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>> Uchumi's Rise from the Ashes PG 35 August 2011

Volume 016

Door to Region, Window on World

Focus on Drought ...PG. 12

IGAD'S Worst Nightmare

SOUTH SUDAN'S NEW CHALLENGES ...PG. 25

Sheikh Sharif's Unfinished Business

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•DIPLOMATIC LICENCE

Somalia is Africa’s Problem: Fix It

H

istory, said Karl Marx, repeats itself; first as a tragedy, then as a farce. Somalia under Sheikh Sharif is exactly where it was under his predecessor Abdullahi Yusuf – chaotic, violent and ungovernable. And most probably; unless something drastic happens or is made to happen, his successor will inherit the same situation. Yet this need not be the case. History has no business repeating itself a third or fourth time. Indeed, even Marx did not envisage such a hilarious situation to comment on. Neither should we. The situation in Somalia is neither unique nor ground-breaking. Africa has been here before. In the 1970s civil wars erupted in Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia. In the 1990s some 15 African countries went through some turmoil, either intra or inter-state conflicts. Civil wars erupted in Liberia and Sierra Leone, and the fighting in the Democratic Republic of Congo involved more than 10 African countries at one point. Even the allies in Ethiopia’s war against Mengistu Haile Mariam – Meles Zenawi and Isaias Afewerki - fell out, leading to a bitter war between Addia Ababa and Asmara. Then Rwanda imploded in orgy of genocidal violence that shocked the world out of its stupor. Mercifully, Burundi never went all the way, though for a frightening short time it looked like it would. Did we mention the long running civil war in the Sudan? Sadly, Africa and the international community seem either unable or unwilling to resolve the Somali crisis. That should not be the case and this is why. The Somali crisis affects the world in a way no other civil war has in recent years. It has led to the widest proliferation of small arms ever witnessed in the Eastern Africa and the Great Lakes Region; it has seen Somali pirates turn shipping lanes in the India Ocean into the most dangerous places on earth and it has created a safe haven for some of the world's most dangerous terrorists, rivaling only Afghanistan. In short, this affects everybody; it causes insecurity in Eastern African and the Great Lakes region, pirates sharply escalate the cost of sea freight effectively

hitting all economies and the terrorists who find succour in the country target us all when they lash out. Ethnic, tribal or religious tensions are not foreign to the world. Rwanda went through it and came out stronger; so did the Balkan States of the former Yugoslavia. What Somalia needs is a bigger and better approach than that proposed by the Inter Governmental Authority on Development or even the African Union. Obviously, the start point would be to tell Addis Ababa that its proxy war with Eritrea needs a new theatre far from Somalia; two, the AU and the UN Security Council must mobilise a force strong enough to eject the ragtag militias and to keep them out. So far, Somali has been a recipient of some lofty promises and a lot of wishful thinking, right from IGAD to the AU Commission chair Jean Ping. Indeed, AU declared 2010 the year of peace on the continent, and tried to claim credit and a place on the podium for the peace in Sudan. We at Diplomat East Africa have no problem with that and hopefully, neither does Kenya’s retired President, Daniel arap Moi, who struggled almost single handedly to bring the feuding Sudanese factions to the negotiating table. But in Somali’s case Ping will have to earn his credits. Of all the African countries that promised peace keepers, only Uganda and Burundi have come through. Kenya has done more than in its fair share in hosting hundred of thousands of refugees from its troubled neighbour. Indeed, even the idea of the Transitional Federal Government, unwieldy as it has turned out to be, was conceived in Nairobi. A starting point would be to have all the countries that pledged troops to honour their promises and to get the UN to find funding for the operation. Secondly, get the TFG to co-opt some of the more amenable warlords into a coalition arrangement. A safe and secure Somalia will make it easier for its neighbours to safely and successfully mop up all the illegal arms in the wrong hands, eradicate the piracy menace for once and all thereby cutting the costs of international freight, and most importantly deny international terrorism a safe heaven. That is not too much to ask

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•IMMUNITIES & IMPUNITIES

Heard and Quoted “We have waited for more than 56 years for this. It is a dream that has come true. This land has seen untold suffering and death. We have been bombed, enslaved and treated worse than refugees in our own country. We have to forgive, though we will not forget.”

“With 20-20 hindsight and all that has followed, I would not have offered him the job and I expect that he wouldn’t have taken it. You live and you learn and believe you me, I have learned” - British

Prime Minister, David Cameron, expressing regret on having hired tabloid editor, Andy Coulson of the News of the World as his media chief. The tabloid folded up over claims of phone-hacking.

– Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of South Sudan on Independence Day, July 9th

“I believe Somalia represents the worst humanitarian disaster in the world. The mortality rates we are witnessing are three times the level of emergency ceilings” – Antonio Guterres, Head of

the UNHCR.

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August 2011

“This is absolutely amazing. It is inspirational to see people wanting to help the less privileged. I urge us not to relent” – Reigning Miss World, Alexandria Mills at Mathira, Nyeri, Kenya during an anti-jigger campaign function in July.


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•DIPLOSPEAK Have Your Say

Justice Served Cold… I read with great interest the story of Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, 65, a former Rwandan minister of family and women’s development, who was found guilty of genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, crimes against humanity (extermination, rape and persecution) and several serious violations of the Geneva conventions. Her conviction just weeks after another big name, Major General Augustine Bizimungu, was sentenced to 30 years for his part in the genocide is testimony that however long it takes for the rather fabled and long arm of the law to catch up with the wrongdoers, in the end justice is served, and served cold! It was notwworthy that a former head of the military police Augustine Ndindiliyimana, and an ex-commander of the reconnaissance battalion, Major Francois-Xavier Nzuwonemeye were also jailed, which goes on to prove that no-one is immune from prosecution in the fight against impunity. It is war that must be not only be fought but won and won decisively. Both were sentenced to length jail terms. Ndindiliyimana was, however, released on the grounds that he had already spent 11 years in detention. Nzuwonemeye was jailed for 20 years. This should serve as a reminder that crime does not pay and that the journey towards co-existence and harmony has not only begun but is on course. It is something closely akin to a carthasis that overwhelms one on seeing these people punished for crimes they thought they had gotten away with. The rule of law must be grounded on judicial and judicious meting out of justice. That is as it should be. These sentences must serve as a timely reminder that even though the

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RANT/RAVE >> Three Kenyan Lakes on UNESCO’s List of Fame PG 31 July 2011

Volume 015

Door to Region, Window on World

It is something closely akin to a carthasis that overwhelms one on seeing these people

punished for crimes they thought they had gotten away with

RWANDA'S SECRET FOR SUCCESS ...PG.18 NO END TO SOMALIA INTRIGUES ...PG. 25

Here Comes Mr President Salva Kiir's Day of Glory

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victims may not be alive to see justice done, the culprits have, in the end, met their just, and, in the process, paid for their sins. This is the way to go. The ICTR must not let the passage of time dull the severity of sentence that crime doers should face. Faith Uwingiliyimana, Kigali, Rwanda MUST DEATH VISIT US THROUGH FAMINE?

The grim spectre of drought and famine and the attendant gloom and doom it leaves in its wake is a chilling reminder that there is something we are not doing right. That we continue to suffer the debilitating, even fatal consequences of drought is a grotesque indictment on our collective sense of responsibility and a wake-up call for the East Africa region that continued dependence on rain-fed agriculture in a region endowed with permanent rivers which drain waters into the Indian Oceans is a luxury we can ill-afford. In countries such as Kenya, there is a ministry that is charged with

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WE'D LOVE TO HEAR FROM YOU: Send your letters to, letters@ diplomateastafrica.com. Submission of a letter constitutes permission to publish it in any form or medium. Letters may be edited for reasons of space and clarity.

DISCLAIMER: All letters submitted to Diplomat East Africa are presumed to be intended for publication. The editor reserves the right to edit all letters. Readers are advised to keep their letters short and to submit their names and addresses even when these are not to be published.

harnessing the various river waters for the sole purpose of irrigating arid and semi-arid lands that are slowly being transformed into arable farms. The progress is painfully slow and we are reaping the fruits of our collective intransigence because we have allowed the deaths and trauma that are brought by drought to be periodic visitors onto our landscape. That, simply, cannot be allowed to continue. That the weathermen had praedicted as long ago as six months that the rains would fail begs the question: Did anyone listen? Did anyone take this as a warning and plan accordingly? If not, why not? And if anyone did, indeed, listen, what did they do, if even food rations for the dying are being mobilised at the last minute? Of course, the argument can be made that this time around, the drought and famine have acquired new dimensions and scale but the question remains: Was it all unforeseen? What happened to strategic grain reserves and why were these not mobilised in good time? Did we have to wait and see on our television screens the heart-rending images of the dying in order to act? It was Sir Winston Churchill who said that in times of peace, sons bury their fathers but in times of war, fathers bury their sons. Now that we are burying both in our context, what times, pray, are we living in? And the final question must be posed: have we not learnt any lessons from previous episodes of such drought and famine? Are we impervious? Nyamuga wa Nginyira, Nairobi


>> Uchumi's Rise from the Ashes PG 35

Volume No 016 • August 2011

Door to Region, Window on World

SOUTH SUDAN'S NEW CHALLENGES ...PG. 25 Focus on Drought ...PG. 12

IGAD'S Worst Nightmare

Sheikh Sharif's Unfinished Business

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DIPLOMATIC LICENCE

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Somalia is Africa’s Problem: Fix It........….....................1

EDUCATION

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IMMUNITIES AND IMPUNITIES.................2

Uniquely and Friendly Learning Experience...............................................43-44

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THE REGION Somalia’s Curse of a Failed Leadership...................................................................6-9 Eritrea and IGAD’s Crisis of Confidence............... ....................... 10-11 & 29 Famine Stalks Kenya, Region .................................12-13 Tanzania Grapples with Hunger in 42 Districts.....................................14-15 & 17 Djibouti's 'Most Ignored Humaniterian Disaster '..........................................16-17 Ethiopia Braces Itself for the Climate Nomads......................................................18-19 On the Frontline of Humanitarian Aid....................................................20-21 South Sudan Is Set to Join the EAC...................................................25-26

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DNA Malta, the Mirror of Success and Growth............................................... 30-31 Diplomacy & Conservation.................................... 32-33 German Chancellor’s Trade Mission to Africa.................................................36

Economy The Rise, fall and Rise of an Iconic Kenyan brand...............................................37-39 Cement Wars Reach New Dizzy Heights...........................................................40-41 Jomo Kenyatta Airport’s Runway to Success........................................................42

Green Agenda The Quest for Low Carbon end Equitable Development ............................. ....45-46 WWF and Lafarge Root for Energy-efficient Buildings............................................47

DEA HOTELS Taste of Class and Distinctive Service.....................................................................48-49

GLOBAL STAGE Call to Probe US Government over Detainees’ Torture...........................................50-51 Kenya's Image-Making in Washington: Is it Working?.....................................52-53

HEALTH Battle against Cancer Reinforced as New Foundation is Launched............................54-55

Culture Of Cities and Their Tell-tale Characters................................................. 56-57

ENVOYS OF SPORT Kenya's Overflowing Reservoir of Athletics Potential..............................58-59

DIRECTORIES.......................................60-66 DIARY..........................................................67

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

Sheikh Sharif Sheikh AHmEd:

Somali president

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August 2011

Somalia’s Curse of a Failed Leadership

The ravaging drought sweeping cross East Africa’s Horn region might end up being the easier problem to solve; Mogadishu poses a lethal cocktail of piracy, war, terrorism, money laundering, illegal fishing and toxic waste dumping

I

By MOHAMMED WARSAMA t is now increasingly obvious that the Inter Governmental Authority on development (IGAD) has, simply run out of ideas on how to resolve both the huge humanitarian disaster and the unrelenting violence in war-torn Somalia. Through interviews and confidential documents, Diplomat East Africa has managed to piece together a tale of cynical indifference to the plight of Somalis by neighbouring governments, a proxy war between Ethiopia and Eritrea and a systemic failure of leadership by beleaguered President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed and his Transitional Federal Government. Indeed, last month’s extraordinary meeting of IGAD – the East African regional bloc which is mandated by the international community to find a solution to the Somalia imbroglio – is case in point. Instead of addressing the well documented failure of leadership structures in the war-torn

country and, in particular, the incessant wrangling in the TFG and to seek ways of starving the warlords and militia gangs of funding, IGAD becoming pliant in the Ethiopian –Eritrean conflict. Yet the Eritrean Ambassador to Kenya, Mr Beyeme Russom, states a possible solution to the Somali crisis in the simplest of terms: “Our stand on Somalia is very clear – that the problem cannot solved military but through dialogue.” But, Addis Ababa, which is deeply embroiled in the Somali crisis; some would even say is a major cause; was playing up to the US government, which views the government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi as a firm ally in its war on terror. Washington has, conversely, listed the Eritrean government of Isaias Afewerki among rogue nation supporting terrorism. In between these polarised positions are the IGAD countries of Sudan, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya and Uganda. Ex-

cept, Eritrea which quit IGAD in a huff and Sudan, whose President Omar El Bashir is wanted by the International Criminal Court over the Darfur crisis, the rest are client-states of the US. It would, therefore, seem that Somalia’s neighbours are more interested in supporting different sides for national advantages rather than seek the restoration of a peaceful and stable Somalia. And the African Union, say regional security analysts, should play a more robust role in finding a solution to Africa’s second longest civil war, which has lasted 21 years. South Sudan's struggle for independence took 25 years before a peace deal was struck in 2005. HIDDEN DANGERS But Somalis has to deal with a more urgent, if equally debilitating crisis; the ravaging famine, which has been described by the United Nations and the G-20 as the worst to hit the country and the region in the last 60

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

years. This too, did not get as much prominence at the July 4, 2011 IGAD summit as did the calls for the UN and the international community to stiffen sanctions already imposed on Eritrea (see separate story). The IGAD meeting had been called to review South Sudan’s march to independence on July 11, 2011. The current drought crisis is said to surpass the 1984 famine in Ethiopia, just that the casualties are lower because of the timely intervention by the World Food Programme and the governments of Kenya and Ethiopia, according to WFP executive director Josette Sheeran. The region has not been short of dignitary visits – with FAO head Jacques Diouf Maire, AU High Representative and a former Ghanaian president Jerry Rawlings topping the list of those calling. Yet, with hundreds of thousands of Somalis dying or fleeing the country for refugee camps in neighbouring Kenya, the rag tag militias, Al-Shabaab and Hisbul-Islam, are unforgiving in their daily attacks on rival warlords, government forces and the AU peace keeping force comprising Ugandan and Burundian soldiers. The fighting in Somalia, though, predates Al -Shabaab and has raged on unabated since 1991, reducing the Somali capital, Mogadishu and most of the Horn of Africa country to rubble. But other than the famine, IGAD was outstanding in its failure to address the issue of piracy that feeds the militia’s war machine and is still a major problem to sea traffic in the Horn of Africa region. The anarchy in Somalia poses the biggest threat to the security of the region, Africa and the rest of the world. To begin with, the war-torn country has the world’s largest proliferation of small arms in the wrong hands; lack of state security along its coastline means that ships that pay for protection can dump toxic waste without being detected by international maritime authorities. Indeed, in the wake of the 2004 giant tsunami that hit islands off the

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Indian Ocean causing a major disturbance along the East African coastline, suspicions that some toxic waste had been dumped off the Somali waters were raised. The Nairobi-based UNEP, which issued the alert, was unable to fully investigate the matter due to insecurity in the region. So concerned is the international community about the threat that lawyer's bodies such the Pan African Lawyers Union have been contracted to developed new law on environmental crimes that will see it ranked next to crimes against humanity. Fears have also emerged that the piracy menace could be posing a hidden danger to the international finance sector, through money laundering with brokers paying off the pirates and their associates and then being reimbursed with huge interest by the ship owners and insurance firms. The illicit money paid to the pirates is perhaps being used to acquire real estate in the fanciest of addresses in Nairobi, Mombasa, Dar es Salaam and Dubai. Besides all this, the issue of international terrorists finding a safe haven in Somalia can never be underestimated. US Special Forces have carried

ATTENTION:

Somalia president Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed (left) with his host Tanzanian president Jakaya Kikwete watch a traditional dance upon his arrival at the Mwalimu Nyerere International Airport in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

out several so-called “high value target hits,” which is basically a code for most wanted suspects. Recent experience has shown that no one, not even the US is safe from a terrorist attack. Yet, Somalia is being allowed to go the Afghanistan way without any serious efforts being made to stop the slide. SYSTEMIC FLAWS Regional security experts point at the failure of leadership as Somalia’s biggest challenge and one that must be urgently addressed; meaning that the country needs governance structures more than it needs political leaders. Somali’s problem is not one of leadership but of governance, which will eventually end up seeing the ailing country lose critical financial and political backing from the international community, particularly Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries. Attempts by DEA to canvass this matter with the Somali Embassy in Nairobi were unsuccessful, after a number of appointments with the country’s suave and well spoken ambassador to Kenya, Mr Mohamed Ali Nur, failed to materialise. But just how genuine are attempts by the TFG and their main backer –Ethiopia - to re-


