun . ellipsisoeducedinfinitives, + inRnitive Grammar omissionofverbs) Speakingr 131p;ng uboutarmedconflict. discussing familytensions. discussing sexualequality . a presentalton p e rso n W r i t i n g . 6 de scri p ti oonfa


i c a t i t , ', l l < ) , b : ! \ l nl i li 1., r'), ( L.t1,lli ( L

Workin pairs.Discuss themeaning of the quotations andsayings. Doyouagreewiththem? Why?/Why not? 1 'Oneman'sterrorist is another man'sfreedom fighter.' 2 'Thepenis mightier thanthesword.' 3 'Thedirectuseof forceis sucha poorsolution to any problem thatit is generally employed onlybysmall children and[argenations.' 4 'Wemakewarsothatwecanlivein oeace.'


of the Battleof the Sommein O Z.Of Listento an account the FirstWorldWar.Complete the missinginformation with no morethanfourwords.

Complete thetextwiththewordsin the box. alties coalitioninsurgentsmassdestruction securitysuicide bomberstroops violation weapons inspectors

Th e Ir aq W ar begani n 2 0 0 3 w h e n a m u l ti n a ti o n al' of forcesled by the USA invadedIraq.The reasonfor the i n va s ionwas A m er ic aa n d Bri ta i n ' sb e l i e fth a t Sa d dam 2H u ss einpos s es s ed an d w a s d e v e l o p i n w g e a p o n so f r(n u c learbiologic , ala n d c h e mi c aw l e a p o n s )i n oo f a 1991 agr eem e n t. fo u nd In th e e v e n t,U N n o e v idenc e of s uc hw e a p o n sT. h e Ira q i m i l i ta ryfo rces we requic k lydef eate db y Ame ri c aa n d h e r 5 , ano th o us andsof I r aqi o w e rec a p tu re da n d d i s a rmed. However, the victory was short-livedas 7beganto attack the occupyingforcesin an attemptto liberatethe co u n t r y f, r equent lye mp l o y i n gro a d s i d eb o m b sa n d 8 Th e US G ov er nm ensta i d i t w o u l dw i th d ra wi ts tro oosonce d e m oc r ac yand eh a d b e e ne s ta b l i s h e d .

yearsbeforethe battlebegan. 1 Thewar had started 2 Thel and betw eenthe tw o armi esw as cal l ed greatsurpri sethat som eBr it ish 3 Thespeakerexpresses and Frenchsotdi ersw eretol d w hent hevadvanced tow ardsthe Germanl i nes. di dn' tki ttmanyGermansoldier s 4 Thebombardment becausetheyhad hi dden 5 A t fi rst,B ri ti shgeneral sdi dn' t knowhow manym en t hey had l ost becauseof-. 5 Germanresi stance i n the w eeksafterthe bat t leor event ed the B ri ti shand Frenchfrom maki ng . 7 In the autumn,the w eathermadei t i mpossibt teo 8 coul dsaythat they hadw on the ba t t le. 5

cal l up cl ai m i nfl i ct break gi ve gri nd launch make put up suffer

7 2 3 4 5

Findwords in the text in exercise2 that havethe opposite meaningto the wordsin the box. advance(v) arm (v) defeat(n) defend enemies civitian(adi) occupy release(v)

breakthrough 6 casualties -a an attack losses 7 stalemate reinforcements 8 -the orders 9 -toahatt 10 victory -resistance

6 Flil:titKlffd f) z.Or Workin pairs.Retellthestoryof the Battleof the Sommeusingthe collocations in exercise 5 to helpyou.Thenlistenagainandcheck.

7 3

Completethe collocationsfrom the listeningexercisewith the verbsin the box.

Workin pairsor smallgroups. Thinkof: 1 twosetsof circumstances in whicha country wouldbe justified in goingto warasa [astresort. 2 twosetsof circumstances whena declaration of war wouldbe uniustified. .'

Vocabulary Builder 5.1:ldioms:p.133 /G'-\

[-.i I'll

te nSlons

tfIilKItrd Discussthese questions:Doyou think it is good to argue?lf not, why not?lf so, why and in what circumstances?


subi ect. It's importontfor Janenot to foil her exams.(Janeis the subjectof the verbfail.) It i s frequentl yusedafteradj ecti ves and nouns. l'm unhoppyfor the childrento missschool. It's time for us to go. 3 It can be the subi ectof a sentence. Forhim to apologisewould be unthinkable. 4 lt is often used in placeof a fhof-clausewith should or the subj uncti ve and i s l essform a[ . It's essentialthot Sue ring her dad. It's essentialfor Sue to ring her dad.

) Readthe text. HowwouldTabithaHolmeshaveansweredthe ques t ionsin ex e rc i s e1 ?

t2 There moybenothing worse lhonslommed doors, roised voices ond feors but,occording lo newreseorch, ,,


iiJi ;;l

ir,:' "'r,tu ;..,.Insleod (onflidcon olienolion, ofcousing sfrengthen porenl-odolescenf relolionships, soys I0bilho Holmes, 0 specioli$ in (omplele 'll odolexent developmenl. woso surprise lometodiscover duringmyreseoruh lholteenogers lhemselves sowheoled 0rgumenls thotbrought 0ssomething lhemrloser lotheirporenfs,' soidHolmes. 'Whereos fieirporenls lolked oboul howupsetting onddeslruclive orguing wilhfheirchild wos, lheodolesrenls were obleloseehow poinhofview locking horns helped themlo underslond theirporenfs' They wereolsoveryowore morecleorly. fiot o goodrowforced them t0fiinklhrough, orliculote onddefend their opinions onddesires.' Aaording toHolmes, il islhedoy{o-doy conflicts - fie veryones fiol conbesodroining - lholoremost conslruclive: lheendless rows ; ' ' over homework, clolhes, curfews ondfriends. ' : colm discussion oronimoled debole does notcount. ?dolescents theyonlybldtheirmofiers soid whot theyreolly felt ondthought whentheywereforced todefend theirposition. lf your wifiyou,il'socluolly leenoger isrowing 0 m0rk0frespecl,' Holmes you soid.'h shows fteyvolueyouenough genuine totell fieir feelings ondthoughts.'To bepositive, tobehondled conflicts hove inthe rightwoy,Holmes odmitted. Porenls need lo listengenuinely totheir : :.' lee n o g e r 'sviewpoinl;' .,-: ll,".,;Ond ,, :,n,,: ,,' : ., . they need togoinlofherowocknowledging lo berespectful, thottheirchild's poinf ofviewisworthwhile. Comparethesesentenceswith the sentencesin , in the text. What structureis usedin the text to expressthe same ideas? 1 P ar ent swho w a n tto b e c l o s eto th e i rte e n a g echi l dren s houldac t ua l l yh a v ea ro wa d a y . 2 lt ' s v it alt hat co n fl i c tss h o u l db e h e a te d . 3 P ar ent sneedt o b e a b l eto m o d i fyth e i ro w n p osi ti oni n t he t ightof wh a tth e i rc h i tdte l l sth e m . Unit5. B at tl e s

for + nounI pronoun+ infinitive whenan infinitive 1 Weusethisstructure needsitsown

Readthe informationin the Learnfhisl box.Thenrephrase + inf init ive. the sentences usi ngfor + noun/pronoun 1 2 3 4 5

l t' s i mportantthat she saysorry. My i deai s that w e shoul dl eavebeforedawn. | w as anxi ousthat he shoul dn' feel t offended. l t w outdbe a di sasteri f w e l ostthe mat ch. l t w on' t snow- i t i sn' tcotdenough.

O Z.OZ Listento three peopletalkingaboutfamity arguments.WriteM (Mandy),5 (Simon)or T (Tina).Who: 1 feel sthat experi enci ng argumentshasbr oughtbenef it s? 2 doesn' tthi nk i t' s surpri si ng that fami l iesar guea [ ot ? 3 hasa theoryaboutw hy boysand men a r e quit et iket yt o arguew i th one another? 4 feel sthat bei ngsi mi l arto anotherfam ilym em bergives ri seto arguments? rel ati onshiw p i th a s ibt ing? 5 had a competi ti ve 6 usedto try to stopfami l ymembersarguing? 6) Z.OZ Completethesediscoursemarkers,which indicate the speaker'sattitude.Thenlistenagainand check. doubtless fortunatelv I enough 2 r4 honestty to my anno yance

no 5to be8-

6surprisingly honest to mye-



Whichdiscourse markers indicate thatthespeaker: 1 believes theyarebeingsincere? 2 is surprised? 3 thinkssomething is probable butnotcertain? of something? 4 approves 5 disapproves of something? FfiF{RI'Tf Recount an argument thatyouoncehad,or witnessed. Tryto usediscourse markers to showthe attitude of the peoplewhowerearguing, or yourattitudeasthe witness.

Whatdoesthegraphbelowshow?Howdoesyourcountry compare withothers? Whatis yourreaction to the statistics? p la r lia m e n( sin ts g le /lo we S h a roefw o m e inn n a tio n a h oru se )





3 C anyou expl ai nthe motto,' D eedsnot w or ds'' put thei rcampaignor - I : 4 W hydi d the S uffragettes in 1.91,4? 5 W hatw as strangeaboutthe posi ti onof w om enM Ps between7978 and 1,928? f) Z.Of R eadand l i stento the song.D oyou t hink t he song i s anti -men? W hy?/W hynot?S um up the me ssageof t he song in a few words.

v. )o 20 10

(hc Eurythmics)I Sistcrsare doingit for themsclvee


Nou,ihere vus a tinrewhe-n ihcy Lrse.d io sa1 {hai behindeve.qgreaiman

Complete thetextwithappropriate words.Useoneword onlyin eachgap. ,v.'-.





Fronr the middlt' of'the (cntur\



nineteenth cantlldened

p c:tr tfr r lh t( , o l) ta in ' ..1

ri ql rr

to \-ote in British cler tions Ther o r g a n ise dth e m sclr e sin lo groups. h e ld r n cctir r g s, scn t p e titi onsto Parlianrent and tricd to persuade AaaDIii 0a IU5:!

\IPs to ch:rngethe l:nl to enable '-

to r o te Ho u c rcr. tl rc

th e r ig h t o 1 ' r r o m cn to \I)tc t()()k 4

an Inll)()



tanc l P oliric i r Il I n i o n i n \ I a n t l r t' stcr th e lr r o tt( )' f) t' cd s r r o t uorcl s'. of'her net c r c l i ' n ' e c l ir sllic' Su fll- a s- e tte s' .' I' hPa e n kltr tr sts anclthei r tsul)lx)rtersdcclared that rhe situ:rtion ,r,ra seriousthat ther uorrlcl h:nt' to pursut' extrenre ln(':rsrrr('sof civil disobedient t' 'l'he1'camparigned t-:rthierc tirelesslr:rncl sonretinresriolenth their ainr: r haining thenrs ehe st o t h e r a i l i r r g so u t sid ePa r lia n r cllt.d isn r l) tin glr o litica ln r ct'ti rrgs arrclcrt'n comrnitting ncts o1':rrson \lanr lorrrt'rr 'imprisorred an<I. * ht -t r (hc r \ r ( ' n t o n h u n s e r s tr ikc.r r t' r t' fir r ce - Ib dIn . l9 l3 l) r r ih Davi son di ccl to-. lirr the c:ruse. nt a hor sc r:rcc. slrt' rtrsheclout on to ur( ( ()rrrsczlnd s t c ppedin l r o n t o l ' t l i e K i n g ' s lr o r sc. 11In lt ll-l t lr t ' I r i r s t\ \ i r r l c l \ \ a r l r .,,k.'

io lre're.romin' ollt of the Kifrhen 'Lart;r lhere'ssomeihin'\.,re forgolio bal to Jorr Wesay,sislersdre dlin' il for themselves )tandtn'on lheir owntwofael Antlringin'on their ownbells Stslersare dori it Jor themselves Now,ihis ii a song\o co\obralo -[hr conscioLrs libe.ralron of the fema\es.late Mothers, and ihe.rrdaughtars too $lonr:lr.tov,rolran, vre'rosingin'vrilh1ou The rnferrorrer hasgol a nou artaror vlf'vf rlol doctors,\aw1crs. po\iti.ian-a ioo ivtrybod1,taKaa looKaroLrnd Lan loLrsae., .rn JoLr$00,.an .iousee There'sa womanrighl nexl io JoLr?



t I


LItorLn nraKlnriories And waaln'tla1in'p\ans Donl loLrknowihal a mansti\\\ove.s a wonran And a womanslr\\love.ra man JLrslthe same

In th c in tcr cstso l' n ati ol :rl

tt nit r t lie S u f i i : r g c t t c s t r s p c n d cdth e ir ca n r p a ig no f' d ir t- ctcir il :r ttion hrstt:rd t'thcv Ltrgccl\r'omen to t;rkt' orcr nrt-l',,, tht- nrerr r orrlclg<r ancl {ight irt the rr':rr.\\irmen rrcrt' :rlrlt' to l)ro\rehorr indisltcnslble thcr rrcrc in the lielclsand arnr:rrrrcursf)rctorics Ir r NI : rrrh 1 9 l B t h e g o \ c l l r r l l (' n Ig ,,r a iu

Thr.rehad 1obe a greatr^roman Lirrl rr lhrsltinresof change. YouKnow.lhatil's no \ongerlrue

1 ]-

tlr t' p r e ssu r ea. ncl1r:rssccl :r l al gir irrg \ \ ( ) n l c n o v e l 3 0 t h c r ig lr t to r r r r e .L :r te r th a .t\c:lr - it . a llo r rt-dnonrcn o rer 2 | t o b e ro n r t ' \ [ c n r l r e r s of Pa r lia tn t' r r t.llr t th e v still co L r lcL rr' totc i n 15clc t 't irrnsif t h c r l e r c ' o 3 0 1It ta ke a lL r th cl te lr \r':l rs t() antend lhc :rge rlualilication an<l prrt nrt'n und \\'onren ()n an crlu:rl lirotine

FEI:fiTK[lfdWorkin pairs.Discussthe questions.Justifyyour opi ni ons. 1 S houtdhusbandsand w i vessharethe hou sewor k? 2 D o you thi nkschoolcl assesshoul dbe si ng le- sex or mi xed? 3 W oul dyou prefera mal eor a femal eboss? 4 W oul dyou empl oya manto l ookafteryourchild? 5 In w hat otherw aysaretherei nequal i ti es bet weenm en and w omeni n yourcountry? W hydo suchi nequalit ies exi st?U sethe i deasbel owto hetpyou.

Readthe text and answerthe questions. 1 W hatwast he r es u l to f th e n i n e te e n th -c e n tucry a mpai gnto g a int he v ot ef or w o m e n ? 2 H owdid t he S uf f r a g e ttecsa' mp a i g nd i ffe rfro mth e met hodsus edbe fo re ?

di scri mi nate agai nstsb equalpayand condit ions gl asscei l i ng materni tyl eave rol emod els opportuni ti es for promoti on posi ti veac t ion sexdi scri mi nati onsexi ststereotypi ng

i ( t n n n d e , r s t q n d q t t c i r , - , ', t !



. '. . . '. l t t l t

, , t b a t r /. t t 1 1 1 ,, . ,.

Workin pairs.Describewhat is happeningin the photo.Why is the man actingin this way,do you think?What d o you t hink of his b e h a v i o u r?


F{iElltKltrd Work in pairs.Answerthe questions. 1 Do y ou enjoywa tc h i n gw i td ti fep ro g ra mmeosn W ? W hat d o/ don' ty ou lik ea b o u tth e m? 2 W out dy ou enioys e e i n ga s h o wti k eth e o n e i n th e photo a t a wit dlif epar k?W h y ? /Wh n y o t?


Readthe text, ignoringthe gaps. 1 Howdid SteveInrvindie? 2 Howdid he bec o meri c h ? 3 W hatbus ines sdi d h e ta k eo v e rw h e n h i s p a re n tsreti red?


MatchsentencesA-H with gaps 1-7 in the text.Thereis one sentencethat you do not need. A But the 44-year-old, who is believedto havesufferedan i ns t antc ar diacarre s t,w a s p ro n o u n c e d e a db y m edi cal s t af fat aboutno o nl o c a lti m e . B l t ' s a s ham et hat a u d i e n c e n s e e dth a t to b e a ttracted to wit dt if e. C A t t houghlr winw a s o n e o f A u s tra l i a ' mo s s ts u c c e ssful exports,he provokedmixedfeelingsat home. D A t hem epar kf am o u sa ro u n dth e w o rl d ,i t h a sm o rethan 1 , 000anim alson 6 0 a c re so f b u s h l a n da n d e m p l oys360 p eopr e. E H e appear edt o h a v en o fe a r. F In s pit eof t his , lru v i n 'dse a thw a s re p o rte dw i d e tyi n the pressand on W. ebu tl i e n t,h e th ri v e do n h i s d e a th -d efyi ng G lr r epr es s ibly enc ount erwit s h w i tdti fe . H He s im pt yc ouldn o t u n d e rs ta n w d h a tth e fu s sw asabout. Answerthe questions. 1 W hywer epeoples u rp ri s e d n a d b e e nki l tedby th a t In ru i h a stingray? 2 Howdid he r eactw h e n p e o p l ec ri ti c i s e dh i m fo r exposi ng his babys ont o d a n g e r? 3 W hydid m anyA u s tra l i a nhsa v em i x e dfe e l i n g sa b outl rw i n? 4 W hydid s om epe o p l eo b j e c tto In rv i n 'te s levision pr ogr am m es ?




Explain of thesesentences. the meaning 1 Stevelruvin wasa manin tunewithhissurroundings. (tine3) 2 Nothing fazedhim.(line9) 3 Andit was,perhaps, thatsenseof invulnerabitity that kittedhim.(line14) 4 Animals werein lrwin'sblood.(tine33) (tine61) showman. 5 Hewasa natural junkie.(line8a) 5 | getcalledan adrenaline


your Workin pairs.Discuss the questions. Justify opinions. 1 DoyouadmireStevelruin? 'gladiatorial 2 Doyouagree thatTVhasbecome and voyeuristic'? 3 Doyouagree that'somethingsin nature shouldbe leftalone'?

Choosethe correctverbsto completethesecollocations from the text and the sentencesin exercise4. 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9

provoke/ sparkoff mixedfeelings drop / shakeoff an image take / makea risk acquire/ take fameand fortune l aughof f / laugha n i n c i d e n t a nnounc e/ pr on o u n c e s o me b o d yd e a d take out / take overa business a dm inis t er/ is s u ea h e a rtm a s s a g e create/ causepain

Unit5 . Batttes

p.133 Vocabulary Builder5.2:Verb-noun collocations:

Unlike most Australians,who shrink from the tropical sun and shudder at the dangerous creaturesthat surround them, Stevelrwin was a man in tune with his surroundings.A true environmental warrior and lifelong animal rights advocate, he founded Wildlife Warriors Worldwide, which protects habitat and wildlife, sets up breeding and rescueprogrammesfor endangered species, and leads scientific researchto aid conservation. Nothing fazed him - not the sharks or killer jellyfish, nor the man-eating crocodiles, nor the dozens of snakesand spiders capable of delivering a fatal bite. For lrwin, Australia'sanimalswere 'like a magnet',and he acquired fame, and considerablefortune, by getting up closeto them.1! And it was,perhaps,that senseof invulnerabilitythat killed him. The warrior who wrestled crocodiles and handled pythons without a scratch was diving in the warm waters of Queensland'sGreat Barrier Reef when a stingray shot its poisonous barb into his heart. According to a witness, lrwin swam too close to it. Triangular-shapedstingrays, which glide through the water on their wide, flat bodies, are usuallyplacid, lashingout with their long tails only when they feel threatened or are trodden on. lrwin was believed to be only the third person killed by a stingray in Australian waters. lrwin, whose television show Crocodile Hunter made him an international celebrity and a superstar in America, was filming an underwater sequencefor a documentary called Ocean's Deadliest at the remote Batt Reef. The crew of his boat called the emergencyservicesand administered heart massageas they rushed to a nearby island to meet a rescue helicopter. 'I


Animals were in lrwin's blood. At the age of six he was given a four-metre python for his birthday. When he was eight, his father, Bob, a plumber with a passion for reptiles, moved the family from Melbourne to Queensland'sSunshineCoast, where they opened a small wildlife park. By the time lrwin was nine, he was catching crocodiles, and in his twenties he worked for the Queenslandgovernment as a crocodile trapper, removing problem animals from populated areas. In 1991, when his parents retired, he took over the business- originally called the Queensland Reptile and FaunaPark, and now known as Australia Zoo - and developed it into a major tourist attraction. 3|-l

he went too far, cradling his baby son, Bob, in one arm while feeding a large, snapping crocodile with the other, there was an uproar and lrwin apologised. He later insisted, however,that boy had been in no danger, and in later interviewslaughed offthe incident. o! h was all about 'perceived danger' he said, claiming that 'in front of that crocodile I was in complete control, absolute and complete control.' One commentator blamed his death on the demands of an increasinglyvoyeuristic brand of television.But lrwin was only doing what had come naturally. He was a natural showman. tl-l The British television presenter and survivalexpert, Ray Mears, said his death proved that 'some things in nature should be left alone'. He said of lrwin: 'He clearly took a lot of risks, and television encouraged him to do that. uf]You leave dangerous animals alone becausethey will defend themselves.'Mears,too, condemnedsome wildlife programmes as'voyeuristic',saying:'Television has become very gladiatorial, and it's not healthy. The voyeurism we are seeing on television has a cost, and it's that cost Stevelrwin's family are paying now.' However, scientistswho study stingrayssay that lrwin was extremely unlucky. Unprovoked attacks are virtually unheard of, and although a stingray'svenom will cause agonising pain, it is rarely fatal. t! tik" Kylie Minogue, he was not taken entirely seriously in Australia, and appeared to be more valued abroad. Urban Aussieswant to shake off the image embodied by the brash,blond lrwin, and to havetheir modern,'multicultural nation portrayed overseasin a rather more sophisticated fashion. Whatever one thought of lrwin, his passionfor life could not be denied, nor the 100 per cent enthusiasmthat he brought to everythinghe did. 'l get called an adrenalinejunkie every other minute, and I'm just fine with that,' he once remarked. On another occasion, he claimed never to have experienced 'fear of losing my life'.

lrwin told the ABC documentary: 'l've got animals so genetically inside me that there's no way I could actually be anything else.' Visitors came in droves to Australia Zoo to watch lrwin hover perilously close to untethered crocodiles, often leaping on to their backs. But in 2004

Unit5. Battles



avaid repetitLon.


6) 2.04 Readandlisten.Whatwordshavebeenmissed followingthewordsin redin the out,or areunderstood, dialogues?

the sentences 2 Readthe Learnthis!box,thencomplete usinga reduced infinitiveanda verbfromthe boxin the correctform. lf morethanoneansweris possible, explainyourchoice. be able hope intend notlike love want notmean useto 1 'Doyouwantto join usfor a biteto eat?' 'Yes,l.' 2 'YoubrokemynewMP3player!' | -.' 'Sorry, 'Did you gofora strollalongthebeach?' 3 'No,| a bit undertheweather.' , butI wasfeeting 'l you to Jean.' 4 think shouldapologise 't_.' 5 'Doyouthinkyou'llgettheiob?' 't_.' 6 'YoucouldhaveaskedKateif she'dlendyouhercar.' . l'm alwaysaskingherforfavours.' 'l know,but | do,butI'mafraidI 7 'l washopingto cometo yourleaving 8 'Davedoesn'trunas muchashe-

Mum Harry Mum Harry

Harry, canyouturnoffthecomputer now,please? | don'twantto. Haveyoudoneyourhomeworkyet? No,I haven't. ButlwillwhenI'vefinished thise-mai[.

Fred HaveyoudrunkatltheCoke? Lucy No,I haven't. Fred Wellsomeone has.Therewerea coupleof cansin fridge morning. the this Lucy Goandbuysomemore. Fred Whyshouldl?| boughtthe lastlot! Dad Salty Dad Salty

Didyouremember to postthatletterforme? Er...No,lforgot. promised youwould. 0h,Satly!You I knowI did.I'msorry!

I 6r Ellipsis S Weoftenleavewordsout in orderto avoidrepetition. $ 1 Wecanuseto insteadof a wholeinfinitive (a 'reduced infinitive'), or sometimes thewhote $


() Z.OSComptete the dialogues with appropriate auxiliary youneeda negative verb.Then or modalverbs.Sometimes tistenandcheck. You'renotgoingoutdressed tikethat! l? Alice why'you'llfreeze Dad Because to death. Alice 12 ft isn'tthatcold.Andanyway altmyfriends -! dress[ikethis. 3Dad Maybethey , butI insistthatyouputon warmer. something Dad

Mum Neil Mum

please? Neil,willyoutidyup in thebathroom, 14. leftyourclothes in a heapon You5-.You've floor. the

SandraWho'spinched myhairdryer? MaybeEllie7. Cathy 16-. t-. Sheneverusesone. SandraNo,she youcanborrow mine. Cathy lfyoue-, Prepare a dialoguein whicha parentanda teenager argue Avoidrepetition aboutsomething. by including a numberof auxiliary verbsandreduced infinitives. Useoneof the ideas your belowor choose own.

the pronunciation of theauxiliary/modat 3 In ellipsis verbsandto is usuallystrong. .s-\\ Grammar p.122 Builder5.2:Eltipsis:

U n i t 5 . Ba ttte s

1 2 3 4

an argument abouttidiness aboutstaying outlate an argument an argument aboutschoolwork aboutthetelevision an argument

Workin pairs.Actoutyourdialogueto the class, payingattentionto the pronunciation.






I c a n .qtvea pruentqtl on

1 EiifflKNfd Workin pairs.Discuss the questions. What 1 Whatdoesthegraphtellusaboutmilitary spending? isyourreaction to thisinformation? people recruit 2 Lookat theposter. Howdo thearmedforces in yourcountry? in thephotodemonstrating against? 3 Whatarethepeople Why?/Why not? Areprotests tikethesegenerally effective?


6) z.og Listenagain.Add the phrasesthe speakersuse for structuringtheir presentations to the chartbelow. C hangi ngthe subi ect I'll now turn to ... I' d now [i keto deal w i th... 7_ 2_ Acknowledging an opposingview I freelyadmitthat ... Otherstake a differentview. 3_ 4_

Globat distribution of military expenditure

D i smi ssi ng an opposi ngvi ew I don' tacceptthere' sany meri ti n the argumentthat . . . I entirelyrejectthe notionthat ... 6_ 5_ Referringto somethingsaid earlier Returning to (the issueof ... /the point about ...) To restatethe main argument,... 7_ 8_

Yri$ c0llt{TfiY'$ J8ltr A$il'fr G{\tr s,llt:'ltll:l



Completethe sentenceswith the correctform of the wordsin the box. defend destroy eradicate have spend too much povertythroughheal thand educati onwouldm ean warswouldn'tbe necessary. 2 E veryone shoul dbe abl e thei rcountry. i s saferthan having a si ngl egl obaIsuperpow er 3 tw o or three. Thereare morei mportantthi ngsfor youngpeo ple thei rti me on. pow eri n the handsof a si ngl estatei s a dangerous thi ng. therew oul dsti tlb e disease 6 E veni f al l w eapons and poverty.


,t/ r(,

Giving a presentation yourstrongest first. 1 Present argument 2 Acknowtedge viewandthengivea countertheopposing yourownopinion. argument or restate saynext,usefillers. 3 Whenyouarethinkingwhatto tryto forsomething, 4 Whenyoudon'tknowtheEnglish paraphrase. Tryto 5 Lookat theexaminer andspeakloudlyandctearly. soundconfident.

Matchthe sentencesin exercise4 with the statements below.Whichare argumentsfor the statements,and which are argumentsagainst? a N ati onalS ervi ceshoul dbe compul sory. b' E verycountryshoul dreducemi l i taryspendi ngand spend the moneyi nsteadon humani tari an causes. c The USAposesthe biggestthreatto world peace.

6 tip andthetaskbelow.Thenlisten $ z.Oe Readthespeaking to twostudents thequestions. doingthetaskandanswer 1 Towhatextentdo thespeakers fotlowtheadvice? Why? 2 Whicharguments doyoufindthemostpersuasive? 'Tobe a pacifistis to be a coward.'Do you agreeor y o u ro p i n i o n ,g i v i n ga rg u me n ts d i sagr ee? P r es ent to su ppor yt ourv iew .Sp e a kfo r a ma x i mu mo f th re e .ninutes.

Workin pairs.Chooseone of statementsa-c above.Decide if you agreeor disagreeand brainstormtwo or three addi ti onaIargumentsto supportyouropi ni on.Includeat leastone opposingargument.Make notes. Giveyour presentationto the class.Speak for a maximumof three minutes.Followthe advicein the speakingtip and use someof the phrasesin exercise3.

Unit5. Battles

I can v^,ri tean qrtl cLe cl escri btnj.taw teane I adnti re

Explain thisquotation aboutadmiration. Doyouagreewith it?Why?/Why not?

We alwayslove those who admire us, but we do not alwayslove those whom we admire.

Whenwritingan article, it is important to consider 1 thetargetaudience, i.e.whoyouarewritingfor. 2 the purpose of the article( entertain, to persuade, to inform,etc). 3 theappropriate style(e.g.format,informal, 'chatty'and personal; theuseof headings, bulletpoints,etc.). Readthewritingtip andthetaskbelow.Whatis thetarget audience? Whatis the purpose of the article? Whatstyle wouldbe mostappropriate? Someone ladmire youadmire. Writean articte aboutsomeone lt couldbe youknowpersonally someone or a publicfigure. r Include information abouttheirlife. o Include information abouttheirachievements. . Explain whyyouadmire them. Thethreebestarticles willbe published in theschool magazine nextmonth. Theopeningof the articleshouldgrabthe reader's attention anddrawthemin.Whichof theseopenings worksleastwell? why? -fh&re are a number of puple I advwire' but ow perslw stands lut frow aLIthe othzrs'



@ +(ali+ies {rienJ

wisAo^ th a t



I va l*e haS all




Sr g a ily, a n J - y +hree i^ ab*nJance.

peyso,tlT adnire y,uosfis mT e!.der brtlla"er, 6y v {osepr". He,sa rea!.16 adnirabd perso+..


a\\ that I lf .there'tongPersonthai embodies admirain a humanbeing,ii's m1Aunt Linda

Readthe article.Findpassages wherethewriterhas: 1 addressed thereader. question. 2 useda rhetoricaI 3 used:(a)a chatty,personal style(b)a moreformatstyle. Topof the listof peopleI greatlyadmirecomesmygreatwho,at the age frandfather, of 97,i s sti l ll i vi nga ful land activelife.If youwereto meet hi m,youw oul dn'bel t i eve he' sonl y threeyearsshortof a hundred Throughout hi sl onf l i fehehas battledaSainst adversity and misfortuneHelostbothhisparents beforehistwelfthbirthday, andontop of that hiselderbrother di edi n the Fi rstW orl dW arA sa youngmani n the 1950s hewas outofw orkfor l ongperi ods andreal l ystruggl et d o supporhis t j ustasthi nS sbegan youngfami l y. Then, t0 go bet t erf or him ,he w ascal l edupto fi ghti n theS econd W orl dW ar Hejoinedt heRAF andw asshotdow noverFrance i n 1944N otonl ywashebadly i nj ured, buthew asal socaptured andspentthe r estof t hewar in a prisoner-of-war campAfterthewar,he opened a smallgarage, doi ngrepai rsandservi ci nf, andsel l i ng second - hand car s,and throu$hsheerhardw orkbui l ti t up i ntoa successfbusiness ul H ow ever, thebusi ness ran i ntodi ffi cul ti es duri n ga r ecession and hewentbankruot A l lthi sw asl ongbeforel w asborn,of courseB utwhat 'sher eally likeas a person? Intheyearsthat I haveknownhimhe hasshown othergreatqual i ti es besi des thecounage anddet er m inat ion which hel ped hi mthrough thedi ffi cultitmesH e' ski nd,willingt 0 list en - but he neverforcesit on you What's andoffera wordof advice more,he'sgreatfunto bewithandverywitty He'soneof thewisestandmosttolerantpeopleI know,andl'm veryluckyto havehimas mygreat-grandfather An articleneedsa good title. Choosethe best title for the articlein exercise4. 1 A long life 2 A [ovelyold man 3 Batttingagainstadversity

4 My great-grandfather 5 S omeoneI adm ir e

In the article,findtwoof the nounsin the boxandthree adjectives formedfromnounsin the box. altruism amiabititycharm couragedetermination devotion generosityhonesty intelligenceloyalty patience reliabititysensitivitysinceritytolerance trustworthiness wisdom wit Formadjectives fromall the othernounsin the box. oN Vocabulary (1):p.134 Builder5.3:Wordformation

_ What makesus admirepeople?Often it is

theyhaveadmirablb @ beca.use qriiiiirr'-iirn wedon't ourselves possess.

Unit5. Batttes ,/

Workin pairs.Makea listof fivewell-known peoplewhomyouadmire. Whatarethe qualities and achievements thatyoufindadmirable? Usethenounsand adjectives in exercises 6 andTto helpyou.


i cqn \rilt "tri trticlt , , J c ; c r i b i t t t t J a t y a L t i ( | i t t 't i t i r t

Lookat the pictures. Whatachievements arethe people famousfor?Whatdifficulties did theyhaveto overcome?

.l akehasgot both a greatsenseof humourand gr eatdeal of charm. In addi ti onto My grandmother l ookedafterfi ve chi l drenand she looked afterher ow n si ckmother. My grandmother prus 7 Peteownsa fl at i n Londonas w el las a housein t he

country. Apartfrom Readthe task.Planan article,makingnotesfor the sections below. Heroes

EmmelinePankhurst Ch e ckt he m eaningof th e w o rd sa n d p h ra s e su s e dto expressadditionin the Learnthis! box.Whichtwo wouldyou only expectto see in a formalcontext?Findfour more in the a rti cl eon page55 and p u t th e m i n th e c o rre c p t l a c ei n the Learnthis! box. L i n k er sf or addit io n a l ongs ide a l ongwit h apartfrom a s w e[ [as

besides, ... furthermore ...intothebargain moreover



i n addit iont o b o o t



apartfrom a s w ell as b e s ides i n a ddit iont o


b o th ...a n d ... 4

(1):p.134 Vocabulary Builder 5.4:Linkers

Complete thesecond sentence sothatit means thesameas thefirst. 1 Wendy isverydetermined andshe'salsoveryambitious. Be s ides He n r yt r av elledup t h e A m a z o na, n d s o m eo f h i s fri e nds w e n twit h him . ilenry a to n gw i th 3 L i a mis a f ine paint e ra n d h e ' sa g o o dp i a n i s tto o . Liam to boot. 4 My mum hasa f ull- t i mei o b a n d d o e sa [[th e h o u s e w ork. My mum a sw e l la s

W ri tean arti cl eaboutsomeoneyou admi rebecauset hey haveovercome adversi ty. l t coul dbe someoneyou know personal lor y a publ i cfi gure. r D escri be the probl emstheyfaced. . D escri be the qual i ti esthey havethat maketh em specia[ . Thethreebestarti cl esw i tt be oubti shedi n the school magazi ne nextmonth.

(lntroduce paragraph: Opening thetopic.Grabthe readers' attention. Refer to thequestion, butdo notcopyit.) Mainpart:(Adversities thattheyhaveovercome andthe personal qualities - oneor two thatmakethemspecial paragra phs.) (Briefly Finalparagraph: sumup.) Workin pairs. 1 Lookat yourpartner's notesfromexercise 4 andwrite downat leastthreequestions whichyou'dliketo ask abouttheperson. 2 Askyourpartner younoteddown. thequestions questions 3 Useyouranswers to yourpartner's to addmore details to yourarticleplan. Thinkof a goodtitleforyourarticle. Writea first draftof the article.Writebetween200-250 yourplan. wordsfo[[owing yourworkusingthe list below. Check

Haveyou fottowea the plancorrectly? I ! I I !

writtenthecorrect numberof words? grabbed thereaders'attention in thefirstparagraph? usedsomelinkers foraddition? checked thespetting andgrammar?

Unit 5 " -i

EHn 5 e-in homework hasbeenshown10 oarental the strongest predictor of bettergrades. Report author DrSusanHallamsaid:'Parents havethe mostoositive influence whenthegoffermoralsupport, make available anddiscussgeneral appropriate resources helpwithhomework issues. Thegshouldonlgactuallg askthemto.' whentheirchildren specificallg

Wo rki n p a i rs .An s w e rth e q uesti ons. 1 Hav ey ou ev erw i tn e s s e do, r h e a rda b o u t,a ro a drage W hath a p p e n e d ? inc ident ? 2 Doy ou ev err oww i th a n y o n e ? W h a td o y o u a rgueabout?


Do the Speakingexamtask.


C atti tude A atmosohereB mood D cl i mate 2A w hi l e B eventhough C supp osing D if B i nl ury C destr uct ionDhur t 3A damage B overbal anceC outweigh 4A exceed fnr D r nm nen<:tp B do C make D grow 5A bri ng proceed B deri ve C ri se 5A D ar ise C tack 7A go w i thout B mi ss D are depri vedof refi ne 8A ameno B adapt D convert 9A i nvol vementB contri buti on col l a bor at ion D connecti on 10A bei ng B havi ngbeen as b eing D t o be

Com par eand c on tra s th t e p h o to s .W h y a re th e p e opl e y ou do t h i n k ? a rguing,

Do you knowwhy the year 1066 is i mportanti n B ri ti shhi story?

W or kin pair s .A s k a n d a n s w e rth e q u e s ti o n s . ? y ? /Wh yn o t? 1 Canr owsbe be n e fi c i a lWh 2 W hat ' st he bes tw a yo f a v o i d i n gfa mi l yro w s ?



O z.oz D o the Li steni ngexamtask.

Do the Useof Englishexamtask.

Choosethe bestword or phrase(A-D) to completeeach g ap.

'Homework at rootof mangfamilgarguments' Homework cancausefrictionbetween oarentsand in middle-class families children, espec iallg where abouta child's futurecanleadto a dangerous concerns tof pressure to succeed, according to a recent report.Homework canalsocreateanxietg, boredom, fatigueandemotional in children, whoresent exhaustion theencroachment on theirfreetime,'thegthink helpsthemdowellat school. homework Theresulting J

' ' fg la ll0 n Sn lp t(.u t\hr ros p no e rr ocrn f' h llO r re- u

L m a U. -

advantage homework angeducational mag'-, the Institute claimed. Thereportfoundthatproblems whenparents canutry to helpwithhomework, whenthegfeeltheg'-the knowledge especiallg orthetime.Parents maginhibittheirchildren's in doinghomework bgtrgingto control effectiveness - tellingchildren environment whenand the homework distractions whereto do homework ortrgingto eliminate - insteadof helping them"it to suittheirlearning stgles,the bodgsaid.0n the plusside,the reportsaid,

D eci dew h et hert he Li stento the radi oprogramme. i nformati oni n eachsentence(1-7) i s true,f alseor not stated. TrueFalseNotstated 1 E veryone i n B ri tai nknow sw hat

h a p p e n in e d1 0 6 6 .




2 In hi storyl essonschi l drenhaveto

learn toomany dates.

tr tr


tr I


tr I


3 N o countryhas i nvadedB ri tai n

since1o66. 4 S omepeopl ethi nkthat the E ngti sh C hannelhasdefendedthe country

fr ominvasion.

hi storv 5 Otherbattl eshavechanqed -H asti ngs to di d. t r the extentthat B attteof 6 TheN ormansystemof government model. I w as superi orto the A ngl o-S axon popul ati on A fter 1066, the w hol e of 7 B ri tai nw as forcedto speakFrench. I







T HIS UI{ I T I NCT UDE S . synonyms Yocabutary of predict. expressions "for plansand predictions. adjective-adverb/verb-noun : r o c a t i o n s . d e p e n d e n tp re p o si ti o ns( 2) .r egister .collocationswithsleep.synony m s ofpr i z e . lioms for expressing . reporting . concession verbs and counter-argument ioy . reporting 66mmar. talkingaboutthe future. phrasalverbs:particles andtheirmeanings structures ambitions. talkingaboutsleepand dreams. talkingaboutthe EU +aking . tatkingaboutpersonal . : no t o c o m p a nso n friting . 3 519O

1 can tpecuLqteand ntake predLcttowabout the fut ure.

Lool<ing intothefuture

11 12 13 14 15 . '




GrammarB ui l der6.1:Tatki ngaboutthe fu t ur e:p. 122

Wheredo you seeyourselfin ten years'time?Make notes undertheseheadi ngs.

Workin pairs.Describe the photoandanswer thequestions.



1 Whatdoesthewomando? 2 Haveyoueverhadyourfortunetold?lf not,wouldyoulike to?Why?/Why not? 3 Whydo peopte wantto knowtheirfuture? thefuture? 4 Doyouthinkit is possible to predict you prophecies? Didtheycometrue? 5 Do knowanyfamous

Yesor no?When? Howmany?

Where? Whattype?


How important?

o* 2

(o/+ gerund) ... achievemy | hope| i n (+ gerund) | may towardsthat. | don' tseethat happeni ngi n the futu r e. (+ baseform) I' l tbe i n a better-to...

Workin pairs.Makepredictions aboutyour partner's future.

Vocabulary Builder6.1:Synonyms of predict:p.735

the question: answering O 2.08 Listento sixteenagers Wheredo youseeyourselfin tenyeors'time?Answer the questions. Givereasons foryouranswers. 1 Whohasthemost/least interesting ambitions? 2 Whois themost/least futfilting about their optimistic ambitions? 3 Doyouhavesimilar to anyof thespeakers? ambitions


to presentyour ideasusingsomeofthe expressions 7 Prepare in exercise 3 andthe boxbelow.

withthewordsin the the expressions O 2.08 Comptete box.Thenlistenagainandcheck.

Expressing doubtanduncertainty It'sdifficuttto say,really. I guessI'll... | (don't)suppose I'll .../l (don't)imagineI'tl... I would(n't) saythat... I doubtif I'tl... It'suntikely thatI'tl... Assuming that... I may/might well... It depends whether/how/what, etc.... guesswhat/when/where, It'sanyone's etc.... I couldgoin a number of directions.

come counting determinedeverythingforeseeable fulfit goaI hopes likely myself position realise sights succeedwork 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 10

| thinkit'sthat... (+gerund) | can(not) seeI'vesetmyon (+noun) I'mnoton it. Assuming that| myambition ... lf myplans... to nothing, I'mto (+ baseform) I'llgiveit I'vegot. (o/+gerund) my dream I'm(not)pinning myon (noun/gerund)

Workin pairs.Lookat eachother'snotesin exercise 4 and Addyouranswers asksomequestions aboutthe predictions. to yournotes.


Workwitha differentpartner. Tellhimor her you yourself years aboutwhere see in ten fromnow.

U ni t6. Dr eam s

I can taLk qbaut the sLgnifi.canreaf drearnt

Themeaning of dreams Discuss thisquestionin pairs:Howdo dreamsdifferfromreal life? Choose the bestword(a-d)to complete eachgap.

youever1_ whywe Have lt seems dream? suchaneasy question, butit isverydifficult to Mostscientists answer. agree what thatwedon'tyetknow 2_. Given purpose dreams theamount oftimewespendin a dreaming'_, thismayat However, firstseem baffling. it really when isn't surprising we thatscience isstill4 consider purpose andfunction theexact itself. haveputfonvard ofsleep Scientists a number.of theories as u_ towhywedream, butasyetno consensus hasemerged. Some experts areoftheopinion thatinalllikelihood dreaming has probably Theymaintain thatsleep norealpurpose. hasa biological (allowing thebodyandbrain torecuperate), function butthatdreaming u_, a mental nothing buta sequence ismerely ofimages and feelings experienced Other scientists, on the other '_sleeping. believe thatdreaming isessential tomental, hand, emotional and physical well-being. Theysuggest thatdreams are8_ triggered by weexperience while weareawake, thefeelings suchasfear,anger frequent Thisiswhydreams aremore andintense following orlove. powerful emotional experiences, especially stressful ortraumatic ones. According tothistheory, suchdreams allow themindtomake sense of n_ suggests theemotional experiences, thattheyhelpusbothto reduce thedistress caused bythehauma, andtocopebetter iffurther traumatic orstressful events occur. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3

awondered a serve acondition aunwinding asingle aact aon asomewhat athis

bthought cspeculateddreflected b carryout c complete d do bcircumstance cposition dstate bunravelling cseparatingduntying bsole csingular dsotitary bactivity caction dprocedure bin cduring dwhite bsomehow canyhow danyway band cthat dwhich

f| Z.OeListento threepeopletatkingaboutdreams. Answerthe questions in yourownwords. 1 Howdid Belinda's dreamrelateto herlife? 2 In hisdream, whatmakesHarryableto fly? to Christine, whatfunction do dreams 3 According serve?

Unit5 . Dreams

5 Ul E

c, <i BI

particles Phrasalverbs: andtheirmeanings Particles meaning oftenadda specific to a phrasalverb. Mostparticles havemorethanonemeaning. back= 1 repeating2 lookingintothe past Thesecretary readtheletterbacktoher boss. Thisbuildingdatesbackto1650. down= 1 recordin writing 2 reducing I jotted downthephonenumberon a scrapof poper. Waittillyour coffeecoolsdown. off : l departing 2 ending Thethievesmadeoff withf 1 millionin cash. Sambrokeoff hisengagement to Tilly. on= 1 continuing2 attacking My bossdronedon for agesat the meeting. Pickon someoneyourownsize! 2 solving,searching out= 1 disappearing Dinosaurs diedout about60 millionyearsogo. I couldjust makeouta ship on thehorizon. over=l visiting 2 considering, examining Let'spop overto Jamie's. Alwayslookoveryour workbeforeyou hand it in. up:lapproach 2improve Don'tcreepup on me likethat! I'm going to eveningclossesto brushup my French.

