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SOCIALLY EMPOWERED:

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES IN SUBURBAN AMERICA OMMUN EC

NDENT P PE

S IN ITIE DE

DUCTIV RO

Report to HUD


Tsvetelina Churalska MArch I AP Princeton SoA


Independent Productive Communities

TABLE OF CONTENTS Key to Diagrams Thesis Statement

4 5

CHAPTER 1 (The Problems+Concept)

The Problems Global Financial Crisis Housing Crisis American Dream Suburban Problems Untapped potential social capital HUD Programs Foreclosed Vacant Homes Suburban sharing and farming Position and thesis statement Independent Productive Communities 1-3 Independent Productive Communities Initial Iterations

7 8 9 10 11 12 13-14 15 16 17 18-20 21-29

CHAPTER 2 (Cash Crops)

Cash Crops General Research Test Sites Cash Crops Prices Youngstown, Ohio Info Ohio Cash Crops Soybeans-Production Expenses Soybeans-Growing Conditions Soybeans-Yields Tobacco-Production Expenses Tobacco-Growing Conditions Tobacco-Yields Garlic-Production Expenses Garlic-Growing Conditions Garlic-Yields Parker, Colorado Info Colorado Cash Crops Marijuana-Production Expenses Marijuana-Growing Conditions-1 3

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Marijuana-Growing Conditions-2 Marijuana-Yields Barley-Production Expenses Barley-Growing Conditions-1 Barley-Growing Conditions-2 Barley-Yields Governance - IPC (Independent Productive Communities) Current Problems Release Statement - Princeton Beverage Company Price Setting

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

CHAPTER 3 (Design Interventions) Independent Productive Communities - Parameters 30-year Independent Productive Communities Model Legend with Small-scale Interventions Floor Plans - Youngstown, OH One House in Youngstown - Tobacco + Garlic Production - Now One House in Youngstown - Tobacco + Garlic Production - 5 years One House in Youngstown - Tobacco + Garlic Production - 10 years Two Houses in Youngstown - Tobacco + Garlic Production - Now Two Houses in Youngstown - Tobacco + Garlic Production - 5 years Two Houses in Youngstown - Tobacco + Garlic Production - 10 years Youngstown Production - Row of Houses - 10 years Floor Plans - Parker, CO One House in Parker - Marijuana + Barley Production - Now One House in Parker - Marijuana + Barley Production - 5 years One House in Parker - Marijuana + Barley Production - 10 years Two Houses in Parker - Marijuana + Barley Production - Now Two Houses in Parker - Marijuana + Barley Production - 5 years Two Houses in Parker - Marijuana + Barley Production - 10 years Parker Production - Row of Houses - 10 years Two Houses in Youngstown - 30 years Colored Zones Floor Plan - 30 years Axonometric Site Axonometric Details Exploded Infrastructure Energy Flow Diagram Rendering and physical model photos

60 61-62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86-100


Independent Productive Communities

KEY TO DIAGRAMS SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSING

DIFFICULTY SEASON

1 BUSHEL OF PRODUCE

winter spring summer fall

EXPOSURE ZONE

10%

PERCENTAGE OF OWNERSHIP

DISTRIBUTION

1 Lot size

2

3

Income level

Foreclosure

Scale 1-3 1- low; 2 - medium; 3 - high Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

FARMING LOCATIONS

15’

1’

15’

AGRICULTURAL YEARLY CROP ROTATION

BUSINESS ECONOMIC

TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL GRASS VIOLATION

ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT

TOP 10

TOP 10 CASH CROP

SOCIAL POLITICAL

$$$

4

HIGH-YIELD CROP

2015

YEAR OF DEVELOPMENT


Independent Productive Communities

THESIS STATEMENT “Socially Empowered: Independent Productive Communities in Suburban America” Due to the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, in many areas, the housing market has also suffered resulting in evictions, foreclosures and prolonged unemployment. One sector particularly hard-hit was the suburbs. Although the suburbs have long attracted families as part of the American Dream, today’s suburbs have gotten new set of dysfunctions: sealed windows, weedy lawns, empty parking lots and storefronts, immigrants in large masses flocking into decaying neighborhoods, unbuilt communities and abandoned factories. The suburbs have proved not to be recession-proof. This thesis will re-evaluate the suburbs through the systems of infrastructure and the finance that supports it, in order to propose a more robust model. Social capital has untapped potential in mitigating the demise of the suburbs, or can offer an alternate model of the suburbs. The thesis is looking at the architectural effects from social capital and community development for a community improvement.

5


Independent Productive Communities

CHAPTER 1

The Problems + Concept

6


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AS INDIVIDUALS Separation from Nature

AS A NATION:

Dependence on Foreign Oil

Social Disconnect

Financial Burden

Dependence on Foreign Industry

AS RESIDENTS OF AMERICAN SUBURBS Bring Diverse Communities

Fight “brain drain”

To Use Homeownership as path to wealth

$$$ $

21

60

$$$$

AS RESIDENTS OF BIG CITIES High rent

$

Too Much Density

$$ $$$

$$ 7

Unhealthy Living Conditions

Limited Jobs for Unskilled Workers

Security


Chapter 1

WORLD

Img. 1 The reasons and outcomes of the global financial crisis

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Img. 2 The suffering of the housing market resulting in evictions, foreclosures and prolonged unemployment 9


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Img. 3 Homeownership was used as a proxy for achieving the promised prosperity as part of the American Dream


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Img. 4 Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suburbs have gotten new set of dysfunctions

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Capacity building community development process: Developing the ability to act

12

+

Social capital: The ability to act

=

Community Development Outcome: Taking action; community improvement


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HUD Programs -If you are a distressed homeowner in need of help, you can contact the local HUD office. -Avoiding foreclosures: Obama administration; programs to decrease mortgage payments; administered through the Department of Treasury; -If you are struggling to make a payment, you should contact your lender or loan office Making Home Affordable Program - The Making Home Affordable © (MHA) Program is a critical part of the Obama Administration's broad strategy to help homeowners avoid foreclosure, stabilize the country's housing market, and improve the nation's economy. Homeowners can lower their monthly mortgage payments and get into more stable loans at today's low rates. And for those homeowners for whom homeownership is no longer affordable or desirable, the program can provide a way out which avoids foreclosure. Additionally, in an effort to be responsive to the needs of today's homeowners, there are also options for unemployed homeowners and homeowners who owe more than their homes are worth. Please read the following program summaries to determine which program options may be best suited for your particular circumstances.

Treasury/FHA Second Lien Program (FHA2LP): If you have a second mortgage and the mortgage servicer of your first mortgage agrees to participate in FHA Short Refinance, you may qualify to have your second mortgage on the same home reduced or eliminated through FHA2LP. If the servicer of your second mortgage agrees to participate, the total amount of your mortgage debt after the refinance cannot exceed 115% of your home’s current value. Click Here for more information.

Assistance for Unemployed Homeowners Home Affordable Unemployment Program (UP): If you are having a tough time making your mortgage payments because you are unemployed, you may be eligible for UP. UP provides a temporary reduction or suspension of mortgage payments for at least twelve months while you seek re-employment. Click Here for more information. Emergency Homeowners’ Loan Program (EHLP), Substantially Similar States: If you live in Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Maryland, or Pennsylvania, Click Here for more information about EHLP assistance provided in your state. FHA Forbearance for Unemployed Homeowners: Federal Housing Administration (FHA) requirements now require servicers to extend the forbearance period for unemployed homeowners to 12 months. The changes to FHA’s Special Forbearance Program announced in July 2011 require servicers to extend the forbearance period for FHA borrowers who qualify for the program from four months to 12 months and remove upfront hurdles to make it easier for unemployed borrowers to qualify. Click Here for more information.

Managed Exit for Borrowers Modify or Refinance Your Loan for Lower Payments Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP): HAMP lowers your monthly mortgage payment to 31 percent of your verified monthly gross (pre-tax) income to make your payments more affordable. The typical HAMP modification results in a 40 percent drop in a monthly mortgage payment. Eighteen percent of HAMP homeowners reduce their payments by $1,000 or more. Click Here for more information. Principal Reduction Alternative (PRA): PRA was designed to help homeowners whose homes are worth significantly less than they owe by encouraging servicers and investors to reduce the amount you owe on your home. Click Here for more information. Second Lien Modification Program (2MP): If your first mortgage was permanently modified under HAMP SM and you have a second mortgage on the same property, you may be eligible for a modification or principal reduction on your second mortgage under 2MP. Likewise, If you have a home equity loan, HELOC, or some other second lien that is making it difficult for you to keep up with your mortgage payments, learn more about this MHA program. Click Here for more information. Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP): If you are current on your mortgage and have been unable to obtain a traditional refinance because the value of your home has declined, you may be eligible to refinance through HARP. HARP is designed to help you refinance into a new affordable, more stable mortgage. Click Here for more information.

“Underwater” Mortgages In today's housing market, many homeowners have experienced a decrease in their home's value. Learn about these MHA programs to address this concern for homeowners. Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP): If you are current on your mortgage and have been unable to obtain a traditional refinance because the value of your home has declined, you may be eligible to refinance through HARP. HARP is designed to help you refinance into a new affordable, more stable mortgage. Click Here for more information. Principal Reduction Alternative: PRA was designed to help homeowners whose homes are worth significantly less than they owe by encouraging servicers and investors to reduce the amount you owe on your home. Click Here for more information.

13

Home Affordable Foreclosure Alternatives (HAFA): If your mortgage payment is unaffordable and you are interested in transitioning to more affordable housing, you may be eligible for a short sale or deed-in-lieu of foreclosure through HAFA SM. Click Here for more information. “Redemption” is a period after your home has already been sold at a foreclosure sale when you can still reclaim your home. You will need to pay the outstanding mortgage balance and all costs incurred during the foreclosure process. FHA-Insured Mortgages The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), which is a part of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), is working aggressively to halt and reverse the losses represented by foreclosure. Through its National Servicing Center (NSC), FHA offers a number of various loss mitigation programs and informational resources to assist FHA-insured homeowners and home equity conversion mortgage (HECM) borrowersfacing financial hardship or unemployment and whose mortgage is either in default or at risk of default. Click Here to log onto the NSC Loss Mitigation Programs home page. Click Here for answers to Frequently Asked Questions about FHA’s loss mitigation programs.