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

solve the crisis facing their country? It is widely believed that the TFG officials; most are former warlords themselves; benefit from the violence, so see no benefit in pursuing peace. Even more disturbing is the growing suspicion that both the US administration and its Western allies are more concerned with their narrower war on terror, and particularly against Al Qaeda, at the expense of the bigger picture of addressing the cause of the civil strife itself. Indeed, Washington has spent considerable energy and fire-power hunting down terror suspects instead of assisting regional government bring the enduring the civil war to a close. The region has every reason to want the Somali crisis defused and ended; it has given rise to the largest proliferation of small arms ever witnessed in Africa, has given Al Qaeda suspects a safe haven and has seen the Al-Shabaab militia take its war to the streets of Kampala, the Ugandan capital. It has also pushed the piracy menace to new levels, with the pirates holding as many as 60 giant cargo ships at one point and in the process receiving millions of dollars in ransom payments. Yet, ironically, the TFG enjoys more acceptance today than it ever did, largely due to Sheikh Sharif’s uncanny ability to change sides and allies. Somalia has been without a central government since the overthrow of hated dictator Siad Barre in 1991. The late Barre had ruled the Horn of Africa country for 21 years. ISLAMIC COURTS UNION Sheikh Sharif, a moderate Islamist was born in the Shabeellaha Dhexe province of southern Somalia, and is believed to have studied at Libyan and Sudanese universities. In the Sudan, he is said to have attended the Kordufan University in late 1992, where he pursued a Bachelors’ degree in the Arabic language (major) and

geography (minor). In 1994, the university was renamed the University of Dalanj. He then left for Tripoli, Libya, where through the Open University system he earned a Bachelor’s degree in Law and Islamic Shariah in 1998. He worked as a secondary school teacher of geography and Arabic before he rose to prominence as leader of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) in 2004, which brought together a group of warlords alarmed by the wave of anarchy sweeping through the Somali capital. They then established a religious justice system, in which offenders were arrested and tried according to Islamic jurisprudence. Crime dipped and the popularity of the courts soared. Soon Sheikh Sharif and his allies were being invited to different districts of the capital and regions to help fight crime. He used the media both in Mogadishu and Nairobi to showcase his model justice system. He even employed the influence of a politician from Kenya’s North Eastern province, who currently holds a senior position in Parliament to fly to the Somali capital journalists from the region’s leading media houses based in Nairrobi. The resulting media coverage was impressive and Sheikh Sharif’s strategy of showing the world that Somalia could be turned around paid off handsomely. Young Islamist fighters flocked to his side in a popular wave against Mogadishu’s detested warlords. But his choice of associates, top amongst them the hard-line Islamist preacher Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, who was said to top Washington’s terror list alarmed the US government. Sheikh Sharif's own public show of disdain for Ethiopia, did not help his cause much. Ethiopia, perhaps worried that it was losing the advantage in the Horn region to its archrival, Eritrea, apparently sought and received the nod from the Bush administration to attack Somalia, which it did in late 2006 when it backed the beleaguered government of the then President Ab-

Sheikh Sharif, a moderate Islamist was born in the Shabeellaha Dhexe province of southern Somalia, and is

believed to have studied at Libyan and Sudanese universities

dullahi Yusuf to expel the ICU fighters. The mission was achieved in early 2007. Sheikh Sharif fled to Kenya in 2007, where he was arrested and later freed. He privately met the then US ambassador to Kenya, Michael Rannerberger, signifying a major change in his fortunes. He became Somali president in January. 2009 at the conclusion of UN-brokered peace talks in the neighbouring Republic of Djibouti. Part of the thinking behind his election was simple; that having being a prominent member of the Somali Islamists, it was expected that Sheikh Sharif would build bridges between the Islamists’ grassroots networks and the TFG, thereby cut support and funding to the insurgents. But the strategy failed miserably. He lost crucial credibility in Somalia by joining the Western- backed TFG which is derisively described as an Ethiopian puppet, raising serious doubts about the logic behind the expulsion of the Courts in the first place. The highly influential Sheikh Aweys returned to Somalia from exile in Eritrea, along with other Islamists, perhaps fueling the suspicion that Isaia's Afewerki’s government was aiding the militias. To his credit, Sheikh Sharif did attempt to reach out to his former Court’s Union allies, but was rebuffed. CORRRUPTION Corruption is said to be endemic among Somali Cabinet ministers but Sheikh Sharif has managed to stay untainted by the vice, But it is the infighting in his government that poses the greatest threat to a peaceful and united Somali. Indeed, as a result of the infighting his term was extended beyond its expiry this month for one more year through the so-called Kampala Accord. In effect, Somalia becomes the first country in the world to have a foreign Head of State, in this case Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni overrule its Constitution

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

MIXED SIGNALS

Eritrea and IGAD’s Crisis of Confidence BY MOHAMMED WARSAMA

GALAXY: The Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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A

demand by the Inter Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) that both the African Union and the UN Security Council impose more sanctions against Eritrea for the crisis in war-torn Somalia did not come as a surprise. What came as a surprise is the fact that Somalia’s own dysfunctional dynamics were left out of the equation. Diplomat East Africa has unveiled a disturbing pattern of how the Somali crisis is being used by governments in the region to settle political scores and to divert unwanted attention from Western governments about their own failings. Indeed, the vigour with which Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki, despite not being IGAD chair, prosecuted the call for more

August 2011

stringent sanctions against Eritrea was telling. FEUD

IGAD is chaired by Ethiopia, which has had a long running border war with Eritrea. Perhaps, it is because of this background that Kenya, which chairs the bloc’s sub-committee on Sudan, was given the task of reading out the communiqué. Washington, which has sided with Addis Ababa in its so-called war on terror, has in recent years tightened the screws against Eritrea. Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi's enmity and disdain for the Eritrean regime is reciprocated in equal measure. IGAD comprises Sudan, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Uganda, Kenya, and Somalia. Eritrea had quit in a huff over its war with Ethiopia.

President Kibaki has not been in the vanguard of regional matters, unlikehismoreforcefulpredecessor and retired head of State Daniel arap Moi, who steered the Sudan peace talks to their penultimate stage, before leaving office in 2002. Even in Kenya's domestic matters, Kibaki rarelygetsgoing;oftenleavingwhatever controversy that breaks around him to run its course. Clearly, he was appointed to read out the strongly worded statement at the early July IGAD meeting to send a strong message to the Eritrean government that it would no longer be business as usual in the international war on terror. Eritrea, in the past has contemptuously dismissed earlier warning by IGAD, Washington, the African Union and the UN as an attempt by its sworn enemy – Ethiopia - to settle old scores. Indeed, the UN Security Council last year imposed sanctions against the Red Sea nation for allegedly supporting hardline Islamic insurgents in Somalia including Al-Shaabab - a group believed to have links with the internationalterrornetwork,Al-Qaeda. But the implementation of the sanctions has been ineffective and warningsbytheUSgovernmentthat it would place the Asmara regime on its terrorist watchlist have gone largely unheeded. This fact was readily acknowledged at the one day extra-ordinary summit in Addis Ababa in which IGAD member states admitted that the earlier sanctions imposed on Eritrea fell short on


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

effective implementation. They called for “all appropriate measures to ensure that Asmara stops its destabilisation in the Horn region.” Though the meeting was essentially called to review the situation in the Sudan, as South Sudan approached its independence on July 9 and the fate of the hotly contested Abyei region, it was not lost on observers that it main focus remained on Eritrea. WHY KIBAKI

An explanation as to why Kenya played such a key role in the Addis meeting can perhaps be linked to a letter from Washington to Nairobi just before the IGAD meeting got underway asking the Kibaki government to cut diplomatic relations with the besieged Muammar Gaddafi regime in Libya. Earlier demands that Kenya freeze companies and assets owned by the Libyan regime went largely unanswered. Companies publicly known to be owned by the Libyan government are the giant oil marketer Oil Libya, the controversially acquired Laico Grand Regency Hotel in Nairobi and Tamoil, the company contracted to build the multi-million dollar Kenya-Uganda oil pipeline. The demands which were made through the immediate former US ambassador to Kenya, Mr Michael Rannerburger, were ignored. Rannerburger often found himself receiving angry rejoinders from Kenyan politicians angered by his pronouncement on mostly local matters. But the demands from Washington this time were somewhat different. Interestingly though, just a few days after Kenya’s role in demanding sterner sanctions against Eritrea, Nairobi responded to Washington’s demands. Acting Foreign Minister Professor George Saitoti declared Kenya would not break relations with Libya on the

instructions of Washington or anybody else. Could the Addis Ababa performance have been a trade off between Nairobi and Washington that for Kenya’s support, the US government would ease pressure on the diplomatic relations between Nairobi and Tripoli? It is a no secret that the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) faction of the ruling coalition in Nairobi led by Prime Minister Raila Odinga has never forgiven the Libyan government for its cash support to the Party of National Unity (PNU) in the 2007 polls. Indeed, ODM ministers have called for the breaking of diplomatic relations with the Libyan government. It is also not lost on observers that when the Libyan African Investment Company (LAICO) acquired the Grand Regency Hotel from controversial businessman Kamlesh Pattni in a deal brokered by the Central Bank of Kenya, it was Lands Minister James Orengo – from the ODM faction of government – who blew the whistle on the affair. Just a few days after the IGAD meeting, newly appointed US ambassador to Kenya Jonathan Scott Gration conceded that Kenya was at liberty to decide its own diplomatic relations and agenda. The communiqué read by Kibaki in Addis Ababa stated; “We strongly condemn the activities of the state of Eritrea that has taken an active part in destabilising the region by supporting extremists and other elements.” It continued; “IGAD calls on the AU and UN Security Council to fully implement the existing sanctions and impose additional sanctions on the Eritrean regime, especially on those economic and mining sectors that the regime depends including the Eritrean Diaspora as well as ensuring compliance with previous decisions of the UN.”

Indeed, ODM ministers have called for the breaking of

diplomatic relations with the Libyan government

Strong words indeed, but as it turned out, IGAD’s decision mattered little to Asmara, which walked out the regional bloc in a huff way back in 2007, after similar charges were and it was isolated internationally. President Isaias Afewerki has been at pains to dispel the claims that he was supporting subversive activities in war-torn Somalia. It did not help matter that this charges, which Washington fully supported in 2006 came in the wake of Addis Ababa’s invasion of Somalia in a bid to oust the Islamic Courts Union then led by Sheikh Shariff Ahmed. Obviously, the new demands were sweet music to Ethiopia's Meles Zenawi, who has fought two bitter border wars with his former ally and fellow freedom fighter turned bitter foe - Afewerki. Both fought dictator Haile Mengistu in the 1980s before forcing him into exile in 1991. They then turned on each other after Affewerki demanded that Eritrea, which was the bedrock of the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front, charts its own course away from the Amhara-dominated regime in Addis Ababa. In 2000, Eritrea became independent and the bad taste caused by the fallout of the two leaders remained. Addis Ababa was deeply averse to seeing the country’s ports of Masawa and Assab hived off and secondly, the ruling elite in Addis Ababa were worried that if Eritrea broke away, it would lead to the disintegration of the country, with the restive Oromo in the South of the country escalating its war of independence. A border dispute escalated into two fully fledged wars. For it’s all its vaunted military power, Addis Ababa was unable to vanquish the Eritreans. An uneasy calm CONTINUED ON PAGE 29 >>

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

Famine Stalks Kenya, Region LOOMING DEATHS

The international community has partnered with the Government of Kenya to launch a two-year initiative to promote mitigation against drought as a call to expand the emergency response is raised. DEA’S JANE MWANGI puts the situation into perspective

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worsening drought is continuing to ravage Kenya and the region, a situation that has led to a humanitarian crisis of catastrophic proportions not seen in recent decades. More than 12 million people are affected by the worst drought in 60 years which has affected wartorn Somalia and parts of Ethiopia, Djibouti Uganda, Sudan and Kenya. In Kenya, arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) cover 80 per cent of the territory where annual rainfall varies from 200 to 500 mm making periodical droughts part of the climate system. In the last two decades alone four major food crises have been

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declared in Kenya, all instigated by drought. Back in January 1997, the Government declared a state of national disaster after a severe drought threatened the livelihoods of two million people. Three years later in December 2000, four million people were on the brink of starvation after the country was hit by its worst drought in 37 years. In 2004, more than 2.3 million people were in need of assistance, while in December 2005; President Mwai Kibaki declared yet another food crisis after 2.5 million were affected by famine in northern Kenya. While climate change has been largely fronted as the major contributor towards drought, the root cause of the country’s vulnerability is


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

its dependence on rainfall for its economic development. Agriculture has long been the mainstay of the economy, making it entirely rainfed.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that Kenya will suffer more intense and frequent droughts in the 21st century. However, the current crisis has mainly affected five districts namely Turkana, Moyale, Mandera, Wajir and Isiolo. Kenya’s humanitarian appeal was 54 per cent funded as of July 26 with UN agencies in Kenya calling for the scaling-up of the drought response and mitigation interventions as more people will likely become food insecure amid funding gaps. The United Nations Central Emergency Rapid Response Fund has released Sh 1.25 billion in response to the hunger situation in Kenya.The funds will be used to assist communities in arid areas mitigate the effects of the drought situation through food aid, nutrition, agriculture, livestock, health, water and sanitation. An additional Sh 282 million will be used to specifically support the refugee response. The World Bank also pledged more than Sh 45.4 billion for the region, with the bulk of the money going towards long-term projects to aid farmers. However, Sh 1.09 billion will be immediately released for relief projects for those worst hit by the drought. Speaking during a joint UN press conference on the drought situation in the country on July 26, the UN Humanitarian Coordinator, Mr Aeneas Chuma, said: “The humanitarian crisis that we are facing is huge, it threatens lives, particularly those of the most vulnerable. It also threatens livelihoods and these must be protected as well.” He further added that that the funds

released will also assist the urban poor. “The recent increase in food and fuel prices has made it difficult for many families in urban centres to meet their basic needs including having a decent meal. Through this funding the UN agencies in Kenya will assist the poor and vulnerable in urban areas.” The food crisis is worsened by sharp increases in maize prices. In most urban markets the price of maize has increased by 80 per cent leaving the urban poor in a critical state of food insecurity.”There is considerable operational capacity on the ground; what we need are additional resources to scale up the response.” The funding will help address food security, nutrition and health concerns in marginal agriculture areas in districts of south-central Kenya where drought conditions are expected to worsen in the coming months. Kenya is faced with a hunger crisis and it is anticipated that 3.5 million people will need food assistance, up from 2.4 million people. According to UN World Food Programme (WFP) country director, Pippa Bradford at present, 2.4

The food crisis is worsened by sharp increases in maize prices. In most urban markets the price of maize has increased by 80 per cent

leaving the urban poor in a critical state of food insecurity

FO CU SO ND RO UG HT

million people are food-insecure, a number expected to increase to the range of 3.5 million by August. She said that WFP would carry out blanket feeding in the worst-affected districts in the next six months, with children younger than three being given Corn Soya Blend rations to prevent and address nutritional deficiencies. On the environment front, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) spokesman, Nick Nuttall, said climate change is a major factor that cannot be ignored and hence calls for a need for forward planning. “The answer is we need to look at adaptation –into rain harvesting on an accelerated scale.” The UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) representative, Olivia Yambi stated that “In the larger northern Kenya belt, approximately 385,000 children are malnourished, in addition to 90,000 pregnant and lactating women.” The drought, she warned, is eroding gains in child survival and education. “At the best of times children and women remain highly vulnerable; in times of crisis the shocks hit children and women the hardest. Olivia further said that the drought was forcing young people to leave Turkana, for instance, for urban centres, using hazardous transport that exposed them to the risk of sexual exploitation. “There has been a four-to fivefold increase in the number of deaths among refugees in Dadaab as they are arriving in appalling conditions,” said the UN Refugee Agency’s (UNHCR) country representative, Elike Segbor. On average, Dadaab has been receiving 1,300 new refugees daily, raising public health and security concerns for the host community

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

EXPORT BAN

Tanzania Grapples with Hunger in 42 Districts By DEA CORRESPONDENT

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ith a famine that has hit 42 districts in 16 regions in Tanzania, the government has banned export of food stocks, especially maize, to the neighbouring countries to avert hunger at home. Instead, the government has already started purchasing food from regions with surplus to cut the sharp food imbalance. Tanzania’s National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA) Chief Executive Officer, Mr Charles Walwa told Diplomat East Africa in Dar es Salaam recently that the exercise, is being carried out by NFRA. This followed survey findings

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from its seven zones, where teams were sent to determine the regions with surplus food and determine the market price that would be given to farmers. In an interview, Mr Walwa said the move comes following the government's ban of the export of food in response to famine. The Minister for Agriculture, Food Security and Co-operatives, Prof Jumanne Maghembe, told Parliament recently that the directive would be in force until December. The ongoing purchase of maize from surplus areas has put emphasis on the big six regions so that they don’t exert pressure on areas without enough

food. According to Prof Maghembe, preliminary food production and availability assessment revealed that there was food surplus in seven regions - Rukwa, Ruvuma, Mbeya, Iringa, Kigoma, Mtwara and Kagera. The assessment also indicates that eight regions of Morogoro, Lindi, Tanga, Dodoma, Singida, Tabora, Kilimanjaro and Manyara are food sufficient while Mwanza, Shinyanga, Mara, Arusha, Coast and Dar es Salaam regions are facing food deficit. Prof Maghembe said that some of the neighbouring countries. were facing famine which could lead to smuggling. “For example, maize price in Nairobi has gone up from Usd 215


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

per ton (Tsh323/- per kilo) in January to Usd 465 per ton (Tsh744/-per kilo) in June 2011, reflecting price increase of 130 per cent. “This situation has fuelled smuggling of food crops especially cereals to these countries which are experiencing food shortage,” the minister explained. “During 2010/11 season, production of cereal food is expected to reach 6,786,600 tonnes while demand is 7,200,340 and, therefore, there is a national deficit of 413,740 tones. “Production of non-cereal food during the same period is expected to reach 6,024,217 against demand of 4,299,073 tonnes and therefore there’s a surplus of 1,725,143 tonnes of noncereal food. Generally, there’s food surplus,” said the minister. He said the government had distributed over 30,301 tonnes of relief food out 36,970 tonnes allocated for areas facing food shortage. NFRA is offloading 115,000 tonnes from its centres in Makambako, Sumbawanga and Songea to its godowns nearest to the needy areas. The agency also continues to offload 50,000 tonnes to millers in 13 regions in order to reduce market prices of maize. As at June 30, this year, a total of 35,334 tonnes have been offloaded in that arrangement. MPS’ ANGER