Studythe Learnthis! box.Thencompletethesesentences fromthe listeningwiththe particles in the box.Which meanings in theLeornthrslboxdo the particles convey, ! or 2? back down off on out over up 1 2 3 4

| remember thewolfcoming to thehouse. I'venevertriedto workwhatit means,though. | throwmyselffonvardandI take Soin orderto carryflying,I haveto believeI can ftv. I calm. 5 Graduatly 6 Mostlymydreamsarejusta rehashof eventsof the day, in muddted form. coming sometimes 7 lt'squiteamusing to gothedreamin yourownhead. os

Builder Grammar 6.2:Particles andtheirmeanings: p.123

Workwitha partner.Discuss thesequestions. Tryto usesomephrasal verbsin youranswers. your 1 Howoftendo youdream? Doyouoftenremember Doyouhaverecurring dreams? dreams? Whathappens? 2 Doyouthinkyourdreams cante[[youanything aboutyour truestateof mind?lf so,what? 3 Doyoubelieve thatdreamscanforetellthe future? Why?/ Whynot? 4 Haveanyof yourdreams evercometrue?lf so,what happened?

I tarr Lrndcrstatul and rcact 1a .u' ,.:,1:.l c,tbattlS al tl i r" ,

Drigins and growth : --:e aftermath of the :r:-.nd lVorld War, some :': -:ical leadersin Western :::ope believed that the ::--, -to avoid war =.: conflict in the future . .Li to unite the countries -r Europe in an economicand political union. So, in 1952 six :-''.:ntries - France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands r-l Luxembourg - formed 'was to evolve into the :-:ropean Union (EU). Since then ut-21 countries have ,::ned the organisation, bringing the total population of the EU :-- over 500 million.

How does it work?

o.he EU is not a federation the United States.The =ember states of the EU remain independent sovereign nations :ui they pool their sovereignty in certain areas of policy. Pooling t:overeignty means, practice, that the member states .ieiegate some of their decision-making powers to shared nstitutions they have created, so that decisions "specific :natters of joint interest can be made democratically at European level.

The three main decision-making instifutions are: . the EuropeanCommission,consisting of 27 commissioners, one chosen by each member state. The role of the Commission is to propose new legislation, but it cannot pass IawsTitself. . the Council of the EU, consisting of one govemment minister from each country. The Council is the EU's main decisionmaking body. It votes on legislation proposed by the Commission. . the EuropeanParliament,based in Brussels and Strasbourg, and consisting of 785 MEPs directly elected by the citizens of the EU. Elections are held 8five years. Like the Council, the Parliament votes on and passeslaws proposed by the Commission.

Controversy The British have a very uneasy relationship with the EU. British Europhiles claim that the EU continues to bring tangible economic and political benefits to the UK, and that it has delivered peace and stability to Europe for over half a a century. Eurosceptics,however, who are probably edirection the EU is majority in the UK, are concerned about the undemocratic and taking. They believe that it is fundamentally unaccountable, and maintain that the real aim of the EU is to create an enormous federal state in which individual member states will exerciselittle controi 10their own affairs.

Testyourknowledge of the EU.Trythe quiz,thenreadthe textandcheckyour answers. 1 Inwhichdecade wastheorganisation thatwasto become the EUformed? 2 Canyounamethreeof thesixoriginal members? 3 Howmanymember statesaretherenow? Parliament meet? 4 In whichtwocitiesdoestheEurooean Complete thetextwithappropriate words.Useoneword onlyin eachgap. Readthetextandexplainin yourownwords: 1 whatthefounders of theEUhopedthatit wouldachieve. means. 2 what'pooling sovereignty' Commission, theCounciI of theEUand 3 howtheEuropean theEuropean Parliament aremadeup,andwhattheir rolesare. fear. 4 whatEurosceotics Findthesenounsin thetextandcomplete thecollocations withthe correct verbs. I an organisation 5 an el e ct ion 2 -powers 6 -benefi ts peaceand st abit it y newlegislation 7 3 control 4 -alaw 8 Complete thesephrases fromthetextwith prepositions. 1 evolve 2 consist 3 vote prepositions: p.135 Vocabulary Builder6.2:Dependent


O z.f o Listento fourpeopletalkingaboutthe EU.Match eachspeaker withonebenefit(a-d)andonedrawback (e-h).

Speakerl I tr Speaker2 I tr

Speaker3! Speaker+[


Benefitsof the EU a TheEUgivesEuropean countries a voicein worldaffairs. b TheEUhasmadeit mucheasier to travelaroundEurope. is a realsuccess. c TheEuropean singlemarket regions d TheEUprovides economic aidto thepoorer of Eurooe. Drowbocks of the EU e TheEUshouldleavemoredecisions to national govern ments. f TheEUis over-bureaucratic andmanyof thelawsit passes areunnecessary. g Thefreemovement problems. of labourhascreated h TheEUis undemocratic. Discuss in exercise 5 anddecide thestatements youropinions. if youagreeor disagree withthem.Justify )) Discuss theEUat U ni t6. D r- ea^':

Sleep-deprived teenagers 1

Workin pairs.Describe the photos.Thenaskand answerthesequestions. goto bed? 1 Whattimedo youusually 2 Doyouhavea computer or a TVin yourbedroom? 3 Doyougo straight to sleep?lf not,whatdo youdo? 4 Doyoueverlie in at weekends? Untitwhattime?


2 neadthe text.Whichexplanation for teenagers notgetting enoughsleepdoesthewriterfavour? 1 Teenagers think they catchup with sleepat weekends. 2 T eenager bodi s ' e sd o n o t p ro d u c ea h o rmo n ethat makes t hem s leepyunt i l th ee a rl yh o u rso f th e mo rn i n g. Teenagers engagein [ate-nightactivitiessuchas playing c om put ergam e sa n d w a tc h i n gW i n s te a do f g o i ngstrai ght to s t eep.

the questions. 3 Answer 7 In whattwowayscanlackof sleepaffectteenagers? 2 Whydo someexperts believe thatactivities suchas ptaying gamesbeforebedaremoreliketyto computer prevent fromsleeping teenagers thanreading a book? Whatevidence doesthewriterproduce to support his/ herviewthatit is normalforteenagers to goto sleeplater thanadults?

4 Scanthetextandunderline all the examples of the noun sleep.Lookat the wordss/eepcollocates with in the text. Howmanyof the collocations canyoufindin the extract from the OxfordCollocations Dictionary? sleep noun 1 conditionof rest rof deepI fightI much-needed o lhr olJto bedforsome much-needed- | adequate I REM vrRB + srErp drift into, drift off to, drop off to, fall back to \AnA, get to, go to o Shc turned over and went back to - | cry yourself to I cat(h, get, snatch o Closâ&#x201A;Źyour eyesand get .some r norv. o I snatched a few hours' - in the afternoon I need I survive on o They seem to suruive on only o Jew hours' - a night I induce, promote o They use drugs to induce - | full sb to, send sb to o The quiet muslc soon sent her to - | drift in and out of o He drifted in and out of - aII nrght I fose (often figurative) o Don't lose - over it-we'Il sort everything out tn the morning. I disrupt, disturb, interrupt I catch up on o I used Sarurday to catch up on my -. I leign o I fetgned - u,hen the nu se came around stttP + vtRB Come o Slecp come to her in snafches. I overcome sb, overtake sb o SLeepfinally overtook me. srIrp + NouN cycle, pattern, schedule (esp.AmO I deprivation, loss I disorder I apnoea/apnea I aid (esp AmE) o the nofronls nrosr comntonly prescrtbed - aid q enre during heart rate during - | in your - o d,ecrcused o He often rvalks cnd talks in his p HR A srsa fa ck o f o l was sulfer ingfr om aLack ofa | wink of - o I A,on't get a wtnk of - with that noise do rrns fd ir.s

2 period of sleep nol long I little, short I dead, deep, heavy,sound I uninte.rupted I good, restful I light I disturbed, exhausted,fitful, restless,troubled, uneasyo I wokeup .. I dreamless,peacefulI drunken I earlyafteradisturbed beauty o Sorry,but I needmy beauryv t R B* s r t t p n e e d I h a ve cDidyo u h a vea g o o d - ? I b e in o / wasin a deep- whenthephonerzng I drift into, fall into, sink into o I immediatelyfeII into a dead.-.. I awake (sb) from. awaken(sb)from, wake (sb)from o He wokeJrom a fitful - with a head.ache pH R ^ s ra5 g o o d ,p o o r ,e tc. n ig h t' s- o Yo u ' IIfe e lb e tte r r tJte a gooclni.ghts-

Unit6 . Dreams

I cart nnderstandard react la c,n adtcLc abc^t the tntpartancecf sleep



Why is it thot mony teenogers hove the energy to ploy computer gomes untillote ot night but con't find the energy to get oul of bed in time for school?According to q new report, todoy's generotion of children ore in donger of getting so little sleep thot they ore putiing theirmentol ond physicolheolth ot risk.Adultscon eosily surviveon sevento eight hours'sleepo night,whereos teenogersrequirenine or ten hours.According to medicol experts,one in five youngstersgets onything between two ond five hours'sleepo night lessthon theirporentsdid ot theiroge. Thisroisesseriousquestionsobout whether lock of sleep is offecfing children'sobility to concentrote of school: The connection between sleep deprivotion ond lopsesin memory, impoired reoction time ond poor concentrotion iswell estoblished.Reseorchhos shown thot losingqs little os hqlf on hour'ssleepo night con hove profoundeffects on how childrenperformthe next doy. A good night's sleep is olso cruciol for teenogers becouse it is while they ore osleep thot they releoseo horrnone thot is essentiol for their 'growth spurt' (the period during teenoge yeors when the body growsot o ropid role). lt's true thot they con to some extent cotch up on sleepof weekends,but thot won't help ihem when they ore dropping off to sleep in closson o Fridoyofternoon. So why qren't teenogersgetting enough sleep?Some expertssuggestthe presence of televisions,computers ond mobile phonesin children'sbedroomsmoy be to blome. Insteodof reoding o book ot bedtime,children ore going to theirroom ond ployingcomputer gomes, surfingthe web, textingond messoging,or wotching television.As these new childhood pre-sleepoctivities hove become more widespreod, so more troditionol ones such os reoding hove declined.Dr LuciWiggs,o reseorchfellow qt Oxford University's Sectionof Child ond AdolescentPsychiotry soid, 'One of the problemswith these pre-sleepoctivitiesis thot they ore unstructured, i.e.they do not hove cleorly defined stort ond end times.' Shewent on. 'Thisis the first generotionof childrento foce such o plethoro of olternotives to going to sleep ond the long-term consequencesin terms

Usethe examplesin the dictionaryentryto help you identify w hi chcol l ocati ons havemeani ngs1-5. 1 w orryaboutsomethi ng w i th the resul tthatyou ar en'table to sl eep 2 get a l i tttesteepi n a shortavai l abl e ti me,usuallydur ing the day 3 whileyou are sleeping(tvvophrases) 4 makesomebodygo to sl eep 5 pretendto be asl eep


Completethe sentenceswith collocationsof sleepfrom the dictionary.Sometimesmorethan one answeris possible. 1 Themomenther headtouchedthe oi l l owsh ea doon

2 Teenagers havedifferentsleep from adults. 3 A fterspl i tti ngup w i th her boyfri end, shew e nt hom eand herselto f sl eep. 4 l ' m goi ngto get an earl yni ght.I needto on my sreep. 5 H e dranka w hol ebottl eof w i neand fel l i nto a steeo. 5 | w okeat 3 a.m.and coul dn' t to sl eepf or ages. S l eepfi natty me at aboutfi veo' cl oc k.

:' o h vs ic olqnd m ent olh e o l thfo r b o th th e c h i l do n d --e i rfo m ilyc on only be g u e s s e do t. Wh o t w e d o k n o w i s --ct impoiredsleepquoliiyor quontitymoy compromise :-i l d re n ' sphy s ic olheol th ,o c o d e m i c o c h i e v e m e n tso n d --e n to lheolt h. ' ;eseorch hos shownthot teenogershove differentsleep ::tte rn s f r omy oungerc h i l d re no n d o d u l ts A . ti mi n g --echonismin the broin reguloiesour bodilyfunctions - .er o 24-hourperiod.At night,the heort rote folls,blood :'essureis loweredond urineceosesto be oroduced. ''.-en the sun rises,fhe body beginsto woke up. One ^-co rto ntc honge t hot o c c u rso t n i g h iti m e i si n c re o sed =. e 1 so f t he ' dor k nes hs o rm o n e 'me l o to n i nw , h i c h h e l ps -o produce foll Most io melotonin osleep. odults stori :- cb o ui l0 p. m . W hente e n o g e rsw e re s tu d i e di n o =ep loborotory,reseorchers discoveredthot they only ::Jo n t o pr oduc et he h o rm o n eo f I o .m . l t i s p o s s i b l e -- :' thisdeloy in melotoninproductioniscoused by --: behqviourof teenogers.Ployingwith electronic the broin ond exposes ;::gets lqte ot night stimulotes --e teenogersto brightlightswhich could couse the lqter ': eose of melotonin.A more likelyexplonotion,however, . -^ct the hormonolupheovolof pubertyis pushingthe --: otoninreleosebock, in which cose teenogersore :: rg kept owok e by t h e i rb o d i e s- i h e y s i mp l yc o n ' t - : c theirpeculiorsleepingbehoviour.Althoughit isn't ^-co ssible f or odoles c e n ts to g o to s l e e pb e fo re l 1 p .m., :'e ve n t o be oler tin t h e mo rn i n g th , e i rb o d i e smo k e i t : " cult for them, ond in some cosesneorlyimpossible -- s is borne out by studiesconducted in the US,where -: ^re schoolshove deloyed the stortof theirclosses -r J've iheir ieenogerssome extrotime in bed Mony -=::hers reoortedthot siudentswere more olert ond =,. moody. One schooleven noticed o significont -- crovementin the educotionoloerformqnceof its .--fe n ts .: -e s su r r ounding s leep- w h o n e e d sh o w m u c h q n d -:. - ore usuollygiven shortshriftin effortsto improve . - - :ent qchievement.Butmodern broin reseorchers soy - : - me thot more schoolswoke up to the biologicol -::'s ond stortedlessons of o time better suitedto their -=:-cg e s t udent s .

int o



Matchthesewordswith the moreformalequivalentsin red in the text. 1 2 3 4

need (v) a bi g i mpact control(v) carryout

5 happen 6 a verylargenumber 7 stop Vocabutary p.135 Builder6.3:Register: I

tri]:lTKnfdWorkin pairs.Answer Give the questions. reasons foryouranswers. 1 Doyouthinkyougetenough sleep? 2 Doyousometimes at feeltiredandunable to concentrate Whyis that? schoo[? 3 Wouldyouprefer it if school started andfinished later? 4 Whatwouldbethedrawbacks of startine school later?

Reporting structures 1 neadthe text.Haveyoueverhadan 'anxietydream'likethis? I hadthe strangest dreamthe other niâ&#x201A;Źht.I washavinfbreakfast andmy mu mre mi n d eme d th a tth e s chool examsstartedthatday Sheaskedme i f I h a dd o n ee n o u g h re v i s i oand n I tol d herthe examsweren'tfor anotherthree weeks,andpromised to revisefor them. ButwhenI Sotto school, I foundthat myclassmates hadalreadystartedthe E n g l i sLhi te ra tu re e x a m.I a p ol ogi sed for beinglate.Theteacherrnstructed me to sit downandstaftwritinf,butwhen I o p e n eth d ee x a mp a p e r,I c o ul dn' t a n s w ear n yo f th eq u e s ti o nIscl ai med notto havereadanyof the books,but d a tI s h o ul ddothe th ete a c h eirn s i s teth examlt wasat that pointthat I wokeup.

Whatdo youthinkwerethe originalwordsspokenbythe peoplein the dream? frN, Grammar p.124 Builder 6.3:Reporting structures: Reportthe sentences usingtheverbsin the box. recommendbeg â&#x201A;Ź{aim congratulateinsist promise threaten warn 1 'l'veneverhada nightmare,' he said. Hec\aimvd nover lo havyhaAa nighlmarv 2 'l thinkyoushouldgoto thatrestaurant. good,' lt'sreally saidBento Lee. ptease 3 'Please, don'twearthoseoldjeans,'saidJoto lan. l'ilgiveyoua detention,' 4 'lf youdon'tstoptalking, saidMr Medway to hisclass. 5 'Don'tswimtoo faroutto seaasthe currents areouite strong,'saidJoto Tom. yourdriving 6 'Wel[doneforpassing test,'saidSueto Chris. 7 'l'[[neverlieto youagain,' saidSteveto Vanessa. 8 'Youmusteatyourvegetables,' saidLiamto hisdaughter. Choose the correctalternatives. Thenchangethe sentences to directspeech. 1 Mydadsuggested / advisedmeto getan earlynight. 2 Harryrefused in theexam. / deniedthathe hadcheated 3 Daveasked/ insisted thatI shouldhetphim. 4 Kateagreed/ proposed to buya newcar. 5 Fredordered/ remindedhissonthathe hadto turnoffthe compurer. 6 Robbie blamed/ accused hisbrother fortheaccident. 7 Therobbers admitted/ agreedto stealthegotdbullionfrom thesecurity van.

Unit5 . Dreams

I can repartairect speech tw a varietyaf way.

5 Rewrite thesentences in exercise 4 usingtheverbsyoudid notuse. M1dad*gge#edthait ahould getanearllnight :

u'! R q

1 Weoftenuseadverbs withreporting verbsto convey thetoneor emotional content of theoriginal words. 'l'vehod enoughof yourinsolence!' Heshoutedangrilythathe'dhad enoughof her insolence. 2 Wecanreportspeechwithoutgivingthe precise wordsthatwerespoken. 'Fancyseeingyou here!'saidJames. Jamesexpressedhissurpriseat seeingme there.


6 6) Listento the sentences andaddan adverbfrom the boxtoconveythe emotions ofthe speaker. bitterty callously defiantty resignedty sarcasticallysharply sympatheticatty 1 'Unfortunately, there'snothing we cando aboutit,'she said. 2 'You've neverreatlylovedme,haveyou?'shesaid 3 'Thatwas reallyclever,wasn'tit?' said Sarah. 4 ' Y oucan' tstop me fromseei ngw hoeverI like! 'saidSam

5 'Mindyourownbusiness!' saidFrank 6 'lt'snotmyproblem. Sortit outyourself,' saidJohn 7 'Youmustbefeeling lf there'sanything terrible. I cando, let me know,' said Christine iust andmatchthemwitha-h. & Zn Listento eightextracts gratitude a Sheexpressed her for ... b Sheboasted of herabitityto ... c Sheenquired afterhergrandfather's ... d Sheexpressed hersincere apologies for ... e Shecomolimented himon ... f Shedeclined theinvitation to ... g Sheconfirmed herwillingness to... h Shetotdhimoffforbeing...

l I l l


l l I

eachreporta-h above $) z.rZ Listenagainandcomplete in a suitableway. Workin pairs.Tellyourpartnerabout1-8 below. Usereporting verbsandadverbs thatconvey the toneand emotional content. yourparents youto do 1 something forbade youcomplimented 2 something somebody on 3 somethingyou apologised for youdeclined 4 an invitation you 5 something wereblamed for 6 somethingyou reminded somebodyto do youexpressed 7 something surprise at yourefused 8 something to do

( d , 1 ( 6 M P q r c , c0ntrq[t,


ant/ rcact tc


Findoneof theseitemsin the photos.Explain thedifference in meaningbetween thesixwords. award honour medal prize reward trophy Haveyou,or anyoneyouknow,everwonanyof thethingsin exercise 1?Whatwasit for?Howdid you/they feel? Q Z.ff Listento fourpeopletalkingaboutachievements. Matchthe speakers withfourof the peoplebelow.Howdid theyfeel(a)whentheywonthe awardor prizeand(b) now? 1 asportsperson 4 ascientist 2 a filmstar 5 an explorer 3 apolitician 6 alotterywinner

Speaker r ! Speaker 2!

FrveHulloneonruoloNEMtLLtoN, l-l stxTyETGHT ItlousANo,Two HUNDRED POUNDS ANDTWETVE l: I

Speaker3! Speaker4!

the expressions. f) z.rr Match1-8 witha-h to complete Thenlistenagainandcheck. 1 | wasover a o u r [u c k . 2 | coutdn't believe b to bits. 3 ltw asa c for joy. 4 | feltas if I waswatking d o f th e w o rtd . 5 lt is such e d re a mc o metru e . 6 | wasthrilted f o n a i r. g th e mo o n . 7 I'mon top 8 Theyarejumping h a n h o n o u r. Workin pairs.Readthetask.Compare andcontrast the photosusingthe promptsbelow.Usethe expressions in exercise 4, andin exercise 6 on page21,to helpyou. 1 Where arethepeople andwhattheyhavewon? 2 Howdoyouthinktheyarefeeling? 3 Howsimilar aretheirachievements? Th e s ephot oss howpe o p l ew h o h a v ew o n s o m e th i n g. C o mpar eand c ont r a sth t e p h o to s .Sa yw h a ty o u th i n k mo ti v at edt hem ,wha tth e yd i d to a c h i e v es u c c e s sa, n d how it mightaffecttheir lives.

the secondpartof f) z.r+ Listento a studentanswering thetask.Doyouagreewith heropinions? Givereasons. Whichof thesephrases for concession andcounterargument doesthespeaker use?Whichareadverbs and whichareconjunctions? Concession andcounter-argument althougheventhough muchas a[[thesame andyet granted evenso havingsaidthat in spiteof this it'struethat mindyou nevertheless nonetheless though yet

8 Rewrite the sentences usingthewordsin brackets. youwill needto maketwosentences Sometimes intoone, andviceversa. 1 I'd tiketo be rich.Nevertheless, I'm notprepared to waste mymoneyon lotterytickets.(muchas) 2 Hehardlydidanyrevision forhisexamsandyethe managed to pass.(eventhough) his 3' MuchasI admirehisachievements, he'sneglected (atthough) familyin hisquestforsuccess. 4 Atthough she'sworkedreatlyhard,she'sneverreallygot (nonetheless) the recognition shedeserves. 5 Eventhoughshe'swidelyacknowledged to bethe best (yet) actress of hergeneration, she'sneverwonan Oscar. goalmayhavebeentucky, 5 Thewinning buttheydeserved o'N Vocabutary Builder6.4:Concession and p. 136 counter-argument: 9

Turnto page742anddo the examtask.



Workin pairsor smallgroups. Thinkof a bookor filmthatyouall likeanddiscuss whatmakesit a goodstory. Readthis extractfroma story.Doesit exemplifyanyof the features ofa goodstorythatyouidentified in exercise 1?

N\ Rewrite the sentences usingthe adverbs andadverbphrases in brackets. Youmayneedto changethe punctuation. Sometimes morethanoneansweris correct. 1 Weusedto go skiing.(atthistimeof year/ often/ in France / in the past) 2 | gofor longrides.(stitt/ alongthe river/ nowandthen/ on myown) havedoneit. (soquickty 3 | couldn't / certainly / without yourhetp) 4 lt's raining.(heavily / today/ quite) (here Your 5 letterarrived. morning / yesterday / oddty enough / only) 6 Hedidn'tunderstand whatyousaid.fust now/ futly/ clearly) phrases Putthe adverbs andadverbial on the rightintothis extractfroma story,on the samelineastheyappear. You mayneedto change the punctuation. Sometimes morethan oneansweris correct.

Underline the adjectives, adverbs andadverbphrases in the story. Findthreepairsof adiectives in the story.Complete the Learnthis! boxwith oge,colour,opinion,size. ''-*


Orderof adjectives Before a noun,adjectives usually comein thisorder: shope -

origin moterial

Numbers usually comebefore adjectives.

Correct the mistakes in adiective orderin thesephrases. painting 1 an oldwonderful ltalian 2 twoleather enormous blacksuitcases greystupidfatcat 3 a Siamese modern sma[[house 4 a souare 5 a [inencreambeautiful suit Unit6 . Dreams

Gemma marchedinto the caf6. Where was Ryan and why hadn't he phoned? Shehoped he had got her teirt reminding him to meet her. Shewould wait for him and no more. Shewalked to the far side of the caf6 and threw her bag onto the table furthest from the door. Shegot herselfa coffee,sat down and took her phone out to check for messages. Nothing. Sighing, she tried his number again,but it went onto voicemail. She didn't leavea message.She felt very upset. It had all been going wrong. Ryan was not himself, but what was the matter, and why wouldn't he talk about it? Shehad finished her coffee and was getting up to go, when in he walked.

angrily earlier here for 15 minutes moodily in a fit of pique

aSarn loudly straight,like before suddenly lately at the moment ever,rust wearily

p.125 a\*\ Grammar Buitder 5.4:Adverbs andadiectives: meaningof the reportingverbs in the f) z.f S Checkthe boxandfindtwoofthemin the storyin exercise 2. Then listenandmatcheachverbwiththe directspeech. gasp groan mutter sigh shriek whine whisper yelt Vocabulary Builder6.5:Punctuating reported r,f* p. 136 SpeeCh; ':irr, .r, Workin pairsor smallgroups.Discuss howthe 2 mightcontinue. storyin exercise Writethe secondhalfof the storyin 100words.Includesomedirectspeechanduse someadverbs andpairsof adiectives to makeyourwriting moreinteresting.






I c att r,rttc a ttcry

Youaregoingto writea story(200-250words)abouta dream, endingwiththewords,'l hadall beena dream.' Theoutlineofthe storyis totdin the pictures, butthe end of thedreamis missing. Workin pairs.Readtheoutlineand discuss whatthecharacters arelikeandhowthe dreamends.

Makeyourwritingmoreinteresting byusing: . a variety of adverbs andadverbphrases. . a varietyof adjectives. r directspeech, witha variety of reporting verbsand adverbs.

1 lwas neading in bed lt waslate I hearda stnange noiseoutside

Readthewritingtip, thenwritethe firstparagraph of your story.Usethefirstpictureandthe sentences belowit, andthe questions to hetpyou. ,Vhatkindof bookwasit?Howoftendo voureadin bed?Were ,'oufeeling sleepy? Writethe secondparagraph of yourstory,usingthe second picture, the sentences belowit andthe questions to helpyou. ,'ihatdoesthewindowoverlook? Whatwastheweather [ike? -ow didyoufeel?Didyoucallout? Writethethirdparagraph of yourstory,againusingthe sentences andthequestions to helpyou.Usedirectspeech fortheconversation. l''asyourbrotheralready awake? Howdid he react?Had -e heardthenoisetoo?Didhetryto reassure you?Who goingoutside? .-ggested

2 lgot up andlookedout 0f the windowlcouldn'tsee whatwasmakingthe noise.

Writethefinalparagraph of yourstory,againusingthe sentences andthequestions. Addtheendingyou thoughtof in exercise 1. Finishwiththewords,'l hadall been a dream.' Countthewords.lf therearefewerthan200,addsomemore detai[,eventsor directspeech. lf youhavewrittenmorethan 250words,lookfor unnecessary repetition, or cutsomedetail or events.

5 | wentto mvbnother's roomWediscussed whatto do

Nowwritea finalcopyof yourstory.

Haveyou ] ]

phrases? usedadverbs andadverb useda varietyof reporting verbsandcorrect punctuation withdirectspeech?


correct order? checked thespetting andgrammar? writtenthecorrect numberof words?

4 WewentoutsideThedoor" closedbehindus Whot happensnext?

U ni t5. D rea-



1 Comptete the sentences withthe correctformof theverbsin the box.Theanswersmaybe activeor passive.

the sentences usingthe construction 5 Rewrite for ... It'stimethatweadmitteddefeat. It'stimefor ur lo admtldoloai 1 lt'simportant thatathletes shouldtrainhard. 2 Theaimis thatweshouldlearnPolish in sixmonths. 3 Inthepast,womenwearing trousers wasscandalous. 4 Themanager is unhappy aboutstafftakingtimeoffwork. 5 lt is vitatyoureadthe instructions beforeswitching on.

break grind inftict make put up 1 Scientists a breakthrough in theirquestfora cureforcancerrecently. 2 Thestalemate lastnightbythe offerof a tOYo payrise. between 3 Negotiations unionsandthemanagement to a haltyesterday. casualties 4 Overa thousand uoonthecivil" population sofarin theconflict. 5 Residents resistance to the newparkinglaws introduced bythecitycouncillastweek.

Etr! ]tr

Etr! ]tr 6 Choose the correctformof ellipsis.Sometimes morethanone answeris correct. yourfeelings, 1 | apologise forhurting a I di dn' t.

2 Writethe nounformof theseadjectives. 1 wise 2 altruistic 3 courageous4 sincere 5 amiable

EE! E 3 Choosethe correctwords. 1 Paulahassethergoals/ sightson winningthegotd medalintheOlympics. 2 lgorhopesto getthejob,buthe'snotrealising / counting on it. 3 | can'tseemyselfgettingmarriedin theforeseeable / likelyfuture. 4 Doyouthinkhe'ileversucceed / fulfithisambitionof playing for ReaIMadrid? notpinningtheirhopes/ dreamson victory, 5 They're but they'regoingto giveit everything they'vegot.

EE! E the sentences withthe particles 7 Complete in the box. back off on out up 1 Mymotheris hunting a costume fortheparty. 2 Shehasto smarten if she wants to be oromoted. rounded 3 A colleague herunexpectedty in the meeting. 4 Theyhadn'tunderstood, soshewent overtherules. properly, 5 Wewantedto seeourvisitors sowe accompanied themto theairport.

EE! ]tr the sentences withtheverbsin the boxand 4 Complete punctuate themcorrectly.

EE! ]tr

gasp mutter sigh whisper yelt 1 2 3 4 5

Heto heryoulookgorgeous Slowdownherhusband we'regoingto crash | suppose soshe Lookat yourlegGraceI thinkit's broken Whydoesn't hejustgetto thepointDan

Etr! ]tr


Reportthe sentencesusingthe verbsin the box. blame claim feffiif,d suggest threaten warn ' D on' tforgetto emptythe bi n,' Ji m' smothertold him . l'im'rmotharramindad him1oamptv thabin 1 2 3 4 5

' l thi nkw e shoul dconsul tan expert,'sai dAm y. ' l ' ve nevercri edat the ci nema,'sai d H arriet . ' My i P od' sbrokenand i t' syourfaul t!'sai dM ia t o Ryan. ' l f you don' t pay,I' ttsetl thephotos,'she said. ' D on' ttakethe motorw ayas there' sbeena n accident ,he ' tol d hi m.

Etr! ]tr 4t

Lansuase Revrew 5-6 ,/

b I di dn' t mean. c I didn't m eant o.

2 Youcanparkin thegarage a if youwant. b if youwantto. c if youwantit. 3 She'sreatty tight-fisted now,but a shedidn'tuse. b shedidn'tuseto. c shedidn'tuseto be. 4 Wedidn'twinthematch, but a wecould. b wecouldhave. c wewereable. 5 She'sworried. Herboyfriend saidhe'dcall,but a he hasn't. b hewouldn't. c hewasn't.



L Listening 1 In pairs,thinkaboutwhathashappened to Edgars sofar. Whatproblems is he currentty facing?Howshouldhetackle them,in youropinion? 2

the correctanswers. S) Listenandchoose 1 Edgars won'tformally complain aboutbeingofferedthe job andthenrejected because A it wasprobably a misunderstanding anyway. B hedoesn'thaveanyproof. C hedoesn't havethemoney a complaint. to pursue D hedoesn't havethesamerightsasBritish employees. 2 Whatis Edgars' reaction to Tomas' comments about dreams? A HethinksTomas maybe right. B Hefindsit hardto understand whatTomas is saying. C Hepretends first, then disagrees. to agreeat but D He'ssceotical aboutTomas' comments. 3 TomasinvitesEdgars to A gooutwithhimandhissister. B havedinnerwith himat hissister's house. C ioinhimandhissisterfordinner. D havedinnerwith him,hisbrother andhissister. 4 Edgars is speechless because whenRitaarrives A he recognises herfromhisdream. B shefulfilsallhisromantic dreams. C he realises thatthey'vealready met. D he'spretending to beamazed.

Speaking 3 mint aboutyourowndreamsforthefuture.Makenotes about(a)threepersonalambitions and(b)threehopesfor theworldin general. I

ln groupsof threeor fourgivea shortpresentation to the groupaboutyourdreamsusingyournotesfromexercise 4.

Scientistshavedeveloped a mind-reading technique whichcouldone dayallow them to take picturesof memoriesand dreams.By comparingbrainactivity scans,they were ableto correctlypredictwhich of 120picturessomeonewas focusingon in 90 per cent of cases.Thetechniquecould one day form the basisof a machineto projectthe imagination on to a screen. Professor JackGallantled the Californianresearch team.Writingin the journalNature,he said:'lt may soon be possibleto reconstructa pictureof a person's visualexperiencefrom measurements of brainactivity alone.lmaginea generalbrain-reading devicethatcould reconstructa pictureof a person'svisualexperienceat any momentin time' Twoscientistsvolunteeredto look at 1,750images whiledatawas recordedfromtheirbrainsand linked mathematically to the "points"that makeup a 3D thoughtimage.Thislink betweenbrainactivityand imagewasthen usedto identifywhichimageswere seen by eachvolunteerfrom a new set of 12O,just by lookingat theirbrainscans. The researchevokessci-fifilm MinorityReport,where policein the futurereadpeople'smindsand arrestthem for 'thoughtcrimes'.But sucha situationis a long way off,as the techniquecurrentlyonly workson viewed images,not imaginedones,and it takeshoursfor the scanners to takethe brainimages. Professor Gallantsaid:'lt is possiblethatdecoding brainactivitycould haveseriousethicaland privacy implicationsin 30 to 50 years.We believestronglythat no one shouldbe subjectedto anyform of brain-readinginvoluntarily,covertly,or withoutcomplete informedconsenti

Reading 5 Readthetextquickly.Explain theconnection between the textandthe photo. 6 Answer thesequestions aboutthetext. 1 Usingcurrent technology, whatcanscientists tetlabouta person's thoughtsby lookingat brainscans? 2 Whatmighta moreadvanced versionof thistechnology allowthemto do in thefuture? Whatethicalisspeswouldariseif thistechnology were successfu llydevetoped? WhatsafegufdsdoesProfessor Gallant suggest to prevent misdseof thetechnology?

Writing 7 Readthe questionandmakenotesfor an essay.Usethe paragraph planbelow. Whatwouldbetheoossible usesandmisuses of a machine thatcouldreadpeople's thoughts anddreams? Doyouthinkit wouldbea goodor badthing,on batance? Paragraph 1: Introduction Paragraph misuses 3: Possibte Paragraph 2: Possible uses Paragraph 4: Conclusion

8 Writean essayof 200-250words,followingyourplanfrom exercise7.

s k iu s Ro un d - u p 1 - 5

EHrn 6 Wo r kin pair s .W ha td o y o u k n o wa b o u tfo rm e rU S P resi dent Ab r ahamLinc oln? Sh a rey o u r i d e a sw i th th e c l a s s .



D o t he Readingex a mta s k .

Readthe text. Completethe text with the phrase(A-K)that bestfits eachgap.Thereis one phraseyou do not need.

3 Dothe Useof Engtish examtask.

A famous dream

C ompl etethe secondsentenceso that i t meanst he sam e as the fi rst. U setw o to fi ve w ordsi ncl udi ngt he wor d gi veni n brackets.D o not changethe form o f wor d given.

Although Abraham Lincoln is today one of America's bestloved oresidents.that was not

1 ' l di dn' tstealthe money!'sai dW i l ti am.(denied) W i tti am tne m oney. 2 ' D on' tforgetto w ri tethank-youl ettersfo r yourpr esent s, ' sai dMandyto her daughter.(remi nded ) Mandy thank- you let t er s for her presents. 3 ' l ' l t payfor the meat,'sai d,| ake.(i nsi sted) for the m eal. Jake ' l ' l l sendyou to yourroomi f you speakt om e liket hat agai n,'sai dGeorgeto hi s son.(threatened) George to his r oomif he spoketo hi m ti kethat agai n. 5 ' Y oubrokemy MP 3pl ayer!' sai dS al tyto To m .( accused) SaLly her M P3player . ' l w on' ttel I anyonew hatyou' vetol d me,'said Fr ed. (promi sed) Fred w hat I 'd t ot d him . ' Thankyou so muchfor everythi ng you' vedone, 'said Martha. (grati tude) Martha ever yt hing I 'd oone. 8 ' l ' m defi ni tel ygoi ngto appl yfor the j ob,' saidBen. (i ntenti on)

alwaysso. During cheAmerican Civil War he was hated by Southernersfor abolishing 1slavery,and that he fully expected to be murdered by his politicalopponents,and had resignedhimselfco his fate. According to a close friend of his,chree daysprior to his assassination, Lincoln recounted a dream hed had to his wife and a few acquaintances, t -. In th e d ream ,he was ly ing in bed in t heW h i t e House in Washington,and there seemed to be a death-like stillnessaround him.Then he beganto hear quiet sobbing, t. He got out of bed and wandered downstairs.There the silencewas broken by the same picifulsobbing,but he couldn't see who was makingthe noise.He went from room o-. to room but they were all deserted, lt was light in all the rooms and every object was familiarto him; but where, Lincoln wondered,were all the people t? He was both puzzledand alarmed.What could be the meaningof all this? Determined to find the cause,he kept on walkingu, which he entered.Therehe mec with a sickeningsurprise.Before him was a platform,'-. Around it were stationedsoldiers who were acting as guards;and there was a crowd of people, some gazingmournfully upon the coffin,others crying bitterly. ' Wh o h as die d in theW hit e Hous e?'Linc olndem and e do f o n e of the soldiers.'ThePresident,'came rhe answer. 'He was killed by an assassin.'Then there was a loud *exclamation of grief from rhe crowd, . Some peoplehave ascribeda powerful meaningto his dream, claimingthat '. Others point out that, given the facc that he fully expected that someone would try co assassinate him ,


c D E F G


at t hought he s a mem o u rn fusl o u n d so f d i s tre s smet hi m as he walk edalo n g as if a num bero f p e o p l ew e rec ry i n g in whic hhe f or e s a wh i s o w n d e a th it is har dt ys ur p ri s i n th g a t h e d re a mto f h i s o w n death Linc oLn k newt ha t h e w a sa b o u tto d i e on whic hr es t eda c o ffi n s uc hwast heira n ti p a th yto w a rd sh i m

he had had the dreambefore unti the arri vedat the E astR oom w hi chaw okehi m from hi s dream w ho w eregri evi ngas i f thei rheartsw ouldbr eak

B enconfi rmed the fob. 4


Dothe speakingexamtasl(

C ompareand contrastthe photosof tw o ' dr eam 'hom es. W hat mi ghtthe ow nersof thesehomesbe t ikeand which photo morecl osel ymatchesyour i deaof a 'dr eam 'hom e?


T HIS U NI T I I { CLUDES h@bulary . i nformallanguage. phrasalverbs' with O run andwolk . synonymsof journeyand wolk. phrases -:' softening' ideas. nounsrelatedto phrasalverbs. nounsuffixesr easilyconfusedwords. linkers:other . cause,purposeand result. formallanguage :+role'sexpectations.benefltsand drawbacks Erammar.'mg formsafterpreparatory lt . emphasis . talkingabouttravel. presentation: . talkingaboutimmigration . presentation: Spcaking touristdestinations --i ) e n e f i t so f to u ri sm triting . a letterof complaint

Travelling about 1

I can talk about dtfferew kindt af traveland jourrc.y.

Matchtheverbsandparticles to makephrasal verbsrelated to travet.Theyareall fromthe listening.

Workin pairs.Describe the photos.Wouldyou enioythesetypesof journeyor trip?Givereasons.

1 2 3 4 5


stop showsb touch get hold

a round bup c off (at) d away e oown

Complete the sentences with phrasalverbs fromexercise 5 andfromthe box. checkinto dropoff pickup putup seeoff stopby stopover Theguyw ho the pal acehad somefascinat ing stori esaboutthe hi storyofthe pl ace. you Thiseveningthe taxi in the town centre you and at the hotel . My uncle'sreturninghometo the Statestomorrow.I'm goi ngto the ai rportto hi m . My pl ane and I di dn' tarri veunti lafterm idnight so , |a hotelnearthe airport.

Discuss the difference in meaning between thesewords.Use yourdictionary to helpyou. 1 a break 5 anouting 2 an expedition 7 a pilgrimage 3 an excursion 8 a trip 4 a journey 9 a voyage 5 a tour 10 travels

in if you'reeverin London. Wecaneasily you_. we5 Lastsummer in Greece on ourwayto lsrael. 5 Do-



Whatarethefourspeakers describing? $) Z.rZ Listen. Matcheachspeakerwith a wordfromexercise2. Speakerr! Speakerz! Speaker3E Speaker+I


did the $l Listenagain.Whatinformalequivalents speakers useinsteadofthesewords? Speaker1 l complain 2 verycrowded 3 makesb paytoomuch Speaker 2 4 nervous 5 exhausted 5 sleep oe

Speaker3 7 dirty 8 food 9 spend


Builder7.2:Phrasalverbs with run and Vocabulary walk:p.737

Makenotesabouta memorable etc. trip,excursion, iourney, thatyou havemade.Usesomeof the wordsfromexercises 2,4 and5, andtry to includesomeinformal wordsand phrases. 1 Wheredid yougo? 2 Whathappened? 3 Whywasit memorable? Workin pairsandtellyourpartneraboutit. f*. .\lBss6ulary Builder7.3:Synonym s forwolk:p.737

Speaker4 1 0 h o te to r re s ta u ra n t 1 1 ra i nh e a v i l y 12 sell

p.136 Vocabulary Builder7.1:lnformallanguage:

UnitT.J our nev s

I cawtalk about tht reasowpeaple ga an holtlay


you?Why? 1 Lookat the chart.Doanyof the statistics surprise

Readthe informationin the Learnthis! box,then complete fromthe listeningwiththe -rngformof the the sentences verbsin the box.


I Fronce

Zf.r I 6 UK


2 Spoin 7 Germony


3 U SA



4 Chino

49.6 N 9 Austrio

5 ltoly

41.1f t0 Russio

8 Mexico

kip lug see backpacktrek attempt pay 1 Formeit'dbe a placewellwortha visitbecause in doingoutdoor activities. I'mreallyinterested howotherpeople[ive. 2 lt's alwaysfascinating exhilarating through themountains 3 I'd findit reatly at highaltitude. allyourequipment withyou. 4 lt'shardworkit'd be crazyto getto everycountry 5 Obviously insidea month. 5 | actually thinkit wouldbe funon myown,a real adventure. on thetrain,butI'llsurvive I'm 7 lt'sa bit of a painsure.

2O.3 2O.2

Matchthe photoswithfourof the countries in the chart. Would Whatdo youknowaboutthe placesin the photos? youliketo visitthem?Givereasons.

e s* Grammar Builder7.7:-ingformsafterpreparatory p.125 lf, nounsandadjectivesr


youcansoftenideasor makethem In informal speech wordsandphrases. lesspreciseby usingthefotlowing a bit (ofa) in a way in onewayor another justkindof sortof or something alongthoselines or thatkindof thing or some(thing) likethat or whatever I justkind of wantto visitsomewherereallyremote. In a way,I'd sortof preferto go on a package holidayor thatkindofthing.

f) Listento threepeopletalkingaboutwherethey wouldliketo visitandwhy.Matchthreeor fourof the reasons below(1-10)to eachspeaker. 7 -Speaker Speaker 1 2 3 4 5 -.

g a o{ UI

architecture atmosphere cultural activities food history I

2 -Speaker 6 7 8 9 10

tip. Whichof the phrases did 6) Readthe speaking Listenagainandcheck the speakers usein the listening? youranswers to exercises 4 and 5.


[andscape to improvelanguage skills to meetpeople outdoor activities personal challenge

6 Readthesesentences aloud,addingsomephrases fromthe speaking tip. 1 Paris, RomeandMadridaregoodplaces to visit. 2 l'd tiketo travelroundthewortd. or hitchhike roundEurope. 3 Tomwantsto backpack 4 We'replanning to visittheSeychetles or theMaldives. my tist holiday Thaitand has to be top of of destinations. 5

ft -ing formwith preparatory /tcan be usedas a preparatory sublector objectfor an -ingform,especially in informaI style. It wasamozingwalkingalongthe GreotWoll. It'sfun travellingwith friends. It'sno goodjust stayingin hotels. I'd find it strangebeingon my ownin a foreigncountry. It'd be tiring travellingnon-stopto thesouthof ltaly. ln thisstructure withworth,theobjectof the -ingform canbecome thesubject ofthesentence. It'swell worthvisitingParis. Parisis well worthvisitino.

Workin groupsof three.Decideon threeplaces(e.g.a country,a city,a touristsite)that youwouldliketo visit. Makenoteson whyyouwouldliketo visitthoseplaces, usingthe ideasin exercise 3 to helpyou.


yourideasto the class.Tryto usesome Present in the Learnthis!boxandthe phrases ofthe structures in the speaking tip. Takea classvoteon the mostpopulardestination.



I cqn underctqndand react l o att adttl e abattl uti ol r,tl i a,t

F{TilKllfd Workin pairs.When,approximately, did the groupsof peopleon the mapinvadeBritain? Markyour answers on the map.Theinvasions arenumbered in chronological order.