Economic Development Programs

This site provides a summary of the various programs and initiatives in the Office of Economic Development and links to related federal economic development programs. Rural Innovation Fund (RIF) The Rural Innovation Fund (RIF) is a program designed to improve the quality of life for residents of distressed rural areas by supporting innovative and catalytic economic development and housing projects. Promise Zones The Promise Zones is an initiative that wll revitalize high-poverty communities across the country by attracting private investment, improving affordable housing, expanding educational opportunities, providing tax incentives for hiring workers and investing in the Zones, reducing violence, and assisting local leaders in navigating Federal programs and cutting through red tape. Renewal Community/ Empowerment Zone/ Enterprise Community (RC/EZ/EC) Initiative The RC/EZ/EC Initiative is vital to development in more than 100 distressed urban and rural areas nationwide. The Initiative, through a combination of innovative tax incentives, federal grants, and partnerships with government, for-profit and non-profit agencies, has opened new businesses and created jobs, housing, and new educational and healthcare opportunities for thousands of Americans. Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) The BEDI provides grants on a competitive basis to local entitlement communities. Non-entitlement communities are eligible as supported by their state governments. BEDIs must be used in conjunction with loans guaranteed under the Section 108 Program. Communities fund projects with the BEDI grants and the 108 guaranteed loan financing to clean up and redevelop environmentally contaminated industrial and commercial sites, commonly known as "brownfields." Rural Housing and Economic Development (RHED) Enacted in 1999, RHED provides grants on a competitive basis principally to non-profit organizations to support capacity building, housing, and economic development programs. Section 108 Loan Guarantee Program (Section 108 Program) Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) entitlement communities are eligible to apply for a guarantee from the Section 108 Loan Guarantee program. CDBG non-entitlement communities may also apply, provided that their State agrees to pledge the CDBG funds necessary to secure the loan. Non-entitlement applicants may receive their loan guarantee directly or designate another eligible public entity such as an industrial development authority, to receive it and carry out the Section 108 assisted project. Section 4 Guarantee Recovery Fund Section 4 is a loan guarantee provision authorized under the Church Arson Prevention 4 Act of 1996 (the Act). It authorizes a Loan Guarantee Recovery Fund to provide certain nonprofit organizations with a source of financing to rebuild property damaged or destroyed by acts of arson or terrorism. Congressional Grants Congressional Grants are authorized each year in the annual HUD appropriation and accompanying conference report. Congress authorizes a specific level of funding to a designated grantee, to undertake a particular activity cited in the appropriation or conference report. Only those entities desginated by Congress may apply for funds. Unsolicited applications are not accepted. Economic Development Initiative (EDI) This program has not been funded since FY 2001. The EDI provides grants on a competitive basis to entitlement communities. Non-entitlement communities are eligible as supported by their state governments. EDIs must be used in conjunction with loans guaranteed under the Section 108 Program to enhance the feasibility of economic development and revitalization projects financed with Section 108 Loan Guarantee funds. No new grants are being awarded.


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FHA—BUILDING COMMUNITIES BY INSURING THE AMERICAN DREAM OF HOMEOWNERSHIP FOR MILLIONS OF PEOPLE SINCE 1934

HELP! I CAN’T MAKE MY MORTGAGE PAYMENT.

WHAT OPTIONS WILL HELP ME KEEP MY HOME?

Every day thousands of people like you have trouble

FHA provides, as part of its insurance contract with lenders, loss mitigation actions the lender must evaluate

may seem hopeless, help is available. However, you you may lose your home to foreclosure, possibly another home.

WHAT SHOULD I DO? 1. contact number on your mortgage statement. When you call, be prepared to explain: Why you are unable to make your payment. Whether the problem is temporary

or permanent.

Details about your income, expenses, and

other assets like cash in the bank.

loans in default. Your lender needs information from you to fully evaluate these options. If you want to keep your home, talk to your lender about available workout options for home retention. While the options listed here are for similar workout plans designed to help you keep your home.

may also include an amount to reduce your existing loan

To qualify for any of these options, you will need to provide your lender with current information about your income and expenses. Also, your lender may require that you agree to a payment plan for three or more months to demonstrate your commitment before you are approved

Special Forbearance. Your lender may provide for a temporary reduction or suspension of your payments to allow you time to overcome the problem that reduced your

WHAT OPTIONS DO I HAVE IF I CAN’T KEEP MY HOME?

can pay back the missed payments a little at a time until you are caught up. An extended forbearance period may be provided to unemployed borrowers who are actively seeking employment.

consider the options below.

If your income or expenses have changed so much that you are not able to continue paying the mortgage even

Pre-foreclosure sale. With your lender’s permission you

2. If you are uncomfortable talking to your lender, a HUD-approved housing counseling agency can help

change to your loan through which the overdue payments may be added to your loan balance, the interest rate may

even if the amount you receive from the sale is less than the amount you owe. If you meet certain conditions, you may be eligible to receive relocation expenses.

of charge.

loan may be extended.

3. Open all of the mail you receive from your lender. It contains valuable information about repayment options. Later mail may have important legal notices. Failing to read the mail will not prevent a foreclosure action.

Partial Claim. In a Partial Claim, a borrower receives a second loan in an amount necessary to bring the delin-

Deed-in-lieu of foreclosure. As a last resort, you may be able to voluntarily give your property back to your lender. If you leave the property clean and undamaged you may be eligible to receive relocation expenses.

with FHA-insured loans. However, if you have a con-

reduces the amount of debt you owe so check with a tax advisor before accepting these workout options.

4. Look for ways to increase the amount you have available to make your mortgage payments. Can you cancel cable TV, pack lunches, or get a part-time job? While these actions may not replace all of your lost income, they send a strong message to your lender that you are serious about keeping your home. NOTHING IS WORSE THAN DOING NOTHING!

claim.” (FHA-HAMP). HAMP, the partial claim loan will not only include any amounts necessary to bring your mortgage current but

Contact FHA Struggling homeowners with FHA-insured loans can get assistance by contacting HUD’s National Servicing Center at (877) 622-8525. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may reach this number via TDD/TTY by calling (800) 877-8339.

Beware of Scams! If It Sounds Too Good To Be True…It Usually Is. Report mortgage fraud. Call 1-800-347-3735.

14

BOOK PROPOSAL

HOMEOWNER’S MANUAL


Chapter 1

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ED

RENT

NT

VACA

“REO

ED

CLOS

FORE

short and long periods of vacancy default “a short sale”

$$$ LENDING INSTITUTION

1)

financial loss for both lender and borrower 3)

2)

Number of days during the foreclosure process

1

NT

VACA

?

15

?

ambigious ownership (who should mow the lawn?)

4)

1072


Chapter 1

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NEW AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS

SUBURBAN SHARING PRECEDENTS

Source: Collaborative

“GARDEN DATING SITES”

Development-supported agriculture

16


Chapter 1

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RURAL FARM

AGRIHOODS

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES

STORE 100 feet FARM

CSA FARM

STORE

STORE FARM

FACTORY

50 feet

10 miles

FARM

Independent Productive Communities compared to existing or new agricultural developments

17


Chapter 1

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INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITY PROCESS Farming Co-op

Production Co-op

1x

200 sq.feet.

AD

LE

L VI EL

RO

M

10’

20’

1 Bushel of Barley = 48 pounds 256 x

and/or

MAIN STREET

and/or LIRR

IN

TRA

TION STA

house owner

nyc on-site production

consumption by owner

consumption by co-op member Return of investment

farms his land or another co-op member

rents to a neighboring farmer through SharedLand

house owner

STRATEGIES Production, Agriculture, Residence

house owner shares his production unit with neighbor

10%

MECHANISM Developers

Farming Cooperative -Grow produce in exchange for: -new amenities -investment return -Defines overall land usage

Manufacturing Cooperative -Responsible for manufacturing of the product

Retail Cooperative

FBI

(FARMING BUREAU OF IMPROVEMENTS)

-Redevelope foreclosed housing -Manage facilities and amenities

Businesses

-Use cooperatives for growing + production

Local government -Tax exemptives -Rezoning

-Organize Farmer’s Market -Looks fro opportunities for selling the product -Advertise business that buy produce

18

SOCIAL CAPITAL

IS

SHARING.......BARTERING.......LENDING....... TRADING......RENTING.......GIFTING.......SWAPPING


Chapter 1

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INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITY STRATEGIES Production, Agriculture, Residence

AD

E

LL

VI EL

RO

MAIN STREET

M

AIN R TR

LIR

nyc

19

TION STA


Chapter 1

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PROCESS Farming Co-op

Production Co-op

1x

200 sq.feet.

10â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

20â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

1 Bushel of Barley = 48 pounds

256 x

and/or

and/or

house owner

on-site production

farms his land or another co-op member

rents to a neighboring farmer through SharedLand

house owner

house owner shares his production unit with neighbor

10%

20

consumption by owner

consumption by co-op member


Chapter 1

US

Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

20’

7200 sq. ft.

120’

60’

Potential combinations:

Crops that grow indoors:

Single-family housing Crops In

18” < h<3’

50% PRODUCTION

4’<h<6’

Crops>1’

AGRICULTURE 12” < h<16”

Crops<1’

16” < h<42”

Indoor crops

15’

1’

12” < h<3’ 15’

3’<h<6’

21


Chapter 1

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Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

20’

7200 sq. ft.

120’

60’

Crops that grow > 1’: 8.6’<h<11’

Potential combinations:

Single-family housing Crops Below

8’<h<50’

2’<h<6’ 3’<h<7’

50% PRODUCTION Crops>1’

5’<h<6’

AGRICULTURE

12’<h<15’ 3’<h<6’

Crops<1’

8’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

2’

2.5’ 15’

6-12’ 15’

22


Chapter 1

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Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month Production Income $1,768/month Remaing balance $282/month

20’

7200 sq. ft.

120’

60’

Crops that grow < 1’:

Potential combinations:

Single-family housing Crops Outside

11”<h<15” 12”<h<16”

50% PRODUCTION

12”<h<18”

AGRICULTURE

Crops>1’

12” 12” < h<5’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

12” < h<3’ 15’

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Chapter 1

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Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $475,000 Mortgage payment $2,450/month

Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $475,000 Mortgage payment $2,450/month

Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

20’

15’

7200 sq. ft.

120’ Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

120’

60’

7200 sq. ft. 20’ 60’ 120’

Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $475,000 Mortgage payment $2,450/month

15’

7200 sq. ft. Crops that grow < 1’: 11”<h<15”

Potential combinations:

Single-family housing Crops Below/Crops Outside

7200 sq. ft.

60’

120’

12”<h<16”

50% PRODUCTION

12”<h<18” 12”

AGRICULTURE

20’

60’

12” < h<5’ 12” < h<3’ Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

Crops that grow > 1’:

1’

Potential combinations:

15’

8.6’<h<11’ 8’<h<50’

2’<h<6’

120’

Single-family housing 7200 sq. ft.

Crops Below/Crops Below

15’

50% PRODUCTION

3’<h<7’ 5’<h<6’

120’

60’

AGRICULTURE

12’<h<15’ 3’<h<6’

Crops>1’

8’ 2’

2.5’ 6-12’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

60’

1’

15’

15’

Potential combinations:

Crops that grow > 1’: 8.6’<h<11’

Single-family housing

8’<h<50’

Crops Below/Crops Outside

2’<h<6’ 3’<h<7’ 5’<h<6’ 12’<h<15’ 3’<h<6’ 8’ 2’

2.5’ 6-12’ 15’

24

Crops that grow < 1’: 11”<h<15”

Potential combinations:

50% PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE

12”<h<16” Crops>1’

12”<h<18” 12” Crops<1’

12” < h<5’ 12” < h<3’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

15’


Chapter 1

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Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $475,000 Mortgage payment $1,250/month

20’

120’

7200 sq. ft.