But this has not gone without opposition. Members of Parliament have appealed to the government to lift the ban on export of food crops mainly maize, saying the move was hurting farmers. Debating the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives’ budget estimates, the legislators told the House that if the government wanted farmers not to sell their produce outside the country, then it must be ready to buy all the food crops produced by the farmers. Ally Mohamedi Kessy (CCM), Nkasi North, charged that the government was wrong in banning

maize exports, while knowing that it could not purchase all the stock in the region. “To prohibit farmers from selling their food produce in neighbouring countries is tantamount to killing them. When you announced the ban, a bag of maize which was being sold at 30,000 it went down to between Tsh12,000 and 15,000. Worse still there are no businessmen buying the crop,” he noted. He said that after the ban some officers from the agricultural department started buying maize at the cheaper price of Tsh12,000 with the intention of selling it later at higher prices. “Your officers are taking advantage of the ban to ruin farmers. Because they have money, they are now buying maize from farmers at a cheap price and will later sell at high prices. Why are you doing this?” he said. He warned that the maize will have gone bad by January when the government plans to lift the ban on export of maize from Rukwa region because it will be raining, making most roads in Rukwa region impassable. “Mr Minister, you can’t drive in January. The maize will be rotting,” he said. “If you ban export of maize, then be ready to buy it. But you don’t even have the funds. The minister tells us that they will buy only 200,000 tonnes of maize in four regions. The stock in Rukwa alone is more than 200,000 tonnes. Why then ban export of the crop? This is a free market. If you can’t buy; let them sell anywhere they want.” Anne Kilango Malecela –CCM Same East MP criticised the ban, saying the Minister for Agriculture was quoted as saying that the country has 1.7million tonnes of surplus food to be exported abroad. “When did the government start doing business and why is it getting involved now? Why can’t it leave the business to farmers who grow the

“When did the government start doing business and why is it getting involved now? Why

can’t it leave the business to farmers who grow the crops?”

crops?” asked Kilango. Kwela MP, Ignasi Malocha called on the government to ensure it provides farmers with proper markets and assured price for their crops. “The government has since 2006/2007 failed to purchase all food surpluses in Rukwa region, leaving more than 80 per cent in the hands of farmers. Why ban exports today?” “If markets and prices are set properly, no farmer will complain,” he noted. Minister Maghembe said from August this year, a bag of 100kilogramme maize should not be sold below Tsh35,000 to protect farmers. Maghembe said that among the measures the government was taking to minimise the piling up of crops in the regions with surpluses was to move the grains from the National Food reserve Agency to storage nearer famine-prone areas. In an interview with DEA, Prof Maghembe said the Tanzania government had opened its doors to drought-affected countries to negotiate directly with it in efforts to procure food for vulnerable populations. He said neighbouring countries confronted with a food crisis should deal directly with the government instead of farmers, traders or agents in border regions for food purchases. EAC Concern

He noted his country has a surplus 1.7 million tonnes of food and that the government was considering selling the excess to East African Community member states. Tanzania’s move comes against a backdrop of rampant food smuggling to neighbouring countries. The latest report of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) shows that food production globally has declined by 1.2 per cent and nearly 30 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, would face severe shortage. But with this bad hunger, the East CONTINUED ON PAGE 17 >>

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

WIDENNING CRISIS

Djibouti's 'Most Ignored Humaniterian Disaster '

“Focus has turned on its forgotten emergency” as an influx of refugees worsen an already dire situation, with hunger stalking a drought-weary population BY KENNEDY ABWAO

AT HAND:

American military aid humanitarian projects in Djibouti

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flood of asylum-seekers from Somalia and a refuge for 20,000 Ethiopian nomads, Djibouti’s drought stands out as the most ignored humanitarian disaster in the Horn of Africa region facing a most unique set of challenges. Classified as a “forgotten emergency,” Djibouti has been swelling with new arrivals at its borders. An

August 2011

average of 300 Ethiopian refugees cross the borders into Djibouti daily as the Horn of Africa drought continues to worsen. Pastoralists are giving up their livelihoods and flocking into in Djibouti ville, the capital, to settle into the crowded makeshift camps in the hope of miraculous jobs. Analysts fear the ‘Arab springs’ could spread to Djibouti’s inhumane camps due to the extreme living con-

ditions with no income, increasing social tensions. A vicious cycle of drought and floods has conspired over the years to keep farmers from their farmlands in the North. The country’s most productive lands are in three districts in the South, including Ali Sabieh, Dikhil and Djibouti. The farming sector is in limbo. With more goats and sheep compared to its population of 818,000 people, the country imports 80 percent of its food needs from starving neighbours and the international markets. A crisis is also brewing along the irrigated fields where floodwaters have washed away most of the farmlands, which have shrunk from 500 to 120 plots in just four years. The agricultural sector accounts for a paltry 3 per cent of the country’s economy and investments into the agricultural sector have mostly been second to the service sector, UN policy analysts warn. Food production has been on the decline over the years. The country’s mainly stony semi-desert plateaus, covering 23,00 square km, still remains attractive to refugees. Djibouti’s hunger crisis is being blamed on the growing urbanisation, which has seen a huge flight to urban areas. The food insecurity has been deteriorating due to the effects of long seasons of drought and la nina, which ushered in a drier-than usual season last October-December. “The situation is particularly alarming when it comes to rural


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

communities who bear the brunt of the economic and climatic shocks,” said a FAO report on the crisis. The insecurity in neighbouring Somalia is also a major cause for the crisis in the country, which hosts 14,500 Somali refugees. The food crisis is due to high food prices, which has reduced the purchasing power of most of the country’s citizens. “This is not just a question of lives being threatened but a way of life being threatened,” said UNICEF Executive Director, Anthony Lake, on concluding a visit to the region where he assessed the crisis first-hand. The international response to Djibouti’s humanitarian crisis has been alarmingly low. An international appeal for US$39 million remains unmet with only US$11 million, about 29.6 per cent of project funding sought in 2010. About US$518,867 has been made in pledges but as yet unavailable. Some US$16.2 million was earmarked for agriculture and livestock, US$6.5 million for health and nutrition, US$7.4 million for water and sanitation and US$2.4 million for emergency preparedness. With only 3 per cent of the land (10,000 hectares) suitable for farming. The country has just 388 hectares under irrigation and 1,000 hectares covered by food crops. The droughtwary Djibouti citizens have nearly reached their breaking point after running out of fresh survival options after a four-year long drought since 2007. Violence in Somalia is pushing more asylum seekers into Djibouti. The country’s million-plus livestock farmers can only reminisce about the past. Many have lost 70-80 per cent of their livestock to the droughts. The remainder is weak and attracts almost nothing at the market. The livestock held by a single family has shrunk by 30-40 per cent to between 15-20 goats and two or three donkeys. Some pastoralists are turning to farming to console themselves from the loss of livestock, growing toma-

toes, onions, pepper, beetroot, water melon and sweet melon. “The breakdown of the food pipeline means that supply is now sporadic and inadequate. Women have to walk from dawn to midday in search of water in dry river beds,” the UN official told journalists in Nairobi. “It is a situation that is replicated in other communities across the semi-arid and arid areas of Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia.” Djibouti’s President, Omar Guelleh, blames the crisis facing the country on failure to plan for adequate responses, but insists the crisis is under control. “The problem in our region is that we don’t plan properly for what we know is coming. Four months ago, we had a lot of rain. Four months later, we are dying of starvation and lack of water,” Guelleh said. SERIOUSLY AFFECTED

There are other parts of the country, particularly Eastern, which are seriously affected than others. Government ministries are working with World Food Programme (WFP) to mitigate this situation. “There is no catastrophe, we are managing the situation,” the President said. The government intends to create reservoirs that can hold 10-20 million cubic metres of water. Once this is done, water will become available during the dry seasons. President Guelleh says the government has expanded health facilities to help in the monitoring of malnourished children. “The feeding centres have been able to tackle the absolute hunger in the country. The government hopes to cut the starvation and eliminate the crisis by 2015,” he added. Experts say although a relatively small number of people are highly affected by the growing food crisis in the Horn, the number is higher in relation to the percentage of the population. The people have not recovered from the crises in 2002 and 2003

>> CONTINUED FROM PAGE 15

African Community (EAC) has concerned, pleading with its member states to remove barriers that would hinder movement of food across the borders in order to reach critically affected areas. Also appealing for humanitarian assistance from outside the region in a bid to avert further suffering in the affected communities, EAC director of Productive and Social Services, Dr Nyamajeje Weggoro, recently said the situation was critical and, ‘ we have to remove barriers to facilitate movement of food to the badly hit areas,”. He said he was aware that Tanzania had imposed a food-export ban in the wake of the crisis, but expressed hope that the country’s leaders would cooperate with fellow member states to alleviate suffering in the region, “in the spirit of the East African co-operation”. But he noted that the situation in Tanzania itself had not been good either, especially in the northern areas bordering Kenya, partly due to food smuggling. He played down assertions that Tanzania was going against the spirit of the EA by denying its drought-affected neighbours access to its stocks. Background

Tanzania has 26 regions.However, there are 6 known as the food baskets for the country. Therefore, each year, there are usually mild uncertainties about the food situation in some parts of the country. Each year, the government makes statements on the Parliamentary floor on the food situation in the country. There have always been uncertainties in particular regions every year. Several villages in Manyara and Shinyanga regions reported acute famine. This year, some 42 districts in 16 regions have been affected

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

LIFELINE

Ethiopia Braces Itself for the Climate Nomads By KENNEDY ABWAO

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s drought ravages East Africa, aid agencies have been forced to plan for a new wave of climate nomads from Kenya and Somalia into Southern Ethiopia, where better-equipped feeding centres are offering a lifeline. The level of food insufficiency has been rising alarmingly in the past three months, climbing from 3.1 million people in March to 4.5 million people in July, Ethiopia’s Agriculture Minister Mitiku Kassa said while launching an international aid appeal. The drought has reduced hundreds of thousands of mothers with children strapped to their backs

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to walking for an average of six hours daily to fetch water. A woman told a team of international diplomats, including visiting UN Humanitarian Chief, Valerie Amos, that she walked for two nights to reach a health facility in Bisle. There, she not only got medical aid, but also food for her desperate children. “I have no choice—my husband left for Djibouti two years ago because of the drought to look for work,” said the woman who brought a severely malnourished child for treatment at the health post. Bisle is 55 km out of Dire Dawa town. Rains in April partly reduced the intensity of the crisis in parts of Ethiopia, but were too little to make

an impact on the lives of the droughtstricken villagers and their livestock. In Moyale, Southern Ethiopia, where thousands are facing starvation, visitors are amazed at the sheer contradiction. Lush foliage and what appears as green pasture, alter the outsider’s perspective of the extent of the crisis. But the “green drought” has taken a severe toll on some of the 4.5 million affected people in need of food aid, who are now forced to share their food rations with their livestock. International food security experts say the Ethiopian hunger arises as a result of two factors-- delayed rainfall and a shortage of land on which to grow crops.


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

David Throp, Plan International’s Country Director for Ethiopia, said this year, the rains that allow seeds to germinate and the crops to grow did not come. As a result, families were not able to harvest crops when they normally do. “The later rains did not arrive in some measure, but now, crops are only half-grown and are not ready to eat until at least September,” Throp said. People are facing a serious shortage even though they are surrounded by greenery. “To outsiders, it seems incredible. When there is light rain, greenery will spring up out of the earth, but it is not necessarily edible,” he said said. The Ethiopian Agriculture ministry has embarked on food distributions to those affected by the famine. An Emergency Response System seeks to deal with the failed rains up to October and December this year. “The government is engaged in development work that guarantees access to enough water in these areas,” Mitiku said. The drought has affected East and SouthEasternpartsofEthiopia.Itaffects the South Nation Nationalities and Peoples(SNNP),thelargerOromiaregion and other regions, Only Gambela and HarariRegionalStateshavebeenspared. StateMinisterforAgricultureSileshi Getahun, said recently that Ethiopia has launched the Agriculture Growth Program me to respond to the food shortages. The food distribution for various districts is already underway. The foodstuffs include edible oils and supplementary diets for affected children.Ethiopiarequires380,000metric tonnes of food aid. On July 11, 2011 the government launched an appeal for US$398million.Ithasalreadyobtained 44percentoftheamountrequiredafter the appeal. The government expects to receive 72,000 metric tonnes in July. Britain has pledged US$61 million. For residents of Bisle, a settlement

of 1,200 people, this is the worst drought ever. Ali Abdi, a 60-old pastoralist said: “The crisis has particularly worsened in the last three months.” Many of those who have settled in Bisle, including Ali, are climate nomads who fled the disastrous drought elsewhere to stay close to the food and medical facilities. “It is important that we address the root-causes of the recurrent food crises and improve the capacity to respond to these emergencies,” said Amos, a former UK minister. The food rations per family include 15kg sack of wheat provided as part of the state-funded food-for-work plan, known as Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) to fight off absolute starvation. The beneficiaries receive aid for digging boreholes for water harvesting and planting trees to reclaim the land. The food aid package also includes 25 kg of corn soya blend, a bottle of oil, which in most cases is eaten up by the entire family, including the family goat and donkey. Aid agencies have set up 8,800 feeding centres to target starving populations in the 83 out of the 90 Woderas (districts) affected by an 18-month drought. The feeding centres are a response strategy by the health ministry. They cover some 57 districts. The extent of starvation has been rising. In April, 2011, the food prices inched up by 35.5 percent in Oromia region compared to the previous year. AT RISK

Plan East Africa in Ethiopia officials say the focus is on providing nutritious food for young children, mothers, school meals, water, seeds, livestock and fertilisers. “The girls are particularly at risk. They are often the first to go hungry if families don’t have enough food and

The food aid package also includes 25 kg of corn soya blend, a bottle of oil, which in

most cases is eaten up by the entire family, including the family goat and donkey

economic pressures may lead them to dropping from school, migration and even early marriage,” said Throp. UN Food agency (FAO) estimates that the current drought has killed 220,000 cattle in the Borana zone of Southern Ethiopia, along the Southern border with Kenya. An influx into the Southern Ethiopia is feared from Kenya and Somalia. UN Office for Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) says an influx into the region could further stress local communities and their resources. The state of malnutrition has been worsening. In most parts of Central, Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, the number of those dashing to the feeding centres has been rising. Inmostparts,a16percentriseinthe stateofmalnourishmentwasrecordedin 14,407 children in the Somali region. In Oromia, those starving shot up 100 per cent to 16,827.This is due to the deterioratingfoodsecuritysituation.In NorthernstateofTigray,a67percentrise (1,269)inthenumberofstarvingchildren was recorded. The cycle of drought spanning nearly eight years in the region has destroyed crops and killed livestock, bringing high levels of malnutrition, the agencies say. Analysts say the problem with Ethiopia’s agriculture is that each family has only a small area on which to grow crops. In Shebedino, one of the more densely populated parts of Ethiopia, fathers pass their land down to their children over the years. The available plots for producing food crops have been growing smaller and smaller. “With the added pressure of erosion, there is never enough land to grow food in some areas, no matter how much rain there is,” Throp noted. In recent months, the Federal government has come under fierce domestic and international pressure to stop foreign land grabs blamed on environmental degradation

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

CRITICAL POINT

On the Frontline of Humanitarian Aid

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umanitarian Initiative Just Relief Aid (HIJRA) is an African, independent, humanitarian organisation focused on providing life-saving assistance to the most vulnerable in South Central Somalia and Kenya. HIJRA was established in Somalia to address the needs of famine victims in 1992 and has been working to provide WASH, Livelihoods and Health interventions in Mogadishu and Lower Shabelle ever since. HIJRAhas80staffmemberscomprised ofDoctors,Nurses,Logisticians,Hygiene PromotersandAdministrativeexperts directlyimplementingprogrammeson the ground. HIJRA is one of the very few NGOs operating in South Central Somalia to address the needs of the displaced. As one of the largest actors onthegroundinMogadishuandLower Shabelle, HIJRA is now working to addresstheimmediateneedsof350,000 famineaffectedIDP’s.Theirteamswork to support 287,000 inWASH, 12,000 in livelihoodsand160,000inHealth.HIJRA partnerswithOXFAM,WHOandreceives supportviaDFID,CIDAandTheCommon HumanitarianFund(CHF)managedby OCHA HIJRA’s Call to Action

The Famine in Somalia is at the core of the emergency in the Horn of Africa. Recent reports from FSNAU, not only confirm the current number of Somalis in need of assistance to be 3.7 million but 3.2 million to be in need of immediateassistancewithanestimated 560,000 children under the age of 5

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already presenting signs of acute to severe malnutrition. Reports further estimatesthattheentiresouthernregion ofSomaliawillslipintofullscalefamine withinthenexttwomonths,makingthis theworstcrisisseeninTheHornofAfrica since 1992. In Mogadishu, HIJRA teams have reportedaninfluxof300-500households per day, with the Transitional Federal Government(TFG)estimatingthearrival of over 9,750 families last month. The newinfluxhasoverwhelmedestablished conflict IDP camps, seeing the need to createspecificdroughtdisplacedcamps such as the Badbaado and Aala-Yassir IDP camps. ThenewlyformedBadbaadocamp intheDharkenleydistrictofMogadishu is currently reported to be hosting over 30,000individuals,whiletheAala-Yassir camp in Lower Shabelle is hosting an estimated 15,000 individuals with both camps seeing numbers from Bay and Bakool increasing hourly further supportingtheUNHCRestimationthat 62,500individualshavebeendisplaced since June 16 2011. “In the camps, we are witnessing hundreds of severely malnourished, injured and exhausted households entering daily, stretching the limited resources and placing a heavy burden on the actors on the ground. We hear constantoutcriesfromthenewlyarrived fortheprovisionoffood,oftencriticising organisations building latrines and shelter and insisting that food must comefirst,”saidDaudAli,HIJRASenior Programme Officer. On the ground, the situation of starvation has reached a critical point. The effects of rising food cost and massive influx of poverty stricken

DIRE:

Today 2.5 million Somalis are in need of emergency humanitarian assistance

IDPs has force the communities to adopt a pre-paid dining approach to prevent those starving to death from eating in the restaurants and kiosks along the streets of Mogadishu and leaving without payment. It is currently estimated that 1 in 3 Somali children are malnourished while 1 in every 10,000 individuals will perish. “We have been driven to a decision between life or law breaking. Arrest me if you must; I have no money and I am starving,” said Ahmed Isaak. IDPs from all over the region are arriving into the camps not only physically depleted but mentally and