( z Had an 5


3 ,|ulius Caesar leda successful invasion of Britain. 4 TheAngto-Saxon invaders livedpeacefulty alongside the population existing of Britarn. manyfrequent 5 Despite attempts bytheDanish to invade Britain, theynevergainedcontrol. population 6 Theexisting welcomed theNorman invaders. Writethe compound nounsrelatedto thesephrasalverbs. Theyarea[[in the listening. 1 comeout oulcome 4 pultout 2 riseup 5 falldown 3 takeover 6 makeup



'+ .6 )

M '?-

v'* ?


Completethe sentenceswith nounsformedfrom the verbsin bracketscombinedwith a prepositionfrom the box.(Sometimesthe verb comesfirst, sometimesthe preposition.)



Whatlegacydid the invadersleavebehind?Matchthe p h o to st o f our of t he gr o u p so n th e ma p .

back off out out over up 1 Therew as an i n the numberof peopl ef leeingt he country.(surge) 2 Fol l ow i ng the of w ar,the B ri tonsl aunchedan attackon the Romans.(break) 3 TheCetticlanguagesmadea foltowingthe departureof the R omans.(come) 4 TheN ormansrul edB ri tai nfol l ow i ngthe of t he Anglo-Saxon nobitity.(throw) 5 Therewas a betweenthe defendersand the i nvadi ngforces.N ei thercoul dgai nthe upperhand. (stand) 6 Fotl ow i ng the N ormani nvasi on, fo r t he Anglothe Saxonpeoplewas bleak.(took) aN

VocabularyBuilder7.4: Nounsrelatedto phrasal verbs:p.137

Makenounsfrom thesewords.Theyare all in the listening.

Welcome to W E ST SU SSEX

succeed(: follow) migrate attempt i nvade

1 2 3 4

know conquer resist supreme

(2):p.138 Os Vocabutary Builder7.5:Wordformation

1 2 answers t and2. to exercises f) Listenandcheckyour 3 f) Z.fe Listenagainandexplainwhythesestatements mustbefalse. 1 Foreign influences identity on theBritish beganin the nineteenth century. 2 Inthedistantpastpeople migrate couldn't to Britain unless theycamebysea.

5 6 7 8

4 5

Workin groups.Discuss the questions. Whoweretheeartiest in yourcountry? settlers Werethereanysubsequent invasions? Whoby?When? Wastheremuchresistance? Whatlegacy did thesettlers andinvaders leave,if any? (e.g.cuttural, politicat, [inguistic, etc.) Whenwasthe lastuprising in yourcountry? Whatwasit about? Hastherebeenan upsurge of migration in the pastfive years? you lf so,whydo thinkthathasbeenthecase?







i c a t r L t n d c r s t q n c ia n d r c L , ( l ! : t r t a r t i c l c q b c u l t t n t t l t " t ',r i .

FTTAK[[fdWorkin pairs.Answerthe questions. 1 Doyouknowanystories or fitmsin whichthecharacters time? travelthrough 2 Doyouthinkit willeverbe possib[e to travelthrough time? Why?/Why not? Readthetext.Whichsentence bestsumsup theopinionof thewriter? 1 Timetravelrunscounter to common senseandmust be imoossible. therefore 2 TimetraveImayonedaybe possible because thelawsof science do notruleit out. because of theinherent 3 Timetravelis impossible oaradoxes.


1-5 with paragraphs A-F. Matchheadings 1 Theimpossibility of timetravel 2 Limitations sense? 3 Canwetrustourcommon of reality 4 Versions error 5 A schoolboy 6 A writercomesto theaidof thescientists


UnitT.Journeys /

r [--r---] H G Wells'classic I A I l Justover100yearsago,i n 1895, storylhe TimeMachine wasfirst published As befitsthe matter,thatwasthe 'minustenth'annrvensany sub'1ect of the fi rstpubl i cati on, i n 1905,of A l bertE i nstein's special t heony l t w asE i nsteias n, everyschoolchild knows, who of rel ati vi ty ' the fourth fi rstdescri bed ti meas di mension'andeveny school chiilsdw rongA sa matterof facti t wasWellswho 'theneis no difference wrotein fhe fimeMachinethal between Ti meandanyof thethreedi mensi ons of S p ace, except t hat0ur movesal ongi t' consci ousness byt im e ---T-----t I B I l E versi ncethen,w ri tershavebeenf ascinat ed paradoxes bythe that seemto confront travel,andespecially (somethi ng ti metravel l er thatWellsneglect ed anygenui ne t0 Thecl assi exampl ies theso-called i nvesti sate) c ' granny paradox' w,herea ti metravel l er i nadver t entcauses ly the deathof hi sgrannyw henshew asa l i t t legir l,s0t hatt he mother,andtherefore thetravellerhimself, were traveller's neven born Inw hi chcase,hedi dnotS obackin t im et o kill hi srel ati ve, andso on A l essgruesome ex am ple was provided bythe science-fiction entertainingly writerRobert Heinlein in hisstoryByHisBootstraps Theprotagonist devi ce brou ghtbackt 0 t he stumbl es aross a ti me-travel presentbya visitorfromthe distantfuture Hestealsthe devi ce andtravel sforw ardi n ti me H econ st antwor ly r ies aboutbei ngfoundbytheol dmanfromw h omhe st olet he - unti loneday,manyyearsl at erhe , r ealises ti memachi ne thathe hi mselifs nowthe ol dman,andcar ef ully ar r anges ' tim em achine. for hi syounfer sel fto ' fi nd'and' stealthe r---r----"1 yof our t he I C I l A stheseparadoxesshow us,possibilit ir r at ional bei nIabl eto travelthroughti mei s cl eanly and runsc0unter t0 common senseTheoroblem is t hatcom m on e the mostrel i abl means sensei s notal w ays of assessing T0takeE i nstei n'ow es s nth eor ies sci enti fitheoni c aâ&#x201A;Źain,it is getbothheavier hardl ycommon sensethatobj ects and shorterthe fastertheymove,or that movinfclocksrun slow Yetbothofthesepredictions of relativity theoryhavebeen borneoutmanyti mesi n experi ments Infact ,whenyoulook - the besttheoryof closelyat the Seneral theoryof relativity ti meandspacew e have- i t turnsoutthatther eis not hing in possi bi l i ty i t to rul eoutthe ofti metravelThet heor yim plies thattimetravelmaybe exceedinIly difficult, but not i moossi bl e. T---r--i nevrtabli ty,w asthroughscience f ict iont hat I D I l P erhaps fi nal l yconvi nced seri ous sci enti sts themselves t hatt im e travelcouldbe madet0 workbya sufficiently advanced w asthrs,C arlSagan, ci vi l i sati on W hathappened a well- known astronomer, hadw ri ttena noveli n w hl chhischar act er s travel l ed througha bl ackhol efroma poi n tneart he Ear t ht o

3 p0intnearthe starVegaAlth0ugh hewasawarethathe ,va sb e nding s , i sw a s ,a fte r t heac c epteru d l e s0 f p h y s i cth a l fi cti onNev er t heles a ssa, s c i e n ti shti ms e lS f,a fa nw a n te d :n esci encin e hisnov el t o b ea s a c c u ra te a s p o s s i b l se0, an e s ta b l i s h e d x p e rtrng ra v i ta ti o n a l "e a skedK ipT hor ne, :n e o ry, to c hec kit outanda d v i s 0 te e n h o wi t m i g h b rn p ro v ed A f t erlook ing c l o s e layt th efi c ti o n aelq u a ti o n s , Th o rn reealis ed e ro u g hs p a c e -ti m e t hats uc ha p a s s a gth rro mo neblac kholet o an o th e(a r ' w o rm h o l ea' c) tu a l l y co u l de x iswit t hint hef r am e w o rk o f E i n s te i nth ' se o rySa g a n 'star gratefully accepted Thorne's modification to hisfictional gate',andthewormhole dulyfeaturedin the novel, Czntact, cu b l i shed in 1985 E | | Thestargate,however, stillonlyactedas a shortcut :n n 0 u gh s pac eS c ient issts0 0 nre a l i s eth d a t,th e o re ti c a lal y , ivormhole couldjust as welllinktwo different flrnesastwo p/ocesWhileit is hardto seehowanycivilisation oifferent co u l db uilda wor m hole t imem a c h i nfro e ms ra tc h ,i t i s rn u che a s ier t o env is afteh a ta n a tu ra l l0yc c u rri nw g o rmh ol e n i $ h tb eadapt ed t o s uitt h eti m e -tra v e l l innef e d so f a su ffi ci e ntadv ly anc ed c iv i l i s a ti oSnu, ffi c i e n a tldy v a n c eth d ,a t rs to b eablet 0 t r av elt hr o u fhs p a c eb yc o n v e n ti o nme a l a n s, a n dl o cat e andm anipul abtel a c kh o l e sEv e th n e nth , e re ' s0 n e sn a gl t s eem ys 0uc an' tu s ea ti mema c h rnt0 e g 0b a c ki n rrmeto a pointbef or e whi c hth eti m ema c h i nw e a sb u i l tYo u ca ng o a ny wherin e t hef u tu rea, n dc o meb a c k tow h e rey o u started, but nofurtherWhichratherneatlyexplains whyno yet trmetravellers fromourfuturehave visitedus because th eti mem ac hine s t illhas n 'bt e e ni n v e n te d ! F | | So,wheredoesthat leavethe panadoxes, and co mmon s ens e? A c t ually t h,e rei s a w a yo u to f a l l th e d i ffi cu l t ies but , y oum ayno tl i k ei t.It i n v o l v easn o th e r fa vo u r itidea e f r oms c ien cfiec ti o np: a ra l l ewl o rl d sT h e s a e re e t or iesw' ,h i c ha ree n v i s a g eads i n s o me i h e 'a l ter nat ivhis se n sel ying' alonS s ide' ourv e rs i o o n f re a l i tyA c c o rd i nt0g th e th e o ry, e ac hof t hes epar a l l ewl o rl d si sj u s ta s re a la s o u r own,andtheneis an alternative historyfor everypossible outcome of everydecision histories evermadeAlternative b n a n ch o utf r omdec is iopno i n tsb, i fu rc a ti neâ&#x201A;Źn d l e s slliyk e th eb ra n c hes th 0 u g hi t andt wigsof a n i n fi n i te tre e Bi z a rre so u n d st his , ideaist ak ens e ri o u s b l yya h a n d fuol f s c i e n ti sts s c o rd i n f An di t ce r t ainly f ix esallt h eti m etra v epl a ra d o x eAc par allel to th eth eor yof w o rl d si,f y o ufo b a c ki n ti m ea n d prevent yourownbirthit doesn'tmatter,because bythat d e crsi 0ynouc neatae newb ra n c ho f re a l i tyi n , w h i c hy o u wereneverborn Whenyougoforwardin time,youmoveup th en e wbr anc handf indt h a ty o un e v edr i de x i s t,i nth a t re a l i tyb;uts inc ey ouwereb o rna n db u i l ty o u rti mem a c h i n e in the realitynextdoor,thereis no paradoxHardto believe? C e rta i nly Count er t 0 c ommo sne n s e0?f c o u rs eBu tth e p l a i n fa cti s th atalloft hisbiz a rre b e h a v i o ui sra t th ev e ryl e a s t p e rmi tt ed s ,n di n s o m ec a s e sre q u i re d byt he lawsof p h y s i c a b yth o s elawsI wonderwh a tH G W e l l w s o u l dh a v em a d eo f it all


Are the sentencestrue or false?In which paragraph(s) did you find the evidence? 1 Mostsci enti sts di smi ssthe i deaof di fferentwor lds co-exi sti ng al ongsi deone another. 2 l t w on' t be possi bl eto traveIthroughti me unt ilwe ar e abl eto fi nd and controlbl ackhol es. 3 H .G.W el l sdemonstrated the probl emsthrow nup by t he conceptof ti metravel . 4 Thepossi bi l i ty of taki nga short-cut throughspaceled sci enti sts to real i sethat ti me travelmaybe the or et ically possi bl e. s 5 E i nstei n'theori esareval i datedboth i n sci ent if ic experi ments and by commonsense.


Readthe second,sixth and final paragraphsagainand explainin your own words: 1 the ' grannyparadox' . 2 the theoryof paral telw ortds.


Findone word from eachpair in the text.Thentranslatethe pairsof wordsinto your language. 1 2 3 4 5 5

cl assi c/ cl assi cal(l i ne1) unreasonabl/ ei rrati onal(ti ne30) possi bi ti ty (ti ne40) / opportuni ty i mpty/ i nfer(l i ne40) (tinea1) excessively / exceedingly borne/ born(l i ne94)

o\\\ VocabularyBuilder7.6: Easilyconfusedwords:p. 138

I iit = i E 5

Linkersthat referto the other person'sexpectations os o motter of foct (paragraphA) in fact(paragraphC) actuolly(paragraphs D and F the plain fact is (paragraphfl to tell the truth

Readthe Leornthis! box. Findfour ofthe linkersin the text and then matchall five linkerswith their uses. 1 usedw henadmi tti ngsomethi ng 2 usedto showa contrastbetw eenthe truthand whatt he otherpersonbel i eves 3 usedfor tal ki ngabouta factthat somepeopl edo not acceptor maynot l i keto hear 4 usedto gi veextradetai l saboutsomethi ng 5 usedto add a comment,of i nterestto the othe rper son o,i, Vocabutary Builder7.7: Linkers:p.739


Workin pairs.Discussthe questions. 1 l f you coul dtravelbacki n ti me,w henand w her ewould you travelto? Givereasons. 2 H owmi ghti t changeyourvi ewof the w orl d? 3 W outdyou try to changeanythi ngi n the past?What ?Why?

U ni tT.Jou r ne.

I can use a varity af structuresta c4ddentphatrs.


Fly-driuecommuting a
















Fordecadesscientists havedreamedof buildinga carthat canalsofly,but ifs onlyin the pastfew years,with the development of light-weight construction materials and highlyefficientengines, thatthe dreamhasbecomea reality. I recentlyvisitedthe headquarters of a companycalled Tenafugia in Massachusetts. 'Whatyou aregoingto see,'said the youngmanwho showedme around,'will revolutionise the waywe travelaround.'He led me into a hangar.BEfore me stoodthe 'Transition', brainchild of a groupof young graduates from the Massachusetts lnstituteof Technology. lt waswhiletheywerestudyingat MITthattheycameup with the idea,but not untilthey'dleftcollegedid theybuildthe prototype.Youcandrivethe Transition to the airport,extend its wings,takeoff,fly up to 800 km and landat another airstrip.Then,havingfoldedup the wings,you cancomplete

1 Readthe text.Whatis unusualaboutthevehicle? 2 Readthe Learnthis!boxandunderline nineexamples of waysof addingemphasis in thetext.Whatis being emphasised in eachsentencein the Learnthis!boxT Addingemphasis 1 Cleftsentences s-' I don't understandhowthe Transitioncantakeoff. ss >>WhotI don'tunderstand is howthe Transition can \\ takeoff. Thecostmayput a lot of peopleoff. > lt'sthecostthatmayput a lot of peopleoff. phrases 2 Fronting a negative andlimiting expressions I'verarelybeenso impressed by a newinvention. >>RarelyhaveI beenso impressed by a new invention. b adverbial expressions of place Thepilot sat in the cockpit. t>ln the cockpitsat thepilot. c Phrases suchas Theproblem/trouble/truth/fact/ questionis,... 3 Useof do/does/didfor emotiveor contrastive emphasis TheTransitionlookselegant! > TheTransitiondoeslookelegont! I don't like the colour,but I like the design. >>I don'tlikethecolour,but I do likethedesiqn.


f '\

p.125 Grammar Builder 7.2:Emphasis:

3 Readthe first,third,fourthandfinalparagraphs ofthe text on pages74 and75 andfind examples of waysof adding emphasis.

Un itz.Jo u rney s

the journeyto yourdestination by road.But not onlyis it very versatile, it'salsofairlyeconomical, travellingl3 km per litre petrolin the airand l7 km on the ground.The of unleaded Transition hasattracted a hugeamountof generalinterest, but the questionis,is therea market?Whatmayput a lot of peopleoff is the price-tag: Thecompanydoesn't $148,000. anticipate hugesalesin the firstyearor so,but it doesbelieve that it's onlya matterof time beforehybridcar-planes replaceconventional cars.

4 Rewrite the sentences to makethemmoreemphatic, using thetechniques in theLearnthis!box.Morethanoneanswer possible. youranswers is sometimes Compare witha partner andexplainanydifferences. ldon'tlikethedesign. lt'rthadaaign I don'tlira 1 | don'thavea car,butI havea bicycle. 2 I'veneverreadsucha thought-provoking book. 3 | don'tlikehisattitude to women. 4 | can'tafforda newcar.That'sthe problem. 5 A manin a yellowjacketcameroundthecorner. makethe following O Z.ZO Listen.Howdo the speakers sentences moreemphatic? 1 Whatareyoudoing? 5 Whydidyoudo that? 2 | knowI'mwrong. 6 Takea seat. 3 Theweather's nicetoday. 7 You're wearing a nicetie. donewell. 4 You've Makethefollowing moreemphatic. sentences Saythemout loud,payingattentionto the stressandintonation. 1 Wherehaveyoubeen? 2 Youshouldapologise to me,notto him. goal. 3 Hescoreda fantastic 4 Hetpyourself to morepotatoes. 5 | wasjustdozingoffwhen,|ack burstin. Complete the sentences in an appropriate way, usingan emphatic youranswers structure. Compare with yourpartner. 1 2 3 4 5

Whatrealtybothersmeis ... Rarely haveI seen... lt'snotjustmethat... WhatI'vesetmysightson is ... | don't...,butI do ...



cdtl gL\e t prctentattott

1 Fm{WmG Lookat the photosandthegraph.Whataspects of foreigntraveldo theyshow?




a from the moneythat touri stsspendw hi l etheyar eon hoti day. b effecton the earth'satmosphere. c a threatto riversand lakes. d benefi tto the touri stand the l ocaIpeopl e. e the damagethat touri smdoes. f detri mentof the l ocaIenvi ronment g w e causeto the envi ronment. h concern,but by no meansthe onl yone. i harm altogether. j i mpacton the physi calenvi ronment.

200 150 100 50





the question 6l Z.Zt Listento two peopleanswering do below.Whichof theiropinions andsupporting arguments youfindmostpersuasive?

Should people be encouraged to travel abroad on holiday, or discouraged?

Match1-10 to a-i to makecompletesentences.Lookat the collocationsin bold. 1 Increased carbonemi ssi onshavecl earl vhad a detri mental 2 C l i matechange,then,i s a mai or 3 Tourismcan havea negative 4 B i g hotetsspri ngup al ongthe coast,usua[[yto t he 5 The increaseddemandfor water,for example,can pose 6 | don' tthi nkthe benefi tsto l ocaIpeopl eoutweigh 7 Localpeoplebenefit 8 W henthe purposeof traveli s to l earnabouto t her cultures,it's clearlyof mutual 9 | don' tthi nkw e canavoi ddoi ng 10 W e shoul dendeavour to mi ni mi sethe damage

flyingfromUKairports Miltions Numberof passengers

0 1953

VocabularyBuilder7.8: Expressing cause,purpose and result:p.139


with the wordsin the Completethe phrasesfor generalising box. broadly by in

6) Z.Zr Completethe first gap in these sentencesfrom the listeningexerciseusingthe wordsin the box. lf there is a secondgap, use a preposition.Thenlistenagainand check. co n s equenc esdue l e a d s me a n p u rp o s e re sul ted the reason this reason t 1 A vas tinc r eas e in t h e n u m b e ro f fti g h tso v e rre c e n years h a si n c re a s e cda rb o ne mi s s i o n s . 2 An i nc r eas ein t he n u mb e ro f v i s i to rsi n e v i ta b tv ex pans ion a n d d e v e l o p me n t. th e re s o rt' s 3 Th eloc alenv ir onm e nwt a sp o pular it yin t he f ir s tp l a c e . i n e v i ta b l y more 4 Mo r ehot elsand m o rere s ta u ra n ts strainon the locaIinfrastructure. Th e- m o refti g h tsw i l l b e i n c re a s e cdli mate cn ange. Fo rt r p e opl e , I t hink i t' s p a rti c u l a rliymp o rta nfo to travel. c a rb o ne m i ssi ons Cl i m at ec hangeis p a rtl y fro m planes . Th etra v e li s to l e a rna b o u to th e rc u l tures.


Generalising thewhole a greatextent general

on to

and[arge mostcases speaking

6 Readthetaskbelow.Makenotesaboutyouropinionand arguments thatsupportit. Includeat leastoneopposing argument. Thinkaboutthe environment, economic benefits/ qualityof lifeforyourcompatriots, drawbacks, andthe imageof yourcountryabroad. Towhatextentdoestourismbenefityourcountry? moretourism for Shoutd beencouraged? Givereasons youropinions. Preparea presentationof no morethan three minutesusingsomeof the phrasesand collocationsfrom exercises3,4 and 5. Thengive your presentationto the class.

Unit7. Journe,.,s



the photos.Whatdo youthinkthe F{I[fiVfnn Describe is saying? customer Whatdo youthinkthe callcentre is saying?Usethe ideasin the boxto helpyou. assistant service faultygoods poorworkmanship slow/poor wronglypricedgoods overcharging



SifilKIIfd Answerthe questions. you 1 Haveyoueverwantedto complain aboutsomething bought? Why? lf not,whynot?lf so,what 2 Didyouactually complain? happened? Readthe letterof complaint. Choose the mostformal it. expressions to complete Answerthe questions aboutthe letter. (b)the 1 Wheredoesthewriterput(a)herownaddress? (c)thedate? recipient's address? howwould 2 lf thewriterknewthenameof therecipient, she(a)greetthe person?(b)signoff? Findlinkersin the letterwiththe followingfunctions. How manymorelinkerscanyouaddto the lists? 1 2 3 4

makinga contrast Vindtvvo) orderingpoints(findtwo) makingadditionalpoints(findtwo) generalisin g (findone)

in the Matchwords1-6 with theirmoreformalequivalents box. address conform with numerousourchase respond seek 1 m at c h

2 askfor

3 repty 4 buy

5 many 6 deatwith

Complete the sentences usingthe formalwordsfrom exercise 6 in theircorrectform. 1 Despite catlsto youroffice,up to nowno one mycomplaints. 2 | am wr it ingt o c o m p l a i na b o u ta C Dp ta y e rth at I from vour store.

did not thedescription in the 3 Asthe hotiday brochure, I shaltlegaladvice frommysolicitor. youfaitto 4 Shoutd to myletter,I shat[haveno optionbutto initiatecourtproceedings. o

,a - - r 7

p.139 Vocabulary Buitder7.9:Formallanguage:

u n it/.jo u rney s

33 CharlesRoad Morecambe LancashireLA34 5GH 24th Auqust 2009 CustomerServicesDept. Sunny Day Hotidays P 0 B ox 342 Birmingham889 6GH DearSir or Madam, Bookingreference:SD3467PH-7 I havejust lgot back / returned from a hotiday organised by your travet companyand 2I'm writing / I am writing to complainin the strongestterms about 3a number of / quite a few things. afirst of alt To start with, on your website5you say the / hotel is / the hotet is described as being'a short walk from the beach'.6but actually / whereas in fact it took us nearly fifteen minutes to get there. walking briskly. ?What is more, / 0n top of that, the beachitself was dirty and there were a number of submergedrocks near the shore 8which made swimming hazardous which meant it was / dangerousto swim. My secondcomptaint concernsSunny Day'srepresentative in the resort. eOnour arrival, we were informed by your representative / When we got there your rep told us that the excursions'9we'd/ which we had pre-bookedhad been cancelledand that we would have to 1lmake our own arrangements / sort it out oursetvesif we wanted to see the local sights. 12Tomake matters worse, / Even worse, she 13madeno apology for this / didn't say sorry and was generallybrusqueand unhelpful. Finalty,I should like to 'adraw your attention to / point out the quatity of the food at the hotel. 0n the whote, breakfastand lunch were '5fine / great. However,dinner was of a very poor standardand '6we were not offered / they didn't offer us a choice of main dishes. Alt this has spoilt what should have been a wonderful hotiday, 17andI woutd therefore like a partial refund / so I want some money back. I suggest50% of the cost of the hotiday. I look forward to hearing fiom you. Yours faithfully,

Vlelenfuoodwerd Helen Woodward

r' i 1..a l ttter rr1 1.. af rantpl ai tt,

F{*ilKIIIA Workin pairs.Lookat the holidayphotos.What complaints mightthe holidaymaker maketo the travel company? Usetheideasin theboxto helpyou. badptumbingviewovera construction site unbearably longdelays at theairport btand.inedible food oolluted beach lastminutechange to thedateof departure unexpected additional feesandsurcharges Readthe task,andthe advertisement andnotes. Youhavejustreturned in London froma shorthotiday and areverydisappointed. Writea letterof 200-250words to thecustomer services department of thecompany complaining aboutthehotiday andthewayin whic hthe advertisement misled vou.

Getaway Breaks Twonightsin Londonat friendly the comfortable, 4 **** King'sHotel :FeoYaro :\'.\ingDins

itra tor p\and, .id tbod

bur\y, Lrnhe.ipfir\ staff

micviewsof the city Onlya shortwalkto London's Sightseeing tour of the city Onlyâ&#x201A;Ź130perperson, including meals

9us wariaiaTour 70 ning onil \astad

Booknow to avoid disappointment. Writethe middlesectionof yourletter.Puteachmajor paragraph. complaint in a separate Usesomeof the sentences fromexercise 3. Turnthe notesfromexercise 2 andsomeof the complaints in exercise 1 intofutlsentences usingthe phrases below. 1 | wasdisappointed that/to(find)... 2 lt is reallyunacceptable that... 3 Thebrochure ctaimed that...However, ... 4 | wasappalted that/by... was... 5 WhatI foundtotallyunacceptable To 5 ourhorror,... 7 Seldom haveI ... 8 Onemajorproblem was... Writethe firstparagraph of yourletter.Saywhyyouare writing.

Writethe finalparagraph of yourletter.Saywhatyouexpect the company to do.Finishwithan appropriate set phrase. Onceyouhavewrittena roughdraft,checkyourworkusing the checklist below.Thenwritea finalcopyof the letter.

Haveyou ! I ! I

included information? allthenecessary taidoutyourlettercorrectly? startedandfinishedthe lettercorrectly? words? usedformallanguage, andlinking checked thespelting andgrammar?

! numberof words? |_l writtenthe correct

Unit7. Journe,.,s

Exnrn7 examtask. Whatreasons do peoplehavefor suddenly 4 Dothe Useof Engtish leavinghomeandstartinga newlifeabroad?


Makesentences aboutthe photosusingthe wordsin the box. removalvan load(v) ramp stack(v) strap (n) possessionsprecariouslybalanced


Dothe Speaking examtask.

Compare andcontrast the photos. Answer the questions abouteachphoto.

Completethe text. Write one word only in eachgap. Forsucha smallseabird, thesoogshearwater hasan ambitious take ttheworld.'itsdiminutive size,it thinksnothing tpursuitof an endless of flyingfromNewZealand to Alaska summer. Foryears,ornithologists haveknownthatsoogshearwaters breedoff thecoasts of NewZealand andChilein thesouthern hemisphere, and grounds thencrosstheequator to therichsummer feeding of theNortr' aPacific, stretch fromCalifornia to Japan. Nowa studyhas performed shownthatthisepicfeat5overa singlebreeding oseason, withindividual birdstravelling asfar 62,400km in justoneyear. It isthelongest migration routeundertaken by individual animals that hasbeenrecorded by scientists, according ScottShaffer, a 'research biologist attheUniversity of California, Santa Cruz,wholedr= teambehindthestudy.'The'birdspecies knownthat rivalthemigrations of thesootyshearwater wouldbethe arctictern,whichbreeds in theArcticandmigrates to Antarctica,' Dr toShaffer said.'Butwedontknow theydothatin a single season, because nobody's evertracked them.' R eadthe sentencesin t he List ening examtask.W hat do you thi nk the l i steni ngis about ?

6 $l z.zz DotheListening examtask. Listento part of a radio programme.Choosethe correc: opti on(s)to compl etethe sentences. A t l e astone of t he opti onsi s al w ayscorrect,and someti mesbot h opt ions- =, be correct. 1 H umpbackw hal es A travelfurtheri n one go than any othe ranim aL B are born i n w armw atersoff the coas tof Cent 'a A meri ca. 2 The marki ngson the w hal es'tai l s enab ledt he researchers to A i denti fythe samew hal ei n enti rel ydif f er ent, . . . . '. - - : B i denti fyw hi ch catvesbel ongedto w hich m ot - : ':

1 W hy ar e t he peo p l emo v i n g ,d o y o u th i n k ? 2 W her edo y ou t h i n k th e y a re g o i n g ? 3 H ow ar e t heirex p e ri e n c edsi ffe re n t?

Completing a textwith appropriate words o Mostof the missing wordsin thistypeof taskwiltbe 'grammar words'(artictes, auxitiary verbs,pronouns, prepositions, etc.). o Donotwritemorethanonewordin eachgap.

3 B abyhumpbackw hal es A spendthe fi rstyearof thei r Ii vesi n war mv, , a: . ' B someti mestravelthousandsof ki l om et r esi. : - , - . breedi nggroundsoon afterthey are bor n. 4 The researchers empl oyeda satel l i te A to establ i shhow w armthe w ateri s wher et - : : =: w hal esare born. B to trackthe w hal es'j ourneyacrossth e ec- a: - 5 One resul tof the researchi s that sci en t ist sr : , , , . - : A w hi chtype of w hal esmi gratesthe fu r t hes: B w hy humpbackw hal estrave[[ednorthac: : s- . - . eoual or.

THIS UNI T I 1{ CT UD ES .8 , . colloquiallanguage.foodrelatedwordsand Yocabulary.clothesand styles. two-panadjectives : - rases. phrasesfor describing graphs,chartsandtrends. phrasesfor givingestimates statistics, . o e r i p h r a saisn de u p h e ml n n o tation GEmmar. would. modalvetbs . 1311;ng Speaking 6boutattitudesto food. talkingaboutyouthculture. stimulusbased-discussion Writingo 3 1spsft

Fash ion

I c a n t ql k abaut c l o th e sand fa.rhi on

FnhAKIIfd Discuss this quotationby Englisheccentric Arethere QuentinCrisp.Whatdoesit mean?Doyouagree? otherreasons forwantingto befashionable?

tip.Workin pairs.Matchas manyof the 3 Readthe speaking wordsbelowas possible to the photographs in exercise 2. Generat chic dishevelledelegant neat scruffy shabby smart stytish trendy unkempt well-dressed Specific garments: bandana corset cravat waistcoat partsof garments: buckle button collar cuff laces designs,materials, etc:check denim fishnet ripped stripy studded tartan hair:bob dreadlocksextensionsgoatee ptaits stubble accessories:bangle chain piercing

Fashionis whatyou adopt when you don't know who you are. tril:tlfilllG Lookat the photos.Doyouthinkthesepeople lookfashionable or unfashionable? Whichclothesdo you likemostandleast?


Describe onephotofromexercise 2. Followthe structure suggested in the speaking tip. Are talkingaboutclothes. O f.Of Listento fourteenagers the sentences trueor false,or is the answernotstated? 1 Speaker 1 talksabouta boyfromschoolandrecalls that casuaI clothes werehisthing. 2 Speaker 2 wasmadeto wearan outfitthat,if it hadbeenup to her,shewouldn't havebeenseendeadin. 3 Speaker 3 thinksthatthestyleof ctothing wornbyChandter quitesuitshisbrother. in Friends 4 Speaker 4 complains abouthaving to wearclothes with logoson thefront.

6 6) f.Of Complete thesetwo-partadiectives withthewords in the box.Tryto remember whichnounstheydescribe. Then listenagainandcheck. fitting length neck piece sleeved tight toed up 7 three2 futl3 open4 os Whendescribing a photo,it is oftenhetpfulto structure yourdescription in thisway: -) specific -) speculative general Forexample, if describing a person's appearance, startby saying whether theylooksmart,casual, etc.Thendescribe theirappearance in detail.Thenspeculate aboutwhothey mightbe,wheretheymightbegoing,etc.

5 6 7 8


Vocabulary Builder8.1:Clothes idioms:p.140

Workin pairs.Tellyourpartnerwhetheryouagree or disagree withthe statements, andwhy. 1 Women aremoreinterested in fashion thanmen. 2 Someclothes onlysuityoungpeople. 3 Youneeda lotof moneyto alwayslookfashionable. 4 Someclothes do notlookgoodon anybody andshould neverDeworn. Unit8 . Tastes

Foodor fue[?

c^n taLkabautdffirent atttt^det to food.

Youaregoingto readpartof an articlecalled Whatkindof meatdo youthinkit 'Meatfor vegetarians'. yourideasin pairs. couldbe?Discuss


fromthe listening theseexcerpts with O f.OZ Complete thewordsin the box.Thenlistenagainandcheck. craved foodie fuel gorge lived menu tooth touched treat

1. Quicklyreadthe articleandfindthe answerto exercise

It is the ultimate conundrum who thinkthat for vegetarians meatis murder:a revolution in processed foodthatwill seefreshmeatgrownfrom animalcellswithouta single cow,sheepor pigbeingkilled, Researchers havepublished journaldescribing a newtechnique detailsin a biotechnology whichtheyhailedasthe answerto the world'sfood shortage. Lumpsof meatwouldbe culturedin laboratory vatsrather rearedon a farm. thancarvedfrom livestock According meatgrownin laboratories to researchers, would more environmentally friendly and could be tailored to be meatby controlling be healthier thanfarm-reared its nutrient it for food-borne diseases. Vegetarians contentand screening the cellsneededto grow mightalsobe temptedbecause chunksof meatcanbe takenwithoutharming the donor animal. for NASA, Experiments the USspaceagency, havealready shownthatmorselsof ediblefishcanbe grownin petridishes, thoughno one hasyet eatenthe food.Now researchers have takenthe prospect of 'culturedmeat'a stepfurtherby working Theyenvisage scale. out howto produceit on an industrial musclecellsgrowingon hugesheetsthatwouldbe regularly to exercise the cellsastheygrow.Onceenough stretched cellshadgrown,theywouldbe scrapedoff andshapedinto processed meatproductssuchas chickennuggets. Findexamplesof wouldin the text in exercise2. Howwould the meaningbe slightlydifferentif thesewerechanged to will? In pairs,discuss thesequestions aboutthe text. Givereasonsfor youranswers. 1 Wouldyoueat'cultured meat'? wouldeatit? 2 Doyouthinkmanyvegetarians of 'cultured meat'would 3 Doyouthinkthemassproduction be a goodor badthingfortheworld? do youthinkit is goodto trynewandunusual 4 In general, kindsof food? O f.OZ Listento fourpeopletalkingabouttheirattitudes to food.Doeseachspeakereata wideror narrowerrangeof foodnowthanin the past?Why?

Unit8 . Tastes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

goingto the localtakeaway. lt wasa real-, Lotsof thingsareoffthe nothingelse. Asteenagers, we | prettymuchon chocolate andsweets. | hardly a pieceof fruit. Myfriendsreckon| on chocolate. | iustdon'thavea sweet | suppose I treatfoodas-. Mysister's a reat-.

Studythe followingexcerptsand matchthe usesof wouldto types1-5 inthe Learnthis!box.Whichexample is difficult to match?Explain the meaning of thatexample. 1 | wouldhavebeenaboutfourteen at thetime. for example. 2 | wouldn'teatswordfish, 3 I'd saythereareveryfewfoodsthataresafeto eat! 4 Mydadwouldn'tletus havesugarwhenwewerekids. 5 Buthewoutdsaythat,wouldn'the? 6 She'dinsistthatwetry it, though. outof it. 7 I wouldguessshe'shopingto makea career 8 | wouldloveto sampletheireveryday dishes. I 6l Wecan usewould 1 with verbslikesay andthinkto makea statementless i definite. = in thepast. 2 to talkabouthabitual actions = =-/ 3 to talkaboutwiltingness (orunwiltingness) to do past in in the or the hypothetical future. something k W 4 withverbslikelove,Iikeandratherwhentalkingabout preferences. (similar 5 to makea logicaldeduction to must). o.

Grammar Builder 8.7:would:p.727

Rewritethesesentences usingwould. 1 Mydadalways usedto cookIunchon Sundays. 2 I'm notprepared modifiedfood. to eatgenetically 3 He'stryingto loseweight,probably. hasbroadened 4 Spending a yeartravelling hertastesin food,probably. to buySouthAfricanfruitbecause 5 My motherrefused of apartheid. Workin pairs.Askandanswerthe questions. 1 Doyouconsider foodto be fuel,or areyoua bit of a youranswer. 'foodie'? Justifu 2 Howhaveyourtasteschanged overtheyears? on threedifferent 3 lf youhadto liveentirely dishes,what wouldtheybe?




' !:

,' :l rl

,/r'r/( .'bi trl ,'ettl r. .;,t.' /. /'..'t.


Flllil![trlTffdWork in pairs. Describe whatthe people in the photoare wearing. Dosome youngpeople dresslikethis in yourcountry?

A Hrffit butthiscreware WhotheyareTheymaycareabouttheenvironment the lessalienated counterparts. Theydon'trelect thantheirearly1990s modern world- theyembrace it to change it. WhereyoufindthemNoses buriedin ecology books; organising onlinepetitions. Whattheirlookis Sweatshirts fromHowies; dreadlocks or undercuts. Weekend; drum'n'bass Whattheylistento Jungle{olk bandVampire DJMechanical Organic.

Lookquicklythroughthe textOurgang.Whichof the five 1 show? stylesdoesthe photoin exercise Forquestions 1-10, choosefromthe fivestytes(A-E). Whichgang 1 is interested in creating music? 2 atways dresses immaculately? in 'green'issues? 3 is interested 4 oftenwearsveryhighshoes? sex? 5 tendsnotto mixwiththeopposite 6 prefers thecinema to thetelevision? 7 hasa keensenseof business? negative reactions? 8 enjoysprovoking make-up? 9 oftenwearsdistinctive 10 is moreinterested in funthanreflection?


tr tr !



tr T T


Matcheightof the colloquial wordsin redin the textwith forthe definitions 1-8.Thenwritesimilardefinitions if othersix.Usethe contextto helpyouanda dictionary, necessary. (adi)having 1 r.rannabe. to be something an ambition (v)avoiding 2 work/school (adi)verytight 3 (a show,etc.) (phrv) seeing 4 orwatching (adi)dirty,notsmart 5 (adi)knowtedgeable, wetl-informed 6 (phrv) acceptgratefully 7 (n)a groupof friends 8 yoursixdefinitions 4 withyour fromexercise Compare Doyouagreeon the meanings? classmates. Workin pairsor groups. amongyoung 1 Decide on a distinctive stylethatis common peoplewhereyouIive.Inventa nameforit, if it doesnot haveone. 2 Makenotesaboutthestyleusingthesamesubheadings astheonesin Ourgong. to theonesin Our 3 Writea textaboutthestvtesimilar gang.Usecolloquial wherepossible. language

B URBAIIIil kids,butnotasyouknowthem- imagine WhotheyareStreet and, mini-entrepreneurs whoareridiculously clued-up onart,fashion of course. music. in theirlocal WhereyoufindthemIntheday,spotthemskiving it'severyone record forrare1990s tracks to remix. Later, shop,looking place overto a mate's to hearhislatest demo. Ape;limitedWhattheirlookis Hoodies fromSupreme or Bathing edition trainers. of moremeaningful branch Whattheylistento Dubstep, a heavier, hip-hop.

c Aleo tndie, kids lifeforneo-indie WhotheyareInstead of ruthless introspection, the isaboutpushing eachotherhomeintrolleys andthenposting photos online. packs; WhereyoufindthemTravelling around townin single-sex queuing fortickets to seebands. Apparel, Whattheirlookis Whatever it is- Topshop andAmerican mostly- it mustbeperfect. WeSmoke Fags band,of course. Whattheylistento Theirfavourite andTheEnemy arehot.

D [u 6rauo butflamboyant ones. Theyloveto bedifferent WhotheyareGoths, theygetfromshocked relatives. andlapuptheattention in grungy venues nights WhereyoufindthemFindthematnu-grave likeKorsan Barin eastLondon. sideof high fromthedarker Whattheirlookis Theytakeinspiration trench coats and fashion. Addwet-look hair,blacklips,patentleather 20cmplatforms. youngnu-grave bands suchasThe Whattheylistento Good-looking Horrors a'i{ lpsoFacto.

E FAUXHNK andwannabe actors wholiveforcreativity, WhotheyareArtstudents Donotmistake themforrealpunks. loveandtheirfriends. attheDotto Dotfestival in Whereto findthemWatching bands 'zines infilms Noftingham; reading underground suchasthePiX;taking telly. byGregg Arakior GusVanSant; actively notwatching Yellow butmuchbetter-looking. Whattheirlookis Likeoldpunks, jeans; McQvests; bikerjackets. DMs;super-skinny well-dressed newbands suchas Whattheylistento Goodlooking, andLateofthePier. Gallows

Foodof thefuture

I caw uMerctattd dnd rcact to an adi cLeabout faad screrye

Technology developed to keepcooking oil freshcouldhelp theworld'spoorestpeopleby a increasing theirconsumption of nutrients. b preventing fishfromgoingofftooquickty. c alerting themwhenwatersupplies become contaminated d enabting themto purifywatermoreeasily. At its mostadvanced, nano-technology mightenabte consumers to previously a experience undreamed-of combinations of tastes. b makeanyfoodtheycanthinkof withouttheneedfor conventionaI ingredients. c havea muchhigherlevelof proteinin theirdiet. d avoidfoodstheydislikealtogether. DavidBennett, 5 Intheopinionof thescientist howwillthe pubticreactto nano-food? giveit a cautious welcome. a They'll b They'ltbetoo concerned aboutthe dangers to welcomeit. potentiaI They'tt c eventually be wonoverbyall the benefits. d They't[ wantto decidewhether the potential benefits outweigh the dangers. retevant 7 Howis thesizeof nano-particles to theirpotential dangers? a Mostsubstances aretoxicat nano-scales. b Theyaretoosma[[forscientists to tracktheirposition. c Oncethey'reinsidethebody,theybehave likeviruses. d Theirmicroscopic sizeallowsthemto passthrough the body'susualdefences.

neadthe newspaper cuttingandanswerthe questions.


1 Whatarenano-particles andwhatpotentiaI benefits do theyhavein relationto food? 2 Whyaresomepeopleconcerned aboutnano-particles in food?

104products on shelvesalready contain toxic nano-particles, warns Friends of the Earth Potentially toxic chemicalsare being incorporatedinto food, packaging,health supplementsand other productsby stealth,it is claimed.Manufacturersboastthat nano-particles,which are thousandsof times thinner than a human hair, can deliver drugs or vitamins more effectively,kill harmful bugs in food or create self-cleaningwindows.But scientists,consumergroupsand greencampaignersfear the technologyis being introducedinto the diet, body and environmentwithout proper safetychecks.

Lookquicktythroughthe texton page85. Matchparagraphs 2-6 with fiveof the headings in the box. yourownflavours Products now Create available Tinytoxins Healthier andmoreexciting food Publicprotests Unknown dangers 1: Introduction Paragraph Paragraph 2: Paragraph 3t Paragraph 4:,Paragraph 5: Paragraph 6: -

4 Findthesewordsin the text. Paragraph 1: twosweetdishesandtwosavoury dishes Paragraph 2; fouradjectives thatdescribe foodor drink Paragraph 3: twothingsthatcanspoilfoodand makeit inedibte Paragraph thatmostfoodcontains 4: threeof the elements (suchascarbohydrate ...) Paragraph whichmean'danger' 5: fourwords Paragraph 6: fourorgans ofthehumanbody

Readthe textandchoosethe bestanswers. gumhavein 1 WhatdoesWiltyWonka's magical chewing common withtypesof nano-food in development? a Theybothcontainan excitingmixof tastes. b Bothareappealing to youngchildren. c Theybothallowtheconsumer to choose theflavours. d They'rebothmadein a factory. of 'programmable food'wouldconsumers 2 Whichelements be ableto determine byzapping it? a colour, consistency andnutritionalvatue b temperature, colourandtaste c taste,nutritional valueandcolour d texture, tasteandcolour packaging, 'smart'packaging ordinary 3 Untike a keepsfoodfreshpermanently. b prevents anyoxygen fromreaching the food. c hasyetto arriveon supermarket shelves. d canmonitor thecondition of thefoodit contains.



U nit8.Ia sr e s

Workin pairs.Writeas manywordsasyoucanunderthese headings in threeminutes. Whichpairhasthe mostwords? 1 2 3 4


sweetdishes savoury dishes adjectives foodor drink thatdescribe elements thatfoodcontains

Workin pairs.Discuss the questions. 1 Wouldyoubewitting to eatfoodwhichcontained nanoparticles? Why?/Why not? 2 Doyouthinkresearch intonano-food shouldbe banned? Why?/Why not? o*

Vocabulary Builder8.2:Talkingaboutfood:p.140

Mostpeoplehaveheardaboutthe'smart' foodpackaging thatwillwarnwhen hasgotinside, or iffoodis going oxggen andthe off- research onthatis complete products arearriving. hasfridges Samsung onthemarketin AsiaandAmerica thatuse nano-silver to killbacteria. Alsoavailable in American is cooking oilthat,in supermarkets theorg,canbe keptfreshforever- thanks to nano-engineered molecules which lockontocontaminants. Thesecouldalso simplifgthe process of cleaning drinking water- potentiallg hugelgimportant for world.InAustralia, thedeveloping Uoucan bugbreadthatcontains undetectable nanocapsules of omega-3, a valuable nutrient foundnaturallg in oilgfishlikesalmon.