15’

120’

60’

60’

Crops that grow > 1’: 8.6’<h<11’

Potential combinations:

8’<h<50’

Single-family housing

2’<h<6’ 3’<h<7’

Crops Below/Crops Outside

Crops that grow < 1’:

50% PRODUCTION

5’<h<6’ 11”<h<15”

12’<h<15’

12”<h<16”

3’<h<6’

12”<h<18”

Potential combinations:

AGRICULTURE

Crops>1’

12”

8’ 2’

12” < h<5’

2.5’

12” < h<3’

6-12’ 15’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

15’

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Chapter 1

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Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $475,000 Mortgage payment $1,250/month

20’

120’

15’

7200 sq. ft.

120’

7200 sq. ft.

60’

60’

Crops that grow > 1’:

Potential combinations:

8.6’<h<11’ 8’<h<50’

2’<h<6’

Single-family housing Crops Below/Crops Below

3’<h<7’

50% PRODUCTION

5’<h<6’

AGRICULTURE

Crops>1’

Crops>1’

12’<h<15’ 3’<h<6’ 8’

Crops<1’

2’

15’

15’

1’

2.5’ 6-12’

15’

15’

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Chapter 1

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Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $475,000 Mortgage payment $1,250/month

Owners: Pam and John Smith Ages: early 40’s Household income: $90,000 Single-family 5 beds/2 baths $405,000 Mortgage payment $2,050/month

20’

15’

7200 sq. ft.

120’ 120’

60’

7200 sq. ft. 60’

Crops that grow < 1’: 11”<h<15”

Potential combinations:

Single-family housing Crops Below/Crops Outside

12”<h<16”

50% PRODUCTION

12”<h<18” 12”

AGRICULTURE

12” < h<5’ 12” < h<3’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

Indoor crops

1’

15’

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INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITY Sullivan Road, Farmingdale, NY

Crops that grow > 1’: 8.6’<h<11’ 8’<h<50’

Crops that grow < 1’: 11”<h<15” 12”<h<16” 12”<h<18”

2’<h<6’ 3’<h<7’ 5’<h<6’

Single-family housing Crops Below / Outside / Indoors

12” 12” < h<5’

50% PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE

Crops>1’

12” < h<3’

12’<h<15’

Crops<1’

3’<h<6’

Indoor crops

15’

8’ 2’

2.5’ 15’

6-12’ 15’

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Chapter 1

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INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITY Sullivan Road, Farmingdale, NY

Crops that grow > 1’: 8.6’<h<11’ 8’<h<50’

Crops that grow < 1’:

Crops that grow indoors:

11”<h<15”

18” < h<3’

12”<h<16”

4’<h<6’ 12”<h<18”

2’<h<6’ 3’<h<7’ 5’<h<6’

Single-family housing Crops Below / Outside / Indoors

12”

12” < h<16”

12” < h<5’ 12” < h<3’

50% PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE

Crops>1’

16” < h<42”

12” < h<3’

12’<h<15’

3’<h<6’

3’<h<6’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

8’ 2’

2.5’ 15’

6-12’ 15’

29


Independent Productive Communities

CHAPTER 2 Cash Crops

30


Chapter 2

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CA$H CROP$

Cash Crops that grow < 1’*

Top 20 Cash Crops in the United States (Average Value )

*Typical residential violations: Grass: -grass over one foot tall IF the property is located within an approved subdivision and the lot is less than 5 acres

Average Rank Crop Production Value ($1000s)

NOT a violation: -height of grass on properties which are NOT located within an approved subdivision and are more than 5 acres

1 Marijuana $35,803,591 2 Corn $23,299,601 3 Soybeans $17,312,200 4 Hay $12,236,638

7 Cotton $5,314,870 8 Grapes $2,876,547 9 Apples $1,787,532 10 Rice $1,706,665 11 Oranges $1,583,009 12 Tobacco $1,466,633 13 Sugarbeets $1,158,078 14 Sugarcane $942,176 15 Sorghum $840,923

8.6’<h<11’

3-4 months 3-6 months

11”<h<15”

4.5 months

8’<h<50’

3 months

12”<h<16”

varies

5 Vegetables $11,080,733

6 Wheat $7,450,907

Cash Crops that grow >1’*

2’<h<6’

12”<h<18”

3 months (spring); 4.5 months (winter) 3.5 months

12”

3’<h<7’

3 years

12” < h<5’

3-4 years

12” < h<3’

3-6 months 3-6 months

Cash Crops that grow indoors

9-10 months 3 months

18” < h<3’

5’<h<6’

12’<h<15’

3’<h<6’

2 years

4’<h<6’

3 months

8’ 2’

3 months

16 Cottonseed $821,655 17 Peanuts $819,617

18 Barley $653,095 19 Peaches $474,745 20 Beans $467,236

3-4 months 3 months (spring); 4.5 months (winter)

12” < h<16”

2.5’

16” < h<42”

6-12’

2-5 years

12” < h<3’

1-2 weeks

3’<h<6’

Crops > 15’

Crops < 1’

Indoor crops

15’

15’

Cash Crop Definition: a cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm

1’

15’

31

Cash Crop = Substinence Farming + More = $$$$$


Chapter 2

US

Case Studies

This chapter presents a selection of case studies that demonstrate the principles for successful application of Independent Productive Communities. Individual case studies largely reflect all IPC principles but at the same time were selected for attention to key areas of IPC. Additionaly, case studies were selected to reflect the diverse sites, scales, and scenarios to which IPC can be applied.

Youngstown, OH Parker, CO semi-arid 5,000 sq.ft. $95,618 4.9%

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau; RealtyTrac

32

CLIMATE LOT SIZE INCOME LEVEL FORECLOSURE

humid subcont. 6,700 sq.ft. $24,421 20%


Chapter 2

US

SPECIALTY CROPS

CASH CROPS

$290,763,000/acre

$120,000/acre

$3,231.14/acre

$573/acre

$324.24/acre

33


Chapter 2

Youngstown

YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO Location

Ohio (Rust Belt)

Population

(65,405)

Median age

(as of July 1, 2012)

38.8

Number of companies

Median household income

24,412

Foreign-born population

2,845

Poverty

35.6%

Total labor force

27,676

Employed

22,271

Unemployed

5,385

Total housing units

33,640

Occupied housing units

26,875

Vacant housing units

6,765

Homeowner vacancy rate

7.9

Rental vacancy rate

9.0

Owner-occupied units

15,921

Housing w/ a mortgage

8,091

Housing w/o a mortgage

7,830

Percentage of Units by Area

78%

30%

52%

FORECLOSED HOMES

80% (high school) 33,640

0.20

20%

OWNER-OCCUPIED HOMEOWNERS PAYING MORE THAN HOME VALUE < $50,000 35% OF INCOME ON HOUSING

3,856

Total housing units

44507 Youngstown

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED HOMES

Mahoning

Ohio

1 IN 544

E AVONDALE

E AVONDALE

E LUCIUS AVE

E LUCIUS AVE

SOUTH AVENUE

Educational attainment

FORECLOSURE RATE

Foreclosure Actions to Housing Units 1 in 544 Housing Units

High

1 in 2,564 Housing Units

Med

Low

Source: RealtyTrac National

Median lot size (U.S.)

Median HHI (U.S.)

Foreclosure (U.S.)

10,000 sq.ft.

$51,000

0.08%

Median lot size (Young.)

0.18%

Median HHI (Young.)

Youngstown is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Mahoning County. It also extends into Trumbull County.The municipality is on the Mahoning River, approximately 65 miles (105 km) southeast of Cleveland and 61 miles (100 km) northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Youngstown has its own metropolitan area, but is often included in commercial and cultural depictions of the Pittsburgh Tri-State area and Greater Cleveland.Youngstown lies 10 miles (16 km) west of the Pennsylvania state line, midway between New York City and Chicago via Interstate 80.The city was named for John Young, an early settler from Whitestown, New York, who established the community's first sawmill and gristmill.Youngstown is in a region of the United States that is often referred to as the Rust Belt. Traditionally known as a center of steel production, Youngstown was forced to redefine itself when the U.S. steel industry fell into decline in the 1970s, leaving communities throughout the region without major industry.Youngstown also falls within the Appalachian Ohio region, among the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. The 2010 census showed that Youngstown had a total population of 66,982, making it Ohio's ninth largest city. The city has experienced a decline of over 60% of its population since 1960. According to the 2010 Census, the Youngstown-WarrenBoardman Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) contains 565,773 people and includes Mahoning and Trumbull counties in Ohio, and Mercer County in Pennsylvania.[8] The Steel Valley area as a whole has 763,207 residents.

Foreclosure (Young.)

6,700 sq.ft.

$24,421

0.18%

2

1

3

Income level

Foreclosure

0.15 0.11% 0.10

0.10%

0.11% 0.08%

0.05 0.00 44507

Youngst Mahoning own

Ohio

National

Lot size

Scale 1-3 1- low; 2 - medium; 3 - high

34

humid continental climate


Chapter 2

Ohio

CA$H CROP$ IN OHIO OHIO Top 10 Cash Crops Rank Crop

Unit Planted Area (000) Acres 1. Soybeans Bu 4,500.00 2. Corn for Grain Bu 3,600.00 3. Hay, All Ton N/A 4. Marijuana Lb N/A 5. Wheat, All Bu 1,200.00 6. Tobacco, All Lb N/A 7. Apples, All Lb N/A 8. Oats Bu 130 9. Potatoes, All Cwt 5.3 10. Peaches Lb N/A

Crop

Harvested Area (000) Acres 4,490.00 3,450.00 1,250.00 N/A 1,090.00 9.5 7.5 100 5 1

CONDITIONS FOR SELECTING CASH CROPS

Yield Per Production Street Price Per Value of Acre (000) Units Unit Dollars Production (000) Dollars 44 197,560 $6.450 $1,274,262 134 462,300 $2.650 $1,225,095 3.08 3,850 $143.000 $550,550 N/A 140 $2,544.000 $354,832 63 68,670 $3.250 $223,178 1,960.00 18,620 $1.869 $34,801 8,670.00 65,000 $0.265 $17,225 78 7,800 $1.800 $14,040 235 1,175 $7.850 $9,224 6,000.00 6,000 $0.400 $2,400

Growth period

Height

3.5 months

16” < h<42”

Both

3-6 months

4’<h<6’

Both

3 months

12” < h<5’

Outdoor

3-4 months

18” < h<3’

Both

3 months (spring); 4.5 months (winter)

2’<h<6’

Outdoor

9-10 months

2’

Outdoor

varies

12’<h<15’

Outdoor

2.5 months

1’<h<3’

Outdoor

2-4 months

10”<h<12”

Outdoor

varies

8’

Outdoor

Indoor vs. Outdoor

TOP 10

$$$

Top 10 Cash Crop

High Yield

Crops > 15’

Crops < 1’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

15’

Flexible growing conditions

CROPS TO BE TESTED OUT IN YOUNGSTOWN:

Final products

SOYBEANS

TOBACCO

E AVONDALE

*Typical residential violations: Grass: -grass over one foot tall IF the property is located within an approved subdivision and the lot is less than 5 acres

E LUCIUS AVE

NOT a violation: -height of grass on properties which are NOT located within an approved subdivision and are more than 5 acres

35

GARLIC*


Chapter 2

Youngstown

PRODUCTION EXPENSES SOYBEAN production costs and returns per planted acre, excluding Government payments, 2011-2012 1/ United States 2011 2012

Item Gross value of production Primary product: Soybeans Total, gross value of production