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

emotional exhausted from the weeks of travel undertaken. “I did not think I would make it. I was so weak to continue here after giving birth on the road. While we walked, I saw many young children abandoned because their mothers had no energy to carry them. I have seen death but never like this. I am scared for my baby, if he lives he has no home, if he dies he had no chance,” said Faama Eedan Abdi. As the situation on the ground worsens and the influx continues, inadequacies in IDP camp capacities have begun to reveal a new threat to Somali’s in the South. The overcrowding and cramped conditions have begun to force new arrivals to seek shelter in the streets, empty latrines or under single sheets of plastic, further exposing the already vulnerable and malnourished. In the past week, HIJRA has recorded a rise in mortalities rates due to the IDPs inability to access

adequate shelter, hygiene and nutrition assistance. From patterns observed in the past, teams are calling for immediate actions to address the coming outbreaks of AWD, Cholera and Malaria. “Thecityandcampsareoverwhelmed. Iamindeedworriedatthemagnitudeof thesituation.Wearewitnessingtheloss oflifeatanalarmingrate.Todaywomen and children are dying as they wait for assistance. There can be no more hesitation in further intervention. It is ourresponsibility as humanitarians to assistpeopleinneedandtodaySomalia is the epicenter of those in need! We are calling for intensified efforts from all actors to assist in saving lives, ” said Mohamed Dahir, HIJRA Director In order to ensure the needs of the most vulnerable are met, HIJRA is working to address the existing gaps on the ground through the provision of additional cash relief in Lower Shabelle to over 5,000 HHs, the addition of 35,000 women

and children in our current Health program at the Daryeel Mother and Child Health Clinic in Lafoole and an additional 35,000 mothers and children in Mogadishu through the construction of 1 MCH in the Badbaado camp. HIJRA urges all to action to address the famine in Somalia. Cry for Help

Somalia’s Drought has left areas once empty outside of The Afgooye Corridor and Mogadishu, host to the thousands of malnourished IDP families forced to seek refuge from the famine in the Lower Shabelle and Bakool regions. It is in one such area that we met with Mohamed Hassan a newly displaced man from Bay.  He tells us of his loss, the decision to leave his home and the 18 day journey which nearly claimed his life. “I lost everything. I did not have even one donkey, so I pulled my son in the cart.  I walked for 18 days, we saw to many dead on the road. Most were mothers and children, I think I will never forget that. I thought we would not make it, the journey was very hard.   We still have very little at night we sleep under our cart.  I think like this my son will die just like his brother. Even here I don’t think there is enough but it is our only hope. All we can do is wait and pray.” In order assist the immediate needs of those effected by the drought, HIJRA has constructed seven water tanks, 185 latrines and worked to assist three Mother and Child Health Clinics in Mogadishu and Lower Shabelle. HIJRA has been responding to the needs of those affected by the drought in South Central since its onset in late 2010

IDPs from all over the region are arriving into the camps not only physically depleted but

mentally and emotional exhausted from the weeks of travel undertaken

To learn more about HIJRAs programs and how you can assist the most vulnerable please visit www.hijra.or.ke

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LOOMING PITFALLS

Why Africa’s Newest State Must Respect Rule of Law

South Sudan should protect its hard-won independence by ensuring that any semblance of political intolerance and human rights violations are not allowed to take root

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By ALOYS HABIMANA

FREE AT LAST:

South Sudanese celebrate at their independence

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or many South Sudanese, the July 9th independence day was supposed to mark the end of an era of hopelessness. The road to this important milestone was strewn with hardships, including a protracted and costly war with its attendant denial of basic rights and freedoms. Expectations are obviously high. If there is anything that the ruling elite need to keep in mind, it is that repressive tactics should only be a thing of the past. Concerns about the possible continuation of repression in Africa’s newest state surfaced in April 2010. Passing through Juba, South Sudan’s capital, I met Sylvia Abuk (name changed to protect her identity), an opposition activist, and asked her what she thought about reports of harassment and intimidation of a number of her party members at the hands of government security forces. “We have fought hard for freedom;

August 2011

we cannot allow anyone to undermine our aspirations for democracy and justice,” Ms Abuk told me. She was clearly disillusioned that Southern Sudanese security forces were harassing, arresting and detaining not only members of opposition parties but also journalists affiliated with independent media groups. Many people share Ms Abuk’s concerns. They certainly include the people now being arbitrarily arrested on suspicion that they might have links with armed opposition groups. They also include members of opposition parties who were barred from participating in drafting the new constitution. Beyond putting an end to political marginalisation and abuses against actual or supposed political opponents, there are a number of other steps that South Sudan may want to take to streamline its human rights agenda. In a recent joint paper reflecting on the human rights challenges ahead of South Sudan’s independence, both Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International urged the new state to adopt steps that include strengthening accountability for abuses by soldiers and other security forces; placing a moratorium on the death penalty; and releasing detainees, especially children, whose continued imprisonment in crowded prisons is found to be unjustified. The new era should prompt the South Sudanese leadership to halt human rights violations. Since

January, fighting between the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and armed opposition groups has led to the killing of hundreds of civilians, including women and children, and the displacement of tens of thousands of people, particularly in Upper Nile, Unity, and Jonglei states. SPLA soldiers have been responsible for many of these violations. In other instances, the government has failed to protect civilians from brutal inter-communal fighting that has also led to killings, destruction and displacement. Leaders should, as a matter of urgency, ensure that rankand-file soldiers and their officers, as well as the police service, know and understand their obligations, and are held accountable. Tolerating continuous abuse of civilians by security forces will only add to people’s feelings that the demons of the past are still haunting the new nation. Fingers are often pointed at the weaknesses in the justice system as contributing to arbitrary detention and long periods of pretrial detention. High rates of illiteracy among women and girls – 80 percent across the South – exacerbate issues related to forced and early marriage and gender-based violence. Africa cannot afford to have another failed state■ Alloys Habimana is Africa deputy director at Human Rights Watch. He is based in Nairobi


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

UNFINISHED BUSINESS

South Sudan: Confronting Challenges of Statehood Lack of progress in resolving the Abyei region's question will be one of the key challenges in the path to sustainable peace and development in the new state

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By ATUNGA ATUTI OJ uly 9 2011 was the day South Sudanesehadbeenwaitingforfor thepastquartercenturyofstruggle forselfdetermination.Nationalsof this newest state on the map of theworldarestillinacelebratorymood which will last for months to come. This party is deserved and we applaud the South Sudanese on their gallant struggles and on the attainment of their independence. But when the hangover of this long party is over, South Sudan has a mammoth task of building a credible and viable state. This feat is fraught with challenges. The declaration of independence was done amid myriad challenges of addressing a range of issues which have not been resolved in the interim period as stipulated in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. One of the key issues that will occupy the postindependence period is the status

of Abyei region. This is an area rich in oil and other natural wealth that straddles the borderlines of the North and the South. The resolution of the Abyei question to the satisfaction of both parties will mark the beginning peaceful and sustainable coexistence of the two new states which are conjoined in their dependence of shared resources for their survival as credible entities. The resolution of the status of Abyei will be done through a referendum whose modalities the two parties would not agree on. With independence for the South the positions and posturing of the two new states will harden with the passage of the deadline. Lack of progress in resolving the Abyei question will be one of the key challenges in the path to sustainable peace and development or a return to war. The Abyei Question is perhaps one of the biggest questions in Sudan

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history for a long time to come. It has the possibility of being settled and acting as a point of integration between the North and South or might turn out to be the crux of the Sudanese relationship for the foreseeable future. NEW MAP

Border demarcation between the North and South was to be completed ahead of the January referendum. This was, however, not done. At independence the border demarcation issues has not been addressed conclusively. South Sudan has released a map designating her territory covering some of the contested territories including Abyei as part of the South. This will certainly not sit well with the Khartoum administration. Borders have been problematic in many African states. At independence, the African Union insisted on the inviolability of borders as inherited at independence and these were responsible for post independence cross border wars where populations felt divided by what they considered artificial constructions. The issues of border will be one of the challenges of independence because other than the borders with the North, the South has unresolved border issues with her other neighbours. This is especially dire in the case of the two Sudans: they have no choice but to coexist, and have contested borders and populations straddling across borders in many areas including Abyei, North Bahr el Ghazal and Southern Darfur, Southern Darfur and Western Bahr el Ghazal, Unity and South Kordofan, Upper Nile States South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. Secondly, there are questions of citizenship, wealth and oil sharing arrangement, the Sudan debt, the Sudan Currency, the fate of internationalandregionalagreements that are not yet discussed, negotiated and resolved. With the referendum

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results announced it is imperative that the North and South leadership engage and establish frameworks for constructive management of post independence issues in the coming months. The good will of the international community, the African and the East African Community and the mother of the CPA, IGAD is critical for the Sudans to navigate some of the outstanding issues and establish friendly and mutually beneficial relations. It is also in the interest of the region that the two Sudans are at peace with themselves as part of the sub regional peace and security matrix. The Government of South Sudan has to face the challenges of managing expectations, resettling returnees, consolidating the divergent Southern political elites and militias, transforming the Sudan People’s Liberation Army from a guerrilla armed formation to a conventional and modern army capable of performing the functions of state defense. But the key challenge of South Sudan is creating and revisiting the vision of the struggle for independence. The recently unveiled national anthem captures that vision but the people must realise the results of independence and taste its rewards otherwise this will turn out to be a Pyrrhic victory and the creation of an

ARMED:

Southern Sudanese forces near the disputed region of Abyei

entity that is not at peace with itself. South Sudan borders five volatile neighbours, that have outstanding border issues and is also part of the Nile Basin an internationally shared water resource whose utilisation has been contested for a long time. Management of these issues is crucial, not only to the stability of the Sudan but also for regional peace and security. But more critical, though, is the creation of the infrastructure of statehood; building the physical infrastructure for mobility and service delivery will be critical in the immediate to medium term but the bigger challenge in this respect is the building of human capital to develop the state from scratch. In this respect, the support and goodwill of the neighbours will be critical to the creation of a credible state or a potentially failed state. APPLAUD

But the key challenge of South Sudan is

creating and revisiting the vision of the struggle for independence

As East Africans, we applaud the success of the South Sudan independence struggle but hasten to add that the government of the Republic of South Sudan has an uphill task in negotiating the various challenges, consolidating national unity and satisfying the demands of various internal and external forces. The governors of this new state, well endowed with natural wealth and a strong willed people, have no excuse but to live true to the wording of their national anthem: We arise raising the flag with the guiding star, and sing songs of freedom with joy; for justice, liberty and prosperity shall forever more reign…. We congratulate the people of SouthSudanontheattainmentoftheir independence. Atunga Atuti OJ is the Chief Executive Officer of the East African School of Human Rights and Convenor of the Nairobi Policy Dialogues on the Sudan


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

NEW KID ON THE BLOC

South Sudan Is Set to Join the EAC The regional bloc may get its sixth member soon, even as it adopts a draft Protocol on good governance seeking to push for democratic elections and peaceful political transitions, which could save the region from recurring political instability By LUIZA WANGECHI

F

ollowing its independence, South Sudan has expressed interest in joining the East African Community. The EAC enjoys economic links with South Sudan, which provides a wide range of investment and trade opportunities for the region. The East African Legislative Assembly (EALA) Speaker Abdirahin Abdi recently hinted at the possibility of the country joining the regional bloc. South Sudan’s Undersecretary in the Ministry of Regional Co-

operation, Majok Guandong sees this as beneficial. “We have greater potential to grow within the Community; investment and trade are also big incentives for us to join the bloc. Indeed we can be a major supplier of oil within the region,” he said. EAC member states have been advised to adopt a joint development and economic approach to achieve full integration. “We must allow free movement of people from the region to spur

ALL AS ONE:

Presidents of the EAC member states at a recent function

economic development,” said Kenya’s EAC minister, Prof Hellen Sambili. Sambili said her ministry has embarked on Rapid Results Initiative programmes countrywide to enlighten Kenyans on regional integration. The EAC is also seeking to establish a regional commodity exchange. A commodity market could help address issues of price manipulation by reducing costs of transactions, enhancing information flow and improving returns to market participants. According to EAC Secretary General, Dr Richard Sezibera, establishment of the exchange is important given that one of the principles of the EAC is making sure the people of the region gain access to tools of wealth creation. In addition, the EAC has adopted a draft Protocol on good governance seeking to push for democratic elections and peaceful political transitions, potentially saving the region from recurring political instability. If passed by EALA, the draft allows regionalcitizenstoquestionthemanner inwhichleadersareappointed.TheEast African Court of Justice (EACJ) will also bemandatedtohandlecasesrelatedto human rights abuse earlier deferred to theInternationalCriminalCourt(ICC). “We cannot continue to look to the ICC when we have the EACJ, which can serve as a middle ground between national judicial mechanisms and internationalones,”saidBeatriceKiraso, the EAC Deputy Secretary General in chargeofPoliticalIntegration.Moreover, the EAC Secretariat is considering a regionalConstitutiontoguidetherollout of the proposed Political Federation. “The existing individual EAC national constitutions have very little regional integration issues. We have proposed the drafting of a constitution that will be negotiated to oversee the political federation after adoption of a monetary union,” Ms. Kiraso said. The Secretariat plans to table its recommendations for the proposed

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Constitution at the November East African Heads of State Summit. TheEACmemberstatesalsoplanof setupcentresofexcellencetotrainapool ofhumancapitalinseveralfieldsacross theregiontoaidinthebloc’sintegration. Theexerciseissettorekindlememories ofbetween1960sand1970swhenmost engineers were trained in University ofNairobi,lawyersinUniversityofDares-Salaam and doctors at Makerere University. MEMORIES

Ms Immaculate Mpeberane from Burundi led a team of five regional assessors drawn from each of the five EAC states on an assessment exercise to establish whether the institutions that applied to be considered meet the required standards. Pressure to allow cross-border transfer of workers’ benefits to encourage region-wide job hunting continues to rise, as member states align national laws with the EAC treaty to create a single market. Kenya'sretirementschememanagers saythecampaigntoeasetransferofsocial security benefits — commonly known as benefit portability — has previously proved sensitive with almost all the national service providers resisting it. “The retirement benefit portability is seen as one way of promoting cross border job search as it saves the retired employees the agony of having to visit each of the pension and provident fund scheme scattered in all the countries worked,” said Mr Barrack Ndegwa, the integration secretary at Kenya’s EAC ministry, adding that the council called for a study to guide its rollout. Plans of overhauling EAC organs’ financial management structures are also on the pipeline with projections of making the organs more efficient, effective and transparent. The EALA, EACJ and Kisumu-based LakeVictoria Basin Commission have already started implementing the changes. Another major step in deepening the integration process is an initiative

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August 2011

by the five partner States to harmonise their consular and visa services for EAC citizens. The harmonisation of consular and visa services will enhance cooperation on matters regarding information sharing, immigration policy,securityanduseofstandardised identification and travel documents. According to David Nalo, Kenya’s Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of East Africa Community, “the idea to have joint consular services comes at an opportune time when the EAC is looking to market itself as a single tourist destination to the rest of the world.” Already, citizens of four EAC partner states can now use national identity cards as travel documents in the region. “Kenya, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda are in the process of issuing electronic identity cards that will be used as travelling documents,” Sezibera said during a symposium in Arusha held to mark 10 years of EALA. A report highlighting social issues captured in the Millennium Development Goals in the health, education, sports sector, social protection and community development as well as conservation of natural resources has also been released. Among recommendations in the report are that students will be able travel to any of the member states and pay the same fees as locals. According to Kenya’s Prime Minister, Raila Odinga, with a strong regional market, the region’s concerted efforts will promote and facilitate measures aimed at eradicating poverty, improving the quality of life of the people and promoting sustainable utilisation and management of natural resources. The Deputy Secretary General in charge of Productive and Social Sectors at the EAC Secretariat, Mr Jean Claude Nsengiyumva reported that a draft Social Development Framework had been developed, and a proposal for developing an EAC Protocol on Gender Equality and the

Draft EAC Civil Society Mobilisation Strategy had also been created to guide Partner States in developing different policies and programmes while implementing commitments at both national and regional levels to ensure broader participation of the people from all segments of society. FEARS

The harmonisation of consular and visa services will enhance cooperation on matters regarding

information sharing, immigration policy, security and use of standardised identification and travel documents

According to Juma Mwapachu, a formerSecretaryGeneraloftheEAC,the launchoftheCommonMarketinJulylast yearraisesanxietyintheregionbecause differences in the quality of education in the partner states could determine competitive advantage in securing skilled jobs. “It is important that we engage in exchange of teachers starting at primary school level in order to ensure parity in terms of education,” he said. As the EAC celebrates the first anniversary of the common market, fresh fears have emerged threatening to delay the integration process. According to a report by a team of experts tracking emerging challenges, it has been noted that Tanzania has been slow in conforming to the ideals of the integration process. “The fear is particularly of Kenyans and Ugandans over-running the regional labour market,” the report notes. Securityconcernsarealsoemerging over urban gangs such as kenya's Baghdad boys and Mungiki posing a great threat to the federation which is projected to be founded on the rule of law.ArecordfourEastAfricanpresidents are set to retire at the end of their terms. Kenya’s Presidents Mwai Kibaki’s term endsin2012,Tanzania’sJakayaKikwetein 2015,Burundi’sPierreNkurunzizain2015 and Rwanda’s Paul Kagame in 2017. If all the EAC leaders do the honourable thing and step down, it will be the first time that such a relatively large number of presidents have respected the constitution and left power in an African region