Nano-food t WillgWonkais theFather of nano-food. Thegreatchocolate-factorg owner,gou'll remember, gumthat invented a chewing wasa fullthree-course dinner.'lt willbe theendof all kitchens andcooking,' hetold thechildren on histour- andproduced a prototupe sampleof Wonka's MagicChewing Gum.Onestripof thiswoulddeliver tomato soup,roastbeefwithroastpotatoes and pieandicecream- in the right blueberrg order. giant a Far-fetched? Theprocessed-food Kraftanda groupof research laboratories arebusgworkingtowards'programmable food'.0neproduct thegareworkingon is a colourless, tasteless drinkthatgou,the consumer, willdesignaftergou'veboughtit. You'll decide whatcolourandflavourgou'd likethedrinkto be,andwhatnutrients it will havein it,oncegougethome.You'll zapthe product witha correctlg-tuned microwave transmitter - presumablg Kraftwillsellgou that,too.Thiswillactivate nano-capsules e a cho neabout2, 000t im e ss ma l l eth r a nth e widthof a hair- containing the necessarg chemicals forgourchoiceof drink:greenhued.blackcurrant-flavoured witha touchof caffeine andomega-3, sag.Thegwilldissolve whilealltheotherpossible will ingredients p a ssu n us ed gou rb o d gi,nth e i r t hr ough nano-capsules. s Theendof cooking? Probablg not.But nano-food packaging andnano-food are ontheirwavbecause thefoodindustrg hasspotted the chanceforhugeprofits: according to analgsts, willsoon the business b ewo rt h$20billion annu a l l g Yo . u 'fil l rs t meetnanotechnologg in foodpackaging.

including Unilever n Foodmanufacturers andNestl6planto usenano-encapsulation to improve shelflifeandengineer taste sensations in fat-based foodslike There chocolates, icecreamsandspreads. couldbe hugereductions in fatandsaltin processed believes it can foods.Unilever reduce thefatcontentof icecreamfrom fifteenpercentto onepercent.Inthefuture, will atomic-level encapsulation techniques getmoresophisticated. A chefmightdecide thatsomeflavours in hisdisfnwould onlg be released to theeatera certainnumberof orwhen seconds or minutesafterchewing, ahead, thegsipa glassof wine.Further the industrgis looking at foodthatis preengineered to caterforgourtastes,gour - orjust builtfrom dislikes andgourallergies scratch. Ultimatelg, it mightbe possible to createanUmealgouwantat thepushofa button,usingnothingbut plantproteins. a veteran 5 ButDrDavidBennett, biochemist nowworkingon a European projectontheethicsof Commission

'nanobiotechnologg', believes the publicwill almostcertainlg rejectnano-food because perils.'Verg littlerisk of the perceived assessment hasbeendoneonthisarea, alreadg entering evenon someproducts the market'.What'sto be afraidof.froma thatoffersso much- healthier technologg less food,fewer,better-targeted chemicals, packaging, waste,'smart' thus less] Iand andeventhepromise of a technological solution to theoroblem of theonebillion people whodon'tgetenough to eat?'Matter hasdifferent behaviour at nano-scales,' sagsDrKeesEijkelfromthe DutchTwente meansdifferent hazards Universitg.'That areassociated withit.Wedon'tknowwhat theseare.'Forexample, somemetalswillkill - hencethe interest bacteria at nano-scale in usingthemin foodpackaging-butwhat iftheggetoffthepackaging willhappen andintous?Could thegbea threatto our health?Nooneseemsto know. is central to these s Thesizequestion Nano-oarticles thatareunder100 concerns. wide- lessthanthesizeof a nano-metres Thegcancross virus- haveuniqueabilities. intocells naturalbarriers, entering thebodU's or orthrough the liverintothebloodstream the eventhroughthecellwallsurrounding brain.'l'dliketo drinka glassof waterand knowthatthecontents aregoingintomV Dr andnotintomg lungs,'sags stomach of the Britishgovernment's OasimChaudhrg LaboratorU.'We aregiving Central Science vergtoxicchemicals theabilitgto crosscell to gowheretheg'venevergone membranes, before. Wherewillthegendup?lt hasbeen can inhaled shownthatfreenano-particles gostraightto the brain.Therearelotsof Wehaveto ask- dothe benefits concerns. outweigh therisks?' i I

U ni t8. Tast es


I can use maolaLverbs accurately and effecttveLy

Lookat the newspaper cuttingandexplainthe wordplay in the headline. Whatdo youthinkthesandwich mightcontain?

Howdoestnc[85sandwich tasteflInaw01d: rich

4 Lookat the photoof a dessertthatcosts andtalk S25,000 aboutit using thesephrases. It mustbe ... It couldn't be ... You'dhaveto ... People should/ shouldn't ...because ...

It's not a gimmick, sayschef who

f) r.or Listento a conversation aboutthe dessert. Whowouldliketo try it: the man or thewoman?

created it.

s p e n ds o mu c ho n a s a n d w i c hw hen 3 ' P eople ther e' spov er t ya n d h u n g e ri n th e w o rl d .' a s houldn' t b o u g h tn o t to c d o n ' t h aveto

fromthe conversation. Decide O f.Of Readthe sentences whichmodalmakesbettersensein the context. Thenlisten againandcheck. 1 Theymay/ musthavesoldhundreds. 2 Youmight/ mayhavetotdmeyouweregoingto NewYork nextweek! 3 Youcould/ shouldtakehimoutfora meal. 4 Wemay/ mighthavebeenarrested. 5 Youmight/ shouldhavea betterevening thistime. 6 lt couldn't might nof be any worse! / 7 Youcould/ maygivemea lift to theairportl 8 Wetl,if youmight/ shouldtry it, tetmeknow!

4 ' lf y ou t hink it ' s a w a s teo f mo n e y y, o u b u y i t.' a needn' t b mustn't c d o n ' t h a veto

Explain howthe meaning of eachsentence in exercise 6 wouldchangeif the othermodalwere chosen.

Readopinions1-7 aboutthef85 sandwich. Decide which modalor modalsfit eachgap.Tryto explainwhythe othe(s) do notfit. 1 'lt bea publicity stuntbytherestaurant.' a c an b must c should 2 ' A s andwic ha c an' t

b e w o rthf8 5 , h o w e v ear mazi ng.' c couldn't

b mustn't

you_ 5 'lf youhavethatmuchmoney to spend, buya sandwich forf 3 andgivef82 to charity.' a haveto b oughtto c should youreadin 6 'Themoralis:Youbelieveeverything thenewspapers!' a mustn't b d o n ' t h a v eto c needn't 7 'A totof people workfora wholedayor moreto ear nf 85! ' a m us t

b haveto

c should

Lookat youranswers to exercise 2. Decide whichmodalswe useto talkabout1-7. 7 what we believeis right ( or _-) 2 what we believeis wrong ( or --) 3 whatwe c anded u c ei s d e fi n i te l ytru e ( ) 4 whatwe c anded u c ei s d e fi n i te l yn o t tru e (_ or )

5 w hatwe ar e obli g e dto d o ( ) 6 w hatwe ar e not o b l i g e dto d o ( o r -) 7 what we are obtigedor stronglyadvisednof to do ( a

G r ar nm ar B u i l d e r8 .? : Mo d a l s :o . 1 2 7

Unit8. Tastes


Workin pairs.Decide whetherthe sentences arenatural English or not.lmprove thesentences whicharenot. 1 Thisdessertis amazing. Youreallymusttry it! 2 Thefoodthereis alwaysterrific,buttheservice couldbea bitslowsometimes. 'Yes. youcould.Goaheadl' I tryyourpizza?' 3 'Coutd 4 Customers mayonlyconsume drinkspurchased onthe premises. 5 Mycreditcardbitlis astronomica[! | guessI oughtnotto havespentso muchon eatingout! 5 lt'sonlyanother 30 kilometres. Weshouldbetherein time fordinner. 7 | prefer eatingoutnowthatpeoplemustn't smoke anywhere insidea restaurant. 8 Because mysisterworksin a restaurant, shemustwork lateeverynight. Workin pairs.Discuss the question. ls it morally wrongforpeopleto paythatmuchfora restaurant dish,evenif theycanaffordit?Why?/Why not?

Stimulus-based discussion 1 Workin pairs.Matchthe charts(1-4)withtheirnamesin the (a-d)below. boxandtheirdescriptions


graph table barchart piechart 1 2 a b c d

ideatforl ideatforE

3 4 -

ideatforE ideatforE

d i sp lay ing s t at is t ic w s h i c hto ta t1 0 0 % sh owinghow a s it u a ti o nh a sc h a n g e do v e rti me visualtycomparingtwo relatedsetsof statistics p res ent ing a v ar ietyo f s ta ti s ti c ai n l fo rm a ti o n i n a c t earbut n o n- diagr am m atf iocrm

Estimated salesof Fairtrade Droducts

products Regular vs occasionaI buyersof Fairtrade 35 30 25 va 20 75 10

) -






occ as i onal

tn an averageweek,howoften do you eat at a fast-foodoutlet?

everyday 7"/o 3 timesor more8o/o/


I can dercrtbeand respondto vtsualstiwtuli in a discnssiatr.

(a or b)thatthe 6) f.O+ Listenagain.Ticktheexpression speakers use.(Botharevalidexpressions.) 1 a Forme,themostinteresting is ... aspect b Whatstrikes measmostinteresting is ... 2 a ...a sharorisein thetotaInumber of ... b ...a significant increase in thetotaInumber of ... 3 a ...a verylargeproportion of people... b ...thevastmajority of people... 4 a Thecharttellsusthat... b Accordingto thechart,... 5 a ...moreor lessthesamenumber of people... b ...roughly equalnumbers of people... 6 a ...seeing it in thisformreallybringshometo you... b ...thewayit is presented helpsto emphasise ... 7 a There's a strongtendency to reject.../embrace ... b There's a definitetrendawayfrom.../towards... 8 a ...theratehasremained ouitestabte... b ...theratehasnotftuctuated verymuch... 9 a Therehasbeena slightincrease/decrease in ... b ...hasincreased/decreased marginally. 10 a Thesignificance of thisisthat... b Thisis significant because ...

thefollowing 4 Explain expressions. Uselanguage from exercise 3 whereappropriate. Ratesof obesityhave: 1 rocketed 5 plateaued 2 creptup 6 stumped 3 pl ummeted 7 tailedoff 4 mul ti pti ed 8 stabilised Complete the sentence belowusingexpressions fromthe boxin positiona or b. Whichexpression couldgo in either position? Whatotherwordscouldyouuseto meanthe same?

Salesof organicfood



Fastfood consumptionhas risen (a) (b)




giveor takea percent in roundnumbers moreor less in theregion of something like orthereabouts

0 2001

@ Healthyeating

Whenyouaretalkingaboutchartsandstatistics, do not simptyreporttheinformation theycontain. Givea personal reaction too.Whatis surprising or important aboutthe information?

6 Readthe speaking tip.Whichexpressions fromexercise 3 2

canbe usedto givea personal reaction?

6) f.o+ Listento fourpeopletalkingaboutdifferent charts.Foreachspeaker, identifywhatthegeneral topicof thecharttheyarespeaking aboutis. Sp e a k er1

S p e a k e3r

Sp e a k er2

S p e a k e4r

Talkaboutthe information contained in the chartsin exercise 1. Useexpressions fromexercises 3, 4 and5 wherepossible.


Turnto page143anddo thetask. Unit8 . Tastes

( tit1 VvfIt( q r(P A rt

Introduction The aim of this report is to give an insighl in[o the wide range of live music that is available in this area, and to single out one venue which I would particulariy recommend visiting Large venues There are two llve music venues of a reasonablesize: the Apollo and,the Hippodrome These attract headline acts from all pafis of the UK, and occasionallyfrom overseastoo. The Apollo has recently been refurbished and 1sclean, well-run and well-appointed. To my mind, however, it is a little on the sterile side The Hippodrome is the polar opposite: dark, grungy and chaotically-managed - and it could certainly do with better air-condrtioning. But what it lacks rn slickness. it makes uD for rn character! Smaller venues If it's internationally-renowned performers you're looking for, the Cave rsn't the venue for vou However. as a showcase

for local talent, it's garnering quite a reputation among serious music fans in the area Tickets are reasonably priced, wrth concessionsfor students and the unemployed The room is a little cosy, to say the least, but that adds to the atmospherel That said, it does have a tendency to be very crowded on Saturday nights, perhaps unpleasantly so. Stage One is somewhat larger than the Cave, with an advertised capacity of 350 as opposed to the Cave's 250 They tend to attract slightly better-known acts, but at f25-30 a throw, tlckets aren't exactly cheap, and when bought over the phone incur an additional booking fee of f2.50 per ticket Recommendation If you only have time to visit one venue, I would recommend its programme includes the best bands in the UK and whiie lt may not be the most polished gig you've ever seen, it should be a memorable evening

Compareand contrastthe photos.Whichgig wouldyou ratherbe at? Givereasons.

Readthe writingtip. Thenfind examplesof periphrasisand euphemismin the text with the meaningsbelow.

Readthe reportabout live musicvenuesin the writer'sarea. Answerthe questions.

1 2 3 4

1 ls the reportwrittenin formaIor retativelyinformat language? G iv ee x a mp l e sto s u p p o rty o u ra n s w er. 2 W ho do y ou t hin kth e i n te n d e da u d i e n c efo r th e report m ightbe?G iv er e a s o n s . 3 W hic hv enuedo e sth e w ri te rre c o m m e n dC? o mpl ete the g ap in t he r epo rt. Findwordsor phrasesin the text which meanthe opposite o f 1- 8. 1 2 3 4

u nk nownac t s b adly - m anage d p oor ly - equipp e d c lean

5 5 7 8

overpriced empty u n re h e a rs e d forgettable

l n or dert o s of t ena n e g a ti v ec o mme n t,w e o fte nu se ( us in gm o rew o rd sth a n n e c e s s a ryo)r p er iphr as is g e g a ti v eo r o ffe n s i v ew o rd sw i th e uphem is m( r epl a c i n n som et hingt es sdi re c t). Periphrasis:Thisvenueis a little on the shabbyside. (insteadof Thisvenueis shabby.) Euphemism:Thefloor coulddo with a clean.(insteadof Thefloor is dirty.)

Unit8 . Tastes

5 6 7 8

l t' s steri l e. l t needsbetterai r-condi ti oni ng. l t i sn' tsl i ck,but i t hascharacter. TheC avedoesn' thavei nternati onal l y- r enowned oerformers. Theroomi s smal l . lt's verycrowdedon Saturdaynights. Ticketsare expensive. Thegi g w on' t be pol i shed,but the eveni ngshouldbe memorabl e.

Softenthese negativecommentsusingperiphrasisor euphemi sm. 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8

Theband i sn' tverysuccessfu[. Thedrummeri sn' tski l ful ,but he' senthu siast ic. Thesong isn'tveryorigina[,but it's catchy. Thesinger'svoice is unattractive. goesout of tune. Thesi ngersometi mes Thestagei s too smal l . Thesoundsystemsometi mesdoesn' tw o r k. Theroomi s too hot. Discussthe questionsas a class.

1 W hatarethe advantages and di sadvant ages of list eningt o l i vemusi c,ratherthan recordedmusi c? 2 W hi chperformers w oul dyou mostl i keto seeper f or m ing l i ve?Gi vereasons.

Workin pairs.Compare andcontrast the restaurants in the photos.Whichwouldyoupreferto eatat, andwhy?

ln pairs,thinkof wordswhichhavethe samecoremeaning asthewordsbelow,buta lessnegative connotation. Usea dictionaryif necessary. 1 2 3 4

bossy- asierlivg stubborn tactless out-dated

5 6 7 8

scrawny arrogant ftippant abnormal

possible A reportshouldbe laidoutin theclearest form. Unlikeotherformsof writing, it is fineto usesubheadings in a reoort. Readthe writingtip.Then,in pairs,readthetaskanddecide whatheadings to usefor sections 2 and3 of the planbelow. Dividethevenuesaccording to size,styleof food,price,or yourownidea.

Readthese two descriptionsof the samerestaurantmeat. Whichis more positiveabout the experience? A Lunchwas a relaxedaffair.I beganwith a light starterof g ar licpr awnsT. hisw a sfo l l o w e db y ' C re o l eGu mb o' ,a n o v elc om binat ion o f p o rk ,c h i c k e na n d s e a fo o dw h i ch ca mewit h a s idedi s h o f s u c c u l e nvte g e ta b l e sF. o rdessert, I o p t edf or t he m an g os o rb e t,w h i c hw a s p a rti c u l a rl y sweet. B L unc hwas a longa n d d ra w n -o uat ffa i r.I b e g a nw i th a meagrestarterof garlicprawns.Thiswas fottowedby 'Cr eoleG um bo' ,an o d d c o n c o c ti o o n f p o rk ,c h i c k e nand se af oodwhic hc am ew i th a s i d ed i s h o f s o g g yv e g etabl es. Fordessert,I opted for the mangosorbet,which was particularlysickly.

Wo rd swit h t he s am ec o reme a n i n gc a n h a v ev e ryd i f ferent co n not at ionst :hes eg i v eu s i n fo rm a ti o na b o u tth e wri ter' s a tti tu de. Readthe writingtip. Findwordsin the texts in exercise2 which sharethe samecoremeaningbut havedifferent connotations. Findpairsof wordswith similarcoremeaningin the box below.Decide: a whet hereac hpair is mo s t ti k e tyto b e u s e dw h e n describinga restaurant's food, staffor interior. b whic hwor d in eac hp a i r h a sa m o rep o s i ti v ec o n n o tati on. attentive bustling cloying cramped crowded deserted formal hearty heavy hurried insubstantial intimate intrusive taid back light stoppy sour stiff swift sweet tangy uncrowded - inlrusiva dercribrng rile.nlive r'taff 'attantiva' i5 rrorepositrvo

A groupof foreignstudentsarevisitingyourtown for a week.Writea reportgivinginformationaboutthe range of cafâ&#x201A;Źsand restaurants. Incl udeat l eastone per sonal recommendati on.

1 2 3 4

(theaimof the report) Introduction (first typeof venue) (second typeofvenue) Recommendation

Workin pairs.Talkaboutcaf6sandrestaurants youknow(orinventthemifyoudon'tknowany).Addnotes to the planin exercise 6. Decide whichvenueto recommend. Workingindividually, writea reportof 200-250words yourplanfromexercise foltowing 5. Remember to writein an appropriate stylefor youraudience. Includeat leastone example of periphrasis or euphemism. yourworkusingthe listbelow. Check

you - Have fottowed the ptan? ! writtenthecorrectnumberof words? ! included at leastoneexample of periphrasis or ! euphemism? usedwordswithpositive/negative connotations? I grammar used correct and vocabulary? I



1 Comptete thesentences withphrasal verbsformedfroma verbin A anda particlein B. Useactiveor passive.

thesentence 5 Rewrite withextraemphasis usingthewordsin brackets. I wasfirstattracted to hissmite.(it) It washisemila thatI warfirrt aiiracled Io 1 Weneedto knowwhentheirftightis due.(what) 2 Thenewheadteacher is charming, andshe'svery professional too.(onty) (truth) 3 Heearnstoo littleto supporthimsetf. 4 Yournewhaircutlooksnice.(does) 5 | don'tunderstand whyhe'supset.(what) 6 Youtoldeveryone mysecret.(it) 7 We'retost.(fact) (did) 8 | rarelystoppedto thinkaboutherfeelings.

A ehee|t drop get hold show stop B around away into off over up Harrywas chec(ing intothe hotelwhenI arrived. 1 Wearen'thaving a hotiday thissummer, butI'msurewe to somewhere nicein theautumn. 2 Theyarrived twohourslatebecause they in the rushhourtrafficleavingLondon. 3 Emma's taxiwaslate her_ at the station, so shenearly missed hertrain. 4 Duringourflightto Austratia lastyearwe in Singapore forfourhours. 5 She theexhibition bvtheartisthimself.

EE! ]tr 2 Complete thesentences usinga nounrelatedto the phrasal verbin brackets. 1 Therehasbeenanof flu.(breakout) 2 There wasa peasant in 7977.(riseup) 3 Thehascausedmanyjob losses.(takeover) 4 Thescandal ledto thepresident's . (fattdown) 5 BoybandTakeThatmadea in 2006.(comeback)

EE! ]tr Complete thesentences withcompound adjectives formed fromthe wordsin brackets. 1 lt didn'tlookasif it wouldrain,sosheputon (toe)sandals. her2 Mybrother is cultivating histrendyimagebywearing (skin)T-shirts wherever hegoes.


3 Therewas a cold breezeand Jesswishedshe had worn a (sleeve)top insteadof a T-shirt. 4 S inc es he' sbeenp re g n a n t, my s i s te rfe e l sm o re (fit)garments. comfortablein 5 Jo s hwant edt o m a k ea g o o di mp re s s i o ns,o h e w orea (three)suit to the interview.

EE! E a morenegative 4 Givethe sentences connotation by replacing the underlined wordswithwordsin the box. cloying cramped crowded {rcayy sloppy 1 2 3 4 5

Theywereserveda heartvbreakfast. Wewereserveda sweetdessert. Thestreets arebustling withshoppers. Thetavernhadan intimate atmosphere. Thewaiters havequitea laid-back attitude.

EE! Itr Language Review z-8 ,/

EE! ]tr 6 tick ttreverbswhichcancomplete the sentences correctly. (Sometimes botharecorrect.) 1 Theyweregoingto callthismorning, so he_ aboutthe job by now. a wouldknow b shouldknow 2 I' m amazedthat she-

a wouldtreat

vou ti kethat.

b shouldtreat

3 Theytook someextrabl anketsi n casethe ya would get b shouldget


youbothto 4 Weto express ourthanksbyinviting dinner. a wouldlike b shoul dl i ke 5 l t' s essenti al that everyone on ti me. a would arrive b shoutd arrive

Etr! ]tr Complete the sentences withthe modalverbsin the boxand the correctformofthe verbsin brackets. can't maynot might must needn't oughtnotto should (leave) 1 Candidates theroomuntilthe examination is over. 2 Jane's dadis furious withherforhaving a partywhilethey (ask)himfirst. hewasaway.Hesaysshe (oke)if youthinkI'mgoingto lendyou 3 You present! themoney formybirthday (put)usedbatteries 4 People in their household rubbish. (telt)mehewouldn't 5 He be homeforlunch! plentyof timesowe (hurry). 5 There's (see)Tomyesterday. 7 You He'sin China.

Etr! 1Z @




physical Dublin's appearance is misleading because it makes thecity A seempoorer thanit reallyis. B seemcolderthanit reallyis. C seemlesslivelyandup-to-date thanit reallyis. D lookgrander andwealthier thanit reatly is.

1 Choose a capitalcitythatyouwouldliketo visit.Thinkabout whyandmakenotes. 2 Workin groups.Present yourideasto the othermembers of yourgroup.

Whathasbeentheeffectof European funding on Dublin? A Thecityhasbecome veryexpensive. B Thecityhaschanged fasterthanthe restof lreland. C Thecityno longerhasa strongsenseof history. D Thecityhasrebuitt manyof itsderelict buildings.

Reading ,

Readthetext.Forquestions 1-4, choosethe bestanswer.

population ThefactthatDubtin's hasgrownrapidty A is goodnewsforpeopleunder25. B hashadpositive andnegative consequences. C hasdamaged theeconomy of otherregions. D hasmeantsomepeople can'tfindhousing. Thewriteradvises visitorsto Dublinto A seeboththeotdandthenewpartsofthecity. B ignore whatever theypreviousty thought aboutthecity. C ignore thecity'sbadpoints. D findoutaboutthe historyof thecitybeforetheyarrive.

Dublin o c s grey,andsolid,lreland's Low-slung, premier citycan look surprisingly darkandgloomyat f irstglance.lts appearance - the resultof its 19th-century architecture of lrishstone andgranite- is deceptive. Thetownitselfis anything but gloomy, and it's notthe stodgy, old-fashioned cityof the late2Othcentury. Behindall thosesturdycolumns and - an beneath all thatgreyis the real,modern, Euro-Dublin juice affluentplacef illedwithtrendycoffeeshops,organic oars,priceyfive-star restaurants, andexpensive designer routiques. TheEuropean moneythat hasfloodedin over :he lastdecadechanged manythingsin lreland, but it altered Dublinmostof all, catapulting this historic town 'romthe early20th century, whereit hadlingered too long, ntothe 21st,whereit nowrevelsin its ownsuccess. Gonearethe dayswhenmanyvisitors to lrelandchose :o skipDublinaltogether. Nowadays, in Dublin a weekend s oneof the hottestcity breaksin Europe, people pile as ntoits old pubsandmodernbars,shopin its thriving narketsand malls,and relaxin its trendycaf6s.Because :f all of this,Dublin's population hasswollen to 1.5 'nillion;morethana thirdof the lrishpopulation livesin :niscity,which,whilegoodnewsfor the economy, has 'esidual prices, sideeffectsof overcrowding, highproperty ard gridlocked traffic. lt hasalsohelpedmakeDublinone :f theworld'smostyouthfulcities,withan estimated 50% :f the population under25 yearsold. It is a contrary, amusing, complex smallcity,andmy alviceto thosewhohaven'tbeenherein a while,or who -aveneverbeenhereis this:the firstthingyoushoulddo > leaveyourpreconceptions behind.Thenyoucanseethis - storic,modern, flawed,charming, andentertaining city ':r whatit reallvis.

Listening 4 $ l.OS Edgars, Tomas andRitaareon holidayin Dublin. Listenandidentifythe threelocations for thedialogue. eachsentence witha f) f.Of Listenagain.Complete singleword. 1 Edgars saysthatthehotelreservation wasmade 2 Edgars complains thathisroomlooksreally . 3 Onebadthingaboutthehotelrestaurant is thattheyare madeto 4 Bythetimethefoodarrives, Ritano longer feets 5 Regarding hisnewbusiness, Edgars feels. 6 Ritawouldprefer to havetheirnextmealin the.

Writing 6

youareEdgars, lmagine Ritaor Tomas. Makea noteof threedifferent thingsyouwereunhappy withat the hotelin Dublin.Inventdetaitsor useinformation fromthe dialogue.


Writea letterof complaint to the hotel.Say: o whatyouarecomplaining aboutandwhy. o whatyouwouldlikethehotelto do aboutit.

Exnn 8 What are the advantagesand disadvantages of bottledwater,as opposedto tap water? Whichdo you preferto drink?


Oothe Useof Englishexamtask.

R eadthe text and deci dew hi chw ord or phr ase( A- D) best fits eachgap.

l. t t\



l f y ou m is san answ e rd u ri n gth e fi rs tIi s te n i n gd, o n' t w orry . h e nv o u l i sten a boutit . M ov eon to th e n e x ts e n te n c eW a gain,f oc uson t h e m i s s i n ga n s w e rs . 2

6) r.oo Do the Listeningexamtask.

Listento the radio programmeand completeeach sentencewith up to four words. 1 A boutone in f iv e re s ta u ra nctu s to me rs o rd e rb ottl ed wat erbec aus et h e yd o n ' tw a n tto 2 lt t ak es762gof o i l to ma k eo n e. , 3 W hendis c ar de dp l a s ti cb o ttl e sre a c hth e o c e a n they . oec om ea _ G a rb a g ePa tc hi s a p a rti c u l a rlpyo l l u tedarea 4 T heE as t er n of - . 5 P las t icbr eak sd o w n i n to o i e c e sw h i c hc a n b e s m al l er t han. 5 I n or dert o r eac hi ts c u s to me rsa,b o u ta q u a rte ro f al l bottledwaterhasto a n e w re s ta u ra ni n t L o n d o ni,s u n u sual 7 W at er hous e, bec aus eit won' t 8 B ot t t edwat erha sh a d s o m u c hb a d p u b l i c i tyth a t peop l ew h o d ri n ki t c o u l dto o kti k e ev ent ually


Lookquicklythroughthe text in the Useof Englishexamtask about Claridge's,a luxuryhotel in London.Findthe most expensiveand the cheapestwater available.

Water for S5O a lihe Claridge'shas taken luxury to a new 'by offering its gueslsmore than 30'o[ water- with prices stretching to as much as f,,50a litre. The opulent hotel in the heart of l-ondon has "an extensive menu with water from places as far flung as Norway, Patagonia, New Zealandand Hawaii.Customersare given advice ato what occasion.For on which water is best those suffering from exhaustionor trying to get overjet lag, OGO spring water from the Netherlandscontains nwater 35 times more oxygen than the drinker. The most expensiveon the menu is 420 Volcanic, spring water from New Zealand,which can be bought for 921 for 42 cl - the equivalent of S50 a litre. Its low mineral content and 'smooth sensationon the palate'comefrom its journey from the 'at the bottom of an extinct volcanothrough 200 metres of volcanicrock. Fiuggi from Italy has obeen admired: Michelangelowrote about its restorative effects in 1554and it is said to be very popular with the Vatican. "included on the list is Mahalo Deep SeaWater, from Hawaii, which is L2l for 75 cl. Originally a fresh water iceberg,the ice melted thousandsof years ago and sank to the bottom of the oceanfloor becauseof its different temperatureand salinif. It is now " to the surfacethrough a 1,000 metre pipeline. But among all the grandeur there is one option which is free of charge - a glass of 'old-fashioned London tap water'. l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A hei ght B peak C summi t Dr at e D oot ions A vari eti es B di fferencesC vari ations B advi sed C comori sedDdevised A revi sed A appropri ateBsui ted C sui tabl e D t inked A common B typi cat C ordi nary Dnat ur al A revitatisingB revitalisedC is revitalised D to revitatise A source B foundati onC basi s D beginning A much B thoroughtyC once D long A Futhermore,B A l so C P tus, D M or eover B haul ed C putl ed A dragged D pum ped

T H tS U 1 {t T t it c t uDE S


Yo6bulary. gossipand secrets. givingandwithholding . colloquial . literal information omissions . vaguelanguage :1d figurative language . participlâ&#x201A;Ź Gnmmar. passivestructures.the causative phrases . 1311;1g Speaking 6boutgossipandsecrets. talkingaboutspystories. talkingaboutconspiracy --e o ri e s. d r a w i n g co n cl u si o n s \ f rit in g . 3 n q t ; r ; . ..rr.t

I can understand and Ne th lanq,taqe of news and gatstp.


Workin pairs.Describe whatthe peoplein the photosaredoing.Whydo youthinktheymightbe doingit? Howmightyouexplaintheirexpressions? Usethewordsin the boxto helpyou. confide(insomebody)dropa bombshell (ona conversation) eavesdrop gossip(noun& verb) indiscreetoutraged rumours scandal scandalisedscandalous



overthe phone. 6) f.oz Listento threepeoplegossiping youhear, Complete eachsentence withthe information usingup to fourwords. 1 KatetellsGerry thatHarryhasgot 2 SheurgesGerrynotto tellanyonebecause Harryhasn't yet_. 3 Sheclaimsonlyto havetotdGerry thesecret because he is-. 4 BriantellsJakeaboutsecret plansto 5 Hesuspects thatsomeof thepeopleinvolved in thedeal witl-. 5 JutiatellsKarenabouttwofriendswhostarteda retationshioata-. 7 Shereveals thatSueis verykeento keepthe relationship secretfromher. 8 Sheexpects thesecretwilleventually comeoutwhenthe couple

4 Rewritethesesentences usingexpressions fromexercise 3. Morethanoneanswermaybe possible. 1 Don'ttellanyone whoyouheardthisfrom,butI thinkmy brotheris gettingmarried. 2 | discovered a fewinteresting tidbitsaboutherprivatelife, butI won'ttella soul.Mylipsaresealed! 3 Herplansfor nextyeararetop secret. 4 Forthetimebeing, they're withhotding of their theidentity newmanager. 5 I'lltettyoumysecretbecause I knowyouaren'ta gossip. 6 Shetoldmeonereally fascinating lf it secret aboutTony. everbecomes common knowledge, he'tlbefurious!

thecorrect wordin theseexpressions. 6) 3.07 Choose Thenlistenagainandcheck. 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 10 11 12

Haveyouheardthe latest/ newest? I'mteltingyouthisin thefirmest/ strictestconfidence. lf word/ truthgetsout,it'll cause... Harry's the heart/ soulof discretion. Hehasn'tbreathed a wordto anybody. / whispered | knowit won'tgoanylonger/ further. | managed to glean/ cleansomeinformation. lt'sfully/ highlyconfidentiaI at themoment. Don'tquote/ repeatmeonthis,but... I'vegotsomereallyfruity/ juicygossipforyou. lt'saltveryhush-hush / hushup. Theywon'tbe ableto keepit underhats/ wrapsfor ever.


Workin pairs.Discuss the questions. Then yourideaswiththe class. compare 1 Whatkindsof topicoftenformthe basisof gossip? 2 Whyareso manypeopleinterested in gossip? 3 Inwhatwayscouldgossipbedamaging? 4 Whatwouldbetheadvantages anddisadvantages of beingfriends witha gossip? i\,..lfo..lulary Buitder9.1:Givingandwithholding \'r'\,S|,fnformation : p.140

U ni t9 . S ecr et s


I can we naturaL, coLLoqutaL Lanquage

Haveyou everfailedto keepa secret?lf so, whatwerethe consequences?

tI F

Complete the textwiththeverbsin the box. betray boost crop drop fall feign get give go hotd prise turn

= trJ

J ffi




youarewithwill whatit is.Thisislikea redragto a bull.Thepeople 4you you probably won'tbe tryto theinformation outof and ableto 5out. 6yourmotivation weakening, byfocusing lf youfeelyourself to keep theinformation secret. lsittoavoid onwhyit'ssoimportant Orto protect a friend's reputation? ruining a surprise? you're yourself tempted to 7a friend's secret, remind 4 Whenever damage thatthiscould dotoyourfriendship. Atthe ofthelongterm thatbeing trustworthy isa wonderful traitto same time,tellyourself have. tyoucantelljustoneother intothetrapofthinking 5 Don't tprovided youinsi$thatit should - it always person nofurther Andsooner orlater. will10back to does! vourlackofdiscretion yourfriend. (, lf youknowyou're people badatkeeping secrets, don'tencourage ttwarning themwithyou- oratleast themsome of toshare yourtrack record! it isbetter to pass ona secret, if yoususpect w4RNtNq! Sometimes whotoldyoumaybeintrouble. Asecret can12outto theperson bea cryforhelp. 3

formis sometimes replaced by not. A negative Nota cloudin the sky. (Thereisn'ta cloudin the sky.)

Re-e,p q s-eret

Avoid asmuch asyoucan.Should it Justdon'ttellanyone! thesubject treason, ignoranee. upinconversation forwhatever '3 hintsincompany butcan'tsay Never thatyouknowa secret

whetheryouagreeor Workin pairs.Decide 2. Canyouaddany disagree withthe advicein exercise rnoreadvice?

It'softenmorenatural to usea phrase(verb+ noun) verb,especially in informal instead of a single-word language. talk) havea talk decide) makea decision using 4 ReadtheLookout!box.Thenrewritethe sentences phrases insteadofthe underlined verbs. 1 I'd loveto shopwithyouthisafternoon, butI needto revise. 2 ThinkaboutwhatI'vesaidandcallmelater. thatwhatI reallyneedis to rest. 3 I'veconcluded her. andcomplimented 4 | lookedat herpainting 5 | hintedthatI'd liketo be paid,butI didn'twantto offend byasking.


Colloquial omissions we oftenomitunstressed In informal, spokenEngtish, (pronouns, ofthesentence wordsat thebeginning articles,etc.)providedthe meaningis clear.Forexampte: Can'ttalknow! (l can'ttalknow.) (We'[speaklater.) Speaklater. (Doyou needa tift?) Needa lift?


p.128 omissions: Grammar Builder 9,1:Cottoquial

Readthe informationin the Leornthisl box.Thencrossout thatyouthinkcouldbe omitted anywordsin the dialogue (Youmayhaveto makeother in normal,colloquial speech. asa result.) minorchanges Sam Areyouon yourwayhome? Colin No.I'mjusthanging around. Sam Doyoufancya coffee? Colin Sure. Sam lt's myturnto pay. Colin Thanks. So,howareyou? Sam I'mgood.Howareyou? Haveyou Cotin I can'tgrumble. heardanygoodgossiprecently? Sam I have,as it happens. Colin Well,go on then.Spitlthebeansl BenandMo[[yhavesplitup. Sam Well,apparently Reatly? Colin You'rekidding! toldpeopleyet.Sodon'tsaya word Sam Buttheyhaven't to anyone! Colin I understand. Sam Doyoupromise? Cotin Yesl Sam OK.Woutdyoulikeanothercoffee? Colin No,thanks.I'd bettermakea move. Sam OK.I'llseeyoulater. Cotin wasnicetalkingto you.

6 6) l.oe Listento the dialogueandcomparewhatyouhear withyouranswerto exercise 5. a dialogueusingthe Workin pairs.Role-play outlinebelow.Includesomeco[[oquial omissions. A: Youmeetyourold friendB in a caf6andstartchatting. B asksabouta mutualfriend,andyouhintthatyou knowa secret. Youareunwilling to shareit at first,but B you.YoumakeB promise persuades thatit won'tgoany further. Youaskabouta B: YoumeetA in a caf6andstartchatting. mutualfriend,andA seemsto knowa secret aboutthat friendbutis unwilling A to leton. to shareit.Youpersuade

I catt ttttderstandand rcdd to a lterary eKtrqct.

Workin pairs.Howmuchdo youknowaboutthe writerJoseph Conrad? Canyouname: 1 thecountry hewasbornin? 2 thecountry headopted as hishome? 3 anyof hisworks? Findthe aboutConrad. f) f.Oe Listento the information answers to question1. trueor false,or is f) f .Of Listenagain.Arethesentences theanswernotstated? 1 Thethemesof Conrad's worksareveryrelevant to the probtems of themodern wortd. 2 Conrad livedin London andlaterin a village. postage 3 Special stamps wereissued to commemorate the 150thanniversary of Conrad's birth. 4 Conrad's friends neverreallyregarded himasEnglish. 5 Conrad's contemporaries accused himof racism.

Literary textsoftenimptyinformation withoutexpticitly statingit. Togetthe mostoutof a text,youshouldbe phrases sensitive to this.Certain canconveyinformation indirectly, ascantherepeated useof similar words. 6 DoesthetextimplythatMrVerloc's lifeis glamorous or notveryglamorous? Findseveral in thetextto adiectives supportyouranswer.

goingoutinthemorning, MrVerloc, lefthisshop nominally in charge of hisbrother-in-law. lt could bedone,because therewasverylittlebusiness atanytime,andpractically noneatallbefore theevening. MrVerloc cared butlittleabouthis ostensible business. And,moreover, hiswifewasin of hisbrother-in-law charge Theshopwassmall, andsowasthehouse. lt Readthe openingto the novelTheSecret AgentbyJoseph grimy was one of those brick houses which Conrad. Howdoesit conveythefactthatMrVerlocis a secret toexisted quantities in large before theeraof reconstruction dawned upon agentof somekind?ls it: place, glazed London. The shop was a square box a in small of with the front a bydescribing theshadowy characters whofrequent panes. In the daytime the door remained closed; in the evening it stood hisshoo? butsuspiciously discreetly ajar. propaganda b bymentioning in his thepoliticat displayed photographs Thewindow contained of moreor lessundressed dancing shoowindow? ts girls;nondescript packages yellow c byimptying inwrappers likepatent medicines; closed thattheshopis a frontforsomeother clandestine paper activity? envelopes, veryflimsy, andmarked two-and-six in heavy black figures; a publications fewnumbers of ancient French comic hungacross a string asif to Readthe reading tip.Thenfindthesephrases in the extract. dry;a dingybluechinabowl,a casket wood,bottles ink,and of black of marking Whatexactlydo theyimply?Choose a or b. rubber stamps; a fewbooks, withtitleshinting atimpropriety; a fewapparently 7 nominollyin chargeof hisbrother-in-law 20oldcopies of obscure newspapers, badlyprinted, The withtitleslikelhe Torch, a Hisbrother-in-law wastheonewhoreallyrantheshop. jets gas panes Gong rousing titles. Andthetwo inside the werealways turned b Hisbrother-in-law wasincapable of running theshop. low,either foreconomy's sakeorforthesakeofthecustomers. 2 hisostensible business These customers wereeither veryyoungmen,whohungaboutthe a Theshopwasnothisrealbusiness. window fora timebefore slipping insuddenly; or menof a moremature age, b Hewasashamed thattheshoowashisbusiness. usbutlooking generally asif theywerenotinfunds. Someofthatlastkindhad 3 o squareboxof a place thecollars of theirovercoats rightupto theirmoustaches, turned andtraces a Theshopwasan attractive building. garments, of mudonthebottom of theirnether which had the appearance of b Theshopwasan uglybuilding. beingmuch wornandnotveryvaluable. Andthelegsinside themdidnot,as 4 for thesakeof thecustomers plunged rule,seemof muchaccount a general either. Withtheirhands deepin a Hiscustomers wereashamed to beseenthere. m thesidepockets oftheircoats, they dodged in sideways, one shoulder first, asif b Hiscustomers werereally spies. afraid to startthebellgoing 5 whohungoboutthewindowfor a time Thebell,hungonthedoorbymeans of a curved ribbon of steel, was a Theyoungmenhadnothing elseto do. difficult to lt was circumvent. hopelessly cracked; but at the of an evening, b Theyoungmenneeded timeto summon up courage. i5 slightest provocation, it clattered behind thecustomer withimpudent virulence 6 withimpudentvirulence a Thecustomers disliked thetoudbelt. b Thecustomers rangthebetlloudlyon purpose. Oiscuss 7 the questions withthe class. 1 Whydoyouthinkpeople areinterested in stories about spiesandsecret agents? 2 Doyoutikethisgenreof fiction? Why?/Why not? 3 Doyouknowanywritersfromyourowncountry whowrite spystoriesor mysteries? Unit9 . Secrets

I cqn ,rndcrstqn/ and reqct ta a tut abattt (ani ptri (y thtari u

Conspiracy theories

$ON$PTNAC otre tLoY LuLt

Workin pairs.Discuss the conspiracy theories. Haveyouheardanyofthembefore? Doyoubelieveanyof them? 1 TheUSmititary hasknownforyearsthatUFOs existbutis hidingthetruthfromthepublic. 2 Ihe 7969Apollomoon[anding - it did notreallyhappen wasfilmedin a W studioon earth. did notreallydie- hefakedhisowndeath 3 EtvisPresley because hewastiredof beingfamous. 4 TheHIV/AIDS viruswascreated byscientists. 5 TheUSgovernment werebehindthebombing of the.World Trade Center on 11 Seotember 2001. 6 Princess Diana, whodiedin Parisin 7997,wasmurdered on theordersof the Britishroyalfamily.


Readthe article,ignoringthe gaps.Whichof the conspiracy theoriesin exercise 1 arementioned?







U nitg.secrets ,/

and wassplashedacrossthe mediareflectsthe growingpopularityof conspiracy theories.I ! AlthoughMr Meacheradmittedthat he got much of his information from websites, he made his claimin the respected BritishnewspaperIhe Guardian. The newspaper laterpublishedlettersfrom readersrelievedthat the truth had comeout. David Aaronovitch, a Guardian columnist, expressed alarm that his newspaper had givencredibility to such 'rubbish'. Accordingto DavidAlexander, authorof Conspiracies - Whatthe Government and Cover-Ups lsn'tTellingYou,'There'sbeena tremendousincrease in conspiracy theoriesaboutSeptember11.'In 1998 RichBuhler,an Americanradioshowhost,set up to track and proveor disprove , hoaxes, urbanmythsand conspiracy theories. E Mr Buhlersaid:'The Internethas provena valuable tool for conspiracy theorists- they exchange ideas and fuel the stories.Theyhavea much largercanvas than before.There'san impression that whatever is writtenis more reliablethan what is said.When it is writtendown,as it is on the Internet,it comes packagedas truth.' Yetthereare otherreasonswhy conspiracy theoriesare gainingcurrency- in particularthe complexityof our rapidlychangingworld.'A conspiracy theorybecomesmorecompellingwhen realitymakeslesssense,when life is besetby problems, whenthe established ordersuddenly changes- evensomethingas simpleas losinga job, lf peoplecan't absorbwhat'sgoingon, conspiracy theorieshelp us to makesense,'Mr Alexander said. : !'lf peoplejust knewa littlemore,they would knowthe thing is false,'he said. Peopleare becomingfurtherremovedfrom seats of politicaland industrialpower.PatrickLeman,a


Matchsentences a-g withgaps1-6 in thetext.Thereis one you sentence that do not need. a Hisorganisation nowgets1,000suchstoriesa week. b People weremoretikelyto believethattherewasa conspiracy behindit if hewaskitledthanif hewas unrnlureo. Andyet,it reallydoesexist:members agreenotto reveal thecontents of theirdiscussions, andtheminutes of the meetings arenotpublished for 50years. Observers of thephenomenon, morepronounced in prevalence America thanhere,saythattheirincreasing is destabitising vulnerable individuals andundermining society. gainmomentum, Thatis howconspiracy theories even thoughthereis no realevidence to support them. Oneheldthathe hadbeenspying fortheChinese, andwas spirited awaybya Chinese submarine. A timitedunderstanding of theworldmakesconspiracy theories seemmoreolausible.