525.36 525.36

575.57 575.57

Youngstown

Heartland 2011 2012

615.93 615.93

644.88 644.88

E AVONDALE

43’

644.88

50’

150’

Operating costs: Seed Fertilizer 2/ Chemicals Custom operations Fuel, lube, and electricity Repairs Purchased irrigation water Interest on operating capital Total, operating costs

55.55 22.84 16.42 7.18 20.98 13.68 0.15 0.07 136.87

62.68 25.31 17.49 7.48 21.15 14.35 0.15 0.10 148.72

55.05 22.37 16.30 6.22 16.65 12.12 0.00 0.06 128.77

60.81 23.98 17.10 6.33 16.55 12.49 0.00 0.09 137.35

Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land(rental rate) Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total, allocated overhead

2.07 17.09 81.34 120.64 9.93 15.10 246.17

2.22 18.20 87.37 134.72 10.30 15.84 268.66

1.28 16.01 78.40 141.87 9.96 15.46 262.98

1.34 16.68 82.58 159.32 10.18 15.92 286.02

- 1.34 - 16.68 - 82.58 - 159.32

383.04

417.38

391.75

423.37

110.98

142.32 388.49

158.19 426.85

224.18 487.16

221.51 507.53

533.9 = 573.9 +$40 (govt subsidy)

44 11.94 303

42 13.65 303

49 12.57 299

44 14.67 299

9 91

9 91

4 96

4 96

Total costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs

150’

Supporting information: Yield (bushels per planted acre) Price (dollars per bushel at harvest) Enterprise size (planted acres) 1/ Production practices: 1/ Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent)

- 17.10 - 6.33 - 16.55 - 12.49

E LUCIUS AVE

2

2

2

2

~1 acre (9 lots)

Yield

44 bushels $573.9 net profit U.S. government regulatory price

1/ Developed from survey base year, 2006. 2/ Commercial fertilizer, soil conditioners, and manure.

36

2

2

4130ft 4110ft 4110ft 6450ft 6450ft 4130ft 4610ft.4110ft 5660ft


Chapter 2

Youngstown

GROWING CONDITIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

planting

DIFFICULTY

SEASON

OCTOBER

harvesting

ZONE

EXPOSURE

winter spring summer fall

NOVEMBER

INSTRUCTIONS

STEP 1 Expect them to take three months from planting to harvest. Try succession planting for continuous harvest over several weeks. In the USA, the South and Midwest provide the best growing regions.

STEP 2 Sow the soybean seeds. There are black-seeded and green-seeded varieties. The black-seeded varieties are grown for drying, while the greenseeded varieties are grown for eating as they are. Plant outdoors after the last frost date for your area. The soil should be warm before planting.

STEP 3 Sow the soybean seeds 2 inches (5.08 cm) apart, about 1/2 inch (1.27cm) deep, in rows 20" to 24" (50cm - 60cm) apart. If your garden space is limited, plant in double rows.

STEP 4 Water well after planting, and a second time two to four days later, only if there has been no rain.

STEP 5 Side dress the rows with general purpose fertilizer during planting.

STEP 6 Ensure a nitrogen rich soil. Soybeans are easy to grow. They grow best in full sun and in warm weather. They prefer a rich soil, high in nitrogen. Soil should be kept moist for optimum growth. Soybeans grow best in rich soil. Add manure and compost prior to planting. Apply fertilizer regularly during the growth period.

STEP 7 Harvest soybeans when the pods are full. Rinse the pods, then boil them for twenty minutes. Allow to cool, then squeeze the pods to remove the beans. Beans can be frozen or canned.

STEP 8 Deal with insects and pests. Like other beans, soybeans are susceptible to a variety of insects, most notably beetles. They can be effectively treated with Sevin, Diazinon or a variety of other insecticides. Rabbits eat the tender new leaves. If there are rabbits in your area, a rabbit fence is not a nicety, it is a necessity. They will devastate a row of beans in a hurry, eating the tender new leaves. As new ones develop, they will come back for more.

STEP 9 Deal with insects and pests. Like other beans, soybeans are susceptible to a variety of insects, most notably beetles. They can be effectively treated with Sevin, Diazinon or a variety of other insecticides. Rabbits eat the tender new leaves. If there are rabbits in your area, a rabbit fence is not a nicety, it is a necessity. They will devastate a row of beans in a hurry, eating the tender new leaves. As new ones develop, they will come back for more.

STEP 10 Finished.

37

DECEMBER


Chapter 2

Youngstown

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES - SOYBEANS PRODUCTION E AVONDALE

43’

50’

150’ 150’

E LUCIUS AVE

Typical houses on site

Row Width (inches)

1’

3819x

30 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 6

1’

BBQ/ storage

garage

Required Seeding Rate at 90% Germination and 90% Emergence (seeds/foot) 7.4 6.2 5.6 5.0 4.3 3.7 3.4 3.1 2.8 2.5

Recommended Seeding Rate at 90% Germination and 90% Emergence (seeds/acre) 130,675 163,350 163,350 163,350 163,350 163,350 179,688 204,188 210,025 217,800

Recommended Plant Population (plants/foot) 6.0 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.2 2.0

Recommended Plant Population (plants/acre) 104,540 130,680 130,680 130,680 130,680 130,680 143,750 163,350 168,020 174,240

1’ 22 pods/plant

25 seeds/pod

driveway

Yield

16”

1’

5.6 bushels x$14.67 (price/bu) $82.1 net profit

1 plant

YIELD ESTIMATE (PLANTS PER AREA) X (PODS PER PLANT) X (SEEDS PER POD) (SEEDS PER POUND) / (POUND PER BUSHEL) = (BUSHELS PER AREA) sidewalk

15,276X22X25/2,500/60 = 5.6 BUSHELS

38

U.S. government regulatory price


Chapter 2

Youngstown

PRODUCTION EXPENSES TOBACCO production costs and returns per planted acre, excluding Government payments, 2011-2012 1/ Item Gross value of production Primary product: Soybeans Total, gross value of production

United States 2011

3,862.5

E AVONDALE

Youngstown

43’

3,862.5

50’

150’

Operating costs: Seed Fertilizer 2/ Chemicals Custom operations Fuel, lube, and electricity Repairs Purchased irrigation water Interest on operating capital Total, operating costs

150’

115.51 356.58 98.65 13.91 110.93 83.89

E LUCIUS AVE

- 98.65 - 13.91 - 110.93 - 83.89

2

2

2

~1 acre (9 lots)

Allocated overhead: Hired labor Marketing expenses Other variable cash expenses General farm overhead Taxes and insurance Interest

624.96

- 624.96

57.12 23.65 223.5 48.85

- 23.65 - 223.5

73.88

Total, allocated overhead Total costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs

1,841.46

1,179.49

2,021.12

3,191.14 +$40 (govt subsidy)

388.49

Supporting information: Yield (bushels per planted acre) Price (dollars per bushel at harvest) Enterprise size (planted acres) 1/ Production practices: 1/ Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent)

2

2

2

4130ft 4110ft 4110ft 6450ft 6450ft 4130ft 4610ft.4110ft 5660ft

Yield

=

1,945 pounds $3,231.14 profit U.S. government regulatory price

44 11.94 303 9 91

1/ Developed from survey base year, 2006. 2/ Commercial fertilizer, soil conditioners, and manure.

39


Chapter 2

Youngstown

GROWING CONDITIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

planting

DIFFICULTY

SEASON

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

harvesting

ZONE

EXPOSURE

winter spring summer fall

INSTRUCTIONS

STEP 1 Plant the tobacco seeds in indoor planters, preferably in the early spring. Add gravel to the soil or use special fertilizer. Because tobacco seeds are so small, it's not advisable to begin them outdoors. Also, their nutrient requirements are different form many other plants, so adding a bit of gravel or special fertilizer designed for tobacco is a good idea.

STEP 2 Maintain moisture in the planters and keep the tobacco seeds exposed to the sun.

STEP 3 Prepare a plot in your garden that is constantly exposed to sun, well-drained, and tilled. When the shoots have grown about 7 inches (or 18 cm), transplant them to the plot in your garden. Space them about 2 feet (or 60 cm) apart from each other. Make sure that when you transplant there is no further risk of frost in your area, as this will kill your plants.

STEP 6 Top your plants when flower buds appear. Cut off these buds before they can flower.

STEP 7 Harvest your tobacco plants about three months after planting. Cut the plants at the stalk and keep all the leaves attached.Flowers will inhibit the growth of your leaves and compete for sunlight; removing them is important for obtaining the broadest tobacco leaves possible. Proper curing takes anywhere from 1 to 5 years. You want your leaves to attain a dry, golden texture.

STEP 8 Cure the tobacco by hanging it in a dry, warm room with good air flow. Check it routinely for rot or other problems.

40

STEP 4 Water the plants often. Keep the soil moist but not soaking.

STEP 5 Watch our for pests and rot. Common tobacco pests include budworms, hornworms, and pathogens. If manually removing pests is not doing the trick, seek out a tobacco-specific pesticide to take care of your problem.

DECEMBER


Chapter 2

Youngstown

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES - TOBACCO PRODUCTION E AVONDALE

43’

50’

150’ 150’

E LUCIUS AVE

Typical houses on site

3’

455x

2’

BBQ/ storage

garage

driveway

1’

1’

1’

1’

1 plant

1/4 pound

YIELD ESTIMATE (PLANTS PER AREA) / 1/4 pound = 1’

(455x4) / 1/4 = 455 pounds

sidewalk

41

Yield 455 pounds x$1.99 (price/lb) $905.45 profit U.S. government regulatory price


Chapter 2

Youngstown

PRODUCTION EXPENSES E AVONDALE

Sample Garlic Budget Summary of estimated costs and returns per acre.

Items Variable costs Seeding costs: Seed (cloves, including freight) Lime Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Planting labor Herbicides: Buctril 4EC Gramoxone Extra Harvesting: Harvest labor Grading and packaging (*) Hauling (*) Machinery: Machinery rental (mulch layer) Diesel fuel Tractor repairs and maint. Implement repairs and maint. Other variable expenses: Plastic mulch Drip irrigation (tape and labor) Interest expense: Operating interest Total variable costs Fixed costs Tractors Implements Drip irrigation system Land charge Total fixed costs

Quantity or Number of Operations

Units

Price

Total

43’

Your Estimate

50’

150’ 150’

1,000 2 75 138 138 20 0.25 0.375 40 200 4,000 1 10.573 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

lbs tons lbs lbs lbs hrs

$4.90 $25.00 $0.38 $0.32 $0.23 $10.00

$4,900.00 $50.00 $28.50 $44.16 $31.74 $200.00

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

pint gallon

$13.34 $33.92

$3.34 $12.72

_____________ _____________

hrs bags lbs

$10.00 $0.95 $0.15

$400.00 $190.00 $600.00

_____________ _____________ _____________

day gallon acre acre

$40.00 $2.00 $6.30 $7.62

$40.00 $21.15 $6.30 $7.62

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

acre acre

$250.00 $330.00

$250.00 $330.00

_____________ _____________

$217.27 $7,332.79

_____________ _____________

$12.75 $14.76 $500.00 $150.00 $677.51

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

$8,010.30

_____________

acre acre acre acre

$12.75 $14.76 $500.00 $150.00

Total Costs

E LUCIUS AVE 2

2

2

2

2

2

4130ft 4110ft 4110ft 6450ft 6450ft 4130ft 4610ft.4110ft 5660ft

~1 acre (9 lots) Net returns for five different yields and prices of garlic Price ($/lb)

2000

3000

Yield (lbs/A) Y 4000

$0.80

($5,815)

($5,313)

($4,810)

$1.60

($4,215)

(2,913)

(1,610)

(308)

995

$2.40

($2,615)

(513)

1,590

3,692

5,795

$3.20

($1,015)

1,887

4,790

7,692

10,595

$4.00

$585

4,287

7,990

11,692

15,395

5000

6000

($4,308)

($3,805)

Yield

15,000 pounds $120,000 profit

= Initial Resource Requirements Land: Usually one acre or less; depends on market demand Labor: 65 hours Land preparation and planting: 20 hours Harvesting and packaging: 40 hours Marketing and hauling: 5 hours Capital: $6,847.00 Equipment Tractor (20 horsepower) Tillage equipment Hand sprayer Packaging supplies

* Based on 4,000 lbs/A production It is customary for producers to keep enough cloves for replanting for the following season. This should be factored into subsequent budgets.