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

NEW ERA

UN Welcomes South Sudan as its 193rd Member State

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he General Assembly has admitted the Republic of South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations, welcoming the newly independent country to the communityofnations. SouthSudan’s independencefromtherestofSudan is the result of the January 2011 referendum held under the terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the decades-long civil war between the North and the South. “At this moment… in this place… the world gathers to say in one voice: Welcome, South Sudan. Welcome to the community of nations,” Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said after the Assembly adopted a resolution, by acclamation, to admit Africa’s newest country. Mr. Ban, who was among the UN dignitaries who attended the independence ceremony in South Sudan’s capital, Juba, on July 9, 2011, pledged the world body’s assistance as the country shapes its future.“The commitment of all Member States will be essential as South Sudan movesforward,”hestated.“Together, let us say to the citizens of our newest Member State: You now sit with us. We stand with you.” Assembly President Joseph Deiss said it marks a“historic” moment for Africa and for the world community. “Today we are firmly entrenching South Sudan in the community of nations in the same way as other Member States with the same rights

andresponsibilities.Theuniversality of the United Nations and the values that are enshrined in its Charter are thereby enhanced,” he stated. “I am confident that South Sudan will contributetopromotetheobjectives of security, peace, prosperity, friendshipandcooperationbetween peoples as they are promoted by the United Nations, and this for the good of the people of South Sudan, for the good of the region and for the entire African continent.” Speaking on behalf of South Sudan, Vice President Riek Machar said he was “honoured and humbled” to stand before Member States to convey the gratitude of his Government and people to the Assembly for admitting the new nation to membership in the UN. He paid tribute to all those who participated in the long struggle for South Sudan’s liberation. “That struggle cost our people millions of lives and untold suffering. Their sacrifices will not be forgotten.” Dr Machar also pledged that his country will work to foster peace in itsregion,whilebuildingastrongand viable nation at home. “When we started our journey we could hardly imagine that the road would lead us to this point, however much we may have hoped for it. Now, we must move forward together to fulfil our people’s aspirations.” As South Sudan’s flag was hoisted at UN Headquarters, Ban pledged that the world body will work with the country to realise all the hopes and dreams

the flag represents. “Like your flag, let us rise. Let us rise, together, to the challenge.” The latest country to join the world body had until now been Montenegro, which became the 192nd UN Member State on June 28, 2006, just weeks after it gained its independence

August 2011

MAJESTIC:

UN headquarters

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•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

SHOW OF FORCE

Salva Kiir Flexes his Muscle But is the North Listening? BY STAFF WRITER

R

Lead negotiator for South Sudan on oil, Pagan Amum, told the FT that the north

had asked for “unfair and unreasonable” conditions of passage

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elations between South Sudan and its Khartoum’s neighbour are off to a bouncy start after the newly sworn in President Salva Kiir issued a veiled threat to the North about the oil pipeline and disputed Abyei region. In a no-nonsense statement Kiir’s made it clear that he was no longer in favour of South Sudan continuing with the oilsharing agreement that was established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), and which has been in place since it was signed in Jnuary 2005. South Sudan became an independent state on July 9, 2011 after an overwhelming 99 per cent of registered Southerners voted in favour of seceding from the North. The referendum was part of the 2005 peace accord that ended more than two decades of civil war between Juba and Khartoum. He told contingents of armed forces at Bilpam military base. “I am saying that we will rent the North’s oil pipelines and we will give them money for our oil to be transported, and we will of course pay and there is no problem.” But he added significantly, “if this offer is unaccepted to the North. We have agreed on one thing that the oil issue should not be disrupted. They [Sudan] need oil. But

August 2011

we fought for 21 years without oil and we can still go for 3 years until we build our own oil infrastructure. Later after a meeting with the visiting German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle, ", he said “We do not want to take all the oil revenues, we must leave something for the North to help them in facing the economic challenges. Both were indeed strong statements from Africa's newest state. Prior to secession the two sides evenly split the proceeds from exports of oil produced in the South. In June Sudanese president Omer Hassan al-Bashir warned that he is prepared to shutdown oil pipelines if the landlocked south doesn’t pay usage fees or share revenue from crude proceeds following its independence. “IgivetheSouththreealternatives fortheoil....eitherthenorthcontinues getting its share, or we gets fees for every barrel that the south sends to Port Sudan,”Bashirtoldsupportersatarally in Port Sudan. “If they [Southerners] don’t accept that, we’re going to shut down the pipeline,” he said. It has been reported that RSS shippeditsfirstindependentlysoldoil cargo from Port Sudan despite lack of agreement on the transit fees. “We are still negotiating...nothing is yet clear,” Arkangelo Okwang,

director general for energy in South Sudan, told London's Financial Times (FT) but said he expects the north to bill the south for the use of its facilities, and added that South Sudan would ship a further 600,000 barrels on July 23. Lead negotiator for South Sudan on oil, Pagan Amum, told the FT that the north had asked for “unfair and unreasonable” conditions of passage. “They came with crazy ideas saying they are going to impose several transit fees – a usage fee, something called a normal transit fee, then something called a special fee – maybe $15 per barrel, even more – then maybe other charges, and they wanted revenue-sharing to continue,” Amum revealed. Amum said the south was instead prepared to offer $3bn in “assistance” to the north and offered transit fees in line with international norms, citing 41 cents per barrel charged by the Chad-Cameroon pipeline, which is a similar-length. Despite receiving offers to build a pipeline to neighbors Ethiopia, Kenya or Uganda, Amum said he hoped that negotiations with the north would be successful. “Our preferred choice is to use the pipeline that is already there, provided the north will not impose prohibitive, punitive tariffs and sur-


•THE REGION Eastern Africa Beat

>> CONTINUED FROM PAGE 11

charges that are discriminatory and are imposed simply because South Sudan has become an independent landlocked country,” he stressed, adding it is illegal under international law to block exports. Today the Sudanese finance minister Ali Mahmood Hassanein said they have received an official letter from RSS informing them officially that they are willing to pay transit fees and that a delegation would travel to Khartoum soon for discussion on how much it should be. He added that Khartoum was in the process of crafting laws that sets the fees which contains three levels based on the fact that oil passes through Sudan which requires the imposition of sovereign fees. Hassanein noted that the oil needs central treatment and purification from water as well as the use of the Bashayer port for exporting it. Sudan has sounded the warning bell on the impact of losing control over the South’s oil fields. The government announced set of austerity measures that focuses on reducing public spending. ABYEI QUESTION

Khartoum’s chief Abyei negotiator Al-Dirdiri Mohammed Ahmed told Agence France Presse (AFP) last month the government was satisfied with the arrangement because it had taken care of its main concerns about the bitterly contested region, primarily that it remains in the north. “We think it is a sustainable solution, and that peace will prevail according to this formula,” Ahmed said

remains in the demilitarised border area, which has been under the guard of a UN peacekeeping force. But the UN’s Blue Berets seem to have pulled out over claims that they are unable to discharge their mandate. With the cessation of hostilities at the disputed border, it was simply a matter of time before another front opened up in the battle for supremacy between Asmara and Addis Ababa. Initially, Zenawi was apprehensive that Affewerki would throw his support behind the Oromo rebellion in the South. He did, but distance and differences over ideology put paid to the effort and the rebellion by the Oromo is still simmering. In the meantime, Ethiopia, at the behest of the US government was busy meddling in the affairs of the stateless Somalia by first getting its ally – some would say its protégé Abdillahi Yusuf – elected first President of the Transitional Federal Government (TGF) in January 2005. Yusuf, a top ranking soldier under the late dictator Siad Barre, had fled to Addis Ababa during the 1978-79 Somalia- Ethiopia war over the Ogaden region of Ethiopia. His hapless government was formed inNairobiin2005,bringingtoacloseseveral years of painstaking reconciliation effortsbyretiredKenyaPresidentDaniell arap Moi. But the Islamists and other militia gangs running Mogadishu would not allow any Ethiopian meddling without a fight and in Eritrea found a willing and able ally. The Islamists chased Yusuf and his government out of the Somali capital, forcing him to seek refuge in Baidoa. Meanwhile, with the security situation in Mogadishu really getting bad, a group of more moderate warlords had grouped together under the banner of the so-called Islamic Courts union lead by a preacher and former school teacher Sheikh Shariff. It imposed some order around the capital and was gaining acceptance in

the rest of the country. Ethiopia, which has been in the vanguard of Washington’s fight against terror in the Horn of Africa region, would not allow its influence to wane to the advantage of the Eritreans and invaded Somalia in June 2006, sending in a huge force in its proxy war with Asmara. After six months of fighting, and with the backing of the superior US airpower, Addis Ababa, routed the Islamists. Ironically, after the Ethiopian invasion and ousting of the Islamic Courts, fresh elections were held in 2007 and Sheikh Sharif won the presidency and was sworn in, much to the dismay of Addis Ababa. Buthehasnotenjoyedaneasyrun.His formerIslamistsallieshaveturnedagainst hisgovernmentforcingtheAfricanUnion to send in an army of 8.000 Ugandans and Burundians soldiers to protect him and the little turf of Mogadishu that he controls. With the rise of the militant gangs, and in particular Al-Shaabab, Addis Ababa has been at pains to explain its loss of influence in Somalia by blaming Eritrea, charges that have resonated well with Washington. The US has accused the Affewerki regime of arming the militia. Indeed, the sanctions UN Security Council imposed on Eritrea were at the behest of Washington. But would Ethiopia have the sway to get IGAD do its bidding? Not under President Kibaki’s watch, say analysts. Other that President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, who was the first foreign leader to recognise his disputed presidential victory in the 2007 disputed polls in Kenya, Kibaki is not known to enjoy particularly warm relations with any of the neighbouring heads of state. Indeed, he doesn’t have seem to have much time for Zenawi’s government, partlyduetocross-borderraidsbyEthiopia’s Merille tribesmen in the northern and Upper Eastern areas of Kenya

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•DNA

Diplomacy•News•Analysis SCALING HEIGHTS

Malta, the Mirror of Success and Growth

HERE:

Musebe explaining a point to DEA during the interview

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D

iplomat East Africa: Please start by giving us a brief history of Malta.

HE Kennedy Musebe: The history of Malta is over 7,000 years old. Its first inhabitants came from Sicily. Then the Phoenicians settled in. They were followed by Normans, years later. But it was when the Arabs were conquering the Middle East and Holy Lands that the substantive history began. The real beginning was when the Knights of St John were formed in Jerusalem

August 2011

PHOTOS BY: DEA LIBRARY

Despite its small size - about 300 km square - and population of 400,000, the country enjoys 95 per cent internet connectivity, one of the lowest unemployment rates in the world - 5 per cent - and receives 1.2 million tourists a year. its HONORARY CONSUL, KENNEDY MUSEBE says Kenya could learn plenty and exploit her huge potential in forests, film shooting sites and coastal beaches. PATRICK WACHIRA reports

especially to provide medical care for pilgrims. The Knights of the Templars were also formed to protect cathedrals in Damascus and Jerusalem at the time of the war between Muslim and Christians. They needed at a secure place to shelter the sick, women and children before going back to war. They started by going to Rhodesia, just before the Ottoman Empire conquered Rhodesia, which fell after Egypt, (Alexandria) and Morocco (Cassablanca). That explains why Rhodesia and Malta are both fortified.

They are very, very closely related in terms of history. The King of Spain gave the knights a new home, Malta in 1530. The King gave them Malta and Tripoli. The Ottoman Empire was still keen to conquer Malta. Between 1558 and 1665, there was the Great Siege in which the Ottoman Empire attempted to topple the Knights of St John. That was the new dawn of the new Malta; when they successfully resisted the Muslim attack. Malta is 99.9 per cent Christian, largely Catholic. Essentially, when Naopleon took over in 1799, he drove the knights out. The knights were Italians, Spaniards, English and French. For a short time, Napoleon and the French controlled Malta. The British toppled them and it became an English colony and therefore English speaking. Independence was granted in 1964. Like Kenya, Malta was colonised by Britain. Both are members of the commonwealth. Q: What are the areas of co-operation between Malta and Kenya? A: Malta has established itself as one of the leading maritime destinations. The free port of Malta is the 7th largest in the world. A number of Kenyans have recently trained in Malta. It has the best diplomacy college in Europe. Kenyan civil servants have been


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Diplomacy•News•Analysis

trained, some in Malta, in areas of tourism, maritime and financial management and diplomacy under the Third Country Agreement. This was under the auspices of the Commonwealth and not as a bilateral agreement between the two states. Q: What areas of co-operation between Kenya and Malta are you upbeat About? A: We may look at education bilateral agreements that may include scholarships. There is very little trade between the two countries. Kenya has a big opportunity to trade with Malta. Malta imports 80 percent of its food, vegetables, fruits and livestock mainly from West Africa and some European states. These can be sourced from Kenya. One interesting thing is that the rabbit is a great delicacy in Malta. It is to them what chicken is to Kenyans or to UK or the USA. For those doing rabbit farming in Kenya, Malta is a great market. The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock has not been very keen but this a great market that can be exploited even beyond Malta. For that to be successful, the Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture needs to touch base with Malta Ministry of Trade to explore this issue further. However, for this to happen, the rabbits have to meet standard set by the EU. That means specific breeds may be targeted and breeders may be brought in to advise further. Q: Are there projects in which the Maltese government has been involved in Kenya? A: There is not a single project done between Kenya and Malta on a country-to-country basis. The only projects being undertaken by Malltese are private, individual or by organisations: Mpeketoni, (Missionary Development for Malta) and Bulbar in North Eastern Province.

Q: In foreign policy orientation what will be your priority? A: This will be driven under the EU foreign policy. The President of Malta is extremely passionate about changing climatic conditions and their impact on vulnerable states that could be poor and unable to safeguard its peoples, Kenya being one of them.We believe that countries emitting a lot of carbon should take responsibility to safeguard poor countries that may be vulnerable. Q: Malta attained independence around the same time as Kenya in 1964. How do the two states compare in terms of growth and infrastructure? A: Looking at Kenya and Malta. It is a shame that Kenya is a developing country. Malta got independence in 1964 and Kenya became a republic in the same year yet if you compare their resources, then and now you cannot compare the two. Governance has a way of eradicating poverty, strengthening government structures through democratisation and meeting Millenium Development Goals. Its GDP is about 5.6 billion Euros and its budget is US$ 12 billion, almost like that of Kenya. The minimum wage is 13,500 Euros a year, not comparable to Kenya’s. The living standards are high. The unemployment rate is about 5 per cent, the third lowest in Europe. Average is 10 per cent in Europe. Very few people have are unemployed But compare the demographics: median age in Kenya is about 18 years. In Malta it is 42, which means that one of the greatest challenges in Malta is an aging population. Half the population is below 49 and half is above 49. In Kenya half is below 18 and half above 18. It means that the infrastructure in Malta has to be re-developed. With a life expectancy of 84 for women and 79 for men to take care of infrastructure needs of these ages, it means more attention.

Governance has a way of eradicating poverty, strengthening government structures through democratisation

and meeting Millenium Development Goals

In a hospital in Malta, one of the main specialities is to change the limbs of people because of old age. Malta has become a medical tourist attraction because they are good at it. That will have an impact on the working population because more and more working people will remain at work. Malta is very conservative. Until this year in May, divorce was forbidden. The country has a rich and conservative culture. In May, Malta was voted among the world’s best destinations to live, partly because of the weather. In winter, the temperatures are between 10 and 18 degrees while in summer, they range between 20 and 33 degrees. Water is very expensive. The country receives only 20 inches of rain per annum. That is very little rain. Fresh water is insufficient. Reverse osmosis is used to desalinate sea water and it’s a very expensive exercise, taking up 30 per cent of power consumption. The country has no resources, no land for farming, no forests or wildlife, but the greatest resource is the people; highly educated and bilingual. Q: Is Malta affected by the challenges of illegal immigrants? A. There is a little problem of illegal immigrants in Malta. Many go through high seas because the distance from Africa to Malta is about 300 km. It is very short. You will be surprised that people take boats in winter. A boat supposed to carry seven people will be carrying 27 and they will cross the waters. It becomes a problem because Maltese military has to protect them from drowning and get them across. Then they become illegal immigrants. So, they become a problem to Malta. Our policy is to strengthening economic development of their mother countries. That is because whatever you do, unless the states become economically sustainable, then illegal immigrants will continue being a headache

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Diplomacy•News•Analysis

AT HOME WITH...