Rephrase partsoftheseexcerpts the underlined fromthe articlein yourownwords. 1 A bizarre conspiracy theorywassplashed across themedia. 2 They...fuelthestories. 3 Whenit is comespackaged astruth. 4 Thereareotherreasons whyconspiracy theories aregaining currencv. 5 Peoplearebecoming furtherremoved fromseatsof political power. andindustrial 6 WhenHarold Holtdisappeared, conspiracy theories ranwild. 7 Suchis thepublicappetite forconspiracy theories, thereis money to be made. 8 There's danger in buvingintopatexplanations,


to get yo,L psychologist at RoyalHollowayCollege, London, who has beenstudyingwhy conspiracy theoriesare so appealing, said:'Conspiracy theoriesfeed into a feelingof disconnection with government. People don't likegapsin theiraccounts;they havea need to believethem.They inventfantastical thingsthat protectthem from the realworld.'In one experiment, he showedpeoplefootageof a fictionalpresidentwho wasshot at, and providedfictionalnewspaper articles. ' I H" concluded:'Peoplethink that a big event must havea big cause,but oftenthrngsare causedby 'nrstakeor accident,not consprracy.' Thousands of peopledie in Europeeveryyear ,n car accidentsresultingfrom fastdrivingand too much alcohol.But when Diana,Princess of Wales died,many couldnot acceptthat suchan important eventcouldhavesucha simplecause.Manybel ieved that she was assassinated by the secretservices to stop her marryinga Muslim.In Australia therewere 161 suspected drowningsbetween1961 and 1985 in whichthe bodieswereneverfound.But when Harold Holt.the PrimeMinister, whenswimming disappeared n 7967,conspiracy theoriesran wild.5 ! Suchis the publrcappetitefor conspiracy theories, thereis moneyto be made.Bart Srbrelmakesmoney sellrnghis videoclaimingthat the first moon landing wasa fake. Thereis no simpleway to determinethe truth of a conspiracy theory.'Thedangerliesin buying overarchrng explanations of complexevents.That havingbeensard,there'sdangerin beingtoo complacent and buyinginto pat explanations of extraord inary occurrences,' Mr Alexander said. In otherwords,scepticismcan go too far.When storiesbeganto circulateaboutthe Bilderberg Group, groupingof the world'spoliiicaland a secretive businesselite,most peopledismissedit as just a conspiracy theory.6 ! Mr Alexander saysthat the growthof conspiracy theor iesis not somethingjust to laughat. 'lt's dangerousif your beliefsystemmakesyou seethe world in a way that'sunreal.Conspiracy theoriescan affecta wholesocietyand makethe societymad.'


5 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 6

Vocabulary Builder9.2:Literalandfigurative p.141 language:

Givean example of: a storythathasbeensplashed acrossthe mediavery recently. something which,in youropinion, is fuelledby thelnternet. something whichis packaged astruth,butin youropinionis not. an ideawhichis gaining currency in yourcountry. oneof the mainseatsof powerin yourcountry. a rumour whichhasrunwildin yourschoolbutwhichmay notbetrue. public something whichthereseems to bea growing appetitefor in yourcountry. something whichyoupersonally refuse to buyinto.

Discuss the questions withthe class. 1 Describe anyconspiracy theories thatarespecific to your owncountry. 2 Whydo so manyconspiracy theories involve theUSA? 3 Areconspiracy theories harmless Give or damaging? rea50n5.

Unit9. Secrets

Passive res structu passive 1 Complete thearticlewithappropriate formsof the your verbsin the box.Whatis opinionof thewayJoyce Hatto andherhusband behaved? bomb considercopy describehait inform issue make passoff perform record reduce show uncover

I can use q w rdc range af passlveItrA (tA ru.

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Useof the passive The choicebetweenactiveand passivevoiceis often madefor stylisticreasons,becausewe want a certain word to be the subiectof the sentencein orderto fit with the topic and f]ow of the text. Compare: Ctrro Buttgave the firstperformanceof Elgar's 'Sea pi61u7s5'. (in a text about the singerClaraButt) Thefirst performonceof Elgar's'SeaPictures'wasgiven by ClaraButf. (in a text about Etgar'smusic)

Readthe Learnthis! box.Thendecidewhich ofthe underlinedclausesin the text belowwould be betterin the passiveand rewritethem. Givereasons.

ClassicalpianistJoyceHatto wasborn in Londonin 1928 and rememberspractisingthe pianoas a teenagerwhile London rin the SecondWorld War.As a performerin London duringthe 1950sand 50s, she 2to be proficient but not outstandingand she more or lessretiredfrom professionalmusicin the 197Os.She had her piano moved from Londonto a smallhousein the country,and there she livedwith her husband,WilliamBarrington-Coupe, a recording engineer.Over the nextthirty years,she performedat home, and theseperformances - 104 ofthem in total -3by her husbandand then 4on his own recordlabel, ConcertArtists.They causeda sensation.Her performances sby musiccriticsas someof the finest recordings 'the greatest that 6everand Hatto 7-as instrumentalistthat almostnobody hasheardof'. But last month a musicmagazinediscoveredthat one of the recordings8electronicallyfrom anotherartist's CD. Sincethen, further fraudshaveemerged.At leastfive of the piecesein fact by other artists,and more fakesr0on a daily seemslikelythat in due course,all 104 pieces11not to be genuine.Only yesterday,classicalpianistDavidOwenNorris 12that his 1988 solo piano recordingof Elgar'sSymphonyNo 1 in A flat major 13as Hatto'swork. 'l'm just very sad,'he said. 'l think it's patheticreallythat somebodyshouldlato this.' ar

G r am m arB u i l d e r9 .2 :T h ep a s s i v ep: . 1 2 8

Unit9 . Secrets

JovceH attoand her husbandl eft Londoni n t he 1920saf t er doctorshad diagnosedJoycewith cancer.Awayfrom the publ i cgaze,theyw orkedtogetheron recordings of som eof the fi nestcl assi calpi ecesthat anvbodvhad evercom posed. B ut i t soonbecamecl earthat her di seasewas ham per ing William Joyce' seffortsto produceoutstandi ngrecor dings. madethe fi rstel ectroni al c terati ons i n ordert o coverup her cri esof pai n.A l thoughW i l l i amknewthat it waswr ong, a desireto protecthis wife's musicalreputationtriggered hi s di shonestacti ons.H e si mpl yw antedpeoplet o giveher the accl ai mw hi ch her di seasehad deni edher .Wast hat so wrong?Atthoughpeoplenevertook iovce'srecordings seri ousl vagai n,perhapsw e shoul dadmi reher cour age,and her husband' sl oveafteral l .

youropinionofJoyce Doesthetextin exercise 2 change Hattoandherhusband? Why?/Why not? I ;1 N $ S ii #

phrases Participle Remember thatwe cansometimes usea Dhrase (a participle beginning witha pastparticipte phrase) in placeof a passive construction. Compare: me fraudwosexposed by a musicmagazine and it brror" internationatnews. Exposed by a musicmagozine, thefraudbecame international news.

Readthe Learnthis!box.Thenrewritethe following textusingan appropriate mixtureof activeandpassive participle phrases. constructions and Miltionsin the USAwatched the cookeryshowDinner: lmpossible. BritishchefRobertlrvinepresented it. The lrvineandshehadgivenhima castle Queenhadknighted in Scotland - or so he claimed. Officiats investigated lrvinewhena business venture faitedandtheyexposed himasa fraud.lrvinehasfinatty admitted thetruth.Now, angrycreditors arepursuing lrvineandtheTVchannel has removed hisfictitiousbiography fromitswebsite.

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Drawing co n clusron s la

, (,ttl \l t(Ll ate abant, end tr' r' t ,' , (tti (!Lt.ri Ott.r /rA nr, phC tA :

trif#tKIIIA Workin pairs.Thinkof threedifferentsituations in whichsomebody mightwantto makethemselves yourideas invisible, or verydifficuttto see.Thencompare withthe class. FfiI:|lKIlfA Workin pairs.Compare andcontrastthe two photos.Answerthe questions. 1 Whydo youthinkeachpersonis attempting to hide? 2 Howsuccessful are? do youthinktheirattempts thedifferences 3 Inwhatwaysdo thephotosemphasise between thetownandthe country? mightit be usefulnotto be 4 Inwhatothersituations visibte? 5) Listento two studentstalkingaboutthe photosin exercise 2. Howdifferentaretheirideasfromyourown? a-m. 6) Readthe phrasesin the boxandctauses Thinkaboutwhichclausesbelongtogetherlogicatly. Then listenagainandmatchthe clauses with gaps1-13. Drawing conclusions ludgingbythefactthat1I I'd saythat'?! Thefactthat3 wouldsuggest thata! 6! 'I to obviously It'sclearfromthefactthatt! thatt[ Thiswouldpointto the factthatef-l 'ol_l whichleadsmeto thinktnat"I I takeit that121| Forthatreason;assume that13! a He'ssittingbehinda bush, b he'splanning to bethereforsometime. c thephotowastakenin a forestor somesuchplace. d thiscouldbeTokyo or someotherlargecityin Japan. e he'sbothered to bringsucha largepieceof equipment f he'ssomekindof photographer or cameraman. g she'spulledthetop partup in orderto hide. h therearebushes, anda river. longgrass, i she'sin a backstreetratherthanon a mainroad. j thepicture wassetup,soto speak. k he'sgota camera t ThepeoplelookJapanese to me, m hewantsto btendin withhissurroundings. Usethe promptsto makesentences. Includephrases for drawingconclusions fromexercise 4. -) it'sa videocamera 1 there'sa microohone 2 he hasa greybeard-J he'squiteotd -) he likesbeingalone 3 he'schosen thiscareer 4 theboyis turningaround-) he'sseenthewoman -) it's machine 5 it doesn'tlookmuchlikea realvending iusta ioke

Vague[anguage Wordslikethingandstuffareusefulwhenit isn'tpossible to be moreprecise aboutwhatyousee.Youcanalsouse phrasesIikesomekindof andsome... or other. in of vaguelanguage 6 Readthe speakingtip. Findexamples to clauses a-m in exercise 4. Thenusethe samelanguage makethesesentences morevague. 1 2 3 4 5 6

He'swearing a coatmadeof feathers. Theohotowastakenin Brazil. He'sbored. Sheworksas a privateinvestigator. She'sin herthirties. Shewantsto btendintothebackground.

task.Use Turnto page143anddo the speaking phrases andinclude fromexercise 4 for drawingconclusions vaguelanguage fromexercise 6.

U ni t9 . Secr et s

'. I c.-,t1 ',,,ri l c i P l l i l fLi

Noam Discuss thequotation by academic Chomsky. ls it an argument againstor in favourof Doyouagree? censorship?

If we don't believe in freedom of expressionfor people we desprse, we don't believe in it at all. Whatis thewriter'sbasicanswerto the Readthe essay. question in thetitle?

of speech Shouldfreedom alwaysbe defended? Thefirstamendment to theAmerican defends Constitution rightto freespeech, andmostdemocracies everycitizen's theworldpridethemselves ona lackof state around Indeed, the factthat newspapers andTV censorship. reportstories whicharehighlycriticalof newsstations is seenasoneof the signsof a healthy the government extend? democracy. But howfar shouldthislackof censorship to havea society whichplaces absolutely no Is it possible controls on information? is usually regarded Freedom asoneof the of speech It is essential thatthe contentof of democracy. cornerstones the newspaper for example, is decided by editors newspapers/ politicians police.lf politicians were allowed to or andnotby printed, notbe determine whatshould or should theywould whichdidnotputthemin anyinformation beableto suppress andtherewouldbe a goodlight.Corruption wouldincrease politicians'wrongdoings. Moreover, it goes nowayof exposing thatordinary citizens in a democracy should withoutsaying opinions withoutfearof beallowed to voicetheirpersonal intimidation. Havingsaidthat,it is clearthattotal freedomof speech risky.Thisis because is impossible, or at leastextremely in order it is necessary to limitfreedom of speech sometimes members asa whole. to protectindividual of societyor society libel.These An example of thiswouldbethe lawsagainst prohibityoufrommal<ing anduntruestatements damaging people's Withoutthisprotection, livescould aboutsomebody. be ruinedby falseaccusations. It is widelyaccepted thatsomeinformation needsto for reasons national of security or crime be keptsecret prevention. If a newspaper wasallowedto printdetailsof a operation, theremightbe catastrophic secretanti-terrorist results. Tosumup,I wouldsaythat freedomof speech shouldbe However, defended in the majorityof cases. therewill always in whichthisfreedomwouldhavenegative be situations In thoseinstances, I believe that it is necessary consequences. freedomin orderto protectpeople's lives. to sacrifice


Unit e. secrets /

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Passive structures withverbslikeregord,consider andbelievemakestatements appearlesspersonal in an essay. oftenappropriate The andaretherefore ptainstatement: 'Censorship is undesirable.' couldbe rephrased in theseways: is usuallyregardedas undesiroble. Censorship (to be)undesiroble. is generallyconsidered Censorship is oftenseenes undesiroble. Censorship is undesirable. It is widelyaccepted thatcensorship is undesirable. It is oftensaid thatcensorship is undesiroble. It is generollybelievedthatcensorship Readthewritingtip.Howmanytimesis thistypeof passive oneothersentence structure usedin the modeltext?Choose in thiswayandrewriteit. whichcouldbe rephrased N\

\,\i i i l {.i i .i ti 1si ,tr i -i r-i i i i j gr:i .:l : i }.i sS i ,.'i ::,i i i ti:i i J i r,r:.i rtrlri.\s'rittr,lrit'ii:i\',

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Check Match1-6 with a-f to formcommoncollocations. youranswers 2. by findingthemin the essayin exercise a opr nrons 1 free b security 2 state c speech 3 personal d results 4 false e censorship 5 national f accusations 5 catastrophic withthe collocations in exercise Complete the sentences 4. plans nuclear 1 lt wasfeltthatrevealing thegovernment's couldieopardise 2 Whatever hermaybe,shenevercriticises in public. heremployer havebeenportrayed 3 Attempts to closedownthewebsite asan attackon people to stirup raciaIhatredcouldhave 4 Attowing in a muttiraciat societv. prevents newspapers 5 In somecountries, fromprinting thetruth. innocent 5 Theminister claimed thathewasentirely and hadbeenthevictimoftrTitlllflel Discusswhetherit is moreimportant,in your opinion,to protectfreedomof speechor to protectpeople fromfalseaccusations. Givereasons.



FlllttltlllfiClWorkin pairs.Discussthe proposition.Doyou agreeor disagree? Givereasons.

The Internet should be more tightly controlled by governmenfs. Readthe startofthreenewspaper articlesaboutInternet youropinionaboutthe proposition controls. Dotheychange in exercise 1?Why?/Why not?

in exercise 1. Planan opinionessayaboutthe proposition 1 Makenotesfor paragraphs 2-4. Useideasfromexercises and3. Paragraph 1 Introduction Paragraph of theopposite opinion 2 Pointsin support Paragraph of youropinion 3 Pointsin support pointsin support Paragraph of youropinion 4 Further Paragraph 5 Conclusion

Cyber Bultying led to Teen'sSuicide The parentsof a I 3-year-oldgirl lvho believetheir daughter's :urcidelvasthe resultof a cruel cyber hoaxare pushingfor measures to protectotherchildrenonline.

Terror websites could be blocked in Eucrackdown -\ccessto websites that provide information on how :o make bombs could be blocked by security forces in an attempt to crack down on terrorists.

Onlineanorexia sitesshut down amidclaimsthey glorifystarvation

Microsoft abruptlgclosed downfourpro-anorexia ur oheitpq in Snain "' "r - "'

fte ra c o mpl ai nt U e s te rd aaU th a tth e gw e ree n d a n geri ng girls. the livesof teenage

Bank details being sold over the Internet for just f 1 l-i .ts o t' t ' r et I it t ' lr lr I nru n l rt' rs .n a n )(' sa rttl a < l tl rc ' s scs ar' (' 1,,'i n gtrar lc r l a< ' r r r s tslre T rrtc rrre ltx c ri rri n a l s i rn o l retl i rr ID 1 i' ar r t is r ' lair rre rlto tl a r.

FffiltllllGl Workin pairs.Decidewhetherthe fotlowing Then thingsshouldor shouldnotbeallowed on the Internet. yourideaswiththe class. compare 1 2 3 4 5 6

aboutfamouspeoplewhichmaybe untrue stories people photosandvideoctipsof ordinary unauthorised instructions viruses forwritingcomputer unauthorised videofootage of rockconcerts negative opinions aboutthegovernment medicines adverts foruntested

Onewayof writingtheintroduction to an opinionessay is to describe situation asyouseeit andthen thecurrent restate in yourownwords. thequestion to the Readthewritingtip,thenlookat the Introduction describe the modelessay on page100.Whichsentences in thequestion Whichsentences rephrase current situation? differentwords? Workin pairs.Writethe introduction to youressayusingthe phrases belowto helpyou. Overthe pastfewdecades, theInternet ... Wehavenowreached a pointwhere... Newspapers arefullof stories about... In somecountries ...whitein others... is ... Thekeyquestion Whatit comesdownto is ... Whatneedsto be decided is ... ... Manypeoplearestarting to wonderwhether yourintroduction Compare withanotherpair'sintroduction. Shareideasto improveyourwork. 2-5 of youressay Workingindividually, writeparagraphs followingyourplan.Write200-250wordsin total. Checkyourworkusingthe list below.

Haveyou I I I I

fotlowed the essayptancorrectly? of words? writtenthecorrect number your passive phrases fordistancing included opinions? andgrammar? checked thespetling

U ni t9.5ecr er s

Exarn9 Describethe photograph.What is the role of the two people i n t he phot o?W ha td o e sth e m a c h i n ed o ? U s eth e w ordsi n the box to help you. b loodpr es s ur e d e c e i t d e c e p ti o n d e te c t d etecti on l ie det ec t or oul s e s w e a t


Readthe text quickly,ignoringany extrawords.Why was an i nabi ti tyto l i e a bi g probl emfor thi s cri mi nal?


Do the Useof Englishexamtasl<.

Somelinesof thetextarecorrect andsomecontain an extrawordwhichshouldnotbethere.Cross outtheextra wordsandtickthe lineswhicharecorrect.


0 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t7 72 13 74 75 t6 t7 18 79 20 2t 22 23 24

examtasl<. O l.rr Dothe Listening

Listento a radio programme.Choosethe best answers (A-D). 1 Dur ingan ex peri m e ni tn toth e d e v e l o p m e notf d ecepti on in c hildr en A alm os tall of t h e th re e -y e a r-o l ldi e s d. B abouthat fof a tl th e c h i l d re nl i e d . C allof t he f iv e -y e a r-o l dl ise d . D alt of t he t hr e e -y e a r-o l a dn s d h a l fo f th e fi v e -year-ol ds t ied. 2 A c c or ding t o r es e a rc hw, h a t p ro p o rti o no f e v e ryday l i es ar e not ident if i e da s l i e s ? A four out of five C mo reth a n 8 o % B a t hir d D e i g h tp e rc e n t h o ho ww e l l p e o p l ec a nd e te c tti e sh as 3 Res ear cint s hownt hat A peoplec anon tyte l t i f c l o s efa m i l yme mb e rsa re l yi ng. B m en ar e bet te rth a nw o m e na t d e te c ti n gl i e s . C y oungpeoplea reth e b e s ta t d e te c ti n g[i e s . D onlya s m a[ [n u m b e ro f p e o p l ec a n i d e n ti fyIi es c ons is t ent ly. Pta u lEk m a nh a sd e mo n s tra teth 4 P s y c hologis d at A judgesand ps y c h i a tri s ts l i e j u s t a s mu c ha s ro bbers. B it ' s eas ier t od e te c ta l i e w h e ny o u w a tc hi t o n vi deo. C it ' s har dt o de te c ta l i e w h e ny o u a re p a rto f a group. D ex per t sar e no b e tte rth a n o rd i n a ryp e o p l ea t d e fe rfi n o


byProfessor 5 Research Charles Bondsuggests that people failto detect[iesbecause A theydon'tlookintotheeyesoftheperson speaking. B theyarelooking forthewrongsigns. C theydon'tnoticechanges in body[anguage. D people fromdifferent countries haveverydifferent body[anguage.


l t maybetoughfonA l el andro Marti nez to be cl earhi mselof f charses thathe robbed a Las przza parl ourafter" V egas heal l efedllyeavrng behi nd a cruci alpi eceof evi dence A ccordi ng to prosecutors, the2S -year-ol Marti d nez entered t he parl our, ordered a pi eandrequested for a j ob ' Thecashi er gave appl i cati on i mmedi atel y hi man appl i cati on anda pen,sothathestanted fi l l i n git out,'sai dC l arkC ounty P rosecutor FrankC ou m o' Then, w henhethought themoment w asri f ht,he l i ftedhi sshi rt,exposed , had thebuttof a fi r" earm a nd tol dherto S i vehi mal lofthe money' H avi ng stuffed overthe$200i n hi spocket, Ma r t inez r" ushed outto a w ai ti ngcar'authori , ti es say Buta w i tness w asfol l ow ed the gunman andw noteoown the numberpl ateA neasytraceofthatnumb er r nat l edto pol i cestrai ght to Marti nez, w homtheyf ound si tti ngat homeN oneof thathasnotmadei t easy for the l aw yen w hohe hasbeengi ventheyobo f defendi nt Marti nez B uttheevi dence thatl eftbehind coul drenderhi sl ob al mostas i mpossi blW e h en pol i cefeturned parl ourafterthear r est , to the pi zza theyfoundMarti nez' s.1ob appl i cati on sti l lw asont he counterH ehadduti ful lfiyl l edi n w i thhrsneanam l e andaddress' l ' dchal ki t upto ei theri nexpe r ience or pl ai nstupi di ty,' he sai dP rosecutor C oumo u



W orki n pai rs.D eci dei n what ci rcumstances, i f any,you mi ghtbe tempte dt o lie about : 1 somebody' appearance. s 3 yourage. 2 feeti ngunw etl . 4 youremo t ions.


Oothe S peaki ngexamtask.

Readthefollowing statement. Doyouagreeor disagree withit?Discuss the issuewithyourpartner, responding to anycounter-arguments theyhave. lf youwantto succeed in lifeyoushoutdbecome a goodliar.

THrS Ut{tT t NCt UDE S


o synonyms . adverbsof degree. adiectives docabutary for end . the environment to describefitms ::-iotation) . verb-nouncollocations.negativeprefixesand suffixes. stylistically appropriate language 6r.mmar. whotever,whoever, etc . complexsentences.prepositions in relativeclauses. impersonal ;---: : u r e sf o r i n t r o d u ci nogp i n i o n s Seaking e talkingaboutthreatsto the planet. tatkingaboutfllmsand theirendings . :: strategies -munication lrtting. an opinionessay

I can sayfarewell L n a varIcry vqrL( af conluts and J L t ^ a t L 0 w .

1 lt is likelythatmanyof theselanguages willto existoverthe nextcenturyor so. 2 Thisresearch in thediscovery ofthegene responsible fora rareformof bonecancer. it for Citywitha goalin 3 RyanJonesextratime. 4 AndnowI'djustliketo thisratherlongspeech by thanking the bridesmaids forlooking afterKaren. 5 Thepartydoesn't till eleven. phone The 6 linesarenowopenandtheyat nineo'clock.

Describe the photosof peoplesayinggoodbyeto eachother.Whatdo youthinktheyarefeeling? Whatmight theybe saying?

5 Readthe usagenote trom TheOxfordLeorner'sThesourus. Whichof the fourverbsconnotbe usedto complete the sentences?



EEIE END,srop, FtNrsHoR coNct-uDE?End can be used for things that end in space as well as things that end in time: The road ends here End, finish and conclude are

used especiallyabout things that you do not expect to start again after they have ended: Thewar endedin 1945, after almost six years of fighting. o The concert should finish by 10 o'clock. o Sheconcluded her speech with a quotation from Shakespeare.Finish and condude, in particular, suggestthat sth has come to an end becauseit has been completed. Finish is used more to talk about when sth ends; conclude is usedmore to talk about how sth ends. Stop is used about things that may or will staft again, or that cannot ever be'completed': me rain stopped just long enoughfor us to have a quick walk in the park.

Readthe quotationfromRomeoandluliet by Witliam Shakespeare. Explainits meaning.

1 Theriverin a longnarrow[ake. 2 Thepartydidn'tuntiltheeartyhoursof the

Good-night, good-night! Parting ls suc/r sweet sorrow.

morning. 3 Thepolicehavetheirinvestigation intothe murder. 4 Willyouplease interrupting me? witha speechbythe 5 Thesalesconference managing director.

That I shall say good-night till it be morrow. andmatchthemwith 6) f .f z Listento nineextracts descriptions a-i. Onedescription is not needed.

1I zZtI a b c d e


+I sf ef zI aI sI

a job interview a radiointerview a talentshow a radioadvertisement an announcement

f g h i i

a newsbuttetin a speecn a chatbetween friends a documentary a business meeting

1 2 3 4

4 O f .f Z Complete the sentences withthe correctform of theverbsin the box.Usea dictionary to helpyou.Then listenagainandcheck. cease close culminateconcludewindup wrapup

Woft in pairs. . Prepare oneof thefollowing Makenotes. situations. . Startthe situation a minuteor twobeforethedialogue wouldend. . Endby partingfromeachother. a job interview a conversation witha friendat a party an interview witha famousoerson meeting a business


Actoutyourroleplayin frontof the class. as

p.141 Builder10.1:Synonyms Vocabulary andantonyms:

Unit10. Endings

Threatsto o u rplanet

I can tal k abattt j l abal threats

1 Complete thefactsaboutthe environment usingthewords in the box. carbon dioxide degraderubbish equivalent exported extinction impact occurred polaricecaps rawmaterial resident tailbacks

f) f.rf Listento threepeopletalkingaboutdifferent globalthreats thatwe face.Whois leastoptimistic aboutthe threat?Whois mostoptimistic?

4 Matchtheverbsandnounsto makecollocations usedbythe speakers. 1 2 3 4 5 6

address combat assess stockpi l e decommi ssi on bri ngi n

I ;'

a b c d e f

climate change vaccines weapons a threat measures a risk

whotever, wherever, whoever, etc,

Weusewhotever, whoever, say'it doesn'tmatter what,who,etc.because theresult willbethesame'. Whotever wedo,global wormingis hereto stay. Whoever thinkswecanignoretheproblemis seriously mtsnKen. w 7'i Whichever countryyoulivein, you'llbe offectedby climate cnange. We'llneverpreventsea-levelsrising,howeverhard wetry. In someclauses wecanomittheverbbe. Howeverdifficult(it is),wehaveto octnow. .x ; H \rt

Enuironrnenfnf faftt In the UK,20 mitliontonnesof foodareimported, and 12 mitliontonnes , everyyear. Onaverage everypersonin the UKthrowsawaytheir ownbodyweightin everythreemonths. Internationatty, onein sixspecies of mammaI faces 4 Onaverage, eachUKuses55,000litresof water everyyear. 5 Across the European Unionat anyonetime,thereare stretching atong64,000kitometres of road. yearsin the last130haveatl._ 6 Theten warmest since1978. 7 lt takesaround450 yearsfor a plasticbottleto generates 8 Aviation neartyas muchin oneyearas thetotaIpoputation of Africa. 9 An areaof tropicalrainforest to 16 footbatt pitchesis destroyed everysing[eminute. 10 Foreverytonneof wastewe produce in ourhomes, it is estimated that5 tonnesof wastehasatready been created at the manufacturing stage,and20 tonnesat the wasextracted. Dointwherethe11 40%of thehavemettedoverthe past50 years. t2 Theof theaverage UScitizen on theenvironment is approximately threetimesthatof theaverage ltatian, thirteentimesthatof theaverage Brazi[ian. 140times thatof theaverage Bangtadeshi, and250timesthatof the average sub-Saharan African.


Workin pairs.Doanyof thesefactsdisturbyou? Aremanypeopleconcerned? Why? I Whynot?Agreeon whichthreefactsalarmyoumost.Givereasons.

u n i tlo .Endi ns s

O+* Grammar Buitder 70.7:whatever,whnever, etc.:p.llt these 6) f.ff Readthe Learnthis!box.Thenrephrase ideasastheywereexpressed bythe speakers, using whatever, whoever,wherever, etc.Thenlistenandcheck youranswers to exercises 4 and5. 1 lt doesn't matter whichwayyoulookat it, gtobalwarming is a veryreaIthreat. 2 Everybody shoulddo theirbitandmakean effort,evenif it'sreally small. 3 Anytimethemediahearaboutan outbreak of birdflu, theyalways blowit outof proportion. 4 lt doesn't matterhowmuchthegovernment scientists try to reassure us,nobodyreallybelieves them. 5 Realisticalty I don'tthinkthere's anychance at allof that happening in theforeseeable future. 6 lt doesn't matter whatwedo withourownnuclear weapons, we haveto prevent othercountries from developing theirown.


Workin pairsor smallgroups.Decide whatin youropinionis thegravest threatfacingeitheryourcountry, yourcontinent or theworld.Choose oneof the threatsin the yourideasto the box,or comeupwithyourown.Present class. excessive consumptionpopulation explosion globalvirusesglobalwarmingthedrugstrade nuclear war alieninvasionglobalterrorism disease andstarvationnaturaI disasters

I can tal k t,baut

#nW{}V #rz#Engr

film endutqs.

fromthe listeningexercise in your Explain thesesentences ownwords. 1 Bythe finalreel,inspiration is oftenreplaced by rote. 2 Specialeffectshavebecome the crutchof lazydramatists. 3 [Theclosingshotof TheThirdManis]a shotthathas echoedthroughmoviehistory. ending, doescomeupwithan original 4 Whensomeone everyone apesit. Lookat the listof adjectives thatcouldbe usedto describe the endingof a film.Decidewhethereachonehasa positive, Usea dictionary to helpyou. negative or neutralconnotation. ambiguousbaffling ctich6d feet-goodhackneyed heart-rending incongruousintriguingnonsensical overblownsentimentaIshockingspectacular subtle touching thought-provoking unexpected unsatisfyingvague

Sl-ftlm[d Lookat the list of films.Haveyou seenanyof them?Doyouremember Usethewordsand theending? phrases in the boxtohelpyoudescribe theending. a greatlastshot an upbeatfinale bleak couldseeit coming dramaticatly coherent endwitha twist feel-good ending long,drawn-out mystifying conclusionunsatisfying 7 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 )

from witha suitabte adiective Complete the sentences your maybe possible. Compare answers exercise 5. Several answers with a partner. | wascryingso muchI is really-1 Thefinalscene coutdhardlyseethescreen! - youtendto assume 2 Theendingis completely thattheherois goingto win,notdie! a verytwistat the endof thefitm,whichI 3 There's getoutof mymindfordays. couldn't thefilm'sfinaleis totatly4 Unfortunatety, , with loud,franticmusicandhugespeciaI effects. 5 Thefitmdealswithtragicevents,so I foundthe happy 'Hollywood' ending totalty . endings and thedirector avoided theobvious 6 Thankfutty, farmore optedforsomething

Shrek j Spider-Mon Piratesof the Caribbean: At World'sEnd Enchonted TheSixthSense 2001:A SpaceOdyssey Carrie BeforeSunset LoveActually

6) l.r+ Listento a film critictatkingaboutthe endingsof thefilmsin exercise 1.Whatis heropinionof them?Write: + (good),- (bad)or ? (hedoesn'tknowyet)nextto the film title. trueor false,or is 6) f.rA Listenagain.Arethe sentences the answernotstated? 1 Unsatisfying fitmsareoftenthe endings to Hollywood resultof fear. thevcan't 2 Filmstudiosoftenusespecialeffectsbecause comeup witha goodending. viewof what confirms Hoilywood's 3 Thefilm Titanic want. audiences 4 TheontygoodthingaboutIhe SixthSensewastheending. hassucceeded in solving theriddleattheend 5 Nobody 2001:A SpaceOdyssey. the 6 lt is a shamethatalmosteveryhorrormoviefollows examplesetby Carrie. is left the audience 7 ThecriticlikedBeforeSunsetbecause getbacktogether notknowing ifthe lovers at theend. kissattheend. 8 Thecritichatesaltfi[msin whichthelovers

the sentences withyourownideas. Complete justifyingyour Thencompare sentences withyourpartner, opinions.Doeshe or sheknowthe film andagreeaboutthe ending? endingI'veeverseenis ... 1 Thefitmwiththemosttouching endingI'veeverseenis ... 2 Thefilmwiththemostspectacular endingI'veeverseenis ... 3 Thefitmwiththemostbaffling endingI'veeverseenis ... 4 Thefilmwiththemostunexpected

I 1 2 3 4

Workin pairs.Discuss the questions. WhydoyouthinkAmerican filmstendto havemorehappy films? endings thanEuropean likeor distike ls therea kindof endingthatyouparticularly in films? hadthe most Whichfitmthatyou'veseenrecently Why? ending, in youropinion? effective Why? in youropinion? Whichfitmhadtheworstending,

ras" Vocahutary Builder10.2:Adverbs of degree:p.141


Unit10. Endings(


W ge* gl


I cd'ttun/crstand and react ; ( " t l dl abtul l anl rti ).

Workin pairs.Lookat the photoof a patientcare bayandthetitle of thetext.Whatdo youthinkis insidethe metalcylinders?


2 Readthe firsttwo paragraphs of the textandfindthe answer to question1. Exptain in yourownwordswhat'cryonics' is.

Would gou die of boredom if Uou lived for ever?


Lined upin neatrows,theirstainless steelsidesgteaminj, tne give hufemetalcylindens storedin a nondescrrpt officebuilding gnuesome littleclueasto their contents 0n eachvessel thereis a bearinf, thenameandlogoof a company called Alcor sticker hintsat whatitswonkmightbe 'Life 0nlythesmallpnintbeneath Foundation 1972,'it reads, Extension Since offering a website forthosevisitor"s who.loin thetwice-weekly toursof address headquanters in Scottsdale, Arizona, Alcor's andwhomightwant aboutitshiShly unusual to findoutmone senvices fee,it will Alcoris inthebusiness of cryonics Fona $135,000 response dispatch a trained teamwhenyoudieto drainyour yourbodyin oneofthosehugevacuum bloodanddeepfreeze Thetheoryisthatthefrrm'semployees flasksof liquidnitrogen youat somepointinthefutune willthawyououtandrevive when it wasyou science hasadvanced enough to cuneyouofwhatever diedof Andalthough thetotalnumber of people acnoss theworld is stilllittlemone whohavesifnedupforfreezing than1,000, hasincneased napidly recently Alcorsaysitsmembership Thismaybeexplained bythegnowing conviction among scientists is closen thaneven to achievinf whatuntilnowhas thatmankrnd thestuffof ourwildest dreams 0r worstnightmares, seemed





U n itlo .Endi ngs

They depending 0ny0urperspective thinkit maywellbepossible human lifewaybeyond itscunrent to extend span- enabling usto livemanyhundreds of year"s andperhaps evenfor ever Theproblem withall attempts to findthesecnet to longerlifeover thecenturies hasbeenthatthehuman bodysomehow seems programmed weSenenally to die Although enjoymuchlonfer lives weaccept thatevenif weavoid thanourfonebears, accident or illness, willwearoutandwewrlleventually dieof ourbodies 'oldage'However, gene' don'thavea 'death humans which process; thepnocess isthenesult of tniggers theageing point malfunctioning Fromtheimmortalists' cellreproduction partof human of view,instead aninevitable bioloâ&#x201A;Źical of berng whichcanbeavoided if wecan destiny, deathis something fortheillnesses whichthreaten ourlivesGiven onlyfindcunes aboutdiseases suchascancer, thatwearetalking thisis a poliointhe in eradicating verybig'if'- butmedicine's success howquickly today's incurable illness twentieth century shows can become medical success stor"y Already, advances in tomorrow's pneviously possibilities unimafinable technolo$y areraising in medical Fonexample, scientists at theWake Forest science. inAmerica aneworkinfto gnow University Medical School twenty different includinS blood vessels tissues andorgans, andheants, inthelaboratory usinghuman cellsThisprocedure could, one day,helpcombat diseases suchascancer, bysimply replacing with'spares' supplied bytherecipients' thediseased organs Inthisway,humans owncells, withtherefore noriskof rejection. partreplaceable mi$htbecome muchlikecars- withevery and immortal ityguar"anteed Perhaos is notwhether lifewillone therealouestion eternal daybepossible, thequestitselfis misdirected In butwhethen hisshortstory,Ihelmmortol, theArgentinean writerJorgeLuis Borteswnites of a manwhogoesin seanch of a riverwhich people people whomhefinds cleanses of deathTheimmortal misenable thereareinertandapparently Since theywilllivefor aninfinite number of years, theyreason thateverything thatcan happen theycanhandly to themwilldoat somepointAsa nesult bning themselves to move'l rememben onewhoI never saw birdhadnested standup,'says Borfes'nannator.'A onhis breast.' whatincentive Thisraises wouldther"e beto do theouestion: anything if weknewthatwehadanendless number of days ahead allourgoals? Indeed, would of usin whichto accomplish ourliveshaveanymeaning at all?Ashumans, weonlyseem ourfeelings whentheyanebalanced ableto understand against it is in contrast opposinS When wefeelhappy, emotions to beinâ&#x201A;Ź it is a respite frombeinfanxious. sad;whenwefeelat peace, Howthencouldwefeelgladto bealive, to savour ourexistence daytoday,if therewasnopossibilitythat it mightonedaybe fromus?Allouremotions wouldbecome immaterial snatched

Scientists cantakewhattheylearned fromtacklingpolio anduseit to findcuresforotherdiseases. Scientists at WakeForest University Medicat Schoolare developing man-made organs to replace humanorgans. TheBorges storyimpties thatachieving immortality would deprive usof thejoyof beingalive. 8 Deciding whether or notto choose immortality maybe difficult,butit wittprobably neverariseforanyone alivetoday.

Readthe restof the textandchoosethe bestsummary. What is wrongwiththe othertwosummaries? A Ma n ys c ient is t snow b e l i e v eth a t d e a thi s n o t b i o l o g i cal l y i n e vi tableand c ouldb e a v o i d e di f th e rew e rec u re sfo r a[[ life-threatening diseases.However,Iivingfor everwould . e o p l em i g h tb e c o m ea p a th eti c cre a teit s own pr oblemsP planet a n d th e would b e o v e rc ro w d e d .

Matchthe adiectives in redin the textwiththesedefinitions. prefixor suffixin eachadjective. Underline the negative 7 impossible to imagine 2 notworkingproperly notrelevant 3 4 withno interestingfeatures having 5 no conclusion goal 6 notaimedat thecorrect

B Scientists aredeveloping newwaysto combatserious diseases likecancer, andmaysoonbe ableto replace partsof thebody,justlikea mechanic parts replaces of a car.However, livingfor everwouldhaveseveral disadvantages aswellas advantages.

c lf scientists founda wayof allowing humans to Iivefor ever,the resultwouldnotnecessarily As be positive. Borges illustrated in a shortstory,immortatity wouldlead to a complete lackof motivation. lt wouldatsocausethe planetto become over-populated.

6 Complete the sentences. Makethewordsin brackets negativeby addingthe correctprefixor suffixfromexercise 5. Usea dictionary to helpyouif necessary. 1 Cetlscanbecome asa resultof replicating themselves timeandtimeagain.(FORMED) 2 Knowing thatyouwillneverdiecouldmakeyourdaitylife . (MEANtNG) 3 Oneday,serious diseases couldbe rendered (EXISTENI) byscience. peoplewhooptforcryonics 4 Perhaps areto accept the realityof death.(WILLING) peoplewho havebeenfrozenmayproveto be 5 Reviving (FEASIBLE). scientifically 6 lf youwererevived centuries intothefuture,youmightbe to lifein thatera.(ADjUSTED) wholivedto be 200wouldbe7 Anyone of remembering theirownchildhood.(CAPABLE) 8 Perhaps theveryambition of achieving immortality is

According to thetext,arethe sentences trueor false,or is the answernotstated? your answers. Justify 1 Scientists believe thatimmortality maysoonbea possibitity. 2 Pastattempts failed to findthe secretof immortality process. because nobody fullyunderstood theageing 3 Everyone accepts thatfindingcuresforillnesses willnever peoplefromdying. be enoughto prevent 4 Advances in science makeit almostinevitable thatwewill soonfinda cureforcancer.

. (coNcErvED) Andwhatabout thelimitations of ourmemories whichoftenfail us,evenintheshontlivescurrently allotted to us?lt is frustrating enou$h to acknowledge thatwehavefonfotten thingswhich nappened ten,twentyor thirtyyeans ago.lmagine thenthe fr"ustnation of hundneds of years'worthof memories slipping - constantly awayfromusaswedniftthrough thecenturies iosing sightof whene wehavebeenandwhatwehavedone. There wouldbeotherpnoblems too Unless webegan to colonise space, theEarthwouldsoonbeburdened withtoomanypeople andsomesortof limitonthenumber wecanhave of childnen mightbenecessary. Perhaps we mightonlybeallowed to reproduce point if weundertook to dieounselves at somefutune Given allthis,it seems thatlonger lifemifhtc0meat a price muchheavier thanmany0f usarewilling to pay.Formostof usalivetoday,immortality mayneverbean issue- butfor thosewhoareat thestartoftheirlives, or yetto beborn,it is a decision theymaywellhaveto confront, andmuchsoonen than anyof us mighthaveima$ined.

9 Maybethe secretof immortality willremain (PENETRABLE) forever.


Discuss the questions withthe class. 1 Whatemotions mightsomebodywho hadbeenfrozen for 200yearsandthenrevived experience, in youropinion? 2l Whatmightbethe bestandworstaspects of being immortal? youpersonally 3 Woutd choose if youcould? to be immortal, Givereasons.

Unit10. Endinss

I can ute a wicle range of connpLex tentcnces.

Complex sentences I

Readthetextandexplainin yourownwordshowthe Darwin Awardsgettheirname.

The Darwin Awards The variousindividuals upon whom the Darwin Awards are bestowedeachyear are,by definition,unawareof the honour; and even if they were, it certainlyis not an awardof which any right-mindedperson could be proud.Thisis becausethe peopleto whom it is awardedhaveinadvertentlycaused their own deaththrough an act of recklessstupidity(The famousscientistthat the awardsare namedafter out fonvard the theory of naturalselection,accordingto which inferior membersof a speciesare lesslikelyto survive long enough to passon their genes.)Eachyear;the DarwinAwards websitepublishesa number of suchstorieswhich are then voted for by the public in order to selecta winner.Although the purposeof the award is,strialy speaking, to celebrate these bizarredeathsand the peoplewhose stupidity brought them about,the websitealsoincludes'near misses', which people can receivean'honourablemention' for.


2 Readthe information below.Then,wherepossible, rewrite the clauses in boldin exercise 1 withthe preposition in a lf it is notpossible, differentposition. explainwhy. Prepositions in relativeclauses 1 Whena relative clauseincludes a preposition, we canoftenchoose whether to putit at the beginning or at theend.Thelatteris morecommon andmore "s informal. Thot'sthe manfrom whomweboughtour car. That'sthe man(who/ that) we boughtour corfrom. 2 However, whenthe preposition is partof a phrasal verb,it alwaysstayswiththeverb. Headoptedthreechildren,whomhe lookedafter well. prepositional phrases 3 Multi-word cango at the beginning or end,butwedon'tseparate thewords. Wesowa caf6,in front of which satseveroldiners. Wepasseda cafâ&#x201A;Ź,whichseveroldinerssat in front of. 4 Wecan'tputa preposition at thebeginning whenthe pronoun relative is thesubjectof thefollowing verb. I boughta housewhichhodn'tbeenlivedin for years. pronounmayformpartof a nounphrase 5 Therelative suchassomeof which,manyof whom,thefirstof which or an adverbialphraselikeot whichpoint,for whichreason,in whichcase. I havethreebrothers,theyoungestofwhomis five. Herecordedmorethanfiftysongs,manyof which becamehits. Thehostfell asleep,at whichpoint weleft.

3 Writethe storyof LarryWaltersby joiningeachgroupof two or threesentences intoonecomplex sentence. Whenthere positions aretwo possible for a preposition, choosethe moreformal. 1 Amongthe'nearmisses'is thestoryof LarryWalters. Most fansof the Danruin Awards arefamiliar withhisexploits. 2 ln 7982,heattempted a daringflightusingonlyan garden ordinary chair.He'dattached 45 heliumballoons to it. Theplanwasto floatupto a heightof abouttenmetres. He'dbeableto enjoya fineviewof thesurrounding terrain fromthatheight.Theplanhadbeenworkedoutcarefutly. Unfortunately, he rocketed intotheair,climbing morethan Heremained at thataltitude 5,000metres. formorethan fourteen hours. Airtrafficcontrolreceived bewildered messages from passenger ptanes. TheirpilotshadseenLarry. 6 It wasa terrifying flight.Larryhadno controloverit. 7 Luckily, Larry hadbrought hispistol.Heburstsomeof the balloons withit. 8 Hegradualty descended to theground. At thispoint,he wasarrested bythe potice. Workin pairs.Decide you whichof the complex sentences wrotein exercise 3 couldbe rewrittenin a lessformalstyle by puttingthe preposition in a differentposition.




Grammar Builder 10.2:Relative clauses: o.130

u n itlo .Endi ns s

Addthe information a-e to the correctplacein thetext1-5 usingoneor morerelativeclauses. Oneevening, Fabiowaschattingto somefriends. ltaliantruckdriver.'I He '! fabiowasa 28-year-old tooka gadget3I outof his pocketto lookedlikean ordinarypen,butwasin facta pistolaI . Keento demonstrate the gadgetto hisfriends,Fabioheld it to his headandpulledthe trigger5! . a b c d e

He'drecently become the proudownerof it. A single.22 calibre bulletcouldbefiredfromit. Hewashaving a quietdrinkwiththem. At thispoint,thegunfiredandFabio died. Hishobbywasspygadgets. Hehadsomeofthem withhim.