42

U.S. government regulatory price


Chapter 2

Youngstown

GROWING CONDITIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

planting

DIFFICULTY

SEASON

winter spring summer fall

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

harvesting

ZONE

EXPOSURE

INSTRUCTIONS

STEP 1 Find out when to plant garlic in your region. In general, the best times for planting are mid-autumn or early spring. Garlic grows well in a wide range of climates. It does less well in areas of high heat or humidity, or where there is a lot of rainfall.

STEP 2 Choose a planting spot and prepare the soil. Garlic needs a lot of full sun, but it might tolerate partial shade provided it's not for very long during the day or growing season. The soil must be well dug over and crumbly. Sandy loam is best.Ensure that the soil has good drainage. Clay-based soils are not good for planting garlic. Use compost and manure to add nutrients to the soil before planting the garlic.

STEP 3 Source fresh garlic. Garlic is grown by planting the cloves - called seeds for our purposes - so to get started all you need to do is buy fresh garlic. Choose garlic from a store, or even better, a farm stand or the local farmers market. It's very important that the garlic bulbs chosen are fresh and of high quality. If you can, avoid garlic that has been sprayed with chemical sprays.

STEP 4 Break the cloves from a fresh garlic head. Be careful not to damage the cloves at their base, where they attach to the garlic plate. Plant the larger cloves. The smaller cloves take up as much space in the planting bed, but they produce much smaller bulbs.

STEP 5 Push each clove into the soil. Point the tips upward and plant the cloves about 2â&#x20AC;? deep. The cloves should be spaced about 8â&#x20AC;? apart for best growing conditions.

STEP 6 Cover the planted cloves with mulch. Suitable toppings include hay, dry leaves, straw, compost, well rotted manure, or well rotted grass clippings

STEP 7 Fertilize the cloves or top-dress with compost. The planted garlic needs a complete fertilizer at the time of planting. Fertilize again in the spring if you are planting your garlic in the fall, or in the fall if you're planting it in the spring.

STEP 8 Water the plants often. Don't overdo the water, as garlic does not grow well, or may even rot, if sodden during cold months. Water deeply once a week if rain has not fallen. Watering garlic is not necessary unless there is a drought, in which case water sparingly, as garlic hates wet soil. Reduce the watering gradually as the season warms up. The garlic needs a hot, dry summer to allow the bulbs to mature.

STEP 9 Take care of pests. Insects, mice, and other creatures may come to eat the garlic or make a nest among the plants. Beware the following pests: Aphids seem to enjoy garlic leaves, and the flower buds. They're easy to dispense with - simply rub your fingers over them and squash them or apply a Many people tend to plant garlic underneath roses to deter aphids; the roses benefit from the aphids being drawn away.

STEP 10 Eat some scapes. As the garlic plants begin to grow, long green stalks called scapes will emerge and form loops. Pull off a few scapes and eat them if you wish. This may damage the garlic bulbs themselves, so don't do it to every plant. Use gloves when pulling off scapes; otherwise your hands will smell of garlic for days.

43


Chapter 2

Youngstown

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES - GARLIC PRODUCTION E AVONDALE

43’

50’

150’ 150’

E LUCIUS AVE

Typical houses on site

1’

3819x

1’

BBQ/ storage

garage

6”

6”

driveway

Yield

6”

22,914 cloves x$0.5(price/clove) $11,457 profit

1 plant

YIELD ESTIMATE (TOTAL NUMBER OF CLOVES) X ($0.50 PER CLOVE) = 6”

3819 X 6 X 0.50 = $11,457

sidewalk

44

U.S. government regulatory price


Chapter 2

Parker

PARKER, COLORADO Location

Colorado

Population

(47,169)

Median age

(as of July 1, 2012)

33.2

Number of companies Educational attainment

FORECLOSURE RATE

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED HOMES

5%

75%

OWNER-OCCUPIED HOMEOWNERS PAYING MORE THAN HOME VALUE < $50,000 35% OF INCOME ON HOUSING

52%

0.4%

5,627

FORECLOSED HOMES

97.4% (high school)

1 IN 1482

Total housing units

16,641

Median household income

95,618

Foreign-born population

1,799

Poverty

4.6%

Total labor force

25,451

Employed

24,106

Unemployed

1,274

Total housing units

16,641

Occupied housing units

15,821

Vacant housing units

820

The Town of Parker is a Home Rule Municipality in Douglas County, Colorado, United States. As a selfdeclared "Town" under the Home Rule Statutes, Parker is the second most populous town in the county; Castle Rock is the most populous.[6] In recent years, Parker has become a commuter town at the southeasternmost corner of the Denver Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 45,297, over 145 times the population of 285 when Parker incorporated in 1981.[7] Parker is now the 19th most populous municipality in the State of Colorado. As of the census of 2000, there were 23,558 people, 7,929 households, and 6,525 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,615.2 people per square mile (623.4/km²). There were 8,352 housing units at an average density of 572.6 per square mile (221.0/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 92.60% White, 1.71% Asian, 1.01% Black, 0.45% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.88% from other races, and 2.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.80% of the population. There were 7,929 households out of which 52.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.8% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 17.7% were non-families. 13.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.27.

KEOTA ST

JORDAN CT

Homeowner vacancy rate

3.4

Rental vacancy rate

5.6

Owner-occupied units

12,257

Housing w/ a mortgage

11,248

Housing w/o a mortgage

1,009

Foreclosure Actions to Housing Units 1 in 1,482Housing Units

High

1 in 10,836 Housing Units

Med

Low

Source: RealtyTrac

Source: U.S. Census 80134 Parker

Douglas

Colorado

National

Percentage of Units by Area

0.20

Median lot size (U.S.)

Median HHI (U.S.)

10,000 sq.ft.

$51,000

Median lot size (Parker)

Median HHI (Parker)

Foreclosure (U.S.)

0.08% Foreclosure (Parker)

4,000 sq.ft.

$95,618

0.05%

1

3

1

0.15 0.10

0.07%

0.05

0.06% 0.05%

0.04%

Parker

Douglas

0.08%

0.00 80134

Colorado National

Lot size

Income level

Scale 1-3 1- low; 2 - medium; 3 - high

semi-arid climate

Foreclosure

45


Chapter 2

Colorado

CA$H CROP$ IN COLORADO COLORADO Top 10 Cash Crops Rank Crop

Unit Planted Area (000) Acres 1. Hay, All Ton N/A 2. Corn for Grain Bu 1,150.00 3. Wheat, All Bu 3,153.00 4. Marijuana Lb N/A 5. Potatoes Cwt 84.8 6. Sorghum Bu 180 7. Sugarbeets Ton 67.9 8. Beans, All Dry Cwt 135 9. Barley Bu 95 10. Sunflowers,All Lb 85

Crop

Growth period

Harvested Area (000) Acres 1,430.00 1,030.00 2,900.00 N/A 84.5 140 66.4 120 90 80

Height

3 months

12” < h<5’

3-6 months

Yield Per Production Street Price Per Value of Acre (000) Units Unit Dollars Production (000) Dollars 3.07 4,388 $103,000 $451,964 146 150,380 $2.650 $398,507 32.7 94,700 $3.300 $312,510 N/A 55 $2,544.000 $140,635 332 28,037 $4,700 $131,774 40 5,600 $14,000 $78,400 19.7 1,308 $41,200 $53,890 1,900.00 2,280 $19,200 $43,776 112 10,080 $3.050 $30,744 1,076.00 86,100 $0.121 $10,418

Indoor vs. Outdoor

CONDITIONS FOR SELECTING CASH CROPS

TOP 10

$$$

Top 10 Cash Crop

High Yield

Crops > 15’

Crops < 1’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

15’

Flexible growing conditions

CROPS TO BE TESTED OUT PARKER:

Final products

Outdoor

4’<h<6’

Both

3 months (spring); 4.5 months (winter)

2’<h<6’

Outdoor

3-4 months

18” < h<3’

Both

2-4 months

10”<h<12”

Outdoor

3 months

6’<h<12’

Outdoor

3 months

12”

Outdoor

3.5 months

16” < h<42”

Both

3 months (spring); 4.5 months (winter)

11” < h<15”

Outdoor

4 months

5’< h<12’

Outdoor

MARIJUANA

BARLEY

KEOTA ST

*Typical residential violations: Grass: -grass over one foot tall IF the property is located within an approved subdivision and the lot is less than 5 acres

JORDAN CT

NOT a violation: -height of grass on properties which are NOT located within an approved subdivision and are more than 5 acres

46

MUSHROOMS*


Chapter 2

Parker

PRODUCTION EXPENSES MARIJUANA production costs and returns per 5’x5’ indoor lot, 2011-2012 1/

KEOTA ST

Item

Gross value of production Primary product: Weed

2012

5’ 5’

Parker

JORDAN CT

10.5 pounds

Operating costs: Consumables (growing medium and nutrients) Electricity expenses Durable items (fan, lights) Light bulbs

$200/harvest $1,250 ($60-$75/harvest) $27.50/harvest

Total operating costs

$600/harvest

Value of production less total costs listed

$33,375

$300/harvest

Yield

10.5 pounds $33,375net profit

Supporting information: Yield (pounds per 5’x5’) Price (dollars per pound)

U.S. government regulatory price

10.5 lbs/year $3,200

47


Chapter 2

Parker

GROWING CONDITIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

planting

DIFFICULTY

SEASON

winter spring summer fall

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

harvesting

ZONE

EXPOSURE

INSTRUCTIONS

STEP 1 Growing hydroponic marijuana is a bit more difficult than growing marijuana in soil: You're optimizing for nutrients, light, and ventilation, which can be hard if you've never grown marijuana before.Don't necessarily expect to jump straight from 0 to 60 without a hitch. Although growing is easy if you have the right knowledge and information, it usually takes time to gather both of those things STEP 2 Obtain all the necessary items. If you're careful to shop around, you should be able to get everything you need for five plants for $300-$500. You should expect to get 1-3 ounces off each plant at the end. You will need: -Marijuana seeds or clones; -White paint or mylar; -Hydroponic nutrients; -Pots; -Potting medium such as coco coir; -Compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) -A timer; -pH soil test

STEP 7 Get your grow room ventilated. Proper ventilation is absolutely necessary for vibrant plants. If your grow room is in a closet, for example, there's not much more that you can do other than an oscillating fan. In a box, however, adding a duct system is efficient for many home growers.To make a duct system, a simple squirrel cage fan (it looks like a hamster wheel) attached to 6" ducts will help mitigate rising temperatures and pungent odors. As with any operation, including an additional oscillating fan will help strengthen the stalks of the marijuana plants as they grow.