Diplomacy Conservation

T

he weather is a little chilly but the sun rays are peaking through the clouds as Alice approaches the Karura Forest gates. “Hi. Habari yako?” she warmly says with a graceful smile. We quickly make our way past the guards and head to the office. As we drive through the forest, a sense of belong-

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PHOTO BY: YAHYA MOHAMED

When work, commitment, and pleasure all become one and you reach that deep well where passion lives, nothing is impossible. Such is the life of Alice MaCaire, wife of British ambassador to Kenya, Rob MaCaire. She speaks of her conservation work at Karura Forest, now transformed beyond belief BY CAROL KIIRU


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Diplomacy•News•Analysis

ing engulfs me and the crude idea of the forest disappears away leaving me calm and smiling. “This is great,” she says. The piece was “At home with... but after hearing those words I knew for a fact something was to change. Either me, the story or both. Aswealightwearemetbytwoladies scoutingforaweddingvenue.Themuch publicised negative association of the forest of yesteryears dissipates as fast as it had come to mind.The air around the forestfeltclearandtoapointfresh. Atea anddinnerpartyiswhatwethinkwhen youtalkaboutadiplomat’sspouse.This is not, at least for Alice Macaire, wife of BritishHighCommissioner,RobMacaire. Onanyotherdayshewouldhavechosen toembarkonanythingelsebutimmersed herselfonconservingtheKaruraforest. “Beingadiplomatmyhusbandgets to be posted in different countries on foreign missions. We are also lucky as oursisawonderfullife.Beingthewifeof a diplomat has its thrills as I get to meet interestingpeople.Mydayusuallybegins at6amwherewehaveafamilybreakfast. We have two children Molly 13 and Nell 11 they study at Kenton College, a great school. I go for Kiswahili lessons on Tuesdays and Fridays.” Travelling to all this places has provided her with an environment to exercise her profession. “Everywhere I go I get involved in a project because I am a trained project manager. Before we came to Kenya we were in New Delhi, India where we lived in an old fashionable area with beautiful architecture. Before India we were in Washington DC where I got involved a fundraising for charity, The National Symphony Orchestra.” Alice admits to loving Kenya and her love for it has given her the zeal to change the perception of the forest. Her eyes light up as we talk about Karura. Initially when she asked around if she could go and take a walk in the forest, the horrified looks and horrid stories of the forest made her think twice. “I went over to the Kenya Forest Service (KFS) headquarters and

met a lady called Charity Munyasia, who became a close friend. I told her of my walk in the forest and she said yes. She also added that she couldn’t guarantee my safety and again told me about thieves in the forest. We engaged each other on why this beautiful landscape and a country amenity was a haven for thieves and death she plainly banged her fists on the table and asked me how she could do it. KFSwaslimitedonfunds,andCharity hadnocluetowhoIwasandshethought Iwasjustamzungu(white)whowanted to help. I went back home and spoke to my husband and he agreed to back me up 100 per cent. This is when the work reallystarted.”“Twoweekslater,Charity excitedly called saying she thought she hadfoundawaterfallinsidetheforest.” “Whatdoyoumeanyouthinkyouhave foundawaterfall?”Iexclaimed.”Charity replied,“Come to the office and see for yourself!” “I went to the office and she took me to see the waterfall. As we negotiated our way through the shrubs (wearing high heels) suddenly, without warning, whoa! In front of us lay the most beautiful waterfall. I asked Charity how the waterfall could have possibly escaped their notice and she said they did not come here much. It was too special for me not to protect it. Charityarrangedforameetingwith all stakeholders - Runda, Muthaiga, Huruma and a representative from the UNEP-andthedecisionwasunanimous tomaketheforestsafe.Thefirstmeeting was graced by her husband, Rob, Prof Wangari Maathai, UNEP’s Executive Director,AchimSteinerandoneWilliam Wambugu, who is also helping with the conservation of the Arboretum. “We agreed there was need to form a committee and thus Friends of Karura wasbornandIwasappointedchairlady. We started by clearing the shrubs and creatingafamilytrail.Onitsopeningday, 650 people turned up. “Prof Maathai said her dream for Karura was not to see skyscrapers but

“Being a diplomat my husband gets to be posted in different countries on foreign missions. We are also lucky as ours is a wonderful life. Being the wife of a diplomat has its thrills as I get to meet interesting people.

rather a forestry education centre. We took that up and we recently launched the Karura Forest Education Environmental Trust,” says she. With all these things she works on, it is unbelievable that she has time to be a mother. “I am a mother and a wife before anything else. I admit there were days I wanted to give up on Karura as it was easier to be a mother and a wife but the people we are working together with on this project remind me of the great work we are doing.” We decide to take a drive and see the tantalising views of the forest. We get to the lake and as we head there she tells me of why she loves this place and why by far Karura is her best project yet. “I wanted to give up and just go home to what I was used to but at that moment, a million butterflies took up into the air with a light shining through and I promise you I was surrounded by these things and there (at the butterfly lake)and then I felt God’s presence in the forest. It was a message that I couldn’t ignore.” Her spirits leap higher. “I’m happy about what I’m doing and I enjoy being in Karura.” There is a love valley that people can use for thrills or weddings. There are also caves where the Mau Mau used to hide, a small lake and cool picnic and camping sites. The forest has been transformed thanks to the team working on restoring the face of Karura. “The future is bright and clear. I hope people can begin to see Karura as safe and visit in large numbers. This could be the city’s central park and the number one family destination you know. My children enjoy the forest so much. And she has a message for those who have never ventured to Karura. “Please visit the Karura forest and make it your own. Because then and only then will you protect it and love it.” 

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•PICTORIAL Lights•Camera•Action

1. HEAR ME: Ambassador Nana Effah-Apenteng, French

ambassador Etienne de Poncins and PM's advisor Salim Lone during the Canadian National day 2. PLEASED: Emmerence Ntahonkuriye, ambassador Burundi with Kosit Chatpiaboon ambassador Royal Thai Embassy during the Rwandese Liberation Day 3. PONDER THIS: Deputy Slovak ambassador Jozeph Bandzuk with Ukraine ambasador Volodymyr Butiaha during the Canadian National Day 4. CELEBRATE: Hon Joseph Nyagah with Rwanda High commissioner George William Kayonga during the Rwandese Liberation Day 5. KNOW WHAT?: British high commissioner Rob Macaire with KNHCR commissioner Hassan Omar 6. MHHHHH...: Indian High commissioner Sibabrata Tripathi with the outgoing Pakistani high commissioner ambassador Masroor Junejoduring the French Bastile day

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•PICTORIAL

Lights•Camera•Action

7. JUBILANT: Somalia ambassador Mohamed Ali Nur, covered with their National flag

during their 57th national day

8. HAPPY: Jubilant South Sudanese nationals celebrate during the flag raising ceremony

of the new state at their embassy in Kenya

9.LISTEN TO ME: Jonathan Scott Gration, new US ambassador to Kenya, during the

235th US Independence day

10. SERIOUS BUSINESS: Russian Head of Mission Alexander Makazenko with his

outgoing deputy Alexy Saltykov during the 235th US Independence day

11. PLEASED TO MEET YOU: Ambassador Dr Octav-Dan Paxino of Romania with Dwight

Sagaray Covauit first secretary embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

12. WE CAME, WE SAW: Excellencies (from left) Jaad Maandi (Algeria), Ghorm Said Malhan

(Saudi Arabia) and Jamil Ahmad (UNEP) during the Venezuela National Day

August 2011

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•DNA

Diplomacy•News•Analysis

SECOND VISIT

German Chancellor’s Trade Mission to Africa The three - nation tour was focussed on intensifying economic co-operation and investment, as DEA’s JANE MWANGI reports

T

he state visit to Kenya by German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, sought to primarily heighten bilateral ties between the two nations. More significantly, the visit was seen as an entry point towards enhancing expanded market access to Germany for its agriculture produce, seeing that the European nation accounts for 8 per cent of Kenya’s exports, making it the country’s fourth most important trading partner. In addition was the opportunity for exchanging cooperation in governance and justice, private sector development, energy, infrastructure, urban water supply and sanitation as well as reproductive health. Thisbeingherfirstvisittothecountry as Chancellor, she previously visited as the then Germany’s minister for the Environment, Merkel held separate meetings with President Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga. She said German investors were keenly watching the country’s politics and added that their investments will only go to a stable and secure country. “We are, however, happy that the new Constitution has offered Kenya a good opportunity for attracting more investments and we are also happy to note that its implementation is on track,” she said. The Chancellor, together with Odinga, witnessed the signing of two agreements for the establishment of a delegation of

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German Industry and Commerce and another for the support of research activities at the International Livestock Research Institute. Investments by German companies in Kenya have increased significantly in recent years and the visit was a major lift aimed at increasing and encouraging future connections. The push for intensifying economic co-operation and investments between Kenya and Germany was generated in 1996 when the two states signed a treaty on the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investments which came into force four years later. In September 2010, Germany committed to provide Kenya with 138 million euros for the period 20102013. According to the Kenya Economic Survey 2011, Kenya’s exports to Germany rose from Sh 7.4 billion (82.9 million U.S. dollars) in 2009 to Sh 7.8 billion (87.5 million dollars) in 2010 while Germany exports to Kenya rose from Sh 23 billion (257 million dollars) in 2009 to Sh 26.8 billion (298 million dollars) in 2010. Germany’s principal exports to Kenya are solar and wind technology, machinery, motor vehicles and chemical products while Kenya’s main exports to Germany are coffee, tea,cut flowers and vegetables. The Chancellor’s visit is seen as significant especially at a time when

According to the Kenya Economic Survey 2011, Kenya’s exports to Germany rose

from Sh 7.4 billion (82.9 million U.S. dollars) in 2009 to Sh 7.8 billion (87.5 million dollars) in 2010

Kenya is sourcing for international partnerstofinancehighcostinvestments ifitistoachievetheambitiousVision2030, tobecomeamiddleincomecountryby that year.In line with this, the country planstoissueaSh45billion(500million U.S.dollars)Eurobondinthefirstquarter ofnextyearbuthasappliedforsovereign ratingbyratingagenciesStandard,Poor’s andFitch.Investorconfidenceisamajor impetustoimprovingKenya’simageas this will attract key trade partners. On her second mission on the continent, Merkel headed to Angola wheresheannouncedthatGermanywas preparedtosellitsixtoeightpatrolboats as part of an international cooperation deal.” Germany is ready for an energy andrawmaterialspartnership,”shesaid during a visit to the oil-rich country. As a barter trade agreement, she suggested that the patrol boats could protect Angola’s borders, the security of which is essential for regional stability. In addition, Angola stands to gain from help in the nation’s infrastructure projects, development in agriculture and education. According to the Angolan Investment Agency, trade between Germany and Angola currently stands at around 400 million euros (Sh 50.9 billion). In her bid to boost her country’s economic ties with Angola, Merkel expressed Germany’s intention to build its presence in Angola in infrastructure and construction. Numerous reconstruction projects are in the pipeline. “Angola still faces major development challenges, in education and professional training, as well as in reconstruction and development. Germany is ready to help,” she emphasised citing that Germany is a fair and decent partner concerned with the development of Angola. In the final stop of her African tour, the Chancellor’s next agenda was a meeting with Nigeria’s President, Goodluck Jonathan.


•ECONOMY

Investment•Technology•Prosperity

WIND BENEATH THE WINGS

PHOTO BY: YAHYA MOHAMED

The Rise, fall and Rise of an Iconic Kenyan brand

JONATHAN CIANO

On May 31, 2006, on the eve of Madaraka Day, Uchumi Supermarkets Limited, was placed under receivership and tossed out of the Nairobi Stock Exchange. On May 31, 2011, again on Madaraka eve, the retail chain, thanks to turnaround artist JONATHAN CIANO, was re-listed on the NSE. DIPLOMAT EAST AFRICA’S KWENDO OPANGA interviewed him on the turnaround with photographer YAHYA MOHAMED captured the event on film. Following are excerpts

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Investment•Technology•Prosperity

H

e holds a PhD, but when DEA refers to him as Dr and inquires about the doctorate, he replies that what is important is what Jonathan – that is his first name – does. With his doctorate? Most likely. He is different; he is not the kind who will insist you address them as Dr because they earned their doctorates. He immediately delves into the issue at hand. The way he puts it; the way he explains it; the ease and confidence with which he does it, tell you he is not boasting; he is just telling it as it is: “Uchumi was listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) in 1992 and to this day it remains the only listed retail supermarket in the eastern Africa region. Listing means being owned publicly by the common investor, by the common Kenyan, by the common buyer.” Now not every firm gets listed and there are good reasons for that. Ciano bats for Uchumi, without appearing to do so: “This means there are certain rules and regulations under the Capital Markets Authority that a listed company should meet. That means when you come to corporate governance or even transparency within the industry, not a single rival would beat us because they do not have a certificate. We do.” Are you referring to an actual document, Diplomat East Africa inquires: “That certificate,” comes the answer, “is actually being listed on the stock exchange. We are monitored by the Capital Markets Authority (CMA) and the NSE. A listed company must submit its returns to the CMA and the NSE in addition to meeting every other regulatory requirement.” What has re-listing done for staff and shareholders? Diplomat East Africa asks. “For the staff they have the confidence and accomplishment. When we re-opened we said

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our ultimate objective is to take the company back to the NSE and therefore give it back to the shareholders. They worked for it and they are very, very, proud. They are also permanent and pensionable now where previously they worked under contracts. “Shareholders have regained their company which they had lost. They have their own board and I am their servant. Second, they have realised their shareholding value. They had a paper but now they have a value. As we move into the future these shares are going to attract dividends. “Suppliers have gained a lot. The company that had cast them aside because it was in receivership has legitimatelycomebackintotheplaying field and they are not credit-worthy. Second, they are co-owners of the companybecausetheyweregivenshares. Andnonehaslostacent;nomoneywas lost in the Uchumi turnaround.” And then he puts the boot in. He says if he was told my competitor is going public “I would feel very happy, but they cannot. They will not manage; it is a big hurdle; it is like a rite of passage. It took us one year to get re-listed yet we were already compliant. What do you expect of those who have never done it?” Next, Ciano unveils Uchumi’s regional plan. “We are already in Uganda and are opening another store in Kampala latest this month (August) before opening up in Gulu in North Uganda; we opened a store in Dar-es-salaam in Tanzania in July.” But this is part of a bigger plan, what Ciano calls his personal dream. And what is it?“That Uchumi becomes an East African company; owned and operated by East Africans.” Aware this might not go down well with some Kenyans he is quick to add that he hopes “our people” will take it. This means that Ciano’s regional vision is to deliver Uchumi to individuals throughout East Africa in terms of ownership and shopping

needs. “We passionately feel we can do it.” However, he will not put a timeline to this because cross-listing is a long process that will involve decisions by the board and the regulatory authorities of the East African countries. The difference between Uchumi and rivals firmly established: Ciano does a reality check for something happened that brutally reminded Uchumi and corporate Kenya as a whole that a company is judged by its performance. From 1992 to 2001, he says, the company was doing well. But from 2001 to 2005 the organisation went through performance turmoil. The performance was negative; the strategies they had at that time never saw the light of day. Therefore, on May 31, 2006, the company was placed in receivership. The man has an important message here about the significance of this date. “That was on the eve of Madaraka Day June 1, the day Kenya gained internal self-government.” Something had to be done and done urgently because Uchumi is an iconic Kenyan brand. Therefore, says Ciano, the shareholders, the suppliers, the common Kenyan people approached the government and asked it to facilitate the reorganisation, the re-opening actually, of the company. Ciano talks about himself, but fleetingly. Says he: “I was appointed on July 7, 2006 and within seven days – July 14 - we managed to re-open our branches, a process that went on until February 9, 2007. This is when the journey for the turnaround of Uchumi started.” Now you can detect a slight hint of excitement. You will miss it if you are not looking for it. In June 2008, Ciano says, “the company turned a profit of Sh95 million; in 2009, the company reported a profit of Sh420 million; in 2010 we recorded a profit of Sh865 million. We are waiting to close this June that has just ended, but we are


•ECONOMY

Investment•Technology•Prosperity

upbeat we will operate probably better than 2010.” When Diplomat East Africa suggests that Uchumi may realise a Sh1 billion profit in 2011, Ciano, either seeks to manage expectations or to prepare shareholders and the markets for a surprise with his answer. “No, I don’t want to speculate about the numbers.” And with that we move onto a different theme. “Yes, we managed to come back and in May, 2011, actually on May 31, on Madaraka Day eve, His Excellency the President rang the bell for the re-entry of the organisation back to the Nairobi Stock Exchange. “The President said one of the things he would want to give as a Madaraka gift to the people of Kenya was the re-listing of Uchumi. “From here we went back to our shareholders who are about 19,000 who had temporarily lost their wealth but now have it back and are enjoying it.” When asked if there are any lessons learnt, Ciano uses the opportunity to let Diplomat East Africa in on his management style on coming in as a receiver, usually the last nail into the coffin of a troubled Kenyan concern. “I was not here before my appointmentsotherearenolessons learnt. I never opened the books of the previous management; I never opened their drawers even. I do not need to because we re-invented the company.’’ He says that when his team reopened Uchumi they decided they would refocus the core purpose of the company. They re-strategised and re-focused Uchumi, except for its name, as a new organisation. “I had new employees; I had a new core purpose that was defined and we defined all our strategies. This is not my first turnaround or anything like that, but among the things that I would say is nice to

pick are one, there is no turnaround that can succeed without the employees and their buy in. “Number two, there must be a plan or vision regarding where the company is headed. You cannot just walk in and start selling unga (flour); you may realise that people want unga and samaki (fish). You have to know why you are opening the store. “The third one is to define the people who matter for the survival of the organisation. In strategy these are called stakeholders. If you do not have stakeholders, you might as well say, well I have lost it. “Then of course finally you must ensure that the rumba or ndombolo whichever, (dance) does not take too long. People also get tired. Of course, all the way you must go on measuring what you are doing.” With that it is clear that Ciano has a sense of humour, but he quickly moves on. He says Uchumi is still moving on and then remembers a fundamental point: “Lastly, a quality journey does not have an end; there is no finishing line. Yes, we went back to the Stock Exchange, do we now go home? No way. The quality journey

When Diplomat East Africa suggests that Uchumi may realise a Sh1 billion profit in 2011, Ciano,

either seeks to manage expectations or to prepare shareholders and the markets for a surprise with his answer

keeps moving.” When a tray with cups and flasks is wheeled in, Ciano asks what we will have. When I say black coffee, he says, “give him black coffee, huyu si mkulima! (he is not a farmer!)” And it is his turn to interview Diplomat East Africa: What else would you like to know? he asks. When DEA replies, “expansion”, he is quick to reply: “No, no, we don’t expand; we grow.” But before he goes on, there is something about God. God, Ciano says, gives you the height and you manage your expansion. Uchumi aims to grow and seeks “God’s wisdom and blessing and we shall grow.” Growth for Uchumi or for Ciano is explained in an interesting way and surprisingly without concern for or about what the competition is doing. He is emphatic that Uchumi is not competing with anybody. That needs to be explained and he obliges: “We are meeting the needs, chasing the needs, of the customer, not the speed of the competition. We want to be where the customer is. The customer is Number 1, not the competitor; the competitor is Number 2. “That may sound like playing around with words, but that is what is in our hearts. We are not going to Kisumu because a competitor is coming, but because we have diehard customers in Kisumu. Our growth is driven by customer numbers and customer needs. That is our core purpose.” Now this goes to the core of the Uchumi philosophy because Ciano says that the supermarket chain will go where customers are and not because of profit but because it wants to be a developer of Kenya’s economy and of Kenyan people. In a word, he says, Uchumi will go wherever there is uchumi (economic activity)

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•ECONOMY

Investment•Technology•Prosperity

CONCRETE PILLARS

Cement Wars Reach New Dizzy Heights High competition, aggressive marketing campaigns and price cuts have seen the price of cement plummet by 10 percent over the last one year. And the war has just begun By RABURA KAMAU

K

enya, with a projected economic growth of about 5percentthisyear,andwith ambitious infrastructural developments targeted at achieving Vision 2030, is experiencing an unprecedented construction boom in the building sector. The frenzied activity is slowly changing the face of one crucial economic sector; the cement industry. The steadily rising middle class and the increasing population of Kenyans in the diaspora has lately given rise to the development of numerous gated cities across the country, a new phenomenon that is stretching the demand for cement to newer limits. SouthSudan,anewly independent neighbouring country awash with oil money and having to start rebuilding from scratch after years of devastating war, has also pushed the demand for cement to new levels. Andwithnocementmakers,Kenyan manufacturers have started making inroadsintothecountryhopingtocuta sizeable market share. Whenever great business opportunities arise, many players are involved. With this comes tough competitionthatheraldsintroductionof newproducts,pricewars,expansioninto newterritories,newacquisitions,mergers andrestructuring,allaimedatcreatinga competitive edge over rivals.

