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Svetlana Nazaruk

Student No: 640423 Semester 2/2013 Group 12 Material System: Panel and Fold

DEFINING PERSONAL SPACE Different people correspond differently to intrusions into their personal space. Some take a step back from an intrudor, some close their eyes and some do not change their behaviour at all.

Personal Space. The behavioral basis of design (Sommer R.) In his Personal Space. The behavioral basis of design Robert Sommer defines personal space as “an area with invisible boundaries surrounding a person’s body into wich intruders may not come”. He also states that an ivasion of personal space is considered an intrusion into person’s self-boundaries. Which, in conclusion need to be protected. In his book he presents many examples of how people protect their personal space from intruders. Personal Space. The behavioral basis of design was very inspirational and gave me many ideas for this design.

INSPIRATION For the design, I decided to concentrate on physical protection of the body, and especially the back and upper shoulders. Personally I feel that upper shoulders are a very sensitive area and shouldn’t be avaliable for intrusion of every kind. Pat on the shoulder shows affection, care and support which a stranger is not able to provide and should be prohibited from touching the upper shoulders tooclose_crop380w.jpg?1273764195

Our back is the most valuable part of our body in terms of personal space. It is completely invisible to us and therefore we are unable to find out if there is someone standing behind. “Backstabbing” is a common term that describes my determination to protect this area in particular.

Physical protection of personal space would require the design to have a scaring effect, the one that would make the intruder back off. This will be achieved using spikes, as they are nature’s means of defence. Both animals and plants use them for protection and to scare the enemy away. i/2012/199/2/e/nature_spikes_ by_adam0309-d57oej2.jpg au/assets/images/article/journal/01_ dragons_9208_crSteveKWilson_gal.jpg


Design 1 was based on the idea of leaving traces of personal spaces behind. It meant that when person moves in space, his personal space does not instantly follow his body, but instead stays at one place for a couple of seconds before catching up with the owner.

According to my feeling of personal space, the back piece extrudes up to 35 cm and the upper shoulder - up to 10.

Second design was evolved around the fact that both plants and animals use shields in order to protect them from intruders. The shields cover the most vulnerable parts of that object and keeps them safe.

Combining the theme of the second design and representation of the first I came up with the final design, which is purely based on physical weaknesess of the body and its most vulnerable parts, which I consider to be the back and the upper shoulders. By scaring people away, frightening them, the sense of security can be achieved. In order to do so, spikes of different sizes were allocated along the spine and upper shoulders area. In fabrication, black optix card was used in fabrication to emphasize the unwillingness of the person to cope with intruders in his personal space.

DIGITIZING At the beginning of making of a model, the surface was created, taking into account that the spikes will need to hold onto something when fabricated. The 2D surface was manipulated into a 3D skin that would hold the design together,

Paneling grid was mapped onto a surface using comand “Surface domain number” but the outcome was not suitable for the placement of spikes and therefore surface manipulations continued.

Command “Panel planar quads” was used to create triangular surfaces that will produce excellent material for the grid. Paneling grid was created and points offset to map custom 3d model onto it.

DIGITIZING The first final design

A segment of 2nd skin, a shoulder piece, was taken for fabrication at 1:1 scale.

Each individual polysurface of the segment was smashed with the settings of “no explosion” and “no label”

Both polysurfaces and smashed pieces were marked from 01 to 45 in order to make it easier to combine when cut out.

Borders were created manualy for each individual piece, as my version of Rhino does not allow grasshoper plugin to be used.

At the end, the pieces(225 of them) were labeled with different coloures for each cut settings and placed in a file so that they would fit onto a 900x600 mm card


Pieces were cut out on a card cutter and then labeled with pensil to make it easier for assembly.

Then they were folded and placed according to their number that have been marked earlier in the process.

Cutted out pieces were stapled together to hold a strong bond and prevent card from tearing apart.

When all the parts were stapled the superglue was used to seal it into one 3D surface.


For laying out of the pieces I used gaffa tape. It holds them together and allows bending and movement without falling apart.

The final prototype came out to be not quite what I wanted to achieve in my final design. I still need to work on the fact that ends of pieces do not come together as a whole and leave a big gap in between. This does not allow me to achieve the effect of sharpness of the spikes in my design. Also such little pieces take too much time to get together and therefore in my final design the size of the parts will significantly increase in order to finish the project before the submission. For the final, the surface will be cut out of 200 GSM Optix Card to increase the bending quality and make the spikes sharp and “scary�.

DIGITIZING. REBUILDING THE MODEL After many unsuccessful attempts to use paneling tools on my complicated surface I decided to simplify it.

Attractor points were used to create the emphasis on the left side of the left shoulder and right side of the right shoulder. With the complexity of the surface, the attractor point command couldnt work properly. Therefore I created a circle around the attractor point and placed the 2nd bounding grid around its radius. I deleted the pieces that clashed with each other later.

Final shoulder pieces placed on the body mesh.

Using the shoulder pieces I created simple back mesh to make the sharp and neat spikes along the spine area. The design will repeat my body shape,

Final model ready for fabrication.

FABRICATION. FINAL MODEL. Using similar technique as the first prototype’s the final design was created. From the 3d model, total of 57 surfaces were unrolled. Then tabs were added manually and labels were created to make it easier to assemble later. Rhino file was ready to be cut using the card cutter in the student workshop.

Final Model

The pieces were cut out and glued as cones individually. Then, after the cones has been assembled, all 57 of them were stuck together using sticky tape, which would allow the model’s movement and bendiness, since I want it to repeat the shape of my body.


I believe my final model is successfull. I wanted to protect the most vulnerable parts of my body, which I consider to be back and upper shoulders and the model surves this purpose. The spikes are neatly cut and feel sharp on the edges, keeping people from touching them. Black, bulky model is seen from far and looks frightning, which creates a sense of my security. It is very comfortable to wear, as it takes a shape of my body at the back and bends as I want to bend it. Light and hardly noticable for me when wearing it, it looks completely opposite to strangers. Black optix card creates the daunting feeling and emphasizes the unwillingness of the person wearing the second skin to cope with intruders into his personal space.

Week 10  
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