STEP 3 Prep your walls. Plants grow with the aid of light. If you're growing indoors, this presents somewhat of a problem. Many grow rooms are housed in dark spaces where light is absorbed instead of reflected. To get the most bang for your buck — and to make the best possible weed — you'll want your walls to either be painted a glossy white or be covered with mylar.

STEP 4 Set up your grow lights. They should start out a little higher than the height of your pots, and should have room to be raised to the final height of your plants. Do what works for your grow area. The simplest method is to either hang them from the bar in your closet or you can also clamp the lights onto something nearby that is the right height.

STEP 5 Make sure your lights are producing at least the minimum, and preferably the ideal, amount of lumens per square foot. Lumens is a unit for the total amount of visible light emitted by a source. Therefore, it's helpful to talk about how many lumens a source emits, as well as how many lumens your growing operation needs. On an average day, the sun emits about 5,000 to 10,000 lumens/sq.ft.

STEP 8 Germinate your marijuana seed. To get your weed seed to sprout, simply wet a large paper towel and lightly wrap your seeds in between the paper towel. Place the paper towel and cover with another plate to make sure the paper towel doesn't dry out.Alternately, place the damp paper towel in a sealable plastic bag and rest somewhere dark and warm for at least 24 hours.

STEP 9 Once the seed has germinated, transfer to a rock wool block. Rock wool is a great medium to grow the early-stage marijuana plant in. Once the seedling has started sprouting a significant root system, you can transfer the plant into the coco coir.

STEP 10 Start feeding your plants with water (filtered or tap) mixed with nutrients. Adjust the water to have a pH of 5.5 to 6.0 for best results

48

STEP 6 Take care that you don't burn or overheat your plants with your light source. Having sufficient light will help your marijuana grow tall, healthy, and chronic. But what to do about overheating. The ideal temperature for your grow operation is somewhere between 80° F and 85° F, with 90°F being the max.If your temperature is anywhere below this, add a small heater to generate more heat.

STEP 11 Water your plants with pH'ed and nutrient-filled water whenever the top of the coco coir starts feeling dry. This will start out with you watering the plants every couple of days when they’re small, and may end up with you watering them once a day towards the end of the plant's flowering cycle.

DECEMBER


Chapter 2

Parker

GROWING CONDITIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

planting

DIFFICULTY

SEASON

winter spring summer fall

STEP 12 Keep your marijuana plants in the vegetative stage of growth until they are about half their final desired height. You can keep your marijuana plants in the vegetative stage by giving them 18-24 hours of light a day.

STEP 13 Start the flowering stage when your plants achieved the correct height. Tell your cannabis plants to begin the flowering stage by changing to a 12 hours of light/12 hours of darkness schedule so that they start producing buds. This simulates the beginning of fall and winter.

STEP 17 Trim your plant so that there aren't any leaves sticking out from the buds. Leaves will make your final smoke a lot more harsh and don't contain much THC, so you don't want them in your final product. You can still use them to make hash, butter, or Green Dragon.

STEP 18 Hang your trimmed buds upside down in a cool, dark place and let them dry until the buds snap off cleanly (as opposed to just bending) when you put pressure on them.

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

harvesting

ZONE

EXPOSURE

STEP 14 Sex your plants and get rid of any males. Determine the gender of your plants 1 to 2 weeks after first changing the lights for the flowering stage. Get rid of any males you happen to find in the bunch. Males will pollinate females, causing females to start diverting energy from THC production into seed growth.[11] Pollinated weed isn't unsmokable, but it's a lot less potent than unpollinated weed.

STEP 15 Start feeding your marijuana plants just plain, pH'ed water 1-2 weeks before it's time to harvest. Otherwise you may actually be able to taste the nutrients in your final buds (your marijuana could have a chemical after-taste).

STEP 19 Place the buds in an air-tight container and leave them in a cool, dark place for 2 weeks to a month of more to "cure." Open the jar once a day to get some air ventilation and make sure you release any moisture. Ensure your buds are properly dried before curing them.

49

STEP 16 Start feeding your marijuana plants just plain, pH'ed water 1-2 weeks before it's time to harvest. Otherwise you may actually be able to taste the nutrients in your final buds (your marijuana could have a chemical after-taste).

DECEMBER


Chapter 2

Parker

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES - MARIJUANA PRODUCTION KEOTA ST

JORDAN CT

Typical houses on site

5’

1x

BBQ/ storage

5’

5’ Yield

5’

10.5 pounds x$200 (price/lb) $33,375net profit

1 plant

garage

driveway

YIELD ESTIMATE 4 harvests/year = 10.5 pounds

sidewalk

50


Chapter 2

Parker

PRODUCTION EXPENSES Barley production costs and returns per planted acre, excluding Government payments, 2011-2012 1/ United States Item

2011

Primary product: Barley grain Total, gross value of production

2012

2011

2012

dollars per planted acre

Gross value of production Secondary product: Barley silage/straw/grazing

KEOTA ST Parker

Northern Great Plains

351.88

413.09

231.54

344.66

11.76

10.44

1.73

1.86

363.64

423.53

233.27

346.52

344.66 5’ 5’ 50’

JORDAN CT Operating costs: Seed

16.87

20.38

12.78

16.25

Fertilizer 2/

62.45

63.41

46.36

49.61

Chemicals

18.33

19.73

21.43

22.51

Custom operations

13.59

12.98

7.33

7.78

Fuel, lube, and electricity

37.48

33.46

17.51

17.41

Repairs

23.53

30.39

30.00

22.84

Other variable expenses

6.78

5.82

1.38

1.42

Interest on operating inputs

0.09

0.12

0.06

0.09

185.98

185.90

129.69

138.60

Total, operating costs

- 49.61 - 22.51 - 7.78 - 17.41

1940sq.ft. 4110ft

~1 acre (22 lots)

Hired labor

8.36

7.34

2.43

2.52

25.72

25.45

17.53

18.17

Capital recovery of machinery and equipment

99.20

103.49

93.36

98.33

Opportunity cost of land (rental rate)

71.86

73.75

40.46

45.56

Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total, allocated overhead Total, costs listed

8.63

8.73

7.92

8.10

17.62

16.78

10.71

11.03

231.39

235.54

172.41

183.71

417.37

421.44

302.10

322.31

Value of production less total costs listed

-53.73

2.09

-68.83

24.21

Value of production less operating costs

177.66

237.63

103.58

207.92

Yield (bushels per planted acre)

67.8

66.2

45.4

55.5

Price (dollars per bushel at harvest)

5.19

6.24

5.10

6.21

174

174

297

297

Supporting information:

Enterprise size (planted acres) 1/

100’

50’

Allocated overhead: Opportunity cost of unpaid labor

5’ 5’

- 2.52 - 18.17 - 98.33 - 45.56

60.42

Yield

5.5 bushels $324.24net profit

284.24 = 324.24 +$40 (govt subsidy)

U.S. government regulatory price

Production practices: 1/ Dryland (percent of acres)

67

67

92

92

Irrigated (percent of acres)

33

33

8

8

1/ Developed from survey base year, 2011. 2/ Commercial fertilizer, soil conditioners, and manure.

51

100’


Chapter 2

Parker

GROWING CONDITIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

planting

DIFFICULTY

SEASON

winter spring summer fall

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

harvesting

ZONE

EXPOSURE

INSTRUCTIONS

STEP 1 Determine the climate where you wish to grow barley. Winter barley is planted in the fall and harvested in early spring. It also tends to be the preferred variety since it is more nutritious and competes with fewer weeds in the spring. Spring barley is planted in the spring and harvested in the fall. It is the more common variety in areas that have colder winters.

STEP 2 Prepare to plant winter barley in the fall, approximately 6 to 8 weeks before the soil freezes as this allows for strong root growth. Spring barley can be planted as early as you can work the soil.

STEP 6 Cover the barley seed with sufficient soil to prevent the seed from drying. For spring barley, plant it 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) deep while winter barley should be 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) deep. The seed should never be covered by more than 3 inches (7.6 cm) of soil.

STEP 7 Water your planted barley seeds two or three times a year if you have a dry climate.

STEP 3 Use a rake, rototiller or shovel to prepare the soil. The ground needs to be as close to even as possible. The area you will be planting in should be about 2 inches (5.1 cm) deep.

STEP 4 Spread fertilizer over the prepared land. Keep in mind that if you live in a dry environment, the fertilizer will make the barley grow faster and absorb all the moisture in the ground.

52

STEP 5 Plant the seeds. You can scatter the seeds in the prepared area or you can use a seed drill that makes holes every 6 inches (15.2 cm) and plants several seeds per hole. The benefit to a seed drill is it allows for easier weeding when the plants are young due to the space in between the seedlings. The drier the ground, the lighter you want to seed it since there is less moisture available.

DECEMBER


Chapter 2

Parker

GROWING CONDITIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

planting

DIFFICULTY

SEASON

winter spring summer fall

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

harvesting

ZONE

EXPOSURE

INSTRUCTIONS

STEP 1 Get your harvesting equipment ready and handle any necessary maintenance to ensure optimum performance. Use the owner's manual to set up the combine. Check the sickle to make sure it is sharp for best performance.

STEP 2 Adjust the combine header in relation to the height of the wheat for cutting. The header should be set to get the most wheat with the least amount of straw. You may need to constantly adjust the height of the combine header as the height of the wheat in the field changes.

STEP 6 Adjust the cleaning shoe, consisting of the chaffer and cleaning sieve, so it is neither set too narrow or too wide. Consult the owner's manual for manufacturer's setting.

STEP 7 Set the fan but be sure it is not set too low or the wheat will never make it to the back of the chaffer for it to drop through. Setting the fan too high will blow the light wheat right out of the shoe altogether.

STEP 3 Adjust the reel speed relative to the ground speed so to not lose any wheat in the process. Going too fast will either knock the wheat down or cut it poorly. Going too slow can cause the wheat to fall to the ground or not enter the combine correctly.

STEP 4 Set the rotor or cylinder speed to the minimum level for good threshing; this will minimize damage to seeds. This will need to be adjusted as the wheat crops change.

53

STEP 5 Set the concave at the widest setting possible to help with separating. Setting the correct rotor or cylinder speed will also ensure no grain is lost through separation.