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According to President Mwai Kibaki, in a speech he read while opening the National Cement Company at Lukenya, Athi River in June, cement consumption in Kenya grew by 16 percent to 3.1 million tonnes in 2010 compared to 2.7 million tonnes in 2009. The Kenya Bureau of Statistics (KBS) indicates that the first quarter of 2011 saw the construction industry grow at 10.7 per cent, the highest growth in all the indicative sectors at a time the economy expanded at 4.9 per cent. National Cement Company (NCC), whose brand National, is one of the new entrants into the market that has hitherto been the domain

of three dominant players; Athi River Mining Company (ARM), East Africa Portland Cement (EAPC) and Bamburi Cement Factory. ARM, EAPC and Bamburi have Rhino, Nguvu and Blue Triangle as their local brands respectively. Currently, Bamburi controls a 49 per cent of Kenyan market share followed by EAPC at 29 per cent. ARM comes third with about 12 per cent. Another expected new entrant will be the Pokot Cement Factory, to be put up by India’s Cemtech Limited at Ortum, West Pokot County at a cost of Ksh 12 Billion. Tororo Cement, the dominant player in Uganda that controls 65 per cent of that market entered Kenya in


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Investment•Technology•Prosperity

2009, trading as Mombasa Cement with a production capacity of 0.8 metric tonnes per year. The company is eyeing a 10 per cent market share in Kenya, therefore putting more pressure on the three. And this heralds the era of cement wars in Kenya. High competition, aggressive marketing campaigns and price cuts have seen the price of cement coming down “by ten per cent” according to Kibaki, over the last one year. A report that appeared in a section of the local press indicates that competition from the new entrants and imports has eaten considerably into the market share of Bamburi, ARM and EAPCC to an extent that the East African Cement Producers Association (EACP) for which the three are members is now calling for import tariff on building material, notably cement to be increased to 35 percent, or $50 per metric ton, whichever is higher, to protect the industry from cheap supplies coming from China, India and Pakistan. According to EACP, an agreement among East African governments in 2008 to reduce the tariff from 40 per cent to 25 percent, just before the global economic meltdown led to increased cheap imports into the region that has greatly hurt the local manufacturing sector. However, apart from the increased competition and falling prices, the cement manufacturers have to contend with one of their biggest headaches – cost of power. Being among the most known powerintensiveindustries,thehighcost of power locally has continued to be a majorfactorthatisseriouslyeatinginto theprofitabilityofthemanufacturers.This iscompoundedbytheplannedrationing of power due to demand outstripping supplyinKenyainthecomingmonths. All this only exacerbates an already serious situation. To stay afloat, this calls for product diversification, innovations and search for new markets. Perhaps, in

a move to mitigate rocketing power costs, and to reduce production costs, Pokot Cement Factory is planning to put up a 64 Mw power plant of which 50 Mw will be sold to the national power grid. A statement released by Cemtech indicates that the company has already signed a 25 year power sale agreement with the Ministry of Energy. Expansion into new markets is a strategy that Bamburi Cement, a member of the Lafarge group of France embarked on by acquiring Hima Cement Uganda Ltd in 1999, that has a production capacity of 850,000 tons per year. Not to be left behind, Athi River Mining has established Maweni Limestone Cement Company in Tanga, Tanzania. The US $120 million project was commissioned in October 2010 and is set to be the largest single cement plant in EAC with production capacity of 1.5 million tones annually. ARM hopes to use the Maweni subsidiary to make forays both into EAC and SADC regions for which Tanzania is a member while its plant in Kenya will take care of South Sudan and COMESA regions. However, as ARM and Bamburi Cement move to consolidate their hold of the regional market, EAPCC has not shown any indications of following suit. The only notable operation by the firm outside Kenya is a sales depot in Mbale, Uganda. With the above activities taking place among cement manufacturers, the ‘cement wars’ in Kenya and the region seem to not only having started but are intensifying by the day. It is definitely a war, not for the weak and faint hearted, but for those with financial muscle, aggressive marketing abilities and lobbying charisma to withstand the assault in the market. Only time will tell who will be left standing. And smiling all the way to the bank!

CHLORIDE EXIDE INSTALLS A 30 MILLION SHILLING SOLAR SYSTEM AT OLARRO Chloride Exide (Kenya) Limited, the largest battery, solar and back-up systems supplier in East Africa, has installed a 30 million shilling system at Olarro lodge. Owned by Vittoria Limited, the lodge is located in a game conservancy 200 kilometres from Nairobi and is a one and half hour drive from the Keekorok gate of the Masai Mara Reserve. Explaining the system, Sammy Waite, the Technical Manager at Chloride Exide, said, “The set up at Olarro consists of an array of 16 kilowatt solar panels which charge a 3000 AH battery bank. This energy is then converted to power through a set of inverters that have a capacity of 27 kilowatts which supply electricity for all the requirements of the lodge.” “When there is a power, deficit, a standby generator automatically kicks in and charges the batteries while running the loads. Other solar systems operating at the lodge include a swimming pool pump, a water heating system and a 4.9 kilowatt system for pumping approximately 25,000 litres of water daily to the lodge.” After receiving the manual for the solar system, Sunil Wason, the Workshop, Technical and Services Manager of Olarro, said, “We are grateful to Chloride Exide for designing and supplying the solar system at the lodge. Using state-of-the art wind and solar power technology are part of our ongoing efforts to go completely green.” “This means reducing pollution, conserving natural resources and energy, reducing consumption and waste and protecting the earth’s ecological balance. Olarro runs on these five eco-friendly principles not only in design but in its use of resources.” Chloride Exide Limited was first established in Kenya in 1963 as part of the Chloride Group in the United Kingdom to retail and distribute batteries. The Company’s batteries are now manufactured by their sister company, Associated Battery Manufacturers (East Africa) Limited, based in Nairobi’s Industrial Area. The Company’s range of products include lead acid automotive batteries, deep cycle batteries, solar panels and related accessories, solar water heating and inverter power back-up systems. Customers benefit from service contracts for solar and back-ups and solar water heating systems countrywide. Chloride Exide is represented in Kenya (12 branches), Tanzania (3 branches), Uganda (1 branch each).

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•ECONOMY

Investment•Technology•Prosperity

TAKE-OFF

Jomo Kenyatta Airport’s Runway to Success Some six million passengers now use the facility yearly, up from two million at its inauguration 33 years ago amid a face lift including the “Greenfield Terminal” with 50 international and 10 domestic check-in counters By RABURA KAMAU

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hen Kenya’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) was opened in 1978 with an annual handling capacity of 2.5 million passengers a year, it must have been one of the largest such facilities in the region. However, considering that Kenya is a regional economic hub with many local, regional and international airlines operating at JKIA, the number of passengers passing through the airport annually has taken off drastically to 6.2 million in 2010. With the country marketing itself aggressively as a tourist destination of choice and with the ever increasing flights by international carriers in and out of the airport, the management has embarked on a large scale expansion in line with Vision 2030, which aims at making Kenya a middle class country by 2030 and has recognised the aviation industry as one of the key drivers. One facet is an ultra-modern Terminal 4 to be known as the “Greenfield Terminal”, and will have 50 international and 10 domestic check-in counters. It will also be ‘environmentally sustainable and certified by the World Green Building Council’, according to the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) chairman, Martin Wambora. The expansion works at the airport started in 2006 with the launch

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of Phase 1 of a project that will be implemented in four phases. With the completion of this phase in 2010 at a cost of Kshs. 2.6 billion, the airport now boasts of an added capacity for aircraft parking areas from the original 200,000 to 300,000 square meters. The parking bays have also increased from 23 to 43. It is at phase II that the construction of Terminal 4 will be commenced to incorporate seven new air bridges, a multi-storeycarparkwithacapacityfor 1,500parkingslots.Itwillcreate400new surfaceparkingbays,therebyenhancing capacity to 1,900 slots at a cost of Kshs 8.5billion.Anadditionalfloorwillbebuilt above the Unit 3 building to separate departingandarrivingpassengerswith extensiveupgradingofexistingterminal, electrical and mechanical systems. There will also be specialised installations for boarding bridges, baggage handling systems, Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE), Common Use Self Services (CUSS), CCTV surveillance system and a facilities management system. The last phase will comprise rehabilitation of all pavements, upgrading of the Instrument Landing System from Cat I to II and additional taxiways to improve on runway capacity. This shall be at a cost of about kshs 4.3 billion. KAA plans to enter into a publicprivate partnership aimed at facilitating financing. Already, the European Investment Bank (EIB)

availed Kshs 480 million in 2010 through the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund for technical and project management while promising a further grant of Kshs 480 million towards a support program to minimise disruption during the upgrading and rehabilitation. These efforts have not gone unnoticed. In June this year, the airport was voted the “Best Airport in Africa” and “Best Cargo Airport”, in the Emerging Market category in a colourful ceremony in Dubai, UAE.   The results, audited by the prestigious accountancy firm, Frost & Sullivan, awarded JKIA for meeting airport servicequalityperformanceindicators as set by the organisers in the delivery of a wide range of products to both passengers and cargo airport service.  JKIA has now become the biggest cargo Airport in Africa with an annual cargoturnoverof300millionkilograms that puts it way ahead of international airports in Johannesburg and Cairo. In order to remain on top, KAA signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) in May this year with Korea Airports Corporation (KAC), aimed at enhancing collaboration between the two parties in the fields of airport operations, training, development of closer relations, development of industry professionalism and enhancement of international trade

Vision 2030 aims at making Kenya a middle class country by 2030 and has

recognised the aviation industry as one of the key drivers towards this


•EDUCATION Pursuit of Excellence

DIDACTIC INTEGRATION

Uniquely and Friendly Learning Experience

The Netherlands School Society is a Dutch language-based school with unique facets geared towards producing ‘world citizens’, as DEA’s JANE MWANGI found out.

PHOTOS BY: DUTCH SCHOOL

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airobi has, in recent years, grown into an internationally acclaimed educational hub with the mushrooming of schools that cater for different classes and nationalities. Forinternationalstaffanddiplomats postedtoNairobi,itisanidealplacewhere allfeelsrightandfamiliar.Becausethey need not look further for the comforts and amenitiestheyareaccustomedto, including the all-important learning facilities. International schools based in the Kenyan capital generally offer British and American syllabi. However, there are several schools maintained by foreign communities with curricula in their native languages.These include the Dutch, Swedish, French, Japanese, German, Danish, and Norwegian schools. They enable one to develop a sense of their own nationality and culture at the same time as developing a profound respect for the nationalities and cultures of others. The Netherlands School Society, also referred to as the Dutch school, is a fine example. We discovered some unique aspects in this small school community. Founded in 1971, the school is recognised by the stichting Nederlands Onderwijs Buitenland (Stichting NOB) in the

Netherlands and shares a compound with the Swedish School; a factor that involves sharing facilities such as the swimming pool, tennis court, soccer field, playground, restaurant and even library. The two schools have their own unique program run and work together in the wide choice of after school activities such as ballet, cooking, arts and crafts, swimming, tae-kwon-do and acrobatics. The

school uses the International Primary Curriculum (IPC), which provides a cross-curricular, thematic, rigorous teaching structure designed to engage children of all abilities in today’s world. The IPC is used by close to 600 schools in over 50 different countries. It is lauded for its ability in allowing teachers to spend more time developing creative, personalised

August 2011

WORLD CITIZENS:

Pupils and a teacher at The Dutch school

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•EDUCATION

Pursuit of Excellence

learning for their students, which teacher Agnes Van’t Hoff put into perspective. “The most unique aspect about our education system is that the students are ‘World citizens’ with emphasis on international relations. We work with themes presented in five units during the year. By offering themed education there is an opportunity for a child’s own ideas therefore making learning fun and the kids enjoy coming to school.” Interestingly, in the IPC system, the children start to read and write only after they reach the age of six. “Before this age we engage them in playtime and the relational aspect that involves interacting with other children, hence cultivating their social skills.” The school strives for optimal education for the children in a pleasant, international environment where they see every child as unique. The Dutch language is the basis, but English is also a significant part of the education at the school. Therefore a pre-requisite for enrolment is that one of the parents has to be of Dutch origin. It is small wonder then that the school has become a melting pot of cultures, with most students being part Dutch and part Chilean, French, German, Croatian, and Indonesian etc. This, according to Agnes, opens up the students to a broad worldview and an appreciation of the different cultures and races. Board member and a parent at the school, Marilou deWit chips in adding that some parents like herself have chosen an education in the Dutch language and culture for their child, in order to keep an emotional and cultural bond with the Netherlands. “Since we have a small population of 80 students, what I like most is that my children know all the other children’s names in their classroom.” She is highly involved in activities in and around the school. “The parents are an integral part of the school community - On Mondays

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we have volunteer parents who come and read together with their children in the library and the school is normally open for the parents on weekends to use the social amenities such as the pool and the tennis court. And on Sundays you normally find a football tournament between the Swedish and Dutch parents, it’s usually a lot of fun,” says Marilou. Having celebrated its 40th anniversary last year with a grand party themed 70’s, the school has positioned itself as a centre of Dutch language and culture. Ironically, whenever the Netherlands is mentioned, the first thing that comes to mind is the Hague based International Criminal Court but by and large, it’s internationally oriented ‘brain friendly’ education program is gaining recognition and for all the right reasons

FUN GALORE:

Children at play


•GREEN AGENDA Planet Earth

NEW LEAF

The Quest for Low Carbon end Equitable Development

The Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) assesses the potential contribution of renewable energy sources to climate change mitigation By JANE MWANGI

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Global team of technological experts and scientists broke new ground in a report that outlines significant future role in cutting greenhouse gas emissions and powering sustainable development. The findings, by over 120 researchers working with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), reveal that close to 80 per cent of the world‘s energy supply could be met by renewables by mid-century if backed

by the right enabling public policies. The report was launched in Abu Dhabi on May 9 2011. IPCC is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). Over 160 scenarios on the potential of six renewable energy technologies were put under the microscope illuminating the viewpoint that the rising penetration of renewable energies

AIR POLLUTION:

A smokey car in a file picture: Laws needed to guard against this

could lead to cumulative greenhouse gas savings equivalent to 220 to 560 Gigatonnes of carbon dioxide between 2010 and 2050.This could contribute towards a goal of holding the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius – an aim recognised in the United Nations Climate Convention’s Cancun Agreements.The six renewable energy technologies reviewed are: Bioenergy, Direct solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydropower, Ocean energy and Wind energy. IPCC Chairman, Rajendra Pachauri said that the IPCC brought together the most relevant and best available information to provide the world with this scientific assessment of the potential of renewable energy sources to mitigate climate change. The Special Report can serve as a sound knowledge basis for policymakers to take on this major challenge of the 21stcentury. The report will feed into the broader work of the IPCC as it prepares its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The AR5 Synthesis Report is scheduled for finalisation in September 2014. Speaking during the launch of the report one of the top researchers, Professor Ottmar Edenhofer, argues that with consistent climate and energy policy support, renewable energy sources can contribute substantially to human well-being by sustainably supplying energy and stabilising the climate. However, the substantial increase of renewables is technically and politically very challenging, he added. PUBLIC POLICY

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•GREEN AGENDA Planet Earth

Ontheotherhand,YoubaSokonawas of the opinion that the potential role of renewableenergytechnologiesinmeetingtheneedsofthepoorandinpowering thesustainablegrowthofdevelopingand developedeconomiescantriggersharply polarisedviews.RamonPichs,statedthat indeed the report shows that it is not the availabilityoftheresource,butthepublic policiesthatwilleitherexpandorconstrain renewableenergydevelopmentoverthe coming decades. Developing countries have an important stake in this future— thisiswheremostofthe1.4billionpeople without access to electricity live yet also where some of the best conditions exist for renewable energy deployment. The researchers have also studied the challenges linked to how renewable energy can be integrated into existing and future energy systems including electricity grids and likely cost benefits from these developments. Though in some cases renewable energy technologies are already economically competitive, the production costs are currently often higher than market energy prices. However, if environmental impacts such as emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases were monetised and included in energy prices, more renewable energy technologies may become economically attractive. The researchers also revealed that of the around 300 Gigawatts (GW) of new electricity generating capacity added globallybetween2008and2009,140GW came from renewable energy. Despite globalfinancialchallenges,renewableenergycapacitygrewin2009—windbyover 30percent;hydropowerbythreepercent; grid-connectedphotovoltaicsbyover50 percent; geothermal by 4 per cent; solar water/heating by over 20 per cent and ethanolandbiodieselproductionroseby 10 percent and 9 percent respectively. Interestingly,developingcountrieshost more than 50 per cent of current global renewable energy capacity. Most of the reviewedscenariosestimatethatrenewableswillcontributemoretoalowcarbon energysupplyby2050thannuclearpowerorfossilfuelsusingcarboncaptureand storage(CCS).Thetechnicalpotentialof renewableenergytechnologiesexceeds the current global energy demand by a