Workin pairs.StudentA: Brieflyretellthestory of LarryWalters in yourownwords.StudentB: Brieflyretell thestoryof Fabioin yourownwords.Tryto usecomplex sentences. Whichpersondeserved a DarwinAwardmore,in youropinion? Why?


: t i t t t t ',

ri C ti i i tL'1

C Mentioningassociations You'dfindit in/on/near ... you'dexpect It'ssomething to seeif youwere... Youmightneedoneof theseif youwere... D Givinga definition It'sa typeof ...that... It'sanother wordfor...

F'T.KI[G work in pairs.Readthe taskbelow.Discuss :nd decideon threethingsyoumighttalkabout.Foreach :ring,thinkof two reasons whytheworldwouldbe betteroff rithoutit. Givea presentation aboutonethingwhich,in your opinion, theworldwouldbefar betteroffwithout.


fromfivestudents' f) :.rS Listento extracts presentations. Foreachspeaker saywhatthinghasbeen chosen andgiveonereason thatis mentioned. the students the phrases f) f .rS Listenagain.Complete usewhentheyforgeta word.Thenwritethe wordthatthey haveforgotten. 1 'Thewordhasiust mymind.' 2 'Thecorrect meforthemoment.' word-

1 andexpandyourlistof 6 Chooseoneideafromexercise reasons whytheworldwouldbe a betterplacewithoutthat thing.

Trynotto repeat toooftenin a presentation. thesamephrase waysof Beforeyoustart,tryto thinkof a fewdifferent referring to themainidea.ln addition, thinkaboutwhat youwillneedandnotedowna fewsynonyms. adjectives

.' 3 'l can'touiteremember whatit's4 'Thewordis on thetip of my 5 'l can'tputmy on it at themoment.'

Trynotto panicif youforgeta wordwhileyouare fromexercise speaking. Justuseoneofthe phrases 4 to it. wayto describe admitit, andthenfinda different


A Specifying use It'soneof thosethingsfor-ing... youmightusefor... It'ssomething It canbe usedto ... B Describing appearance It'soneof thosethingsthathas[a handte] It looksa bit tikea ... It'slikea ...only[smatter]

Readthe speaking tip.Thenstudythe boxbelow.Canyou addanyphrases to it?


in the boxunder Readthespeaking tip.Thenputthe phrases the correctheadings below. It'squitesimilar to a ... It woutdcomein handyfor-ing... haveoneof these. A [poticeofficer] wouldprobably It'sa wordthatmeans...

Playa wordgameto practise copingwhenyou forgeta word.Usephrases fromexercise 4. . Everybody in theclasswritesthreenounson threepieces of paper. r Atlthepieces of paperareputintoonebag. . Onepairtakesthebagandhasoneminuteto scoreas manypointsas possible. A takesa pieceof paper Student B without fromthe baganddescribes thewordto Student (orspetting) B hasto guessthe saying theword.Student word.Thepairreceives onepointfor eachwordcorrectly guessthe guessed. Youareallowed to'pass'ifyoucannot word,butonlytwice. . Thepairwiththemostpointswins.lf there'sa tie,thepair withthefewestpasses wins.



put a stopto putan endto puta haltto [iketo seethe backof do awaywith

... because

Giveyourpresentation to the class.Remember from if youforgeta word,usingphrases to carryon speaking belowto exercises 3 and4. Youcanalsousethe phrases hetpwithfluency. yourself Paraphrasing Correcting way... WhatI meantto saywas... Orto putit another ... WhatI shouldhavesaidwas... In otherwords, Whatl'mtryingto sayis ... C ometo thi nk of i t, ... ThepointI'mtryingto make Or rather,... tq

U ni t10. Endings

Lookat the photo. WhatareeBool<s and howdo theywork? Readthefirstsentence ofthe essayin exercise 3 to checkyourideas.

Workin pairs.Thinkof as manyotherphrases asyoucan thatwouldfit in the gapsin the essay. Didthewritermention anyof thearguments whichyou discussed in exercise 2?Whichof thewriter'sarguments do youfindmostpersuasive? Givereasons.


In whichparagraph doesthewriter: 1 statehis/herownviewforthefirsttime? 2 reiterate his/herview? 3 givebackground information abouteBooks? 4 focusontheproposition byturning it intoa question? 5 givearguments supporting his/herview? 6 givecounter-arguments?

FlifilKm" Workin pairs.Readthe proposition below. Decideif youagreeor disagree with it, andbrainstorm ideas forandagainst theproposition.

FlIh[ItrlIIFlWorkin groups.Discuss the questions. 1 Doyouthinkanyof thethingsin thephotos willbecome obsolete in thefuture? Givereasons. 2 Canyouthinkof anything elsewhichmightbecome obsolete in thefuture? lustifyyouropinions.

eBookswill eventually make traditional books obsolete. Completethe essaywith the phrasesin the box, adding (Someof the phrasescan capitalletterswherenecessary. go in morethan one gap, but there is only one set of correct answers.) however I f ir m t ybeliev et h a t it wouldbe har dto d e n yth a t of t he opinion

I a c c e p th t at i n c o n c tu s i on mo re o v e r th e k e yq u e s ti oni s

Over the past few yearswe have seen the introduction of eBooks:digitalversionsof paperbookswhich can be downloadedfrom the Internetonto smallhand-held devicescalledeBookreaders.tthat eBookswill eventuallyhavea big impacton the salesof traditional books,but '-, will they becomeso popularthat they will eventuallyreplacebooks? Many of us alreadydownloadmore musicthan we buy from shopsin CD form,and the samewill soon be true of films rin the next decadeor so it will be the turn of books So what are the advantages of eBooks?A single eBookreadercan hold hundredsof digitalnovels,which in their traditionalform would occupymetresof shelving. o-, they are more environmentally friendlyas they save paper and there are no transportcosts teBook readershave two major drawbacks:they are currentlyvery expensiveand they rely on batteries o, they are sure to come down in price as they grow in popularity, as computersand mobilephoneshave done,and l'm convincedthat battery-life will improve dramatically in the comingyears then,althougheBooksare a relativelynew '-, phenomenon,l'm 8that it is only a matterof time beforeeBooksmaketraditionalbooksuneconomical and thereforeobsolete.

Unit10. E ndi n e s

-L J f:'rr





Fi ,KIIf" Workin pairs.Discuss Doyou the proposition. :greeor disagree withit? Brainstorm ideasfor andagainst.

Computerswill soon make pens,paper and hand-writing obsolete. J,re n y ou ar e ex pr es s i nygo u ro w n o p i n i o ni n th e e s say,i t s a cc ept able t o us e f i rs tp e rs o np ro n o u n s . am convincedthot ... I am of the opinion that ... ro Wâ&#x201A;Ź V â&#x201A;Źrt o , av oidov e r-u s eo f p e rs o n apI ro n o u n s , entsa n d a rg u me n tsc a n b e i n tro d u ced o p i n i onsjudgem , i m per s onal lang u a g efo , r e x a mp l ep a s s i v es tru ctures -si n g see pageg8), or preparatoryif. ,I is interestinghow much ... rl would appear that ... it is undoubtedlytrue/highly likely that ... it is usuol/importont/impossible,etc.for ... to ... lt is right/wrong to suggestthat ... Readthe writingtip. Thenrewritethe sentencesusing preparatoryif and the wordsin brackets. 1 We h av et o r em em b eth r a t p e o p l eh a v eb e e nu s i n gp en a n d paperf or c ent u ri e s (b . e a ri n mi n d ) 2 I'm pr et t ys ur et hat p a p e rw o n ' t b e c o meo b s o l e te .(a l most ce rtainly t r ue) 3 So m epeoples ayt ha t i t' s a w a s teo f ti m e te a c h i n g ch i l dr ent o wr it enea tl y .(b e a rg u e d ) 4 | si m plyc annotbelie v eth a t p a p e rw i [[b e c o meo b s o l ete. (i n c onc eiv able) 5 Whatsurprisesme is how few peoplecanwrite neatly. (su r pr is ing) 6 | th i n kc hit dr enr ealt ys h o u l db e ta u g h tto to u c h -ty p e at sch o ol.( es s ent ial f or c h i l d re n ) 7 Pe o pt ewho s ayt hat p a p e ra n d p e nw i l l b e c o m eo b s ol ete arewrong.(wrongto suggest) f) Listento two peoplegivingtheir opinionson the propositionin exercise1. Whichopinionsdo you agreewith? Whichdo you disagreewith? Givereasons. Rephrasetheseextractsfrom the listeningso that they would be stylisticallyappropriatefor an essay.Usethe wordsin the boxesto help you. Sometimesa passive constructionis appropriate. a d mit t edt y c ons ide ra b l yc o n ti n u e to c u rre n tl y elderly in a minority increasingly moreoverthe fact is 1 | me an,we now s endl o a d smo ree -ma i l sth a ntra d i t i onal letters. 2 OK,s o s om eold peo p l ew i l l s ti c kw i th p a p e ra n d p e n ,but th e r ewon' t be m anyo f th e m. Atso, 3 m or eand m or eo fte nw e ' red o i n go u r s c h o o l work on compulers.

atthoughgranted hightyimprobabte inconceivabte myownview nottoodistantfuture 4 Sure,I admitthatprettysoonthey'tldevelop a computer thatyoucancarryin a pocket. 5 Peopte sometimes evensaythathandwriting wiltbecome obsolete, butI reallydon'treckon it'sat altlikety. 6 Yousimplycannot imagine theywon'tteachhandwriting in schools in thefuture. Planan opinionessayaboutthe proposition in exercise 1. Makenotesunderthe headings usingideasfromexercises 1 and3. Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4

Introduction Points in support ofyouropinion Points in support of theopposite opinion Conclusion

Writethe introduction andparagraphs 2 and3 of your yourplan.Writeno morethan210words. essayfollowing Remember to usesomeimpersonal language. yourconclusion ln an essayof zoo-z5owords, shouldn't be morethat4o-5owordslong.A goodstrategy is to acknowledge thestrength of theopposing argument and yourownopinion. thento restate Donotintroduce new arguments in theconclusion. Readthewritingtip.Thenwritethe conclusion to youressay. Usethe phrases belowto helpyou.

Whileit'strueto saythat..., I really do think... Even thoughsomepeoplemaintain that..., I nevertheless believe that... There's sometruthin theviewthat,...Nevertheless, it doesn'taltermyviewthat... W0rkin pairs.Swapessays work andcheckyourpartner's usingthe list below.

Hasyourpartner foltowed theessayplancorrectty? ! ! tr tr

written thecorrect number of words? usedexpressions fromthewriting tip andexercise Z? checked thespelting andgrammar?

U ni t10. E n dings



1 Complete the sentences withthe correct formof theverbsin the box.Theanswersmaybe activeor passive.

4 Complete the sentences withthe correctpassive formof the verbsin the box.

breathe confide drop glean hear keep 1 Themanager a bombshell in theboard meeting whenhe handed in hisresignation. 2 Tellmewhatyouknow- | promise |_ a word. 3 Anna atltheinformation shecouldaboutthe jobfromtheHRmanager, whohappens to be hercousin. 4 Theidentity of thejurymembers underwraps in casetheyareblackmailed. 5 | totdmybestfriendaboutmydatewithDylanandnow everyone knows.| -nevet _ in heragain! you6 thelatest? Martha's splitup withPaut andshe'sgoingoutwithAndy!

EE! ]tr 2 Complete thesentences withthe correct formof thewordsin the box. accuse catastrophecensor nation person speak 1 Democratic countries believein -. 2 In manycountries, thereis stateof the press. your_ 3 lt'sessential to be ableto express politics. opinion whendiscussing 4 Opponents to totalitarian regimes areoftenimprisoned because of false groups. 5 security is underthreatfromterrorist 6 Theresultswitlbe if the problemis ignored.

EE! ]tr 3 Match1-8 witha-h to makecommoncollocations. 1 finalise a confidential 2 strictest b acontract 3 complete c ameeting 4 highly d arrangements 5 windup e a Master's degree 6 cease f aword 7 terminate g industriaI action 8 breath h confidence

Etr! E

decide evacuatelie rebuild record repair 1 Several townslastnightdueto floodwarnings. 2 Thestaffhavebeenassured thatthe payincrease duringthenextboardmeeting. 3 Petecouldn'twatchthe matchbecause hisW _. 4 Youcan'tenterthestudiorightnowbecause tonight's newsprogramme _ . 5 lt tooktimeto realiseheto by hiswife.

EE! E thesentences 5 Rewrite usingthe correctcausative formof the verbsin brackets. (have) 1 Someone mowsmyaunt'slawnoncea fortnight. 2 They're comingto change ourwindowsnextweek.(have) They'tt refurbish 3 the officewhentheycanaffordit. (get) No 4 onehadserviced myfather'scarin years.(have) (get) 5 Someone stolemyboyfriend's walletyesterday.



6 Rewrite the sentences usingthe wordsthe box. however whateverwheneverfu whoever

Nomatterwhereyouendup,please writeto me. u.lheravar 1ouandup,p\ea*writa1oma 1 Thepersonwhogaveyouthathasimpeccable taste. 2 Johnwillneverbecome an airlinepilot,no matterhow hardhetries. I'min theUKIbuyaloadofteabags. 3 Everytime 4 She'[tookstunning, no matter whichdresssnewears. matter 5 lt doesn't whatyoudo,butdon'tpanic.

Etr! ]tr usingformalrelativeclauses. Jointhetwosentences A fightstarted in theclub.At thatpointwewenthome. A iightrtartedinthac\ub,at vlhich point$&wenihome 1 Shestartedto dustthedesk.Ontop of it taypilesof papers. 2 Hehaswonelevenmedalsso far.Mostof themaregold. 3 Thepresident willappoint a number of newministers in the newsession. Manyof themarewomen. 4 Thatwoman's an actress. Myfriendwasmistaken for her. 5 | addressed mycomplaint to an employee. Hewasblatantly ruoe.

EE! ]tr @ Language Review 9-10




1 tookquicklythroughthetwo excerpts fromtwoe-mails, ignoring the gaps.Decide: a whoeache-mailis from. b whattherelevance of thephotois.


Whichthreeof the following four f) l.rZ Listen. dialogues do youhear,andin whatorder? a Edgars andTomas b Tomas andRita c Rita,Edgars andTomas d Edgars andRita


on the speakers' O f:fZ Listenagain,focusing intonation. Sayhoweachspeaker soundswhentheysay thewordsbelow.Thensaywhatthisimpliesaboutwhat theyarethinkingor feeling. 1 Rita:'Oh,I see.Professional.' 'Youdon'thaveto sayanything 2 Edgars: now.' 3 Rita:'l'vejustaccepted a promotion.' 'Soyou'removingto Edinburgh.' 4 Edgars: 'No,shehasn'tsaidanything 5 Tomas: to me.' 'Nobody 6 Tomas: tellsmeanything.' 7 Rita:'Hisfacewentredandhecouldn't speak.'

2 trtatch sentences A-Gwithgaps1-5 in the e-mails. Thereis onesentences thatyoudo notneed. A Thatwouldbea shame, I'vemadesomegood because friendshere,inctuding a reallyniceguyfromLatviacalled Edgars. B That'showI managed to earnenoughmoneyfortheflat deposit. Thiswasa bit of a disaster, founda flatand as l'd already needed to paymyrent. lronically, sheworksfor InterPost, the company wholet medownoverthatjob offer. It'sin a greatlocation too,onlya coupleminutesfroma tubestation. F As it happens, myftatmate's sister,Rita,worksin lTand wouldbean idealbusiness partner. G Whoknowswhenanother onemightcomealong?

:,.^"thing isgoing wellhere. l'm -:'rnga flatwithtwoother women, -: fromLithuania andtheother from and The flat isn't huge, but it's big -:ughandinrelatively goodcondition, ,:r modern furniture andappliances. (Everybody travels bytubehere, ; iheonlywayto avoid thetraffic.) ,',rrkisgoing fine.Infact, l'verecently ::enoffered a promotion, which would -eanmoremoney aswellasmore '=soonsibilitv. Thedownside isthatl'd -:!'etorelocate toEdinbursh because -3t'swhere thecompany's headoffice is.'- We've really hitit off, youandme,I thinkhequite between fancies me. And of course, '"d -,vbrother isheretoo.ButI suppose I should dowhat's bestformy 3- Anyway, ::reer andaccept theopportunig, I haven't made a 'ral decision vet.

Speaking oneof thefoltowing dialogues: 5 Workin pairs.Rote-ptay o Edgars persuading go Ritanotto to Edinburgh. r Ritatellingherbossthatshe'sleaving thecompany.

Writing 6 neadthe statement below.Decide whetheryouagree or disagree withit. Makenotesfor andagainst. Usethe wordsandphrases in the boxto helpyou.

It is impossihle to maintain a close friendship with somebody who lives a long way away. bodylanguagechatrooms email faceto face hangout physicat contact socialnetworking sites wordsusingyournotesfrom 7 Writean essayof 2OO-25O exercise 6.

I've been in London for six months now Can you believe that? The time has really flown by! m so sorry I haven't been ln touch earlier, but I never seem to have time to write I haven't had a particularly easy time since getting here, for one reason or another Having :een offered a job at interview, I was then told that I didn't have the job after all aI decided :? set up in business as a consultant, and it's really taken off In fact, I'm so busy that I'm ,roking for somebody to work with me erther an employee or a partner tNot only is she :ea1lywell qualified, but we also get on well together However, she's currently in full time :mployment, so I'd have to lure her away from her job. uShe hasn't been there long, so - doubt she'd want to leave


progress: p.4 Checkyour


"{f f/ Readthetextin the Reading examtask, ignoringthegaps.In whatorderwillthe Sunturnintothese typesof star?


a a blackdwarf b a redgiant c a whitedwarf



2 Dothe Reading examtask.

el derl y. aged. l ong-l i ved.mal ure Thesewordsall describe sb who haslivedfor a longtime or thatusual l yl i vesfor a l ongti me old havinglivedfor a longtime; no longeryoung:5hes geningold- she's75nextyeor. elderly (rather formal)usedasa politewordfor 'old':5he is verybusycaringlor two elderlyrelatives aged lJormal) very old Havingagedrelativesto stoy in your housecan bequitestressJul l ong-l i ved havi nga l ongl i fe;l asti ng for a l ongti me: Everyone in mylamily is exceptionally longJived mature usedasa politeor humorouswayof sayingthat sb is no longeryoung:clothesfot thematurewoman

(A-F) Readthe textcarefully anddecidewhichsentence bestfits eachgap(1-5).Thereis onesentence thatyoudo notneed.

The end of the world The Sunis nowapproximately half-way throughits is in a 'dynamicequilibrium' - thereis gravityon one handand the fusionprocess that 'fuels'the Sunon the otherhand.1! Astronomers stilldon't knowall the exactdetailsbut they knowthat the Sunwillstartto swelluo andturn into a red giantwith a diameter about lOOtimesgreaterthanits current 2l-l The Earthwillbe scorched size. at this point,leaving the planetunsuitable for life.Pluto,in fact,wouldbe the only placesuitable for anylifein the solarsystem. At the veryend of its life cycle,the Sunis likelyto blowoff its outermost layers. lt willthen shrinkto the sizeof the Earth,surrounded by a glowingbubbleof gascalled'planetary nebulaei3l-l Astronomers haveobservedmanySun-like starsin theirfinal stages,beforebecomingwhitedwarfs.The imagesof planetary nebulaearespectacular and eachlookslikeno other:The gashasintriguingsymmetrical expelled patternsas wellas morechaoticstructures. A whitedwarfderivedfroma staras massive asthe Sunwill be roughlythe samesizeasthe Earth.a! Thegravityon the surface willbe over100,000timeswhatwe experience on Earth!Oncethe whitedwarfhasreachedits minimum size, it willhavea temperature of over100,000Kelvinand shine throughresidual heat.5! Because the Universe is only 13.2 billionyearsold,thereareno blackdwarfsyet. One thingis for sure:if the humanracehasn'tmigrated to anothersolarsystemwithinthe nextfivebillionyears,it is sure to becomeextinct.

Readthe information aboutsynonyms of old andcomplete the sentences withthe adjectives in the correct form.Justify yourchoiceof adiective.

personi n the w orl di s 777. 1 The 2 A 4O0-year-olcldammaybe the an im alknown. peoplein t he Unit ed 3 Thereareoverel evenmi l ti on K i ngdom,accordi ng to the mostrecentcen sus. 4 Thi sparti cutar dati ngagencyi s for men an d wom enof \ra2 rq

5 W omenhavetradi ti onal lborne y the brunto f suppor t ing relatives.


Do the Speakingexamtask.

Compare andcontrast the two photographs. Answerthe questions.

A Thes t arwil[gr a d u a l l yc o o la n d e v e n tu a l l ya,fte r hundr edsof billi o n so f y e a rso f ra d i a ti n gi ,t w i l t n o longerbe v is ible b , e c o m i n ga b l a c kd w a rf. Thegaseswill eventuallydispersein the courseof yearsleavingbehinda whitedwarf. severalthousand I t will be s o dens eth a t a te a s p o o no f w h i ted w a r f m at er iaIwiltwei g hs e v e rato I nnes. I t will c ont inuet o b u rni n th i s s ta b l ec o n d i ti o nfo ra furtherfivebillionyears,whenit wittstartto change. T hism eanst hat t h e ra d i a ti o nw, h i c hi n i ti a ttyw i l l be very h igh,wit l les s enw i th ti me . It wit l be s o big t h a t i t w i l l e n g u l fMe rc u ryw, h i l eV enus wit tpr obablyor b i tj u s t o u ts i d eth e S u n ' ss u rfa c e . flsx\i\'rrN\ - l\


ii i :i

ri l .i i i \, i i tr \,i l i ii r tr tiitii: i

1 In youropi ni on,at w hatagedo peopl ebecom e'old'? 2 Whateffectwill increasinglife expectancyhaveon society? W hat,i f anythi ng,canw e l earnfromtal ki ngt o elder ly peopl e?Gi veexampl es.

,'t\ Tatkingabouthabitualactions v !-=ent simPle i i -;: :1e pr es ents im pl ew i th a n a d v e rbo f fre q u e n c yto tal k . : : -: 'e Deat edac t ions h , a b i tsa n d ro u ti n e s . :^ "',' gaei |' , , r or K b1b i c l c \a r-=ent / Pastcontinuous : ,!: :he Dr es ent/ nas tc o n ti n u o u sw i th th e a d v e rb s continuallyandforeverto talk about -- , -,5. constantly, . - - --. 'g r epeat edbehav i o u r. : ; a z v i c om plaining a b o uht a rl o b iarever shouiinq ai vacholhor -'-.e ,'..1 would ="d would c anbe us e dto ta l k a b o u t h a b i tu a a l c ti o n s ' -: . :e h a v iour W . hent heya re s tre s s e di n s p o k e nE n g ti sh, it p a s t. cr it ic is m W . ould re fe rs to th e '-a 5 rsts :r*en forgetto bLrymilr so \oudwacouldn't havya convyrsalion -:-,C plal re.cords -sed to J ri ;sâ&#x201A;Ź u sedt o + inf init iv eto d e s c ri b ep a s ts ta te so r h a b its --:: so me onedid in t he o a s tb u t d o e s n o t d o n o w . -:sd to liv e in NawY or K tUould ca nals o be us edt o ta l k a b o u t p a s th a b i ts ,b u t i t c an' t "': -l d : = -se d to t at k aboutDasts ta te s We . u s e u s e dto to d o that. .ouid go 1ortal wilhour grandparentr aveqsuflmar 1 Choosethe correctwordsto completethe sentences.One, two or three answersmay be correct. 1 Be fo r em y br ot herha d c h i td re nh e a u sedt o hav e b w o u l dh a v e

a mo to rb i ke. c had

2 My si s t erof t enget sa n n o y e dw i th h e r h u s b a n d- h e a w o u ldwind t he c hil d re nu o b 's alway swindingt h e c h i l d re nu p c will wind the childrenup 3 Wh enI was lit t lem y m o th e r n u rs e ryrh y me sto me a t b e dt im e. a u sedt o s ing b wouldsing c sang I mo v edout of ls aaca n d Ma i s i e ' sh o u s e- th e vw h e n lwas ar ound. a wereconstantlyarguing b would argue c will argue Beforeshe got marriedshe vears. a usedto live b lived

in Germanyfor two

l f i t's not r aining| to w o rk . a u su allywalk b u s e dto w a l k

c w o u l dl i v e

2 Rewrite the sentences usingthewordin brackets. 1 Weusedto spendhoursplaying hide-and-seek whenwe werekids.('d) t'(e'depend hourrplaling hrAe-anA'woY wawareKidr whsn 2 Mymother wil[cooksomething special whenever wego round.(usually) (constantly) 3 GinawitltakemyCDswithoutasking. 4 Wehadno petswhenwewerelittle.(use) 5 Benwouldalwaysleavehisdirtydishesall overthe place whenhe livedwithus.(leaving) (used) 6 Every we madesandcastles summer on thebeach.

W ent".alverbs (or Phrasal verbscombine verbswithadverbs or prepositions sometimes both)to create a newmeaning. Phrasatverbs can be dividedintofourmaintypes: Two-part verbswithno obiect. M1carbroKedounon'lhamolorwal lartnight Two-part verbswhoseobjectcancomebetween or afterthe twoparts.However, whentheobjectis a pronoun, it must comebetween thetwo Darts. Heturneddovrn thaloboffarhereceived Avrecervvd alob offerbuthafurnedit down Two-part verbswhoseobjectcannotcomebetween theparts. tNahavalo allovrfor differenl opinions fromslaffmamberr Three-part verbswhoseobjectcannotcomebetween the parts. How do1ouput up vrithhiscommants? 1 Complete the sentences withthe correctformof the phrasal verbsin the box.Wherepossible usean obiectpronoun. cheersb up rommerees*t# getawaywith sth goforsb passout putup withsth setoff tearsth up Myold schoolreports werein a box- | camva*ossthemin the atticyesterday. - | don'tknow Carol's children areverybadlybehaved howshe We'regoingto havean earlynightaswe at 6 a.m.tomorrow. Matt'sgirlfriend hastefthim,so hisfriendsaretryingto 5 N obodycoul dprovethat B i tthad stol enthe carand so he 6 It'stoohotandI'mfeeling I thinkI dizzy. 7 ThelettermadeKarlfurious,so he

it in thebin. Emma's dogbitherlastnight- it wasopening thedoor.

andput asshe

c ' tl w a l k

o i lr r r l Grammar B ui l derandR eference

in the box. 2 Complete thesentences withthe phrasalverbs wherenecessary. Usean objectpronoun fall outwith sb getaway do awaywith sth ffi gothroughsth letsb down runintosb turnsb down 1 'Didyouwatchthefilmallthewaythrough?' 'No,I droppad offin themiddle.' yesterday?' 2 'DidyouseeBecky 'Yes,I in thesupermarket.' thinkhe'ilgetthejob?' 3 'Doesyourboyfriend 'No,hethinksthey 4 'Doyouknowwhereyouwentwrongin theexam?' ' Y es ,m y t ut or w i th me .' 'Doesyourschoolstill havea uniform?' ' No,t hey 'Did they catchthe thief?' ' No, he ' Do y ou s t ills eey o u ro l d n e i g h b o u rs ? ' ' No, I 'DoesHarryalwaysturn up for footbalIpractice?' 'No, he often .'


ent"talverbs:passive andinfinitiveforms

So m ephr as alv er bst h a t h a v ea n o b j e c tc a n b e u s e di n the passive.As in at[ passivestructures,the subjectcomesbefore th e ver b.T hism eansth e tw o o r th e e p a rtso f th e p h r asalverb alwaysstaytogether.Thisalso appliesto infinitivestructures: ?leaseswilchlour compuier off whenyouleavelhy otltcv ir suitchedoff when1ouleava ?\eawmaYe sureyourcompu'ler iho olficv It'r verl difficultio get through fo him Haneverlirtene Rewritethe secondsentencewith a suitable passiveform of the phrasalverbin brackets. 1 A gangattackedTomon his way home.(beatup) Tomwasbvalvnup on his way home. 2 They'vecanceltedthe match.(catloffl The match took careof her.(bringup) 3 Hergrandparents S he b y h e rg ra n d p a re n ts . 4 A localbuilderis doingthe work. (carryout) Thework by a localbuilder. 5 500 workerswill losetheiriobs. (tayoffl 500 workers 6 The policestoppedthe riot. (breakup) The riot by the police. 7 An accidentis detayingthe traffic.(hotdup) Thetraffic by an accident. 8 His bosshas refusedhis transferrequest.(turndown) His request

. Units1-2 Grammar Buitder andReference

2 Comptete thesentences withthe infinitiveformof the phrasal verbsin the boxandan objectpronoun. getroundto doingsth do sth up getthroughto sb givesth up gowithsth putsb up 1 Jimwasgoingpastthestationso I askedhimto drop meoffoutside. 2 lf theywantto rentoutthe cottage, they'lIhave first. washed thecar- | hope 3 | haven't soon. enloyed wasso kindof you 4 We'vethoroughly 5 l ane' sphonei s al w aysengaged- i t' s i mpossible

it'sveryhard 6 Onceyoustartsmoking, 7 K ei raboughta dressbut coul dn' tfi nd sho es

@ or andtike Li kei s a preposi ti on and i t i s usedw i th a nounor a D ronounto descri besi mi tari ti es. M1brothar's1uet lire my dad U nl i kei sal soa preposi ti on and i t i s usedw i th a nounor a oronounto descri bedi fferences. realitlshowr UnliKeJacr,I don'tego.1vratching A s i s a conj uncti on and i t i s usedw i th a subi ectand a ver b to descri besi mi tari ti es. He'sa goodp\a1ar, as hisfaihsrwaswhanha waeloungar H ow ever, i n i nformalspeech/i kei s al sooftenu sedas a conl uncti on. ihe doaan'tdrassliKeloLrdo iha hatn'.fgotlourroilla In w ri ttenE ngl i sh, w henas i s fol l ow edby an auxiliar yor modal verbthe w ord orderof questi onsi s oftenused. Hawant,as dld hrobrotharr,to a boarding ochool A s i s usedto tal k aboutthe j ob a personhas.I n t his caseit operatesi n the samew ayas a preposi ti on. As lour doctor,I rocommend lou giveup smoKing l f w e repl aceos w i th l i ke i n thi s sentencei t changest he meani ng.A s means' l am yourdoctor'andl i ke m eans'l have the sameopi ni onas yourdoctor' . UKelour doctor,I racommend yougiveup smoKing ln very informalspeechlike can be usedto introduce reportedspeech. M1dadwaslire, 'whattimedo 1ouca\lihie?' N oti cehow the functi onof l i ke canchangedep endingon w hetheri t comesbeforeor aftera negati vecta use. LiKeq ristsr,l'm nol keenon comedivs (S hedoesn' tl i kethem and nei therdo l .) l'm no'tKaanon comediet,liKe myristar (Mysi ster[i kesthem but I don' t.)


13". I

i{ q.


W e usethe pastperfectconti nuousto tatk about l ongerevent s that w erehappeni ngbeforeanothereventi n the p ast . l'd beenuaitingfor an hourrbaforerha arrived

Choose the correct wordsto complete the sentences. botharecorrect.) .Sometimes 1 | preferltalianfood,-pizza andpasta. aas b tike

W e use usedto + i nfi ni ti veto descri bepastsi tuat ionsor habi tsthat are di fferentnow and w oul d+ i nfi ni ti veis usedt o descri bepasthabi tsthat are di fferentnow . ihe used to go out withTorn t(e vrouldgo io the.inemaevgr1 iaturdalmorning

2 Th eweat herwas s u p e rb -, w a s th e h o te t. aas b ti k e y ou,I don' t en j o ys ta y i n gi n a tl d a y .Yo un e v e rmove 3 fromt he s of a! a L ik e b Untike

W e usethe futurei n the pastto tal k aboutthi ngst hat wer ein the futurew henw e w eretal ki ngaboutthem.W e expr esst hese i deasby usi ngstructures si mi tarto the onesw e no r m allyuse to tal k aboutthe futurebut changi ngthe verbform s. I thought 10uuer? goingawalfor.thaweaKond He.saidhe vrouldsee me nell r^re.eK

4 Myboyfriend's yoursin somerespects. o o>

b like

youdo. 5 | don'tworkouteveryday,aas b tike yourdoctor, 5 'youto tryandloseweight,' I recommend saidDrWhite. 1 Correctthe mistakewith narrativetensesin eachsentence. b tike jacket?' 7 Mysister's 'Where's my , 1 A tthoughthe stormhad passed,the roadsw er est i[ [ o


aas b like y ourdoc t or ,I t h i n ky o u s h o u l dl o s es o mew e i ght,' 8 'h i s m um s aid. aas b tike

2 3

2 Comptetethe sentenceswith as, likeor unlike.Sometimes two answersmay be possible. 1 Owenenjoy spt ay i n gte a ms p o rts , b a s k e tb aland l vo t t ey bat t . 2 '-th e r es tof th e fa mi ty I' , m fe d u p w i th y o u rmoods,' h e r m um s aid. 3 my brother,I'm not verygood at maths.He atways g e t st op m ar k s ! 4 Yo u rdad does n' tgo a w a yo n b u s i n e s s m i n edoes. 5 Yo u' v egot a c ar mi n e ,h a v e n ' yt o u ? 5 We got lost on the way, did most of the guests. y ourf at he rI th i n ky o u s h o u tds e ri o u s l cy o nsi der 7 'yo urf ut ur e, s' aidC o n n o r' sd a d . 8 My boy f r iend'-s , ' W h e reh a v ey o u b e e n ? '

' ,:\Narrative tenses We u se pas tt ens est o na rra tep a s te v e n ts . We u sethe pas ts im plet o re fe rtos h o rta c ti o n sa n d e v e nts th a t a re s oonf inis hed,lo n g e ra c ti o n sa n d e v e n tsa n d to re p e a te dac t ions : ". vralKed downthe slraetandboLrght a ne.v,ripaper '.i livedrn Manchester ior 7o pact uenl to the g'1nreverlweeK \as.ilear We u set he pas tc ont inu o u sto s e tth e s c e n eo f a s i tu a ti oni n th e p a st .lt is of t enus edto d e s c ri b ea b a c k g ro u n d e v e nti n co n j u n c t ion wit h t he pasts i m p l e ,w h i c hd e s c ri b e sa n e ventor a cti o nth at int er r uot edit. it-Esunvrasshiningandihe birdswarasrngirrg iirel uere cleaninglha car whan11starisdio rain We u sethe pas tper f ectt o ta l k a b o u ta n e v e n tth a t h a p p ened b e fo reanot herev entin t h e o a s t. I siartedtheerercire andrea\rred I had doneit ba{ore

4 5 6 7 8


treacherous becauseit Hsnowed atl night. hadbt.ensnov,ring H e cl i mbedthe stai rssteal thi l yand w as ente r ingt he bedroom. S hecrosseda fi el dw hen she spotteda bul l g r azingby t he gate. Theycoul dn' ttakethe fl i ghtbecausethey had been forgetti ng thei rpassports. A s a chi l d,I w as si tti ngi n the ki tchenfor hourswat ching my mothercook. Theyusedto be marri edi n the spri ng,but w a r br okeout and he w as cal l eduo. My parentswould live in a cottagein the countrybefore they movedto the city centre. Ourarmsw ereachi ngas w e had shi ftedboxesall day. We weren'ttookingfonryard to continuingthe nextday.

Completethe mini dialogueswith the correctform of the verbsin brackets. 1 ' W hydi dn' tshe answ erthe phone?' ' B ecauseshe uras \1i ngi n the bath.'(ti e) 2 'Whyareyou late?' ' B ecauseI mytrai n.' (mi ss) 3 'Haveyou got any pets?' 'Not now, but I a dog.' (have) 4 'Whywerethey so lethargic?' 'Becausethey TVa[[ day.'(watch) yourgrandparents 5 ' D o you remember w el l ?' ' Y es,w e everysummerw i th them as kids. ' (spend) 6 ' W hyw asA nnabelcryi ng?' ' B ecauseher boyfri end .' (w atko ut ) 7 ' W hydi dn' tyou booka hotel ?' ' B ecause w e had deci dedw e cam ping.(' go) 8 ' W hendi d you haveyourbag snatched?' 'WhileI at the traffictights.'(wait)

flD sirnteandcontinuous forms Weusesimpleformsto talkabouthabits, repeated actions andstates. Weplal tenniieverlrlreeK I uasin ihearml Wa've alwala livedhare formsto talkaboutsomething Weusecontinuous happening moment. at a particular ai lo am Havrasrtill sleaping '[histimelomorrow l'll be lling ona bvach a Ha'evrorking at thamomant Weusesimpleformsto talkaboutpermanent situations. allhielife Har^rorKed {or thacompanl formsto talkabouttemporary Weusecontinuous situations. l'd baonsfalingwiihJackuniilthahouse wasfinirhcd Weusesimpleformsto talkaboutfinished situations. t{a cleanod lhy officv andthanwauenlhoma Weusecontinuous formsto talkaboutunfinished situations. I'vebccn readingthii booK for twomonthe Therearetwotypesof verbs,dynamic andstate.Dynamic actions. Theycanbe usedin verbsareverbsthatdescribe forms. simoleandcontinuous iho salslunchai homaavarlda1 I uas ealinglunchat homewhanI heardthenewe onthcradio Wedon'tusua[[y usestateverbsin continuous tenses. thel wanlio visiithe calhedra\ Somecommonstateverbsare:enjoy,tike,love,hate,prefer, remember, forget,want,need,belong. understand, believe, 1 Choose thecorrect words. 1 They'donlyknown/ 'd ontybeenknowingeachotherfor threeweekswhentheygotmarried. refused 2 Theteacher to repeattheexplanation because somestudents hadn'tlistened/ hadn'tbeenlistening. 3 | adoredmynewshoes- theywerejustwhat| 'd looked forI 'd beenlookingfor. partybecause 4 Wevotedfortheopposition wethought/ werethinkingtheymightchange ourforeignpoticy. 5 Rubydidn'tenjoy/ wasn'tenjoying the party,so she decided to leaveearly. 6 Thefishsmelt/ wassmellingoff,sowethrewit away. 7 Theringhadbelonged to my / hadbeenbelonging grandmother beforeit washandeddownto mymother.

Complete thetwosentences witha simpleanda continuous formof theverbgiven. 1 RUN he d beanrunning. a Hewasoutof breathbecause he d runalIthewav. b Hewasoutof breathbecause 2 EAT a Ruthgotfoodpoisoning because she something strange. b Daisyhadgreasy fingersbecause she andchips.

3 JOG in theparkwhen ltwistedmyankle. aI b I didn'thavemuchtimeso I onceround the oark. 4 STUDY passedhisexamsbecause he a George everynight. b C harl i ehad a headache becausehe



W e usethe fol l ow i ngstructures to specul atea bout peopleand thi ngs: look (and seem,sound, feel, etc.)/ike with a noun. iha looKaliKea etudent It feelelixe rilr look (seem,sound, feel, etc.)with an adjective. ThallooK upset iha seemsangrl wonder+ f followedby a subjectand verb. I vronderif thal havahadprobleme probab it it and y cer t aint l' modal verbsto tal k aboutpossi bi l i ty, i n the presentand the past. Hemurl ba a'fhomanow Thel might havogoneout lasi nighi 1

Rewritethe examplesentenceusingthe wordsin brackets. 1 | w onderi f he' sa sai l or. lira a sai\or.(look) a HalooKs b Hamighthavebyena sailor.(might) 2 S hemi ghtbe i tl . a b

. (wonder) . (took)

3tt lookslikethey'regoingto a footballmatch. a . (wonder) (must) b

I wonderif he'spassed hisexams. . (nottook)




Grammar Builder andReference. Unit2 /



l:.tplete the sentenceswith one word. i --e tight sar e on. S h em u s tb e h o m e . I ':.r awf u t!W h a t' sw ro n g ? = _ what t im e i t i s . : -:r b oy f r ienddidn' t s to p .H e h a v es e e nher. i :rd i look sh e d i d n ' t s l e e pl a s t n i g h t. : Sa ra ' snot at s c hoolto d a y .I s u p p o s es h ebe i tt. - ,','rat ' st hat nois e?lt l i k e a fi re a l a rm. 3 '.rvm ot herdidn' t c al tme o n my b i rth d a yS . h e-a ve f or got t en.

Completethe formaltetterwith the presentperfectsimpleor continuousform ofthe verbs in brackets.


Dear Albert, I arn writing to complainaboutyour proposedchangesto our agreementregardingbusinessflights. Employeesfrom TNN ' (fly) with BusyAir for over twenty years now, and our relationshipuntil now (be) more than cordial.Eachyear we ' (negotiate)a reasonableincreasein fares ' a and every rnonth our accountsdepartment (deal)promptly with your invoice.I fail to understand (choose)to why on this occasionyou 5 communicateyour proposalin this impersonalmanner.

perfectsimpleandcontinuous Present . . < e th e nre qe nt n erfe c t :

Regardingthe price increaseitself,I can only hope (make)a rnistake.This year we you 6 (pay) on averagenearly80% ofthe full ' businessrate and you are now proposingthat we pay the full fare.

. continuous forsomething whichhasbeenhappening -::eatedlyin theveryrecentpast. . simplewhensomething occasions hashappened on severaI : . era periodof timeandmayhappen again . continuous withfor orsinceto sayhowlongan actionhas :eenIn progress . simplewithfor orsinceontyif theverbis onewhichis not :ommonly usedin continuous tenses. . simplefora recent actionthatis nowcomplete. . continuous fora recent actionthatis ongoing. 1 Complete the two sentences in eachpairwith the present perfectsimpleandthe presentperfectcontinuous formof theverbsgiven.Usecontractions wherepossible. 1 SWIM a William b We frozen. 2 SEE aI b Lity

today. 50 lengths andnowwe're in a mountain stream

Sincereceivingyour fax, my colleaguesand I t (discuss)our relationshipwith BusyAir and we wish to expressour indignationat the lack of respectwe have suft'eredat your hands. Yours sincerely BenjarninMurray


(1) verupatterns

S omeverbsare fottow edby an i nfi ni ti ve. Wawantedto leaveearll but vrecoLrldn't S omeverbsare fotl ow edby + obj ect+ i nfi ni ti ve. I won'tallovrthe children to stal up

Alten's films. all of Woody Adamforovertwoyearsnow.

3 STAY sinceshe a Daisy in rented accommodation arrived in London. a fewtimes b We at thisguesthouse before. 4 DISAPPEAR ! a Mycarisn'twhereI parkedit. lt roomsforseveral b Bags fromthechanging weeksnow. 5 STOP perhaps youcantellme a Nowyou arguing whathappened. pedestrians to askthemabout b Thepotice the burglary.

S omeverbsare fotl ow edby + obj ect+ baseform . Wr\lthol let us stal andtee.tha end2 Someverbsare followedby + (object)+ -ing form. ulaen1o1comingio raeyou S omeverbsare fol l ow edby + obi ect+ past parti ciple. Shahad her nails polishedat tha hairdresearo Verbswhich are only followedby an infinitive:afford,agree, oppeor,decide,expect,fail, happen, hope, monage,meon, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, wont. Verbswhich are onty followedby an -ing form:admit, appreciote,avoid, can't stand, consider,contemplate,delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape,foce, feel Iike,finish, forgive, mention, miss, practise,put off, resent, risk,suggest, understand. S omeverbsare fol tow edby both an i nfi ni ti veor an - ing wit h Iittle or no changein their meaning:begin,Iike,Iove,hote, prefer, start.

t i i a : r i l i l i r .i l u i i d t t a n d R e : i 't i $ t il .



Someverbsare followedby both an infinitiveor an -ing with a changein their meaning:forget,go on, try, regret,remember, stop.


Completethe sentenceswith fo be, being, to have or hoving. 1 My si steravoi dsbei ngseenw i th hergl ass eson. 2 | don' t recol l ect beenbul l i eda t school. treatedl i kean i di otwhenshe 3 S heresents takesher carto the garage. beencausedby leaves 4 Theacci dentappears on the track. 5 | refuse sookento tikethat.

We can also use infinitivesand -ing formsdirectlyaftersome nouns. I nvoda Ka1to openthe door It's noi uorlh vrorrling aboul Comptetethe sentenceswith the correctform of the verbsin brackets.


1 M os tpeoplet en dto ta Keth e i rs u mme rh o l i d a yi n A ugust. (take) A ngiev olunt ee re-d th e m o n e yfo r Gi n a' sl eavi ng present.(coltect) B ec aus eof t he c ri s i sth e yh a d d i ffi c u l tythei r house.(setl) T heinher it anceen a b l e dh i m a y a c h t. (purchase) a tattoo.(get) 5 Ryan'sparentswouldn'tlet him 6 I t ' s not wor t hth e d o c to r- h e ' l [o n l ygi veme s om epit ls .( c on s u tt) P et ers t oppedin a c a r p a rk a p h o n ecal l . (make) Las ty earwe s pe n ta mo n th a ro u n dE urope. (travel) I ' m s o gladI r em e m b e re d m y m u m ' sb i rthday (post) cardyesterday.


(2) verUpatterns

Wh e na v er bis f ollow e db y a n o th e rv e rbth , e i n fi n i ti veor -i ng t n d c o n ti n u o u sforms. fo rm can inc ludet he p a s s i v ep, e rfe c a 1

Completethe sentencewith the correctalternative. 1 A f t erher or deal s, h e d e s c ri b e d i n th e i u n g l e. a t o be held b b e i n gh e l d 2 lf he startsanotherfight at schoo[,he risks a to be expelled b b e i n ge x p e l l e d i n th e w rong 3 S hewas unt uc k yth a t s h e h a p p e n e dplac e. a t o be s t andin g b b e i n gs ta n d i n g 4 Theyadmitteda to havestolen

the car.