DECEMBER


Chapter 2

Parker

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES - BARLEY PRODUCTION KEOTA ST

JORDAN CT

Typical houses on site

1’

1940x

BBQ/ storage

1’

1’ Yield

1’

2.5 bushels x$6.21 (price/bu) $15.525net profit

1 plant

garage

driveway

YIELD ESTIMATE U.S. government regulatory price

(PLANTS PER AREA) / 1/4 pound = .027 pounds per square foot

sidewalk

54


Chapter 2

US -provides loans for revitalization of distressed communities

employment loans

increased contracts

-rebuilding suburbia Local developer

-intervention from mortgage companies on property values

on-time payment

profit

increase property values

product

security and prosperity

-use co-ops for farming and production -provides initial capital -provides seeds and equipment for companies to start

health and safety

trust and security

seeds for testing

-tax exemptives & incentives -rezoning -donation of land

55


Chapter 2

US

REASONS WHY HOMEOWNERS DON’T ENGAGE IN COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

Img. 5-6 Distribuiton and equipment - reasons why homeowners don’t practice farming for profit 56


Chapter 2

US

FOR RELEASE: APRIL 16, 2014 Media Contact: Tsvetelina Churalska, co-CEO of PBC New York City-(BEVNET)-April 16, 2014 PBC Co. We are pleased to announce that the Princeton Beverage Company is taking a giant leap forward and starting a trial process of moving small-scale production in two distinct U.S. suburban communities. Youngstown, OH and Parker, CO will start a pilot program partnering with the HUD and local developers to begin of retrofitting their neighborhoods. We have decided to give opportunities to local people to make extra income while working for us. This is an exciting time for everybody and if successful, the program will spread amongst other small-scale companies. We look forward to continuing our relationships with our suppliers, distributors, retailers, clients and future collaborators. For more information, please visit drinkpearls.com

57


Chapter 2

US

PRICE SETTING AND MARKET

Pam and John Smith, distressed suburban homeowners

CEO, independent private company distressed suburban homeowners

CROP

PRODUCT

MARKET

Michael Potter, CEO of Eden Foods, independent private company

1

Value of prod. (U.S.govt estim.)

“-”

2 3

Alternative machinery

Big Farm Machinery

“+”

~

Product with a long shelf life

Co-packer facilities costs

“-”

Distributor costs

4

Estimated final profit

5

Production

Co-op production costs

“+”

6

Advertising

Company distribution

“+”

7

“-”

MARKET

Murray Kessler, CEO of Eden Foods, independent private company

“-”

8

Commercial prod. market regulat.

“+”

Taxes on production

“Fair” value of product

MARKET

Rinaldo Brutoco, CEO of Garlic Gold, independent private company

SHARED PROFIT

Product with a long shelf life

58

Desired cost of produce


Independent Productive Communities

CHAPTER 3 Design Interventions

59


Chapter 3

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES DESIGN GUIDELINES AGRICULTURAL

ECONOMIC

INCREASING YIELD

CO-OP DEVELOPMENT

IRRIGATION

FORECLOSURES

STORAGE FACILITIES

HIGH PROPERTY TAXES

WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES

EXPENSIVE HOMES

SPECIALIZED FACILITIES (e.g. tobacco curing)

POVERTY

FARMING EQUIPMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT

RENOVATIONS (ATTIC, BASEMENT)

HIGH TRANSPORTATION COSTS

BUILT ENVIRONMENT LIMITING SETBACKS LIFESPAN OF MATERIALS TRANSFORMING ZONING TRANSPORTATION PARKING

SOCIAL

CROPS SAFETY

ENVIRONMENTAL

BUSINESS

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

SMALL COMPANY CONTRACT (legal not to be sued)

GLOBAL WARMING

RETAIL AND RESTAURANT EMERGENCE

AIR QUALITY

PRODUCTION

HEATING

DISTRIBUTION

COOLING INDOOR LIGHTING (MICRO-CLIMATE) INDOOR TEMPERATURE (MICRO-CLIMATE)

CO-OP DEVELOPMENT DENSITY SOCIAL DIVERSITY AGING POPULATION OBESITY ISOLATION IMMIGRATION SOCIAL NETWORKS EDUCATION 60

POLITICAL HUD LOCAL GOVERNMENT


Chapter 3

US

*

NOW 2015

AGRICULTURAL INCREASING YIELD IRRIGATION STORAGE FACILITIES WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES SPECIALIZED FACILITIES (e.g. tobacco curing) FARMING EQUIPMENT RENOVATIONS (ATTIC, BASEMENT) CROPS/ANIMALS

BUSINESS SMALL COMPANY CONTRACT RETAIL AND RESTAURANT EMERGENCE PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION

ECONOMIC CO-OP DEVELOPMENT

FARMING 2016 2017 2018 2019

UNEMPLOYMENT

ALTERATION

achieving production of average farms common grey water cistern one integrated storage, waste, recycling facility

acquisition of more land central irrigation

bying of large-scale equipment equipment shared by entire community building of walls and shared courtyards between houses diversity of crop choices

farm-to-table restaurant

strip mall emergence production facility equipped for diverse products building of infrastructure for distribution

co-ops formed

co-ops formation in a community acquisition of foreclosed properties no intervention from local government on property taxes

communities collaborate together

no more foreclosed properties no change on property taxes affordable housing for everybody

creating opportunities to buy-in

complete elimination of unemployment encouraging using public transportation

solar panels installation process of autonomous output

GLOBAL WARMING COOLING HEATING INDOOR AIR, LIGHTING, TEMPERATURE

additional electricity generation

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

complete elimination of poverty

opportunities to be employed by the community

mixed-use housing (live+work) opportunities for all to make extra income

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

solar energy bio-diesel sharing production adaptation of growing process to rising T passive natural ventilation cooling systems passive radiant floor heating heating solar panel installation

LIMITING SETBACKS

changing setbacks

LIFESPAN OF MATERIALS

usage of durable materials

production of biofuel for limited personal transportation

communal transportation (public + production)

wind power installation

100% self-generated energy carbon-free neighborhood

encourage less use of transportation

zoning to accomodate industriala nd coomercial activites communal transportation communal parking and infrastructure biking routes elimination of home establishment of pick-up area driveway+garage communal parking

individual parkway

tanks installation

common renewable energy

geo-thermal cooling geo-thermal heating

energy for indoor growing generated by the community

specific setbacks for farming and other activities

division of lot

TRANSFORMING ZONING

most advanced farming systems

small companies establish headquarters driveway/ drive-through more diversified production facilities/block

one production facility/block one distribution facility/block

ENVIRONMENTAL

PARKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FENCING

acquisition of more properties (e.g. foreclosed) climate based

introduction of new products on land incorporation of a store inside a house

HIGH TRANSPORTATION COSTS

TRANSPORTATION

EXPANSION

2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045

year-by-year same crop contract

FORECLOSURES

POVERTY

ACQUISITION

all into a vertical farming scaffolding usage of floors alternative roof alteration garden systems (intensive vs. extensive) all stories addition growing grey water basement constructed system sharing wasteland individual shared storage storage individual shared processing processing shared individual facility facility small equipment large equipment individual shared sharing of basement transorming attic into a greenhouse two crops expanding crops introduction of small-scale options animal farming (chicken farm+coop)

HIGH PROPERTY TAXES EXPENSIVE HOMES

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

uniform zoning in the community curbs to accomodate industrial vehicles

water canal infrastructure

community fencing to protect agriculture

* based on a 30-year fixed mortgage loan

61


Chapter 3

US *

NOW 2015

FARMING 2016 2017 2018 2019

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL ACQUISITION

EXPANSION

ALTERATION

2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045

SOCIAL CO-OP DEVELOPMENT

co-op formation

SOCIAL DIVERSITY AGING POPULATION OBESITY ISOLATION

expanding housing stock communal exercise area more household options

EDUCATION

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

tax exemptives

MORTGAGE COMPANY AGRICULTURAL COMPANY LOCAL DEVELOPER

rezoning

change in property values

no need for aging population to join senior housing

not a single house isolated

affordable housing for immigrants more social spaces (Farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Market) continuing education facility

school facility

donation of land

loans for revitalization of distressed communities

HUD

increased density from temporary workers and visitors

aging population houses fully-equipped for sharing living space with families aging population walkable sidewalks and shared biking system more social spaces communal courtyards

immigrant-specific spaces spaces for social interaction (gym, pool, market) educational facility in a botanical garden

IMMIGRATION

rental units

diverse social groups

more household options

SOCIAL INTERACTION

POLITICAL

more houses to fill up vacant lots

combining houses

DENSITY

community independent of local government national program for building of independent productive communities

incentives for more renovations

community owns mortgages

provision of seeds and farming tools contracted to rebuild suburbia

community independent of agricultural company community developer

* based on a 30-year fixed mortgage loan

62


Chapter 3

US

GARAGE ELIMINATION

SOCIAL

COMMUNAL PARKING

HAY BARN ANIMAL FARMING

HOUSE EXTENSION COMMUNAL PARKING & STORAGE

GREYWATER SYSTEM AGRICULTURAL STORAGE GREEN ROOF

GREENHOUSE

SKYLIGHT

GREENHOUSE ROOFTOP

VERTICAL FARMING PRODUCTION FACILITY

SPLITTING OF HOUSE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

VERTICAL HYDROPONICS

SCAFFOLDING

BASEMENT SHARING

EDUCATIONAL FACILITY

GREENWALK

WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

TOBACCO CURING

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS

ADDING A STORY

FIRST FLOOR INTO A RESTAURANT

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL

SOCIAL SPACE

RENTAL HOUSING

WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES

BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

FENCING

SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY

POLITICAL

63


Chapter 3

Youngstown

BKSFT

KIT. GYM ROOM 13’X20’

GAME ROOM 17’X19’

MECH.

PANTRY

STORAGE

DINING 12’X14’

LAUND.

GARAGE BDRM 3 17’X26’

1)basement

LIVING 10’X19’

FOYER

MASTER 17’X26’

2)first floor

ATTIC 34’X49’

BDRM 4 17’X15’

3)second floor

4)attic

HOUSE C

PANTRY BKSFT DINING 12’X14’

KIT.