5 Theactressagreeda to be interviewed

b havingstolen on W. b beinginterviewed

6 W e appeara n a g re e m e n t. a to havereached b h a v i n gre a c h e d 7 Thepolit ic iande n i e d a to havebeen mistaken 8 T hepaint ings ee m sa to havebeenstolen


b havingbeen mistaken

b y a p ro fe s s i o n a l . b havingbeenstolen

Gr a n r mBu a rilder andReference. units 3-4 /


cornarativeandsuperlative forms

S omecomparati ves can be usedw i th fhe to sa yt hat t wo changeshappenat the sameti me or are l i nke d. The bigger Ihopitu, the happierI am Ihe richer Jouara,lhe more successfuljou are W e can usetw o comparati ves to expressthe i deaof cont inuing change. ulhaths sals is less and less inleresting He'sgattingtaller and tallerl We use the followingwordsto modifycomparatives: very much,a lot, lots, any, rather,a little, a bit. le he an1 happierthanwhanI \astsa'/./ him? Thatrastaurant \.1as vgr.{much nicor thantha olharone.\.rav,ronl lo 1

Completethe sentenceswith a comparativeor superlative form ofthe adjectivesin brackets.Be carefuIof negatives! (tong)you wait for something,the more 1 Theyou appreci ate i t. (i mport antt)hingsin lif e. 2 Goodheal thi s one of (fast) he speaks,the 3 The(i ntel ti gi bte) he becomes. (l ow)whent heir 4 Mostmothersareat thei r chi l drenl eavehome. 5 Themoreti me he spendsat home,the G ood) . (hard)in Europeas it is in Africa. 6 Lifeis

2 Comptetethe sentenceswith the words in the box. awfu[ bit deal far mile quite slightty very 1 Mal l orcai sn' tas popul aras l bizawit h young peopl e. 2 I'd like to introduceyou to my bestfriend, Katie. moret im e wit h us as 3 My motherspenta goodki dsthan my fatherdi d. 4 My youngerbrotheri s a l i ttl e tallert han m e. 5 D ani etC rai gi s betteras JamesBondt hanSeaConnery. 6 In my opi ni on,C ri sti ano R onal doi s and awav the mosttatentedfootbal l eri n the w orl d. i s an l ot ri cherthan Phit ipPut lm ar . 7 l K R ow ti ng 8 N i coi s the mosti ntel l i gent studenti n our classby a


n"6u.edrelative clauses ne cansometimes formreduced relative clauses from r:e.iifyingrelative clauses. In a reduced relative clausewe rr:3 therelativepronoun verbthathelpsform andauxiliary :-e verbtense. (uhor.rere) :- '' -.e peopte sittingat ihe tablevlaremJrclaiivae ' : :.,rs (uhichuore)constructed areugl1 in lhe seventias ?eCuced relative clauses cannotbe usedif the relative :rf,nounis nottheobjectoftheverbin the relative clause. vrhoI talfe.dto af the tableweram1ralaiiver ' '- :j're. peopta


usinga reducedrelativeclause. Jointhe two sentences 1 Someinformation wasgivenin the leaftet. lt waswrong. ::rrt rnformation wrong givgnin thelaaflei l'rag 2 A ptayerwasiniuredin the match.Hewasrushedto hospital. 3 Someboysarehanging around outside theshopping centre. Theyliveon myestate. 4 A manwasarrested lastnight.Heis nowin policecustody. 5 Somehostages arebeingheldbythe hijackers. Theyare al[members ofthecrew. SeveraI employees weredismissed for badconduct. They haveal[beenreinstated. 7 A lifeguard is iumping intothesea.He'sgoingto rescue someone. 8 Somemeasures havebeenenforced bythegovernment. Theyseemto beworking. 9 A womanis standing onthepodium. She'smymother. 10 Somehousesweredestroyed They're in the earthquake. goingto be rebuilt.

Gl 6on6;tionals Second conditional Weusethesecond conditional to talkaboutan imaginary situation or eventandits resultin the oresent or future. Weformthesecond conditionalwith thepastsimplein the conditionaI if clause in theresult andwould+ bareinfinitive clause. lt'salsopossible to putthef ctause at theendof the sentence. Furthermore, werecanbe usedinsteadof wasin the conditional clause with/, he andshe. f + pastsimple

would+ bareinfinitive

tf 1oulivedin ?arir,1ou'dlearnFranch quicrll Thirdconditionat Weusethethirdconditional result to talkabouttheimaginary past. of thingsthatdidn'thappen lt is it in the oftenused to express criticism or regret. Weformthethirdconditionalwith wouldhave f + pastperfect, + pastparticiple. lt'salsopossibte at the to putthef clause endofthesentence.

if+ pastperfect

wouldhave+ pastparticiple

lf 1ouhadleft earlicr, 1ouwouldn'thavemissediheplana, Mixedconditional Weusemixedconditionals in to sayhowan imaginary situation thepresent depended on an imaginary eventin thepasttaking place. Weformmixedconditionals with rf + pastperfectandwould+ bareinfinitivein the's alsopossible to putthe,f clause at theendof thesentence. f + pastperfect

would+ bareinfinitive

lf shehad gonerhopping, sher,rouldn'l haveanamp\fridganow Inversion ln a moreformalstyletheauxitiary verbsshould,wereandhad canreplace of a conditional sentence. f at thebeginning lf t hadeeenhim,I uouldhavatold him HadI seenhim,I uouldhavetoldhim Wecanuseunlessinsteadof if ... notwhenwe wantto saywe'tl do thefirstthingifthesecond condition doesnothappen. lrla'llhavca barbecuo unlessit raine Wecansometimes useos longos insteadof f in first conditionaI sentences. lrlacanwa.tch thafilmas long as i'i'rnottoolata Decideif the sentences arecorrector not.Correctthe sentences thatareincorrect. yourtestifyouhadn'tbeenso neryous. 1 You'dhavepassed 2 lf I'd spokenbetterEnglish, I gotthejob. havecalledunless 3 Shewouldn't shehada problem. 4 Suppose I hadn'tbeento the bank,howdidwe payforthat mea[? anylater,theshowwouldstart. 5 Hadtheyarrived 6 Youwouldn'tbe so tiredif youwentto bedearlierlastnight. yourequire 7 Shoutd anyhelp,ourcallcentreis open24 hoursa day. 8 they'dbeendrivingmoreslowly, theywouldn'tcrash. "lf Choose thefirst,second, thirdor a mixedconditional to completethe sentences. 1 Youspentallyourmoneyin thesales.You'rebrokenow. in ihen\er 1ouwouldn't lf 1ouhadn'ttpantall lour money be Dr0K0now.

2 | didn'tknowyoutikedColdplay. I didn'tbuyyoua ticketfor theconcert. Youdidn'tloseyourglasses. You'llbe ableto readthe menu. H ad

.-$ . Unit4 Builder Grammar andReference

4 )ohn didn't packthe sandwiches.He'sstarvingnow.

tf 5 lf they don't ban touristsfromthe ancientcity,it will be r uinedin no t im e .

Unless Marydoesn't workat home.Shedoesn't spendmuchtime withherchildren.


+ infinitive noun/pronoun @ nr+ + infinitiveaftercertainadiectives. Weusefor + nounlpronoun Thesesentences areoftenintroduced byif. Withadjectives usedto express importance or the lackof it: It'r vitalfor us lo uin thamatch li's unnecsesarl for tho sfudenleto memoriae overfhing Withadjectives usedto express frequency: It'snormalfor lorrydriverrto gattired It'r rare for mt studants to do all thairhomoworK Withadjectives usedto express reactions to futureevents: I'm oagorfor thaptalto btarl $le'raKeenfor thachildran lo return Thisstructure canbe moreformal[y expressed by usinga fhaf clause: lJ'rvitalihatwawinthama'fch ti'snormallhaflorrl drivars gaitirad I'meagecthatthaplalshould riart Thisstructure is alsousedwithsomenouns: It'r limefor uslo rtariworK 1 Complete thesentences usingthewordsin brackets. 1 lt'sa shamefor1ouio miea(you/ miss)the party. (she/ takeover)the 2 Herfather'splanwaspractice. medical (he/ leave)thecompany. reluctant3 They're (they/ win)wouldbe a miracle. 4 (we/ go)andstayin hernew 5 She'sanxious house. (l / start)worknextweek. 6 lt's impossibte 2 Rewrite the fhat-clauses + using/or + noun/pronoun infinitive. 1 lt's important thatGrace arrivebeforetheotherspeakers. li's important lor Gracyto arrivabelorelhy oihectpea(yrt 2 Mum'splanwasthatthewhotefamilygocamping together. thatheshouldn't 3 lt'sessential turnup late. 4 He'seager thathisgirlfriend accompany himto Jo's wedding. 5 lt seemsunnecessary thatwe stayuntilthe bossleaves. 6 Ourhost'sideawasthatwe shouldn'tsetoff untilafter lunch.

. Units5-6 Grammar Buitder andReference

@ etunsis Wecanleavewordsoutwhenthemeaning is ctearwithout themandalsoto avoidrepetition. justuseto,a reduced Wecansometimes infinitive, instead of repeating thewholeexpression again. Hswanlrmc.logoIo lhv cinema urithhimandI wouldlife to (goto thocinYma r^ri.fh him) Wesometimes leaveoutthewholeinfinitive. .to Youdon'thave tellmaif 1oudon'twanl(totallme) Wesometimes leaveoutthemainverbafteran auxiliary or moda[verb. uledidn'tfinishthaurorrbuiwashouldhava(ftniehad ihav.rorK) I can'ifir it thiomorning, butI can(fir it) ftis aftarnoon lr ihat0K? Inthesecases, thesecond auxiliary verbis stressed in spoken Engtish. 1 Crossoutthewordsthatcanbe omittedfromthe sentences because of ellipsis. 1 Millieagreed to peelthepotatoes atthough shedidn't wantto oeelthem. 2 Mariais goingto tryto getthe booksI wantbut I'msure shewon'tbeableto getthebooks. 3 | didn'taskafterPam'smother whenI shouldhaveasked afterher. 4 Alfie'salwaysupsetting hisgirlfriend atthough he doesn't meanto uDsether. 5 Mybrother didn'tgoouttastnightalthough hecouldhave goneout. 5 Andydoesn'tknowif he'ilbe ableto beatRafa,but he certainly hopesto beathim. 7 Maxgoeshorse-riding now,but he didn'tuseto go horseriding. 8 WhenLiamaskedGrace to gooutfora drink,shesaid she'dloveto go outfora drink.

Itl r.u.ingaboutthefuture We use ryill+ infinitivewhen we decideto do thingsas we a': speaking (instant decisions, offers,promi ses). l'm goingnow l'll phone1ouihir avaning Youdon'ttooKwall t'll tare 1ouhoma ule'll bring 1outhai booKiomorrow We also use will to make predictionsabout the future. Ha'llnever gat all thai worKfiniehod b1 Fridal We usegoing to + infinitivefor plansand intentionsthat $. haveal readydeci dedon beforespeaki ng. r,rla'va alreadydyctdod whorawa\,{antio go \{a're going lo vis. 9ratl\ We also usegoing fo to make predictionsabout the future. thi s case,the predi cti oni s basedon somepre sentevide: : =l't'efivc to ninaandha'oonlljuet left He'sgoing to be :'t " aaainl

i{qi ,:: :^ e pr es entc ont i n u o u sto ta l k a b o u ta rra n g e m e nts we = = 'e adym ade,us ua l l ya t a s p e c i fi cti m e i n th e fu tu reand .: -tr ebody els e. -t.'',! -ri bossin har officaai nine. o't\ocY lontorro$r mocning


P hrasal verbs are formedfromtw o (someti mes thr ee)par t s:a verbfol l ow edby a preposi ti on or adverb.The prep osit ions or adverbsare sometimesreferredto as particles.Theseparticles oftenadd a parti cul armeani ngto a phrasal verband t hey usual l yhavemorethan one meani ng.

-:::h e pr es ents im p l eto ta l k th e ti me ta b te so f fu tu re ::s and ev ent s . ' leavetat 5 pm tonrorrow ' : -:: the f ut ur ec ont in u o u s(w rl l+ b e + -i n g )to ta l k a b o ut : :: :-s that wilt be in pr o g re s sa ta c e rta i nti m e i n th e fu t ure.l t . -i i =sts that t he f ut ur ee v e n th a sa l re a d yb e e nd e c i d e don. : i ^crKing n ouri1dna1officanartmonth -. )e slayingwith 1ouat Lhrittmar?

back: repeati ngor l ooki ngi nto the past Lou\dyouplal bacr the te\ephone morr,age, p\vasv? Thatonnirc\ubdatesbacKio tho t{th canturl dow n : recordi n w ri ti ngor reduci ng LouldloLrurite thesedaterdovrn2 Houtepricarhavefinalllgonedovrn off = departi ngor endi ng

i'l: -se the future perfect(will + have+ past participte)to tatk a ct ionsor ev ent st h a t w i [[ h a v efi n i s h e di n th e fu ture. ': : -: -:r,e finishedfhecoursarnTLrne ' 'll havelefi tha officeb1 *vvn o'c\ocK t

HaquicKllraid goodbleandthenran off io caichtha bus ThetwocoLrntrras havecul off diplomaiic relations withaachothar on = conti nui ngor attacki ng 6haopent'thewholatimagoingon abouther nawpartnor

Choosethe correctalternatives. i

So p hie' sgonev er yp a l e ,I th i n ko u t. a sh e' sgoingt o b s h e ' l lp a s s

2 Co m eand s t aywit h u s ,th e fre s ha i r a i s goingt o do b w i l td o 3 Da ve' sbeens av ingu p .a He' sgoingt o buy

ThosebLrllias area\wa1s picKingon Dave out = di sappeari ng or sol vi ng,searchi ng -[haforartfire.finalll died oul aftertwodale


Lan yor-r uorK out tha anrwerio this mathsqurartion?

a n e wc a r.

over= vi si ti ngor consi deri ng, exami ni ng t'^]epoppedover lo m1mLlm's burtahal,lasoLrt Lal't go overthe reportbeforatha maefing up : approachor i mprove Hea\wa1e Lwep6up on me Hejust without makinq a noira ^??yaft, I r,.rant to brush up on m1computer sKillrthislear

b He'llbuy

4 There's a documentary onW tonight. -at7.30. a lt's starting b lt starts 5 Atexcan'tseehisgirtfriend withherfriends. tonight. a She'ltgoclubbing b Sh e ' sg o i n gc tu b b i n g 6 Thistimenextyeararound theworld. a we'I betravelling b we'retravelling 7 Bythetimeyougethomea I'lIpack

thecases. b I' l l h a v eo a c k e d

8 Don'tcry.Bythistimenextweeksomeone new. a you't[be meeting b vou'[[havemet


Complete the minidialogues witha suitablefutureformof theverbsin brackets. 1 'Canyouca[[mebeforemidnight?' 'OK.I'msure| '\\ havaarrivad bythen.'(arrive) 2 'Shallwe go outfora coffeeafterclass?' 'Sorry,I can't.I tennis.'(ptay) 3 'Whyareyouslowing down?' 'Because I canseethetrafficlights.' (change) 'Shatt pick you I 4 up at eighttonight?' 'No,We dinnerthen.Comeroundat 8.30 (have) instead.' 5 'Whattimedo youhaveto getup?' 'Atsix.Thebusat7.75.'(teave) you 6 'Whenwitt beableto handin yourproject?' 'l'm sure| (finish) it by Friday.'

n.tti.les andtheirmeanings


Choosethe correctmeaningfor the underlinedparticle. 1 Haveyou sortedout what you'redoing at the weekend? a di sappeari ng b sol vi ng,searching

2 We'regoingto asksomefriends overfordinneron Saturday. a visiting b consi deri ng, ex am ining 3 H annahcheeredup as soonas she saw her bo yf r iend's messageon her mobi l e. a approach b improve

is goingto stayon at schoolto do the university 4 Janice entranceexam. a conti nui ng

b attack

photos. nowandthenwe lookbackat ourwedding 5 Every past a repeati ng b tooking intothe 6 Matt'smumaskedhimto turndowntheW. a recordin writing b reducing 7 Theotdmanis atways tetlingthe kidsto clearqff. a departi ng

b endi ng

Choose a particlethatcanbe usedin bothsentences. Decide whichmeaning fromexercise 1 is usedin eachsentence. - a looKing 7 bacY in'toihapast, b repcating. a Thissongtakesme to ourfirstfamilyholiday in Greece. b Paolaplayed the CDto makesureit had properly. recorded a Whenmyaunthadfinished criticising mysister, she startedme. b Theykeptworking untilthey finished the reDon. 3a Let'sinvitesomefriends photos. b I'mgoingto thinkacceotit.

to seeourholidav thejob offerbeforeI

a Tomnoted hernumber andarranged to call thatafternoon. b Theyplayedthe incident to prevent the crowdfrompanicking. a Theweather soonbrightened andwewere ableto go outfor a walk. b Thecastleloomed at usthroughthefog. a We setfor the beachas soon as the sun c am eout . b Anne'swaitingfor Stephento log so she can us et he phon e .

a Weneedto findwhattimeourtrainleaves tomorrow. b Thegovernment is phasing analogue il

f'tl n.norting structu res Weusedirectspeechto repeatthe exactwordsthatsomeone said.Weusereported speechto reportwhatsomeone has said,butwithoutusingtheexactwords. Annasaid,'lt waaanrncradible conccci ulahada fanla$ic |imv' Annasaid ihel had realll enjoledlhe concorl Whenwe changedirectspeechto reported speechwe usually change thetenseofthesentence, thepronouns and possessive adjectives fromfirstandsecondpersonto third person andthetimeexpressions. 'l hadanintarview .iarterdal', saidJohn Johnsaidhe hadhad an inlervievr fhe da1before

Grammar Builder andReference. Unit5

Reporting verbs Wecanusea number of otherreporting verbsto introduce reported apartfromsayandfel/.Theseverbsare statements usedwitha varietyof structures. A fewverbsareusedwith morethanonestructure: verb+ infinitive:agree,ask,claim,offer,promise,refuse, threaten Hapromisedto helpua verb+ object+ (not)infinitive:advise,dare,beg,order, remind,urge Haadvisodus to appllfor a visa verb+ gerund:deny,mention,recommend, suggest Herecommcndcd visilingthamureum + gerundioccuse,odmit,confess, verb+ preposition boast, congratulate, insist Haconfcssed to coplingmy'.^rorK verb+ object+ preposition + gerund:occuse, blome,warn Tholaccu*A me of slealing|hyir car verb+ that + (should)clause:demand,propose,recommend, request,suggest 6hasuggests ihai warhouldgetupaarll (object) + question verb+ word+ infinitive withto: ask,tell HeasKeduheroto go 1 Complete thesentences withthe correct formof theverbin brackets. Usean objectpronoun wherenecessary. jump.(do) 1 Tyte/sfriendsdaredhimto doa bungee 2 I'veonlylentHotlythemoneybecause she'sagreed bytheendoftheweek.(payback) 3 Assoonas Bethmentioned to a themepark, herbrotherandsisterwantedto joinher.(go) 4 Theteacher keptthewhoteclassbehinduntilsomeone confessed hermobile.(steat) parentsurged5 Nathan's home.(notleave) gavethestudent 5 Theheadteacher herprizeand (win) congratulated the competition. 7 Theprotesters aredemanding thatthegovernment taxes.(reduce) 8 Themuggers threatened Amy'sboyfriend if she (beatup) didn'treveal herPINnumber. 2 Choose thecorrectalternative. 1 Theywarnedmeagainstcrossing / notto crossthe park at night. 2 Tom'sgirtfriend reminded to callherat midday/ him whento catlher. 3 Heaccused meto use/ of havingusedallthemitk. 4 Mitlieadviseduswhereto stay/ we stayin Mykonos. 5 Theteacher Danto stop/ that Danstopand suggested thinkaboutit. 6 Muminsisted on giving/ to giveus morecake.




l-l * Adverbsand adjectives I : l e cti v es -- = o rd e rof adiec t iv es be fo rea n o u n u s u a l l yd e p e n d so n thei r - =.'i n g . A djec t iv es whichd e s c ri b ea tti tu d e sa n d o p i n i o ns -. -a :l yc om ebef or eall o th e ra d l e c ti v e s . incredibleo\dFrenchpairriing :: e cti vesr ef er r ing t o s i z e ,[e n g tha n d h e i g h to fte nc o me : = ':re a g e,c olour or , igin ,m a te ri aal n d p u rp o s e . - - -:,'enormousb\acK Tapanere moto|biKe. -r bersusuallygo beforeadjectivesand the wordsfirst, next " , - = l o stg o bef or enum b e rs . - , : rr\ firsl .lwoo\d9riiith siamps Ad ve rb s , ',: ca n us uallyus eadv e rb si n th re ep o s i ti o n sa: t th e : =g i n n i n g,in t he m iddt eo r a t th e e n d o f a s e n te n c eH . o wever, -:st a d v er bsar e only use di n o n e o r tw o o f th e s ep o s i tions. ,i : u sea dv er bst hat s ho wo u r th o u g h tso r fe e l i n g sa b o u t . :re th i n g at t he beginn i n go f a s e n te n c e . ::'ronall1, l'm notraa\\1 intereriod in his idaas ,"fortuna.tel1, r^re. uron't be.ableto r,om0 to ihe ueddLrrq ,',eu seadv er bsof f r equ e n c yi n th e m i d d teo f a s e n te n ce. They v e rba n d a m ai n 3 : a fte rth e v er bf o be, be tw e e na n a u x i ti a ry ,:-0 , a n d bef or ea[ [ot herv e rb s . .- often\aje. ' aluals\ivedhere usualll plal at the rare.e.Kends ,',ealso use adverbsof degreelike almost,nearlyand quite in : ^e mi d dleof a s ent ence . ,'r nearll .lhere almoslwonlhe raco d e u s eeven 't/h e nw e want t o s ays om e th i n gw a s u n e x p e c te w : efo rea ver b. \rrnchAndi'tv,ras goodl -: evencooKed . lrdrr'ievenre.frrrn thenronelI had\en1he.r u su allyus eadv er bso f m a n n e rw i th th e v e rb sth e y 'Ve d e scri b elf. t he v er b hasa n o b j e c t,th e a d v e rbfo l l o w si t. : , irasa\wa1r strngoperabeautifull.y -- . r.hi\dran atequicKll andwerrlout to pial

\i { q . Completethe sentencesputtingthe adjectivesin bracketsin the correctorder.Youmay also needto add an article. 1 Theypurchaseda charming \ittiaihatched cottagein the aucti on.(thatched, charmi ng, [i ttl e)

2 Shelookedverystytishin evenrnggow n. (sitk,btack,tong) 3 Johndri ves (fast,ltalian,elegant) 4 They' regoi ngto pul l dow n that


buitding on thecorner. (concrete, grey,h ideous) 5 Gracei s hopi ngto meet strangerwhile she'saway.(tall,dark,gorgeous) 6 S usan' sdow n-and-out fatherw ore sui tto herw edding.( check,

old-fash ioned,scruffy) 2 Decideif the sentences arecorrector not.Sometimes there is morethanonepossibility. Correct the incorrect sentences. 1 We'dluckily booked a tablefordinnerthedaybefore. LLicKi\1, rre'dboofe.d a tabla 2 Zoespenther chi tdhoodi n Moscowand she c an st ill speakfl uentl yR ussi an. y, youngpeopl ei n my arearar elyput t heir 3 U nfortunatelthe l i tteri n a bi n. 4 | lost my lob almostyesterday. w e neverare goi ngto fi ni shon ti me . 5 B asi catl y, 5 S he' sbeentryi ngto eat heal thi l yfor the l astweekor so. 7 Theyoccasi onal li yn the summergo campi ng. 8 My cousi nevendi dn' tsaythankyou w henw e put her up [astw eekend.

if, nounsand -ing lormsafterpreparatory adjectives /f can be usedas a preparatory subi ector obj ectfo r an - ing form,especi al ty i n i nformalstyte. We often use if with adiectives. It vrasinlerestinghearing whathe hadio sa1 ti vrillbe greal*eing lorra\\again We often use if with the noun ryorfh. ts it realll r^rorth bLrling ihooaleans? [i vrasvrorthasKing for he\p Theobj ectof the -i ng form can someti mesbecom et he subiect ofthe sentence. I1'rworthsaeing Regant'sParK Kegent'sParKri horihbePing /f i s al sooftenusednegati velw y i th the noun use. It vron'lbe an1 u5evraiiinq herefor him S omenounsand adi ecti ves can be fotl ow edby -i ng f or m s. A preposi ti onusual l yj oi nsthe -i ng formw i th the nounor adj ecti ve. t hatethe idea of gettingtai

Complete the sentences withthewordsfromthe boxandthe -ing formof the verbin brackets. good nice pointless tiring use worth 1 lt's no uic reporiing thecrime.Yourwaltetwil[neverbe found.(report) yourmother 2 lt was outforlunch. She didn't eat anything.(take)

3 lt'sno goingto study.(stay) It'sbeen time.(talk)

on at schoolif youaren't to you.Thankyouforyour

It was with the sameold probleins, day in and day out. (deal) 6 lt isn't our houserightnow.(selt)

Complete the sentences usingthewordin brackets andan -ing torm. (thought) 1 Nobody wantsto havean operation. People don't[ikethethoughi o{having anoperation. 2 Ofcoursel'[[passall myexams.(confident) I'm 3 Everybody t hink sth a t N a d a w l i l l w i n . (c h a n c e ) Nadalhas is thatherchildren 4 Hermainconcern maygetlost. (wonied) She's 5 I'veneverspentthe nightin an igloobefore.(strange) It'ltbe 6 Kidsrarely [ikethinking thattheirparents mightsptitup. (thought) M os tc hildr enh a te



Weaddemphasis to writtenEngtish by usingspecial structures. Cleftsentences Wecanuse/f rs emphasise partsof different fromtheverb. a sentence JacrlortIhecamYra JacKvrholooi|hvcamera It r^ras It uas the LametathalJacKlost emphasise thesubject or o b l e c tof a s ent enc e . Katatold har flat

WhatKaiesolduas her flai

lnversion So m enegat iv eadv e rb sc a n b e u s e da t th e b e g i n n i ngof a se nt enc et o add emp h a s i sIn . th e s ec a s e sth e a u x i l i aryverbi s put beforethe subject.lf there is no auxiliaryverbdo, doesor did is used. l'venever*en suchan animal Nover have I eeensuchan animal ula rarell arrivadon tima Rarell did w? arrive on iime

G r am m ar B ur t c i earn dR e fe re n c eU. n i t7 emphasise thattwo negative events havehappened. Halorihrslobandhir wifalafthim Not onll didhir wifalaava him,bui he alsolosthirlob AdverbiaI expressions of place Adverbial expressions of placecanbe putat thebeginning of a sentence foremphasis, especially whentheyarefollowed by intransitive verbssuchas come,sit,standor walk. Hewalrad uothahil\ Up the hill hawalrad Wecanalsousephrases suchas theproblemI troubleI truth I foctI questionis. Theproblemis hadoarn'idoan1worK Wesometimes usetheauxiliary verbdo to addemphasis to themainverb. lrlereal\1 hisrecita\s a'fthaconcart hall do aqlo1 1 Complete addingemphasis. thesecondsentence 1 Thefourofficers into iumped a waitingpolicecar. lntoa \.raiiing polica carjumpodfhefourofficert. 2 Thepartyhadhardtygotgoingwhenthe lightswentout. Hardly carriedaway.That'sthetruth. 3 Wegotcompletely Thetruthis 4 Thecaptainreported thefaultassoonaswetookoff. Nosooner publictransport 5 Theyneedto improve to solvethe problem. congestion What 6 | missmyoldersisterthemost, It's Two 7 armed soldiers stoodoutsidethe oalace. Outside 8 W e di dn' tpayfortheftight.Wepaidforthe hotet.(do) W e di dn' t

phrases Rewrite the underlined in thetextto addemphasis. 1Asolitarv fisurestandsin frontof theruinsof hishouse. 2 Neither a bombnora firecaused thedestruction. buta formidable tornado, whichroared through the French town of Hautmont lastSunday night.3Thestormrippedhouses 4 Nobodv apartandkilledthreepeople. knowswhatturneda thunderstorm intoa devastating tornado. PaulKnighttey, at theTornado andStormResearch Organisation, believes that5a superce[[ struck thenorthof France.Superce[[s areexceptiona lly powerfu I thundersto rms. Theyrotatelikea slowlyspinning carouseI butdeepin their centrea faster-spinning columnof airdropsdownto the 6Thesestormsoccurfrequentlv groundasa tornado. in the USA.butt thevhaven't beense

l{ 1 In frontoftha ruinso{ hiohoueastandra soliiary figura 2 Wh a t (notonly) 3 (question) 4 5 It (do) 6 (notuntit) 7

l? rrroa.r Modalverbs permission, areusedto talkaboutobligation, willingness, abitityandfuturepossibitity. Theyarealsoused to talkaboutthepossibility or probabitity of something happening. Ability

@ woutd Wecanusewouldtot . express examples of whatwastypicalbehaviour in thepast. Paop\e vroulduearihairbe$c\oihvtontundalr . express examples of willingness in thepastor in a hypothetical present. Havrouldn'l halpmewithm1homaworK lastnighi I vrouldn't vranlto virit6g1p't at ihisiimeof lear o makea deduction aboutthepresent or past. I heardromeone alihodoorThatuouldbe thaoosiman Waurouldhavobeenal universi\ whanweravriha'tfilm preferences Weexpress preferand + like,love, usingwould rather. i'd lirp a b\acY coffee, p\oarc Weusewouldwiththeverbssayandthinktomakeour opinions moretentative. .tryandimprove parformanca l'd sa1that1ouehould lour l'd think1ou'llhavca difficult timc 1 Complete the sentences usingwouldandthe verbsin brackets. Thenmatchthe sentences to the useson page82 ofyourStudent's Book. 1 Thechildren didn'tlikevegetables whentheywerelittte. (eat) Thalwouldn'i eaIvegolab\es whanthal weralitilc 2 Asa chitdI alwaysmademyownbirthday cards.(create) When (rather) 3 Can'twegeta takeaway instead? I 4 lt neveroccursto mybrotherto catlme.(think) Mybrother 5 In myopinionabouttwentypeopleturnedup.(say) (been) 5 | guessy ouweretiredafteryourjourney. You Goingto the REMconcert's a greatidea!(tove) I Ofcourseherboyfriend stoodup for herl(defend) Her

we useconandamlarelisableto to talkaboutabilityin the present. t'm ablsto driveverybiglorrics 6an lour daughter r',,rim? Weusecouldandwaslwere ableto to talkaboutabitityin the past.Weusebothstructures to talkaboutrepeated activities in thepast. Hecoulddanco varvwall $leweren'lablelo tpoauFcench thsn (i.e. Weonlyusewaslwere ableto notcould)to talkabout something thatonlyhappened oncein the past. Thepartlftnirhadlatebui l uas ablelo ia<oa ta'^i Permission Weuseconto saysomething is permitted in the present and couldto saysomething waspermitted in the past.Can'tand couldn'tarethe negative forms. \rlscanlaaveworKai 5 pm evary Fridal I can'lu* thaln'tarnei at homaaf'tart0 om M1dadcouldonll vaIchocolalv onSundals I couldn'twaarlongtrouserr to echool whenI waea bo1 Obtigation Weusemustandhoveto to tatkaboutobligation in the present. Weusualtyusehavefo whenwe aretalkingabout rules,musfwhenit's a personal obligation. Youhavelo wsara swimming capaI lhepublicswimming pool I mustrtudlmoreOnglieh bafore I goto livcin Lhicago Weusemustn'twhensomething is prohibited. Studenis mueln'feaianddrinKin thalibrary Weuseneedn'tanddon'thoveto to saythereis no obtigation to do anything. Youmaychoose to do or notto do something. l.lanoodn'tdothaea e\wcibeb bui I thinKit wouldbea goodtdealo't havafo halphisoldnaighbour buthaltos to Possibitity Weusemay,mightandcouldto discuss the possibitity of something happening. Maysuggests thatthechances of something happening areslightlygreater thancouldand might. I thinKit mal rainthir avaning iha raidrhemightcomo, buirhadidn'tsound verlanthuriaslic Logical deductions aboutthe present Weusemaylmightlcould+ infinitiveto saysomethingis possible. TommightwiniharaceHe'iin goodform

. Unit8 Grammar Builder andReference


Weusemust+ infinitive to saysomething is certain. Mikgis 5oaKing. lt mustbgraining. Weusecofl't+ infinitive to saysomething is impossible. li can'lbatruc.iam waowiihmalastnight Logical deductions aboutthe past Weusemaylmightlcould + have+ pastparticipleto say something waspossiblein the past. l|'t $rangvthathchasn'tphoncd. Hemighthavolosthiamobila Weusemust+ have+ pastparticiple to makea strong supposition aboutsomething in thepast. Tohnwaroff worKlastwcsK. Hcmusfhavobaenil[. Weusecon't+ have+ pastparticipteto sayit wasimposs'ible happened thatsomething in the past. thel didn'tKnow anfhingabouithcfilm sothcl can'lhavesecnii. 1 Crossout the modalverbthat cannotcompletethe sentence. Tryto justifyyourchoice. 1 Hewalkfora yearafterhisaccident. Hewentaround in a wheelchair. a couldn't b wasn'tableto c shouldn't c - couldn'tandwasn'fablclo erprerenoabtlitv, ehouldn'tis normalllwcd for advice 2 Shehavelefthermobilein thecoffeeshop.Hermum calledwhileshewasthere. a might b can c could getmyhaircut- it looksawful. 3 |a must b can't c haveto parkon a doubleyellowlineoryou'llgeta fine. 4 Youa don'thaveto b can't c mustn't | stayat yourhousetonight? 5 I'vemissedthe lastbus home. a Can b May c Must 6 Theywaitin thequeue.Theyhadalready boughttheir tickets. a mustn't b didn'tneedto c didn'thaveto present 7 Webuya leaving forMary.She'sbeensucha goodboss. a oughtto b shoutd c would 8 lt's 2.30p.m.George have arrived in Beijingby now. a can b must c will Complete the sentences witha suitablemodalverbandthe verbin brackets. Morethanoneanswermaybe possible. 1 | don'tmindourschooluniformbecause we_ a tie. (wear) 2 Toreducecarbonemissions peoplepublic transportmore.(use) 3 Mymother untilshewas40.Shepassedher teston herbirthday.(drive) 4 lt Johnthatcalled.Hesaidhewould.(be) yourmobilephonewhileyou''s 5 You(use) ittegal. 6 |a pen?| wantto writedownyour (borrow) emailaddress.

. Unit9 Grammar Builder andReference

I'mnotsurewhythey'reso late,butthey Get tost) isn'tgoingouttonightbecause Jessica shetomorrow's exam.(study)


9It Cotloquial omissions -

In informal spokenEnglish we cansometimes leaveoutwords at the beginning of a sentence if the meaning is veryclear. Thesewordsarenotstressed in spokenEnglish whentheyare included in a sentence. Articles wh1did1oucatchthabue?(The)Traine aren'irunning todal pronouns Possessive Ara1ou0K?No.(M1)Head hurtr.I ihinKI'vegoia n,igrainc. Subjectpronouns ulhatdid1ousa1? (l) aan'thcar1ou!Thcmuoic'e tooloud. Auxitiary pronouns verbsandpersonaI at the beginning of questions (Hava1ou)gcenIo ihy cinema racan'tl1? No.ulhai's on? Negative formscanbe replaced bynof How's Tohn? (Hoisn'l) Noi happ1, l'm afraid

@ rr,. passive Wemakepassive formswiththeverbbe + pastparticiple.

is decorated everysummer. is beingdecorated at the moment. hasbeendecorated recently. wasdecorated lastmonth. wasbeingdecorated untilthebad weatherstarted. hadbeendecorated onlyoncebefore will be decorated soon. is goingto be decorated nextmonth. maybe decorated in the nextfew months. Thepassive is usedto talkaboutprocesses. thv cart are laKonfromthofactonlandihcn.thcyare transporfod all ovorOurooc. Thepassive is usedwhenwe don'twantto sayor we can'tsay whoperformed the action. 'lhir boofuraeuritlsn in thet]'thcen'tury butthc au.lhor ia unKnourn.




lj -s


T hep a ssiv eis us edwhen i t' s o b v i o u sw h o p e rfo rm e dth e acti o n . Irrefire.has fina\\1 been put oul

W i ndpow eri s the bestsol uti onto the gl obale ner gycr isis. (sayoften)


5 o ili s runni ngout. (consi dergeneral l y) o il

T hep a ssiv eis als o us edt o p u t th e m a i nfo c u sa t th e beg i n n i ngof t he s ent encel.f w e w a n tto s a yw h o c a rri e d out th e a c t ionwe int r odu c eth e p e rs o n ' sn a m ew i th th e pre p o si tion by . Itrereemai\shavebeen eent \ somaone in thieoffice,and I wan'fto rrrowuhol

(seeusually) Public transport is toounreliable. Public transport A i r travelcausesa greatdealof pol l uti on.(ack nowledge widety) C ommerci al fl i ghts

years.(reportfrequently) in recent 8Ft oodinghasworsened It

Completethe articlewith the correctpassiveform of the verb in brackets. A stu d yint o t he f ut ur eo f th e w o rtd ' smo n k e y s t hasbaencarriad oulhas been carriedout (carryout)recently b y a n i m alex per t st,he r e s u l tso f w h i c h (re l e a s ea)t a n i n te rn a ti o n a l co n fe re nclas e t m ont h.

We use whatever,whoever,wherever,however,etc. to say i t doesn' tmatterw hat,w ho,w here,how ,etc.beca use the outcomew i tt be the same.A s theseexoressi o ns ar e conj uncti ons, theycan comeat the begi nni ngor i n t he m iddt e of a sentence. mymind Whatever \ou saj,t vron'ichange tNe. hada greatlime in lta\1, vrherever weweni

During it r thesurvey

(find)that 303 of th e 6 3 4 or im at ess t udie dma vs o o nb e c o mee x ti n c ti n t he (ctassify) wi l d ; 6 9 s pec ieso as critica[[y e n d a n g er ed s inc et he r e s u l tsb e c a m ek n o w n . Th emain r eas onf or t he ra o i dd e c l i n ei n n u mb e rs (identify)in the reportas d e fo res t at ion. Howev e r, i n s o mea re a sm o red a ma g e 6 (d o )b y l o c a lp e o p l ew h o h u n tth e (eat) in a n i ma l sf or f ood.M onke y s7 severalregionsof Africaand Asia. Conservationists want world leadersto take urgent me a su r es t o pr ot ec t he s ea n i m a l si n th e h o p eth a t th e y (save)from extinctionin the near


Passivestructureswith consider,believe,etc. s i th a n i n tro d u c to ry We so met im esus e pas s i v e w subiect o t a l k a b o u tt hingsin a gen e rasl e n s e .So meth e v e rb smo st frequentlyused in this way arebelieve,considerandfeel. iiris rranis considered erlre.nre\1 dangerous ll lo fslt ihat the goverrrnreni inflation aboLri murt do sonreihing 1

Rewritethe sentencesin the passiveusingthe wordsin brackets. . e ti e ve 1 Na ti onals ec ur it yis o f p a ra mo u nitmp o rta n c e(b firmly) It ir firmll bs\iovcd tha.inationai sacuri'\rso{ paramonnt rmPOrtanrg fo r g l o b a tw a rmi n g(accept . 2 Hu m anac t ionsar e r e s p o n s i b te widely) It . g a rdu s u a ll y) Mo ns oonsar e a t r op i c a p I h e n o me n o n(re Mo ns oons

rtot" ver,whoever,wherever,however,etc.


We can also use howeverwith an adiectiveor adverbto mean i t doesn' tmatterto w hat extent.In thesesentencewe s can someti mesl eaveout the verbfo be. Houeverinieresling(t rr),I don'tr^ran'f to reathe plal 1

Completethe sentencesusingthe wordsin the box. however whatever whenever wherever whichever whoever

1 2 3 4

youare. I'mnottellingyoumyphonenumber, youdo. Don'tgooutwithMandy's brother, Wecanmeetup dayis bestforyou. People areseldomsatisfied withtheirsalary muchtheyearn. you'vegottime,I'vegota ftexibte Wecanmeetschedule. | go. Mylittlebrother followsme-

W @


1 Jointhe sentences witha suitablerelativectause. Omitthe pronoun wherepossible.

pronouns Relative

who/ that which/ that








1 A mananswered the phone.Herefused to tistento my complaint. Thamanwho/ ihatanswarad thaphona ra{uoad io listanio mv complaini gotridof tastedof liquorice. 2 Somemedicine 3 TheGoldenGateBridgeis an impressive sight.Wecrossed it yesterday. yesterday. 4 He'sa pilot.Hisplanecrashed 5 They're mending the lift.Thismeanswe'llhaveto usethe stai rs. 6 | askeda womanfor information. Shewasveryhelpful. 7 Britney Spears is hoping to makea comeback. Shesang 'Babyonemoretime'. 8 Thehotelwasful[.Wehadbookedit.


Defining relativeclauses Definingrelativeclausesgive essentiaIinformationabout th e per s on,t hingor p l a c ei n th e ma i nc l a u s eWi . th o utthi s i n fo r m at ion t he s en te n c ew o u l db e i n c o mp l e te . That'sthe flat lhat wo want fo bu1 I metihe parmnwho i$ going lo laKaovarthodepartmant l'vebought1ou'thcbooKuhich t told 1ouabouf We can omit the relativepronounwhen it is the objectof the definingrelativectausebut not when it is the subject. -[hai'athe flat (that) wawantlo bu1 I mai ihe parronvrhoii goinglo IaYvoveriha dapartmeni l'veboughl1outho booK(dhich)| told 1ouabout


Rewritetheserelativeclausesin a moreformalstyle. 1 Thelandwhichthe riverrunsthroughbelonged to my familyin thepast. Thalandthrough which tharivarflowsbelonged to m1famillin ihe Dast

2 Mygrandfather, whoI havethe utmostrespect for,died fightingfor hiscountry. 3 Apptications whicharefitledin incorrectly wiltbe rejected.

Non-definingrelativeclauses N o n - def ining r elat iv ec l a u s e sg i v en o n -e s s e n ti a i nl formati on per s on,t h i n go r p l a c ei n th e ma i nc l a u s e.Thi sextra a b outt he informationmust atwaysgo betweencommas. TheQuaen, vrhowaeuearinga bluo summerdress, opynod Iho ncwhosDiial in Mancheriar M1car,uhich I bought last 1ear,is alwalrbrcaKing down We cannotom it non -d e fi n i nre g l a ti v ep ro n o u n sfro mthe se nt enc e.Neit herc a nw e u s eth e re l a ti v ep ro n o u nfhaf i n olaceof whichor who. Prepositionsin relativeclauses l f a r elat iv ec laus ein c l u d e sa p re p o s i ti o n w e c a n o ft enchoose to p u t it at t he begin n i n go r th e e n d o f th e c l a u s e .l f i t i s used a t the beginningof t h e c l a u s ei t s o u n d smo refo rmal . Thiois tha church(which)wagot marriadin Thiair thachurchin whichwagotmarriad We usuallyuse the formalrelativepronounuvhominsteadof wh o whena pr eposi ti o n c o m e sb e fo rei t. 'fte peop\e whoI rpoKato warerealtlhelpful Thapeople to whomI epoKa warerealllhelpiul lf the prepositionis part of a phrasatverb it stayswith the verb. I metihs manwhosei up tha company withm1faihar

. Unit10 Grammar Builder andReference

My mother' sgl asses, w hi chshe cannotseewit hout ,look qui testyl i sh.

William's bestfriend, whohe hasalways confided in,has justmovedabroad. Theygaveawaysomeold toyswhich hadn'tbeen played with for years. Thewall which Ryanwas standingon top of tookedlike it would toppleover.

TheboywhoSarahfetlin lovewithturnedoutto be a thief.

r VoqABULARY ttl rrefixes

Gracew as unhappyw i th her boyfri end' s behavi our, so she l eft hi m. (S OC IA L) y S tudentsaregeneral l more in classwhen theirviewsaretaken seriously.(OPERATIVE) Thegovernment i s i ntroduci ng new measures t o t ax t he . (R tcH ) H i s i nstructi ons w erevery , and so we got (LE A D IN G) compl etel tost. y



We can sometimesadd the prefixesun-,in- (im-, il-, ir-) and dis- to adiectives,adverbsand verbsto makethem negative.


impracticol unfortunately disappeor Usea negativeprefixdis-, il-,im-, in-, ir- or un- with the wo rdsin t he boxt o c o m p l e teth e s e n te n c e s . accessible aeetnate advantaged inhabitable Iiterate partial replaceable Theys uedt he new s p a p ebr e c a u s ema n yo f th e fa c tsi n the report were irr.rrr-r.rr,'rl r.. w e res l i m,b e cause Jac k ' sc hanc esof re a c h i n gu n i v e rs i ty o f h is b a c k g ro u n d . Th ehous ehasf a[ [ e ni n to ru i n a n d i s n o w c o m p l e tel y Th ef ir e at t he ar t g a l l e ryd a m a g e da n u m b e ro f ex hi bi ts . Theyr eat is ed t he a p p l i c a nw t as w h e n he couldn' tr eadt he in s tru c ti o nto s th e te s t. A chair per s on hast o b e , e v e nw h e n they com plet ely dis agr e e w i th o n e o f th e s p e a k e rs . Thes nowc an be v e ryd e e pi n w i n te r,m a k i n gth e v i l l age

Prefixeswith fixed meaning J:t\ .\

1 S om epr ef ix e sh a v ea fi x e dme a n i n ge, .g . ov er : t oo m u c h overcooked overcharged overworked


2 Y ouneedt o c h e c ki n a d i c ti o n a ry w h e th e rth e new wor d is wr it t e nw i th o rw i th o u ta h y p h e n e , .g . anticlimax co-educationol self-evident underpoid


Matchthe prefixes(1-8) to the meanings(a-h).

l over la badty 5 anti I e notenough 2 cross lb extremely 5 under I f byitself 3 mis I c toomuch 7 co lg against 4

s uper ld

bet w e e n




w i th

f? Corpoundadiectives Usethe presentor past participleof the verbsin the box to compl etethe compoundadj ecti ves i n the sent ences. behave catch equi p keep make rai se r each sound 1 TheU ni tedN ati onshassenta peacef or cet o the areato dealw i th the rebel s. 2 l thi nk my GPmustbe forei gnas he hassucha st r angename. Theexpedi ti onw as extremety ill, and so t hey hadto turn backj ust threedaysaftertheyhad lef t . Thestorehad an eyew i ndowdispt ay,which attractedmanycustomers. W e arri vedhomeabsol utel ypetri fi edafterour hai rdri vethroughthe bl i zzar d. I don' t mi nd baby-si tti ng for my ni ecesand n ephewsbecause they'reverywellThebestthi ngaboutvi si ti ngmy grandmother ar e her hom ecaK es. Thegovernment has proposedsomefarchangesw hi chw i ttaffectthe w hol epopul a t ion.

f? cornound nouns I Compound nouns 1 S \\s\i ::i

Compound nounsareformedbyjoiningan adjective anda noun specialeffects romanticcomedy or byioiningtwonouns. Iovestory boxoffice Inthesecond casethefirstnoundefines thesecond


nounso i t functi onsas an adl ecti ve.

the sentences 3 Complete witha prefixfromexercise 2 and

2 Y ouneedto checki n a di cti onary w heth era compoundnouni s w ri ttenas one or two wor ds.

the wordsin brackets. 1 Thatc oats eem sa b i t i i ,i .. ' i .I' m s u rei t' s n o t w o rththat mu c h!( P RI CE D) 2 Theyc om plet ely th e n u m b e ro f g u e sts,so th er ewas n' tenoug hfo o dto g o ro u n d .(E ST IMA TE D ) p ro j e c tsa i me dat 3 We hav ea num be ro f i mpr ov ingr elat ion sb e tw e e ni mmi g ra n ts a n d re s i dents. (CULTURAL)

Match1-8 w i th a-h to makecompoundnounsr elat edt o t he film industry. 1 2 3 4

feature 5 shoe-stri ng 6 openi ng 7 heart 8

btock a road b psychol ogi catc fi tm d

buster e m ovie f f it m thri tl er g budget buff sequen ce h t hr ob

4 My unc t e' sa a rti s t- h e ' s n e v e rb e e nto p a int ingc las s esin h i s l i fe .(T AU G H T )

* Vocabutary Builder.Units1-2


Matchthe compound nounsin exercise 1 withthe definitions. Useyourdictionary to helpyouwritethe words correctly. 1 A blocrburrtar is a verysuccessfuI film. 2 ln a themaincharacters undertake a journey. is a full-length 3 filmwitha story. 4 A filmmadeon a hashadvervlittle funding. 5 A is an experton cinema. 6 Thefirstsceneis knownasthe 7 In a thereis a mentalor emotional conflict between the maincharacters. A is a famousactorwhoa lot of womenfind attractive.


t-dtGradableandnon-gradable adiectives 2 E t!

Gradable adjectives canbe usedwithadverbs likeveryor ertremely to saythata personor thinghasmoreor less of a quality. not verypleased extremelydisoppointed Non-gradable adjectives areusedwithadverbs which emphasise theirextreme or absolutenaturesuchas absolutelyandcompletely. absolutelyterrible completelyimpossible Theadverbsfairly,pretty,quite andreallycanbe used withbothgradable andnon-gradable adjectives. pretty quite poor common huge reallyexcellent foirly

Readthe Learnthis!boxandunderline the non-gradable adjectives in the sentences. 1 Didyoufindthe ptota bit far-fetched? 2 ThespeciaI effectsin Transformers areutterlyspectacular. portrayal 3 SusanSarandon's of a cancer victimwas intensely moving. performance Bardem's 4 Javier in NoCountry for OldMen powerfu[. wasextremely 5 Thephotography of thedesertlandscapes wassimply superb. 6 Didn'tyoufindthecharacter development rather weak? 7 Thefitmtakesa slightty light-hearted lookat theguns policyin theUSA. 8 KeiraKnighttey waspractica[[y unknownbeforeshestarred in Bendit likeBeckham. 9 Thefitmwasn'tparticularly faithfutto theoriginal story. 10 Theleadwasplayedbya newcomer, whowasperfectly awful.

r unrts vocaourary Buiroer 2-3

phrases @ s"t I

z, -. E tt <(= JF


Collocations In English somecollocations areso strongthatthey havebecomesetphrases. boilinghot freezingcold

1 tvtatch 1-10 with a-i to makesetphrases. 1 2 3 4 5


boiting la wide lb fightinglc bone ld soakingle

fit dry wet hot awake

6 7 8 9 10

bone lf sound lS brand lh pitch li wide li

asleep black open new idte

Complete the sentences withthe setphrases fromexercise 1. 1 Aftersuchan eventful day,the children weresoonsoLrnd as\eop. Whenthe lightswent out, it was - we coul dn' tseea thi ngl It w as l astS aturday, so we spentt he whole day at the poo[. A ftermonthsw i thoutany rai n,the groundin m y gar denis

It startedto rainwhenwewerewalkingbackto the car,so we got Theyteftthebackdoor , sothethiefwalked straight intothekitchen andtookherbag. Mydadhasalways boughtsecond-hand cars,buthislatest caris Mysister'sboyfriend - he neverdoesany is work. Afterdrinkingso muchcoffee,I wassti[[ at 3 a.m. 10 Mygrandmother's afterherheartoperation - it wasa complete success.


I VocnBU ftptessions with chonge


1 Completethe sentenceswith the wordsin the box. better direction hands heart minds plan tune ways 1 Hi s par ent shad a c h a n g eo f a n d l e t hi m go o n t he s c hoolex c h a n g a e fte ra l l . 2 Wewer ec ons ideri nggo i n gc a m p i n g b , u t w e c h a n gedour when we sawthe weatherforecast. Ti nas aids he' dneve rg e t m a rri e db, u t s h e ' sc h a n g edher sinceshe met Steve.Yesterday I saw her l o ok ingat weddingri n g s ! My br ot herhasc ha n g e dh i s s i n c eh e found a g ir lf r iend- he ev e nti d i e sh i s ro o mn o w ! Dan' sdec idedt o stu d ym u s i ca t n i g h ts c h o o t.l th i nk he' s l o ok ingf or a c hang eo f El lie' snewjob is a c h a n g efo r th e - she gets paid overtimenow. Thes t olenpaint in gc h a n g e d s e v e ratil mes beforeit was found in a backstreetart dealer's. 8 Th er e' sbeena c ha n g eo f T h em o v ehas

beenpostponed untilnextJanuary.

ftl loiort Matchthe verbs(1-8) with the words(a-h) to makeidioms with their originsin war. Useyour dictionaryto help you.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


openup burn fight set bury jump drop stickto

a b c d e f g h

a bombshell thegun oldwounds thehatchet a losingbattle yoursightson something yourbridges yourguns

Completethe sentenceswith the idiomsfrom exercise1. Use the correctform of the verb.



1 tvtatch eachverbin the boxwiththetwo nounsit collocates with.Useyourdictionary to helpyou. acquire administercause laughoff pronounce provoke shakeoff take takeover t 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


acountry,arestaurant afeeting,acold trouble,a fire sentence, thewinner a suggestion, a claim advice, a chance areputation,ataste punishment, drugs a quarrel, reaction an allergic

Complete the sentences withtheverb-noun collocations fromexercise 1.Youmayhaveto changethearticles. 1 Myfatherhasa lotof experience in moneymatters, so I alwavs fromhim. There' sa groupofyouthson our estatew ho do not hing but everyni ght. D espi tethe supportof her fami l y,E vacoul d n't shew as maki nga bi g mi stak e. W hensomeoneaskedi f shew asgoi ngto re sign,she t r ied to Thearmyi s threateni ng to by f or ceif t he government doesnot meetthei rdemands. P eanutscan w hi chcan be l i fe-threateni ng i n somecases. Thej udgei s goi ngto fi rstthi n gin t he morni ng. D octorsusual l y i ntravenously t o pat ient s w ho are admi ttedto hospi tal . I di dn' t for sushiunti lI w entto livein Japan.

1 Parentsareilihtrrrga \oringbait\awith the schoolgovernors o vera r educ t ionin s c h o o lfe e s . 2 My s is t er o n b e c o mi n ga c l i n i c a t p sy c hologiswhen t s h e l e a v e su n i v e rs i tyl t'. sw h a t she' s alwayswantedto do. 3 Si lv iaf elt t he ar gume nw t i th h e r b ro th e rh a d g o n eon for l o n genough,s o s h e d e c i d e dto a n d i nvi te h i m r oundf or lunc h . 4 Th ec om pany a n d l a u n c h e dth e p ro d uct b ef or eit had beenp ro p e rl yte s te d . 5 My br ot her a t d i n n e rb y a n n o u n c i n g he w as g e tt ingm ar r ied.W e d i d n ' te v e nk n o w h e h a d a g i rtfri end! 6 Th epr im em inis t e r a l th o u g hth e re stof the p ar t yar e against h e p o l i c y . 7 WhenMatt saw his ex-wifeat a friend'sparty,it Be n w h e n h e re s i g n e di n th e mi d d l eof the p rojec tT. hec om pa n yw i tl n e v e rta k e h i m b a c k .

Vocabulary Buitder. unirs 4-5


,..,**o**.VOmB (1) @ woraformation

thetable.Useyourdictionary 3 Complete to helpyou.

1 Complete the examplesinthe Learnfhist box.

I F -=l E tg

Adjectivesuffixes Manyadjectives areformedby addinga suffixto a noun. Thesesuffixes oftenhavea fixedmeaning. -ol = relatingto -ous= havingthe quatityof ) courageous centre) central courage nat ion> t -lr = characterisedby

m y s te ry > 2


-ful = Iull of >thoughtful thought a event> -less= without harm>harmtess


h o m e>6

wit ) witty c loud>3 -ed = having

Complete the sentences withadiectives formedadding suffixesto the wordsin brackets. 1 Mysisterprefers travelling on herown.She'sreallyquite . (ADVENTURE) 2 Wendy's hadseveral nightsbecause she's (SLEEP) concerned aboutherdaughter. wasfeeling 3 Ourteacher benevolent, so shesaidthe homework was . (OPTION) Harryis tryingto leada lifeby cuttingout fatsfromhisdietanddoingmoresport.(HEALTH) Weboughtthehousebecause of itsidytliclocation and rooms.(SPACE) Andy'sanklewasso he couldn't walkon it. (PAtN) DeanandJoarean unbearable couple. He'sveryarrogant andshe'stenibly . (CONCEII) Doctors andnurses sometimes haveto facethe (OCCUPATTON) hazardof violentpatients.










con sider at e




i magi nati on









tol erance



exercise 1. 1 Oneof mymother's qualities most is her calmness in moments of crisis. Nobody knowswhat'shappening because of thetackof between management andemployees. canbe incredibly thoughtless because he isn't Joshua usedto otherpeoplebefore himself. Emity's dogneverleaves'scompletely to herl youhaveto be extremely Tobe a successful novelist TheFrenchman Matthi euR i cardgaveawayall his to becomea monk. A bestfri endi s someoneyou canal w ays on. Manyci ty-dw el l ers escapeto the coasti n t he sum m er becausethevcan' t the he at .

(1) â&#x201A;Źi unt"rs Choose the correctlinkingword. 1 In additionto / Furthermore hergoodlooks,whatfirst girtfriend attracted meto my washercharm. What'smore/ Besides pianist, beingan excetlent shehas a beautiful singing voice. - I gottop marksin myexamsandI Lastyearwasfantastic passedmydrivingtestintothe bargain/ aswellas. Theidealteacher shouldhaveboth/ aswellas patience anda reaIdedication to theirfob. Ptus/ Apartfromthefactthatshe'scompletely retiable, mybestfriendis alsoextremety witty. Furthermore thequatityI / Alongwithherintelligence, mostadmireaboutmysisteris herdetermination. Mygreat-grandmother wasa verybravewoman.Moreover mother to hersixchildren. / Alongwithshewasa devoted Harryis a veryskilledfootballer anda brilliant student to boot/ in addition to.


Vocabulary Builder. unit5


4 Complete the sentences withthe correctformof wordsfrom

Youcansometimes add-fulor -lessto a nounto make adiectives withoppositemeanings, e.g. thoughtful thoughtless harmful harmless However, thisis notalwayspossible, i.e. eventfulnot eventlessendlessnot endful



Lookat the sentences in 1 anddecidewhichotherlinkers couldbe used.



Vocr,Bu LARY Itf synonymsol predict 1

Completethe sentenceswith appropriateverbsin the correct form. Usethe dictionaryentriesto help. anticipate (ratherforma| believe that something will happen or sb will do sth We dotr't anticipate any tnajor problems. e\pect believe that something will happen or sb will do sth You can't expect to leqrn o foreign language in a few rnonths. forecast say what you think will happen in the future, based on information, and often using scientific rnethods Expertsare forecastitrga recoveryin the econonty. pre d i ct s ay t hat s om e th i n g w i l l h a p p e n i n th e fu tu re Slrcpredictedthot the electiortresrtltwould be close. prophesy say what will happen in the future, especially using religious or magical powers He prophesiedtlnt a flood wotrld coverthe Earth's xrface. project (usuallypassive)estimate the size,cost or amount of sth in the future, based on what is happening now A growtlt rate of 4%t is projectedfor ncxt year. 1 We ar e lot so f v i s i to rsth i s w e e k e n d . 2 N o s t r adam us th a t th e w o rl dw o u l de n d b y 1 998. any 3 Th eair por tis n' tbus ys o th e c a p ta i nd o e s n ' tse r iousdelay st o ou r fti g h tth i s m o rn i n g . for nextweek. 4 Severeweatheris s l l be th a t a n u mb e ro f e mp l o y e ewi 5 Th ec om panyma d er edundant . to wi n the 6 D e s pit ev ot erunr es t,th e ru l i n gp a rtyi s n e x telec t ion.


O"n"ndentprepositions prepositions g Dependent by Many nouns, adiectives andverbsneedto be followed |* prepositions. certain 4 Sheapologised for givingmethewrongchonge. I don'tknowwhotthey'rearguingobout. Completethe sentenceswith a suitablepreposition. j o b a d v e rtsth a t o ffe ra n 1 I'm v er ys us pic ious exorbitantsalary. 2 Mo s tt eenagergo s t h ro u g ha s ta g eo f re b e l l i n g authority. good organisation is not leavingeverything 3 The key to the las tm inut e. a c h a n g ei n h e r di et. 4 D o ct or s ays hewou l db e n e fi -t to r eco mme n d ead n u mb e ro f me a s u res 5 Th egov er nm ent h e l pc it iz ensc opeth e h e a tw a v e . h i m w h e n h e was a 6 Ei n s t ein'tseac her sd e s o a i re d ch it d,but it bec am ec l e a rl a te rth a t h e w a s a g e n i u s. p e a n u tsth e s ed a y sthan 7 Mo r epeoplear eall e rg i c everbefore. s k i i n go fte nta k ea 8 Th os epeoplet hat a re k e e nw e e k ' shot idayin , |a n u a ry .

Gl nesister 1

Completethe sentenceswith wordsfrom exercise7 on page 53 ofyour Student'sBook.Sometimesyou needto change the form. 1 A softwarecompanyis a surveyinto online shoppi ng. 2 W hi chi temsdo you by the end of t he week? of causesas to why the 3 Expertslist a economyi s founderi ng. 4 Thesol di ersw ererel i evedw henthe fi ghti ng and theycoul dreturnto thei rbar r acks. havedi scovered that frequentexpo sur et o t he 5 S ci enti sts sun can havea effecton the sk in. 6 Offi ci atsourcesrefusedto commenton howthe accident

is to of perspiration 7 Thefunction temoerature.


formof the 2 Replace the underlined wordswiththe correct wordsin the box.Useyourdictionary to helpyou. assist assure locate obtain permit purchase retain fâ&#x201A;Ź'Stâ&#x201A;Źst select 1 | catled theagency to askfora brochure. 2 3 4 5

I ca\\e.d io re.irrgita brochura Teachers shoul dnot l et studentsl eavethe roomdur ing lectures. Theaudi encekeptthei rcomposure unti Ithe speakerhad room. left the Theai m of our housi ngassoci ati on i s to hel p peoplein quest thei r for affordabl e accommodati on. reducti oni f theym akean V i si torsmaygg! a substanti aI advancedbooki ng. R escuers aretryi ngto fi nd tw o cl i mbersw ho h avebeen reportedmi ssi ngi n the S w i ssA tps. Itemsboushti n thi s storew i ttonl ybe repl acedon producti on of a val i drecei pt. P l easechoosethe col ouryou requi reand then placeyour oroer. I promi seyou i t w on' t happenagai n.

vocabutary Builder. Unit6



Con.ession andcounter-argument


Rewritethe sentencesusingthe words in brackets. Sometimesyou will needto maketwo sentencesinto one, and viceversa. 1 A lt houghs he' si n c re d i b l a y b s e n t-mi n d e d , e ' sgot a sh hear tof got d.( a l tth e s a m e ) absen.i-mindsd ihe'r incredib\1 A\\'therama,gha'rgota heari of go\d 2 Des pit es et t ing o ffa tth ec ra c k o fd a w n ,w e e n c ountered a lot of traffic.(evenso)

Complete the sentences withan appropriate reporting verb fromexercise 8 on page66 ofyourStudent's Book.Then punctuate themcorrectly, addingcapitalletterswhere necessary. 1 Getoutof mywayHarry 2 | loveyoushe do youloveme 3 Oh,no-Tom it'sraining again. 4 Mum,please letmehavean ice-cream Lucy 5 Openthe window I can hardly breathe -Vicky justtypicat 5 That's heto himself Punctuate thedialogues correctly. ' H ome.sw eethome.' theman remarked. Hiswife sighed.'Whata reliefl'

A t t houghs he s p e n d sa l l h e r fre eti m e c l o th e s -shoppi ng, she'snevergot anythingto wear.(andyet)

I' m ti redw hi nedTommyI w antto go hom e It w on' t be much[ongersai dhi s mother W hat' sw rongshe asked It' s my ankl ehe groanedI thi nk i t' s broken There' sa spi deri n the bathshe shri eked I' ttget ri d of i t offeredher husband W atchout sheyel l edthere' sa carcomi ng I know he repl i ed P aulw hi speredw ho' sthat w omanoverth er e S he' sthe new managerrepti edP hi l ti p

My father'slookingforwardto retiring,despitethe fact he enioy shis job. (h a v i n gs a i dth a t)

Yourcarwascheaper thanmine,yetmypetrol consumption is lowerthanyours.(granted) Des pit equat if y i n g fo r th e fi n a l p h a s e ,th e te a me ndedup withouta trophy.(it'strue that) I n s pit eof beingth e ti fea n d s o u lo f th e p a rty ,Marti n t hink she' sant is o c i a l(Mi . n dy o u ) A lt houghhe bec a m ec o u rtm u s i c i a nMo , z a rtd i e d a pauper (. Nev erth e l e s s ) nun.tuatingreportedspeech I ;;l = 7 3

Punctuation younormatty Whenyouwritedowna conversation, begin a newparagraph for eachspeaker. marks Quotation enclose thewordsspoken.

4tl lnrotmat language Matchthe informalwords(1-8) with the definitions(a-h). Useyour dictionaryto helpyou.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

bust mates loo kids bangers yob chiltout sarnie

a b c d e f g h

sandw i ch hool i gan fri ends retax toilet sausages broken chi l dren

Complete thesentences withinformal wordsfromexercise 1. 1 Youmustbestarving. Youonlyhada _ forlunch. 2 We' thatOK? 3 I'mgoingoutwithmytonight,so l'il be late. 4 Waitfor meoutside.I needthebeforewe go. 5 Thearestaying withtheirgrantonight. 6 Let'sjuststayin andtonight. 7 Mywatchis . Haveyougotthetime? 8 Some scratched mycarlastnight. 'Oneday,'saidlohn, 'You'llregretit.'


r units vocabulary Builder 6-7




efrt.sal verbswith run andwolk

1 Matchthe phrasalverbs in the boxwiththe definitions. Use yourdictionary to helpyou. runsb down runaway runintosb runsth by sb runoutof sth walkup to sb walkin on sb walkouton sb walkattoversb walkoff 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

you to entera roomwhensb is notexpecting teltsb an ideato seetheirreaction treatsb badlywithoutconsidering theirfeelings meetsb bychance escaoe youareupset leavea situation suddenly because suddenly leavesbyouarehaving a relationship with criticise sb in an unkindwav approach sb finisha supplyof sth

2 Comptete the sentences withthe correctformof phrasal verbsfromexercise 1. 1 Nobody knowswhyGinais stittgoingoutwithGeorge he'salways her 2 | don'tknowwhat'swrongwithBrett.I saidI likedhisnew haircut in a mood. andheiust just tenibtyupset.Herboyfriend's 3 ,|enny's herandshedoesn'tknowwherehe'sgone. present 4 | wantedmysister's to bea surprise, butshe mewhenI waswrapping it up. we're 5 We'tlhaveto stopat the nextfillingstationbecause petrol. hisassistant 6 He theproposal beforehe hetdthemeeting. I couldaskhimwhathewas 7 Theboy before garden. my doingin up herson- he 8 She'sdonea realty badjobof bringing her. friendwhenI wasin the 9 | an otdschool supermarket thismorning. 10 Davidwasso keento makea goodimpression thatheiust himself. to themanager andintroduced

@ synonymslot wolk

2 Workin pairs.Thinkof situations in whichsomebody might do thesethings. 1 limpalong 2 tiotoeintoa room 3 strollalong 4 marchintosomebody's office 5 sneakup on somebody 6 trudgebackhome 7 wander around 8 stumble 9 stagger

louns relatedto phrasalverbs



= & E


nouns Compound havetwo Compound nounsformedfromphrasalverbs patterns: different verb+ particle,e.g.breakthrough, take-off. particle+ verb,e.g.input,uprising. Twodifferent comoound nounscanbe formedfrom e.g.breokout, somephrasal verbsusingbothpatterns, outbreak. Whatever the pattern, the stressis atways on the first noun. syllable of thecompound nounis clearly related to In somecasesthecompound whereas the phrasalverb, e.g.get-together, overthrow. in othercasesthereis no clearrelation, e.g.showdown, outcome.

Complete thethreecompound nounsin eachgroupwitha wordfromthe box.Useyourdictionary to helpyou. away back dâ&#x201A;Źr'vr?off out over up break--dp-utt-dovrn fs[[ dow n pour

5 writestandshoot


_pur cuL-

1 Complete the chartfor differentwaysof walking.Useyour dictionary to helpyou. creep timp plod march saunter sneak stagger stride stroll strut stumble tiptoe traipse trudge wander quietty casually purposefully *

with difficulty slowlyandwearity Builder.unir7 Vocabulary


Vo 2

nounsfrom withcompound Complete thesentences 1. exercise aftertakingfifty madea speedygatawal 1 Therobbers pounds fromthesafe. thousand wassoldastheowners couldno longer 2 Thebuitding affordto payfor its afterthe accident. 3 My brother'scarwas a fo r th e n u m b e r1 seedas 4 T hem at c hwas a


of thosem iner skilt edin 1 A servi cew as hel di n ramembranca the acci dent. and told him wher e 2 S hetook hi m i nto her she' dhi ddenthe money. i s sti tlevi denti n manycount r ies 3 P ress today. w i th a trophyfo r his r em ar kable 4 Theathl etew as presented

i t was his oppon e n t' sfi rs tg a m e . when their best Theteam suffereda serious p lay erwas injure d . on the way home^.so We werecaughtin a we got soakingwet. fo r th e n e x tfi n a n c i ayl e a ri s qui tepoor. T he

(2) @ worOformation

Thel ackof educati onshow nby youngpeoplet odayis due to a [ackof parental Whenthey triedto get into the club they wererefused of peopl efor thei rrel i giousbelief shas 7 The beenprevalentthroughouthistory. 3

1 ReadtheLearnfhistbox.Usea suffixto formnounsfromthe verbsin the boxandwritethemin the correctcolumnof the chart.

1 A battteis ragingbetweenthe two leadingfactionsfor slrpretnar.i in the region. of the popul ati onto th e big cit ieswasa 2 The phenomenon i n the l astcentury . common proposal to extendthe w o r kingday m et 3 Themanager' s fromthe uni on s. w i th strong of the city centreby 4 Expertssaythat the pi geons ri sk to the ge ner aIpubt ic. i s a heatth fl ocksof mechani cs, of so he t ook his car 5 H e had no garage. to the f or w erer esponsible 6 E dmundH i l taryand S herpaTenzi ng i n 1953 . of E verest the fi rst 7 l n 7972captai nR obertF S cottl ed an uns uccessf ul to reachthe S outhP ol e. changi ngthe l awsr egar ding consi dered 8 TheJapanese K i kogavebi rt ht o a son. unti l P ri ncess

c hanges .

' 1 emrt--? emrssrol il $ describe-) description I ' examine-) examination

clear-) clearance confer) conference argue-) argument

achieve admit confide exist extend guide imagine organise persecute prescribe recruit remember -ston






Completethe sentenceswith the nounform of the verbsin the box. attempt conquer invade know migrate resist succeed sEp,fel?e

I 6r Suffixes E Weusethe suffixes-sion,-tion,-ation,-ance,-enceand Sometimes thespetling -menttoformnounsfromverbs. 4 E S

Completethe sentenceswith nounsfrom exercise1.

@ 1

words rasilVGonfused Completethe pairsof sentenceswith the correctword. 1 excessively / exceedingly nervousas the davof t he a S hebecame examapproached. hig' b Thenew hoteli n ourvi l l agecharges pricesfor what is a veryordinaryroom. 2 unreasonable / irrational a My boyfriendhas an b I w as askedto do an I refused.

fearof flying. amountof over t in=

.> r Unit7 Buitder Vocabulary


VocnBurnR$ i n fer/ im ply a T hear t ic les eeme dto th a t th e s i n gerw as suf f er ingf r omde p re s s i o n . b T hepolic ewer ea b l eto fro mh i s st at em entt hat he h a d n o t re tu rn e dh o m eth a t n i g ht.

purpose andresult @ rrnressingcause, Rewritethe sentenceusingthe word in brackets. 1 S hew as unabl eto competebecauseshe had injur edher teg.(oWlNG) io comprleo\Niiljto a legirlLrrl the.wa*urrrl,,\r 2 Theschooli s unabl eto orovi defreemeal sb ecauset he budgethas beenreduced.(D U E ) 3 A s a consequence of the argument,my brot herlef t hom e. (UPSHOT) 4 Therehas beenan i ncreasei n kni fecri me. (C ON S E QU E N TLY spot)checksare bei ngcarriedout on cl ubbers.(R E S U LT) s bei nghetdtocattybecausethe ywantt o 5 Intervi eware attractmoreappticants.(VIEW) 5 H e l ost hi s l i censedue to hi s reckl ess dri vi ng. (C ON S E QU E N C E ) A s a resul tof hi s success, the actorrecei ved a num berof offersfromotherstudi os.(R IS E ) Theystartedsavi ngmoneybecausetheyw a nt edt o buy a house.(A l M)

cl a s s ic/ c las s ic al a My professoris fascinatedby mythology. b I m adet he mi s ta k eo f a s k i n ga fte rher b oy f r iendwhent h e y ' ds p ti tu p th e p re v i o u sw e e k. b o rne/ bor n a M y br ot her ' s m e a g ru d g ee v e rs i nceI w entt o univ er s i ty a n d h e d i d n ' t. p re ma tu re l yb,u t th ey b Thet winswer e wereboth very healthy. p o s s ibit it y/ oppor tu n i ty a W et r y t o get awa yto o u r h o l i d a yh o mea t e v e ry b W e had t o r uleou t th e o f e a rl yre ti rement whenwe f oundo u t h o w l o w o u r p e n s i o nw o u l db e. Choosethe correctword. Useyour dictionaryto help you. 1 Rubyt ook her phon eo ff th e h o o kb e c a u s eo f c o n ti nual/ co nt inuousint er r u o ti o nfro s m h e r fri e n d s . 2 My br ot heris c om p l e te l u y n i n te re s te /d d i s i n te re sted in scIenc e. 3 Th es ales m anf inal l yc o n v i n c e d/ p e rs u a d e dm y fa therto b u y a new c ar . 4 Th em anagerdoes n ' ta l to g e th e /r a tl to g e th e ra g re ew i th o u r pr opos al. 5 Th ef ir s tm oon[ and i n gw a s ,fo r m e ,th e mo s th i s to r i c/ h i s t or ic alev entof t h e tw e n ti e thc e n tu ry . 5 Gov er nm entar s e be c o mi n gi n c re a s i n g lcyo n c e rn ed about th e c ur r entec onom i c a/l e c o n o m i cs i tu a ti o n . 7 Esc apewas im poss i b l eb e c a u s eo f th e ta tl / h i g h watl su r r ounding t he c om p te x . 8 An n aador esal[ her p e ts ,e s p e c i a l l y/ s p e c i a l l yh e r dog, Mi t s i.

(2) @ rinters 1 Complete the sentences usingthe linkersin the boxand yourownideas.Morethanoneansweris possible. actually asa matterof fact in fact the plainfactis to tel[thetruth

2 3 4 5 6

Th i sex er c is e look sq u i tec h a l l e n g i n gb,u t a r a n ra l f er oi \:cJ ii'silir\.1r,liy. Th er es t aur ant didn ' t l o o kp a rti c u l a rty i n v i ti n gb, u t I a c c ept edt he iob b e c a u s eo fth e a ttra c ti v e h o u rs ,but Th em anagerwas n ' ti n te n d i n gto re s i g n b, u t At fir s twe wer en' tg o i n gto h a v ea h o l i d a yth i s y e a r,but Mar r iagehad nev era p p e a l e dto B e n ,b u t

rotral language


(1-8)withtheirinformal 1 wtatch the formalexpressions equivatents(a-h). 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8


a greatdealof | would be grateful l eavesmuchto be desi red We regretto informyou P l easefi nd encl osed give my regards of a muchhi gherstandard | trustvou w i l l ensure

a b c d e f g h

We'resorryto tell you I hopeyou' llm akesur e I' m sendi ng a l otof better P l ease say' hi ' i sn' tgooden ough

Complete the sentences withformalexpressions from exercise 1. if youwouldsendmeyourbrochure for the nextseason.

thatyourapplication hasbeen unsuccessfu l. rooms 3 Wewereexpecting forthe pricewe paid. that thi s behavi ouri s not r eoeat ed

on further occasions. to yourw i fe. troubl eto choosea sui tabl evenuefor the event. 7 The serviceprovidedby your staff

5 P l ease 6 We went to


a copyof mycurrentCV.

. Unit7 Vocabulary Builder

****[OCARU flD croures idioms 1 Complete thesentences withthewordsin the box.Useyour dictionary to helpyou. belt boots cap collar cuff hat shoes socks trousers 1 Yourcomment aboutmygirlfriend leaving wasa bit below the gotallhotunderthe 2 DidyounoticeRyan whenyouaskedhimaboutthatmoneyheowesyou? 3 | don'tmindmaking speeches, butI hatespeaking off{heMy sister'sincrediblyreliable- she'salwaysreadyto help at the drop of a I ' d hat et o be in M y ra ' s - s h e ' sb ei ngsent to lcelandfor a year. Y ouc ant ell who w e a rsth e i n th e i rhouses hewalk sall ov e rh i m ! lf y ou don' t pully o u r u p , y o u ' reg oi ngto fai l y our al[ ex am s . A ndy ' sgot t oo b i g fo r h i s o w n n ow he' sthe ar eam anagerH. e n e v e rc o m e so u t w i th u s a n y more. Hisfirst classhonoursdegreeis a featherin his for his futurecareer.



1 Crossoutthewordthatdoesnotcollocate withthe adjective. 1 rich dessert carrots sauce 2 tough s t ea k chops courgettes food yoghurt 3 ptain apples 4 light r ic e snack sponge eggs 5 rotten fish dessert 5 raw fish cake meat jam 7 fresh fruit vegetables 8 stale bread cake spinach 9 greasy s aus a g e s chips salt

2 Complete the expressions withthewordsin the box.Use yourdictionary to helpyou. butter bread garlic mitk parsley salt sugar wine 7 2 3 4

as ipof -

a spoonful of

5 a cloveof 6 a p i n c ho f

a k nob of a s pr igof -

7 a dropof 8 a sticeof

vocabulary Buitde,units 8-9

3 Complete thesentences withthe expressions in exercise 3. 1 Takea rprigof parr\e.1 andchopit finely. 2 Wouldyoulikea withyourcheese? in a fryingpan. 3 Metta 4 Crush andaddit to thesauce. butcanI have 5 | don'twantsugar, in mytea? 6 Shetook to makesureit wastheright temoerature. with 7 Season thecasserole 8 | haven'tgota sweettooth,butI do like in mvcoffee.

GD Ciuingandwithholdinginformation Complete the chartwiththeexpressions in the box.Useyour dictionary to helpyou. b# blowthewhistle break(news) clamup hushup keepthe tidon leak letsomething slip stonewall Givinginformation b\ab 7 2 3 4

Withholdinginformation 5 6 7 8

2 Complete the sentences withthe correctformof the expressions in exercise 1. 1 Thepotitician triedto hushuprumours of hisaffairwitha waitress. 2 Thegovernment didn'tmanage to the financial scandal. 3 Themanager every timesomeone asked himabouttheclosure of thefactory. 4 There willbea publicoutcry whenthenews Theheadteacher the nameof t he st udent w ho had beenarrested. C hi l drentendto w henthe ooliceaskt hem aboutthei rparents'acti vi ti es. Oneof the accompl i ces accusedme of to the ool i ce. Theforger' sw i fe on her hu sband'silt egal busi ness. S omeonemust the storyto t he pr ess.

rit.tal andfigurativelanguage

1. withsuitablewordsfromexercise 2 Comptete thesentences hadmade 1 Themillionaire's wifewasdistraught. Thethieves Literallanguageis explicit,obviousand easilyunderstood, e.g. offwitha number of antiques. - onlya 2 Therewasverylittleinterest in the referendum = Her family were extremelyrich. minority cast their vote. turned out to z Figurative languagecontainsimages.Thewriteror speaker whenshelosthertennis 3 Shelookedreally d e s c r ibes s om et h i n gth ro u g hth e u s eo f u n u s u a l match- | thoughshewasgoingto cry! comparisons for effect,interest,and to makethingsclearer. 4 Hewaitedfora/an moment to askhisboss Her family were rolling in money. abouthispayrise. promise neverto to herparents 5 Shemadea 1 Matchthe figurativelanguage(1-10) with the meanings runawayagain. (a-j). - | wasmerely a/an 6 | did nottakepartin theargument 1 Theview of the NorthernLightstook my breathaway. oDServer. 2 Hi s newc arc os tan a rm a n d a l e g . nothing a/an 7 There's to worryabout- it'spurely 3 My brotherand his wife havequite a stormyrelationship. matter. 4 Moneytalks. - thev're is boundto win 8 Theirnationatteam 5 Theexoerience scarredme for [ife. thechampionship.



Th eolot f or her new n o v e lc a meto h e r i n a fl a s h . Sh ewas in f loodso f te a rsw h e n s h e l o s t h e ri o b . They'remadeof money. l t was n' tunt i[| s awth e ti d e c o m i n gi n th a t i t d a w n edon me we weregoingto get cut off. 1 0 Th e y ' r ehav inga f ew h i c c u p sb u i l d i n gth e i rn e w h o use. 5 7 8 9

a b c d e f g h i j


veryrich sh e s uddenlyt houg h to f ... cryinga lot was veryexpensive i mp r es s ed m e c ons i d e ra b l y I slowlyr ealis eds o me th i n g th a n o th e r s. Peoplewit h m oneyh a v emo rei n fl u e n c e havea lot of rows h a vings om epr obl e ms had a profoundand terribteeffect

Synonyms andantonyms

in the 1 Complete andantonyms thechartwiththe synonyms box. as sin astoughasold boots biased as miserable comic ilt-fated ifinefrsâ&#x201A;Ź minute objective opportune overthe moon pricelesssotemn trivial vital vulnerableworthless synonyms



' r m m on59 e nOrmOUS


fair funny

im par t i a l thum or o u ts



n important essential ttlucky fortuitous strong

tt-. inv inc i b l e


worthits weightin goldt5-


opreiudiced osombre tdejected toimmaterial t'doomed flimsy


Adverbs of degree

(1-10)withtheverbs(a-i)theycollocate 1 Matchtheadverbs with. l thoroughlyla damage 6 2strongly lbrefuse 7 8 3seriously lcenioy 4vaguely lddisapprove 9 10 5flatly leremember


hotly lf agree deeply lgbetieve entirely lhoffend significantlylideny scarcely lidiffer

Completethe sentenceswith the correctform of an adverb-verbcollocationfrom exercise1. eqoyedour last hotidayin Menorca- the 1 Wethorough\1 w eatherw as suoerband the i sl andw as bea ut if ul. 2 S he hi m w henhe cal l edto a sk her out - it was a dreamcometrue! Tom takingany moneyfrom his mother's our5e. my grandmother, but she diedwhen I was I onl ysi x. My father to let me go campingwith my fri ends. Evie'sparents of her currentboyfriendhe' sa drummeri n a rockband. fromthoseof t he unions Government fi gures on how manyw orkersi oi nedthe stri ke. My bestfriendwasn'ttatkingto me becauseI her. Thatpi netreew i l l thosebui tdingsif it f alt s dow n. 10 H e w i th hi s gi rl fri endthat the yshouldr ent the flat they had viewed.



r Units Buitder Vocabutary 9-10







1 Workin pairs.Takeit in turnsto do the task.Thestudent to askwhen who is listeningshouldthinkof two questions hasfinished speaking. his/herpartner

1 Workin pairs.Takeit in turnsto do the task.Thestudent who is listeningshouldthinkof two questions to askwhen his/herpartnerhasfinishedspeaking.

andcontrastthe photos.Answerthe questions. Compare 1 Whatdo youthinktifeis tikeforthesepeople?

Compare andcontrastthe photos.Answerthe questions. 1 Whatdo youthinkthesepeoplehavedoneto achieve theirawards? 2 Whichperson do youadmiremore,andwhy?

mighttheyhavehadin theirlives? 2 Whatexperiences you Do agree that the elderlyhavea lotto offersociety? 3 Why?/Why not? withenoughrespect? 4 Doyouthinkwetreattheelderly not? Why?/Why

activities communicative

3 Whatdoesit taketo be successful? success to be? 4 Whatdo consider



Stimulus-based discussion



1 Workin pairs.Takeit in turnsto do thetask.Thestudent whois listening shouldthinkof twoquestions to askwhen his/herpartner hasfinished speaking.

Fresentthe informationin relationto the topic.

Sharp rise in childhood obesitY i i brings call for action C ompareand contrastthe photos.A nsw ertheguest ions.

157odecline in school meal uptake

i ronlwin_1_11,T_::",,.oi ro,ilr,lT.,,,, i Teenagers' attitudesto healthyeating yo









1 W hatstepshaseachpersontakeni n orderto m ake hi msetfhardto see? 2 W hydo you thi nktheyhavetakenthosestep s? 3 H oww oul dyou feeti f you w erei n eachperson'ssit uat ion? and 4 W hi chof the photosdo you fi nd the mosti nte r est ing whv?


E atio w f a t v e r s i o n s of food Tak em o r ee x e r c i s e F2l

q n^didnq

f f lr it ^f

andvegetables Dr i n km o r ew a t e r E a tl e s ss u g a r Cutdown m y s a l t i n t a k e Eatfast food E atf oodsw i t h m o r ef i b r e Eatc alorie- c o n t r o t l feodo d s .on't do any t hi n gb e c a u s em y l if es t y t eis h e a l t h ya l r e a d y I am n o t i n t e r e s t e d

Discussthe questions. 1 Whatkindsof fastfood are availabtewhereyou live?How oftendo you eat them? 2 Whatare the prosand consof fast food? 3 Arey oungpeople' sta s te si n fo o d b e c o m i n gm o reh eatthy o r mor eunhealt hyi ,n y o u ro p i n i o n ? 4 Ho wc ouldwe enc ou ra gyeo u n gp e o p l eto h a v eh e a lthi er d i e ts ? ies C ommuni catiactivit ve



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Will humans be next?' byJames Meek, 12 January 2001, TheCuordian Copyright Guardian News & Media Ltd. 2001 Reproduced by permission p14 From '$150,000 for a pet dog, just like your last one' by Nico Hines, 15 co uk Reproduced by February 2008, M.tirnesonline permission of NI Slndication p16 From 'Too much TV by Roxanne Khamsi, 8 may result in academic failure' May 2007, Newscientist com Reproduced by pemission. p1 8 From Lmd oJthe Hiesby William Golding Faber and Faber Ltd /@The Estate ofWilliam Golding. Reproduced by permission. p26 From 'Killer banana rumour grips China', 25 May 2007 @bbc co uk/news p26 From 'Wormburgers' by Alex Boese fiom The Museum of Hoaxes,http://museumofhoaxes com. p28'I Turn To You' Lyrics by Diane Wamen @ Copyright 1996 Realsongs Administered by Sony/ATV Music Publishing All rights reserued Used by permjssion p30 From'[ove @ MMIV, And War', 25 August 2004, CBSWorldwide Inc All Rights Resewed Reproduced by permission. p32 From 'Identical twins' first novel is a double vision'by David Lister, 29 May 2OOT,TheTimes. Reproduced by pemission of NI Syndication p36 From 'Couple wed over 60 years after falling in love', 1 co uk Reproduced by October 2008, w.2by2holidays pemission p36 Frorn'Childhood sweethearts to wed after 45 years apart', 10 April 2004, M Reproduced by permission ofw thisishampshire net, a part ofNewsquest Media Group of Companies p39 STMNGE FRUIT Music and Words by Lewis Allan @ 1939 - Edward B Marks Music Company - Copyright renewed; extended tem of copyright derived llom lewis Allan assigned and effective July 21, 1995 to Music Sales Corporation - all rights for the world outside ofUSA controlled by Edward B Marks Music Company - All zughts Reserued - Lyric reproduced by kind permission of Carlin Music Corp, London NIW1 8BD p40 From 'Seruing God' by Andrew Longmore, 24 December 2006, TheSundoyTimes Reproduced by permission of NI Syndication p47 From'Renting: Speed-date your way to a flatmate', 19 July 2007, w uk Reproduced by permission p48 From 'When crocodiles roamed the Arctic', 18 June 2008, NewScientist Reproduced by pennission p51 From 'Wornan and the Vote Part 1: The Sufftagettes' from w.parliament uk Reproduced under the terms of the Click-Use Licence p52 Frorn'Steve lvin: The incredible story ofthe wildlife warrior' by Kathy Marks, 5 September 2006, M.Independent co uk Reproducedby pemission p58 From 'Homework at root of many family arguments, saysreport', 9 February 2004, uk Reproduced by permission. p61 From 'How the European Union works Youguide to the zu institutions'O EwpemCommunities, 2007 Reproduction is authorised p74 From 'Time travel lifesci.sussex for beginners'byJohn Gribbin, w Reproduced by pemission John Gribbin is cGauthor, with Mary Gribbi\, of Time TrovelJorBeginners(Hodder). p80 From'Bird-brained behaviour: The ultimate migration', 9 August 2006, w.lndependent Reproduced by permission p82 From'When meat is not murder' by lan Sample, 13 August 2OOs,TheCilardian Coplright Guardian News & Media Ltd 2005 Reproduced by permission p83 From 'Our gang The latest teen tribes are loud, proud and too cool for school' by Al Mu.lhall, 17 February 2008, TheSmdnyTires Reproduced by pemission ofNI Syndication p84 From'104 products on shelves already contain toxic 'grey goo' by stealth, say Friends of the Earth' by Sean Poulter, 1 1 March 2008 TheDoily Moil Reproduced by pemission of Solo Syndication p84 From 'Welcome to the world of nano foods' by Alex uk. Renton. 17 December 2006. M Coplright Guardian News & Media Ltd 2006 Reproduced com by permission p91 From 'Dublin'w.frommers @Wiley Publishing, lnc All rights reserued Reproduced by permission ofJohn Wiley & Sons, lnc p92 From 'Claridge's sells luury water at €50 per litre' by Caroline co uk Gammell, 15 October 2007, w.Telegraph Reproduced by pemission of Telegraph Media Group 'Conspiracy p96 are they out to Limited From theorists: get you? by Anthony Browne, 13 September 2003, The Times Reproduced by perrnission ofNI Syndication. p102 From 'America's Dumbest Criminals' by William Beaman, RecdersDigest,September 2005 Reprinted with permission from Reader's Digest Copyright O 2005 by The Reader'sDigestAssociation, Inc p106 From'Would you die ofboredom ifyou Iived for ever?' by David Leafe, co uk 27 lantary 2007,Mail Online w.dailymail Reproduced by pemission of Solo Syndication p114 From'What Will HappenWhen the SunWill Die?'by \4ad Tarko, 21 September 2006 Copyright O 2006 Softpedia

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