MECH. LAUND. GAME ROOM 13’X11’ 1)basement

FOYER

BDRM 3 15’X12’ 2)first floor

OFFICE 10’X19’

MASTER 13’X17’ 3)second floor

ATTIC 29’X26’

BDRM 2 12’X15’ 4)attic

HOUSE D

64


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

2015 OWNERS: PAM AND JOHN SMITH

Ages: early 40’s Household income:$24,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $46,289

GARAGE/STORAGE

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month Remaining balance $+1,571/month

GREYWATER IRRIGATION

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

SIDEWALK

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

65


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

2020 SMALL-SCALE COMPOST AIR-CURING SINGLE ROW FACILITY

OWNERS: PAM AND JOHN SMITH

Ages: early 40’s Household income:$24,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $46,289

VERTICAL FARMING STORAGE

GREEHOUSE

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month

TOBACCO SEEDING RACKS SOLAR PANEL

Remaining balance $+1,571/month HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

GREYWATER IRRIGATION

DRIVEWAY ELIMINATION

FRONT YARD FARM

Combination:

SIDEWALK FENCING

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

66


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

2030 OWNERS: PAM AND JOHN SMITH

Ages: early 40’s Household income:$24,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $46,289

STORAGE VERTICAL FARMING

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month

FLAT ROOF TOBACCO SEEDING RACKS SOLAR PANEL

Remaining balance $+1,571/month FLOORS ADDITION

GREYWATER IRRIGATION

DRIVEWAY ELIMINATION

FRONT YARD FARM

Combination:

SIDEWALK FENCING

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

67


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

2015 Owners: Kiran and Abdul Amman Ages: early 30’s Young immigrant couple Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $52,000 OWNERS: PAM AND JOHN SMITH

Ages: early 40’s Household income:$24,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $46,289

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month Remaining balance $+1,571/month

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month Remaining balance $+1,571/month

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

68


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

2020 Owners: Kiran and Abdul Amman Ages: early 30’s Young immigrant couple Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $52,000 OWNERS: PAM AND JOHN SMITH

Ages: early 40’s Household income:$24,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $46,289

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month

VERTICAL FARMING

Remaining balance $+1,571/month

SHARED STORAGE

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month Remaining balance $+1,571/month

HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

SHARED GREYWATER IRRIGATION

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC

FRONTYARD FARMING

ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

69


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

2030 Owners: Kiran and Abdul Amman Ages: early 30’s Young immigrant couple Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $52,000 OWNERS: PAM AND JOHN SMITH

Ages: early 40’s Household income:$24,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $46,289

RENTAL UNIT

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month

VERTICAL FARMING

Remaining balance $+1,571/month

SHARED STORAGE

Monthly household $2,000/month income Mortgage payment $550/month Farming Net Income $4,121/month Remaining balance $+1,571/month

HYDROPONIC SYSTEM FLAT ROOF

SHARED GREYWATER IRRIGATION RESTAURANT

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC

FRONTYARD FARMING

ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

70


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

2030 SHARED SOCIAL INTERACTION

E.

COMMUNAL PARKING

AV

ON

DA

LE RESTAURANT RENTAL UNITS AG SCHOOL

E.

LU

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND AG SCHOOL

CIU

S LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

PROGRAMMATIC ACTIVITES/BLOCK: 1x PRODUCTION FACILITIES 2 STORES (1 DRIVE-IN) 1 COMMUNAL PARKING 1 RESTAURANT 1 PICK-UP AREA 1 SOCIAL INTERACTION AREA RENTAL FACILITIES CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

71


Chapter 3

Parker

FLOOR PLANS BKSFT GYM ROOM

OFFICE

WIC KIT.

DINING 12’X14’

MECH.

GAME ROOM 17’X19’

FAMILY 17’X19’

BDRM 4 17’X26’

1)basement

LIVING 10’X19’

MASTER 15’X19’

BDRM 2

LAUND.

GARAGE

ATTIC 34’X52’

FOYER

PLAYROOM 17’X19’

2)first floor

BDRM 4 17’X15’

3)second floor

4)attic

HOUSE A

BKSFT

KIT. 21’X21’ GYM ROOM 13’X20’

GAME ROOM 17’X19’ 1)basement

MECH.

PANTRY

DINING 12’X14’

STORAGE

LAUND.

GARAGE

BDRM 3 17’X26’

LIVING 10’X19’

FOYER

2)first floor

MASTER 17’X26’ 3)second floor

ATTIC 34’X39’

BDRM 2 17’X15’ 4)attic

HOUSE B

72


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2015 OWNERS: TAMMIE AND JACOB WILSON

Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $318,000 Mortgage payment $1,252/month Farming income $2,781/month

GREYWATER IRRIGATION

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

SIDEWALK

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

73


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2020 STORAGE SMALL-SCALE COMPOST SUNROOF

OWNERS: TAMMIE AND JACOB WILSON

Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $318,000

INDOOR MARIJUANA VERTICAL FARMING

GREEHOUSE

Mortgage payment $1,252/month

SOLAR PANEL

Farming income $2,781+/month

INDOOR GREENHOUSE

HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

GREYWATER IRRIGATION GARAGE ELIMINATION AG SCHOOL

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC

FRONT YARD FARM

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

FENCING

SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

ENVIRONMENTAL

SIDEWALK

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

74


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2030 * FLOORS ADDITION FLAT ROOF

OWNERS: TAMMIE AND JACOB WILSON

Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $318,000 Mortgage payment $1,252/month Farming income $2,781+/month

SUNROOF

FLOORS ADDITION HYDROPONIC SYSTEM SHARED SPACE GREYWATER IRRIGATION SPLITTING THE LOT

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

GARAGE INTO A STORE SIDEWALK

15’

1’

*This drawing doesn’t include the changes from the 5-year model (previous drawing) 15’

ELIMINATION OF ON-STREET PARKING

75

SOCIAL POLITICAL


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2015 Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $318,000 Owners: Megan and Jim Doe Ages: early 40’s Household income: $86,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $300,289

Mortgage payment $1,252/month Farming income $2,781/month

Monthly household $4,000/month Mortgage payment $1,700/month Farming Net income $2,781/month Remaining balance +$4,981/month

SHARED GREYWATER IRRIGATION

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

76


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2020 * Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $318,000 Owners: Megan and Jim Doe Ages: early 40’s Household income: $86,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $300,289

Mortgage payment $1,252/month Farming income $50,400

Monthly household Mortgage payment $1,700/month Farming Net income $2,781/month Remaining balance +$4,981/month

SCAFFOLDING

VERTICAL FARMING

GREENHOUSE ROOFTOP

HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

SHARED GREYWATER IRRIGATION

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC

AG SCHOOL

ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

*This drawing doesn’t include all the changes from the 5-year model for one house. 15’

77


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2030 * Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $318,000 Owners: Megan and Jim Doe Ages: early 40’s Household income: $86,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $300,289

Mortgage payment $1,252/month Farming income $50,400

Monthly household Mortgage payment $1,700/month Farming Net income $2,781/month Remaining balance +$4,981/month

INDOOR GROWING SOLAR PANEL HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

HYDROPONIC SYSTEM SHARED ROOF GREYWATER IRRIGATION

LEGEND

SHARED SPACE

AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

GARAGE INTO A STORE

SOCIAL POLITICAL

15’

1’

*This drawing doesn’t include all the changes from the 5-year model for one or two houses. 15’

78


Chapter 3

Parker

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2030 SHARED BACKYARD FARMING

JO

RD

AN

COMPANY PRODUCTION FACILITY

CT

.

COMMUNAL PARKING

SOCIAL INTERACTION RESTAURANT AG SCHOOL

KE

OT

A

STORE

ST

. LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

PROGRAMMATIC ACTIVITES/BLOCK: 1x PRODUCTION FACILITIES 2 STORES (1 DRIVE-IN) 1 COMMUNAL PARKING 1 RESTAURANT 1 PICK-UP AREA 1 SOCIAL INTERACTION AREA

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

79


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2045

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Owners: Tammie and Jacob Wilson Ages: early 70’s Retired Single-family 4 beds/3 baths $318,000 Owners: Megan and Jim Doe Ages: early 40’s Household income: $86,000 Single-family 4 beds/2 baths $300,289

RENTAL HOUSING GREYWATER SYSTEM

= =

$50,000

= =

$1,000

=

$10,000

= = = = = = = = = =

$9,000

$1,000

Mortgage payment $1,252/month Farming income $2,781/month SCAFFOLDING GREENWALK/ PERSONAL PRODUCE SPLITTING OF HOUSE VERTICAL HYDROPONICS ROOFTOP GREENHOUSE HOUSE EXTENSION SOCIAL SPACE FENCING FLOOR ADDITION GLASS VERANDA

Monthly household $4,000/month Mortgage payment $1,700/month Farming Net income $2,781/month Remaining balance +$4,981/month

RESTAURANT MOVING SIDEWALK VERTICAL FARMING

$300

$2,500 $12,000 $6/ln.ft. $1,500 $5,000 $30,000 $3/sq.ft. $1,500

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

30-YEAR IPC MODEL MODIFICATIONS:

Combination:

BUSINESS

$126,600

ECONOMIC

HARVEST/YEAR NET PROFIT: Yield Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

15’

22,914 cloves x$0.5(price/clove) $11,457 profit

Yield 455 pounds x$1.99 (price/lb) $905.45 profit

Harvest per year/2 houses

Yield

Yield

10.5 pounds x$200 (price/lb) $33,375net profit

2.5 bushels x$6.21 (price/bu) $15.525net profit

ENVIRONMENTAL

$45,762

BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL POLITICAL

$45,762 net profit

80


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL POLITICAL

Combination:

Combination:

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

15’

1’

15’

81


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

WASTE PROCESSING COMPLEX GREENWALK SOCIAL SPACE COMMUNAL PARKING RENTAL HOUSING TOBACCO CURING FACILITY PRODUCTION FACILITY FARMING AREA ENERGY AND WATER INFRASTRUCTURE AGRICULTURAL STORAGE BARN BOTANICAL GARDEN ANIMAL FARMING WATER CANAL FUTURE DEVELOPMENT PICNIC AREA TRACK SYSTEM

LEGEND

FLOWER GARDEN

AGRICULTURAL

Combination:

Combination:

BUSINESS ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL

Crops>1’

Crops<1’

Indoor crops

POLITICAL

15’

1’

15’

82


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

VERTICAL HYDROPONICS

LEGEND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS

FISH FARMING

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL POLITICAL

83


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Built Environment

Waste Processing Facility Production Facility

Programmatic

Communal Parking Education Facility

Retail

Residents

Circulation

Produce

Transportation

Greenwalk

Greenhouse Rooftop

Agricultural Infrastructure

Vertical Hydroponic Vertical Farm

Storage

Solar Panel

Energy Infrastructure

Water Infrastructure

Wind Turbine

Water Canal Water Tank Grey Water System

84


Chapter 3

Youngstown

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING

2045

TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM

AGRICULTURAL

INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES

RESIDENTIAL

TRANSPORTATION

COMMERCIAL

INDUSTRIAL SOLAR CONCENTRATORS

SOLAR THERMAL

waste heat recovery

WIND CURRENT ENERGY

ORGANIC WASTE PROCESSING

BIODIESEL

SOLAR HOT WATER

DHW HTG

grid ELECTRICITY

CENTRAL STORAGE SOLAR HOT WATER DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

WATER FLOW DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

NATURAL PRE-TREATMENT

UV TREATMENT

drip irrigation

STORAGE 2

1 PRE-TREATMENT TANKS

BLACKWATER GREYWATER

NO ACQUIFER DEPLETION

RECYCLED WATER

AQUIFER RECHARGE

EXCESS

NO ACQUIFER DEPLETION

Source: Long Island Radically Rezoned

85


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

86


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

87


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

88


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - Top view 89


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - overall view 90


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - overall view 91


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - closer views

92


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - bottom view

93


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - details

94


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - details 95


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - details 96


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - detail 97


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - detail

98


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

Physical model - details 99


Chapter 3

30-YEAR INDEPENDENT PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITIES MODEL

2045

Youngstown

MARIJUANA & BARLEY FARMING TOBACCO & GARLIC FARMING

100


2014 速 Tsvetelina Churalska

Profile for Tsvetelina Churalska

Socially Empowered : Independent Productive Communities in Suburban America  

Princeton University School of Architecture Master's Thesis Spring 2014

Socially Empowered : Independent Productive Communities in Suburban America  

Princeton University School of Architecture Master's Thesis Spring 2014

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