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considerableamount—globallyandinrespectofmostregionsoftheworld.Under thescenariosanalysedin-depth,lessthan 2.5percentofthegloballyavailabletechnicalpotentialforrenewablesisused—in otherwordsover97percentisuntapped underliningthatavailabilityofrenewable source will not be a limiting factor. According to the four scenarios analysedindetail,thedecadalglobalinvestments in the renewable power sector range from 1,360 to 5,100 billion US dollars to 2020 and 1,490 to 7,180 billion US dollars for the decade 2021 to 2030. For the lower values, the average yearly investmentsaresmallerthantherenewablepowersectorinvestmentsreported for 2009. The renewable energy technologies have vast potential. For instance, Bioenergy technologies can generate electricity, heat and fuels from a range of feedstocks. Direct Solar Energy technologies include photovoltaics and concentrating solar power (CSP). They can produce electricity, heat and light. Currently, direct solar contributes only a fraction of one percent to total global energy supply. Geothermal Energy utilises heat stored in the Earth‘s interior directly or to generate electricity, with currently about 0.7 Exajoule per year. By 2050, geothermal deployment could meet more than 3 percent of global electricity demand and about 5 percent of the global heat demand. Hydropower projects encompass dam projects with reservoirs, run-ofriver and in-stream projects and range from small to large scale. The installed capacity by the end of 2008 contributed 16 percent of worldwide electricity supply, making hydropower the largest renewable energy source in the electricity sector. Ocean Energy technologies are diverse and use the kinetic, thermal, and chemical energy of seawater. Most are at the demonstration and pilot project phases. Due to its nascent stage of development, they are unlikely to significantly contribute to global energy supply before 2020. The wind power capacity installed by the end of 2009 met close to two percent of worldwide electricity demand 

TOWARDS RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR AFRICA Access to cleaner, more affordable energy for their people is a current priority for many African Nations. 70 participants from 13 African Nations – policy makers as well as representatives from business and civil society – discussed the topic of renewable energy on an international conference from 30th June to 1st July in the Nigerian Capital Abuja. In sessions on policy, technology, project development, finance and African leapfrogging participants exchanged experiences in best practices as well as best policies. The conference was arranged by the African Renewable Energy Alliance (AREA). The “Power Kick for Africa 2011” conference shed a spotlight on the linkage of energy and gender. Hon. Ms. Elizabeth Thabethe, Deputy Minister, Department of Trade and Industry, Republic of South Africa, said: “A change in energy production paradigm is necessary, and women should be at the forefront of the energy revolution. Women of the continent should be champions of this new energy production paradigm that promotes the utilization of clean energy sources.” Few African women have access to electricity. In Nigeria about 70 percent of households in both semi-urban and urban areas are using firewood as a primary cooking fuel. Currently, cooking with firewood causes about two million deaths each year around the globe, with approximately 400.000 in Africa. Gender as a main determinant that defines access, ways of utilization, opportunities and control over all energy resources was also a highlight at a ‘Solar-Powered Screening’ of the Women’s Football World Cup match between Germany and Nigeria on 30th June organized by the World Future Council together with Bosch Solar Energy and the Heinrich Böll Foundation Nigeria. The intention of the “Power Kick for Africa 2011” conference is to fill the gap between policy and best practice. “What exactly is needed in order to foster renewable energies in Africa? We want to identify concrete implementation possibilities for the participants,” says Ansgar Kiene, Director Africa Liaison Office of the World Future Council and conference organiser.


•GREEN AGENDA Planet Earth

NEW APPROACH

WWF and Lafarge Root for Energy-efficient Buildings By PAUL UDOTO

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WF and Lafarge, the world’s largest cement maker, have struck a deal to work together in reducing the company’s greenhouse gas emissions and to help build hundreds of energy-efficient buildings – targets that will help fight the effects of climate change. As part of its ongoing partnership with WWF, Lafarge committed to further reduce its net greenhouse gas emissions by 33 per cent per ton of cement below 1990 levels by 2020. This will be achieved by increasing the use of alternative fuels (such as biomass) and the efficiency of Lafarge’s plants. WWF is the world’s largest and one of the most respected independent conservation organisations, with over 5 million supporters and a global network active in over 100 countries. In an innovative approach to sustainability, the company also pledged to be part of the development of 500 sustainable buildings across the globe by 2015, and to advocate for ambitious national and global climate change policies. As part of its commitment, Lafarge will work with its customers, architects, engineering companies, designers and construction companies to develop new innovative technology platforms and new construction systems, which will be used in the energy efficient buildings. “Working with companies like Lafarge is an essential part of our efforts to address climate change,” said Bruce

Haase, Acting Head Climate and Business Engagement, WWF International. “By working with the corporations with the highest carbon footprint, you can have a significant and measurable impact. Lafarge will help advance our work to move the world to a low carbon society.” “The partnership and the new commitments will also enable us to reinforce our policy work,” Haase said. “One of the biggest policy challenge

we would like to engage Lafarge on, is moving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the European Union from the current 20 per cent target, to 30 per cent by 2020.” Lafarge and WWF have been working together for 10 years to reduce the company’s carbon footprint by improving its work practices and sustainability strategy. The company has been a member of WWF’s Climate Savers Programme since 2001 and has already exceeded previously set emissions reductions targets, leading to net emission reduction of 21.7 per cent per tonne of cement below 1990 levels in 2010. WWF’s mission is to stop the degradation of the earth’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the world’s biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption. “Lafarge is showing leadership by ensuring the targets cover all aspects of its work, from extraction to the construction of buildings, and including climate change policy”, Haase said. “In an industry that accounts for 6 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, this will have a measurable impact.” The two partners have been working together on a progressively wider array of issues, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions reduction and forest restoration, to biodiversity, sustainable construction, water footprint and persistent pollutants.

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•DEA HOTELS Lifestyle & Hospitality

NOVEL EXPERIENCE

Taste of Class and Distinctive Service

The Grand Royal Hotel is causing ripples in the hotel industry, from its unmistakably modish architectural design to the perfect décor and impeccable service By JANE MWANGI

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t the heart of Nairobi’s Eastleigh Business Centre, just 10 minutes from Jomo Kenyatta International Airport and a stone’s throw away from Nairobi city centre lies a sternbeautythatpresentsarefinedand tasteful image, removed from the noise of Eastlands. The Grand Royal Hotel combines upmarket gloss and 21st century architectural brilliance for that unforgettable hotel experience. The 164 rooms offer a magnificent, panoramic view of Nairobi City with the VIP rooms portraying that home

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away from home element for the many prominent travellers who patronise the hotel. The sheer variety of rooms catersforthewideassortmentofneeds. The rooms are all decked with modern facilities including electronic key card, Dstv,amini-barforallsortsofsoftdrinks, coffeemakingfacilities,internetaccess, air conditioner, safe and a hairdryer. A 24hrCCTVsurveillancesystemaccords the guests ample security assurance. Thehotelalsoprovidesin-houselaundry and24hrroomservice.Amosqueisalso located on the 9th floor.

RESTAURANT AND COFFEE SHOP

The cosmopolitan and welltravelled guests will no doubt appreciate an experience through the world class coffee shop at the summit. Not forgetting the restaurant decked on the first floor which provides sumptuous and satisfying meals. For the best breakfast in town, one can enjoy a freshly brewed cup of coffee at the Lobby Coffee shop and marvel at the breathtaking sundowner over Nairobi’s skyline with a refreshing drink at the health Club lounge on the 10th floor. Awaken your soul and free your mind on a cloud of tranquility with one of the various treatments. The natural lit and well-equipped stateof-the-art gym located on the 10th floor with a different set for the ladies and gents; boasts of treadmills and latest ergonomic machines allowing the guests to strengthen both their body and relax their mind in line with its maxim: No Business…But Fitness. Residents have free access to the gym.


•DEA HOTELS

Lifestyle & Hospitality

ALL PERFECT:

Excellence at a glance personalised service that meets the highest standards of hospitality. The efficient staff offer highly professional service required for any successful meeting. BUSINESS CENTRE The Business centre is open from 6am to 10pm. It is ideal for seminars, weddings and theme parties. The hotel’s efficient business centre team is specially trained to take care of all your business needs prior to your arrival. From getting a copy of the unique business presentation, to the important document that requires scanning or delivery to a business partner; you are totally assured of a well-organised meeting that is suited to your needs. The Hotel services also include airport to town valet services and vice-versa, in addition to the spacious car park, manned by heavy security. Whether it is a weekend, incentive meeting or summer holiday, allow the Grand Royal Hotel to tempt you in trying something new

PHOTOS BY: GRAND ROYAL

That is in addition to the unique face treatments and powerful anti-aging elements, combined with specialised face-lift massage techniques that help to create a fresh and youthful appearance. The hotel offers the perfect solution for both business and corporate conferences with stateof-the-art facilities. The Conference rooms can easily accommodate between 30 and 1,000 people, and are all fully air-conditioned. The three other conference rooms located on the 9th floor can be modified according to the client’s needs. The Hidaya Ballroom, located at the basement, adapts according to the unique customer needs providing the necessary expertise for the all-important business meetings, conferences, weddings or private occasions. The guests can enjoy and make use of the entire Ballroom or select a variety of spacious rooms to meet their desired needs. Grand Royal Hotel offers you a level of

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•GLOBAL STAGE Window on World

SHADOW OF DOUBT

Call to Probe US Government over Detainees’ Torture Human Rights Watch says claims by suspects in the war against terror underwent systematic acts of torture under a declared policy rather than under individual culpability of o icers concerned By PATRICK WACHIRA

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uman Rights Watch wants the administration of former US President George Bush investigated for human rights abuses, saying there is evidence of the same. The body believes there “is sufficient basis for the US government to order a broad criminal investigation into alleged crimes committed in connection

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with the torture and ill-treatment of detainees, the CIA secret detention programme and the rendition of detainees to torture.” It has been suggested in a lengthy report released last month that such investigations focus on alleged criminal conduct by Bush, former Vice President Dick Cheney, Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and CIA Director, George Tenet. Also cited for a possible probe is

the role played by former National Security Advisor, Condoleezza Rice, Attorney General John Ashcroft and the lawyers who “crafted the legal ‘justifications’ for torture”, including Alberto Gonzales (Counsel to the President and later AG), Jay Bybee (Head of Justice Department’s Office of the Legal Counsel), John Rizzo (Ag CIA general Counsel) and David Addington, Counsel to the VP. Others are William Haynes 11,


•GLOBAL STAGE Window on World

(department of Defence General Counsel) and John Yoo (Deputy Assistant AG, OLC). “Human Rights Watch believes there is strong evidence from the information made public over the last five years to not only suggest these officials authorised and oversaw widespread and serious violations of US and international law, but that they failed to act to stop mistreatment or punish those responsible after they became aware of serious abuses,” the 100-page report says. Theinvestigationandprosecution of those responsible, the report says, is crucial to the US’s global standing and needs to be undertaken if the US hopes to wipe away “the stain of Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo and reaffirm the primacy of the rule of law.” The road to the violations began, HRW says, within days of the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington DC when the Bush administration began crafting a new set of policies, procedures and practices for detainees captured in military and counter-terrorism operations outside the US. “Many of these violated the laws of war, international human rights law, and US federal criminal law” and included tactics that the US has repeatedly condemned as torture or ill-treatment when practiced by others.” Coercive interrogation practices that amounted to torture were used and detainees were held at undisclosed locations without notifying their families, access to the International Committee of the Red Cross or providing for oversight of their treatment. “Detainees were also unlawfully rendered (transferred) to Syria, Egypt and Jordan, where they were likely to be tortured. Indeed, many were, including Canadian national, Maher Arar who described repeated

beatings with cables and electrical cords,” says the report. “Evidence suggests that torture, in such cases, was not a regrettable consequence of rendition; it may have been the purpose.” DISREGARD

Detainees in Us-run facilities in Afghanistan, Iraq and Guantanamo Bay underwent, for weeks or even months, painful “stress” positions, prolonged nudity, sleep, food and water deprivation, exposure to extreme heat or cold, and total darkness with loud music blaring. Other abuses included mock executions, beatings, sexual abuse and near suffocation. The disregard for human rights in fighting terrorism diminished the moral standing of the US government and set a negative example for other governments. It also undermined US efforts to reduce anti-American militancy around the world, HRW says. The report describes the US’s record on criminal accountability as abysmal, saying in 2007 it collected information on some 350 cases of alleged abuse involving some 600 US personnel but few military personnel had been punished and not a single CIA operative had been fingered. “The highest ranking officer prosecuted for the abuse of prisoners was a Lt Col, Steve Jordan, court-martialed in 2006, but acquitted in 2007 for his role in the Abu Ghraib scandal.” The report says Barrack Obama, as a presidential candidate, had spoken of the need for a “thorough investigation” of detainee mistreatment, but said after election that there should be prosecutions “if somebody has blatantly broken the law”. However, he appeared to suggest otherwise when he expressed his “belief that we need to look forwards as opposed to looking backwards.”

India Independence Day – August 15th The Indian Independence day, celebrated on the fifteenth of August annually, commemorates the daywhen India attained its independence from the British rule in 1947.The day is a national holiday across the country and usually, it is marked with a lot of pomp and fanfare because it signifies the day when three hundred years of hard-trudging under the British tenet finally came to an end – and hence the birth of the biggest democracy in the world. On the occasion, all Government organisations, educational institutions and private organisations remain closed or have reduced operating hours. Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programs held in the state capitals are important parts of the celebrations. The national flag is distributed all over the country among citizens who proudly wear it as a symbol of patriotism. The national flag is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The navyblue wheel in the center of the white band represents the chakra. Learning institutions across the country mark the day with cultural activities, drills and parades. National landmarks of importance are illuminated on this day. Local radio and TV channels broadcast and play patriotic movies and songs.The people also fly kites on Independence Day – symbolising the country’s free spirit. A major highlight is the Prime Minister’s speech given in the Red Fort in Delhi – the same spot Jawaharlal Nerhu, India’s First Prime Minister hoisted the Indian tricolor in 1947 and read the famous freedom speech at the stroke of midnight. The PM cites various government achievements and also addresses important national issues. He also pays tribute to the country’s nationalists, the Indian Independence Movement. India’s struggle for independence spans about three centuries of the nation’s history books. Britons, at first under the pretext of being tradesmen and businessmen, slowly but surely started grabbing administration posts and colonizing territories and regions till the entire country came under their rule. The people didn’t like this and so there were quite a number of sporadic uprisings and protests against the British. However it was not until the year 1857 during the First Independence War, that the British Empire felt a bit shaken.

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•GLOBAL STAGE Window on World

SECOND THOUGHTS

Kenya's Image-Making in Washington: Is it Working?

Chlopak, Leonard and Schecter (CLS), a top-notch firm in US, raises controversy after the Kenya Government renews its contract for PR services, even as envoy, ELKANA ODEMBO, laments the unorthodox manner the deal by-passed the embassy By JOHN MULAA IN WASHINGTON DC having been kept in the dark until the signatures were about to be inserted on the dotted lines and then alerted only by way of information. Odembo raised objections and sought clarification from back home regarding the points he had flagged. He copied his concerned to the Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission and that certainly did not go down well in some quarters in Nairobi. CONCERNS

A

spat that has arisen over the extension of Kenyan government contracts worth approximately US$1.7 million with a Washington D.C., public relations firm, CLS ( Robert Chlopak, Charles Leonard and Peter Schecter) and a lobby firm, the Moffet Group, maybe a consequence of miscommunication and lack of trust more than anything else.

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Matters came to light when Kenya’s ambassador to the United States, Elkana Odembo, queried the rationale for the renewal of the contract (after the fact). Odembo publicly raised several question, in particular the contract’s justification and the manner in which it was to be executed. What appears to have stuck most in the ambassador’s craw is the opacity of the whole affair and his

Hon. Elkana Odembo: The Kenyan

Ambassador to the United States

In a brief conversation, the ambassador reiterated his concerns. They revolve around three issues: the country’s objective in retaining the firms; the firms’ capacities to execute assigned tasks relative to the Embassy; and the keeping of the embassy mostly in the dark about what the firms are up to. Again and gain the ambassador raised the basic point regarding the strategy’sobjectiveandwhetheritisan efficientapproach.“Ifthemainpurpose ofthecontracttoistohaveCLSengage inpublicadvocacyonbehalfofKenya, what is the role the Embassy’s 35 staff at the annual cost of Ksh 250 million?” he asked. “Yes, in principal there nothing wrong with hiring a PR firm to augment Embassy efforts, but, at the very least, there must be mutual understanding on objectives and


•GLOBAL STAGE Window on World

how to achieve them,” Odembo said. And most of all there must be cooperation. “A situation where the firm’s reports every so often sent to Nairobi without any reference to the Embassy in Washington, as is the case at the moment, leaves little room for coordination,” he said. The genesis of this matter goes back to Kenya’s shattered image in the aftermath of the post-election chaos following the disputed 2008 election. A PR firm in Washington, it was considered, might just help re-shape the country’s image. Defenders of the contract argued then and continue to argue that Kenya has received its money’s worth. They point to the restoration of Kenya’s image as the region’s premier country and a bulwark of stability, in the eyes of important policy makers both at home and in the US. They mention the higher profile threats to the region posed by marauding groups operating out of the failed state of Somalia and Kenya’s key role to staving off further disintegration is receiving as evidenced by the attention to the concern in the White House and Congress. And finally, they highlight the positive sheen the country is beginning to acquire as a result of carrying out positive governance reforms. All and good, says Odembo. Still, his main concern appears to be that the touted benefits to the country fail to address the basic question he poses. Take the latter point about fixing the country’s image. Credibility is at the heart of it, he says. “No amount of public relations can sustain a bad track record,” the ambassador noted. “Positive changes in Kenya generate goodwill out here and American policy makers do not rely on PR firms to fill them in on what is really happening back in Kenya. They have channels

they rely on and are unlikely to be fooled by charm offensives mounted by PR firms.” MANDATE

“The point I am making is this,” Odembo said, “by focusing on doing the right things at home the Embassy in Washington has relatively easy time selling the country’s point of view and winning support.” Questioning the assertion repeatedly made by those in favor of the contacts that the goal and by implication the firms’ mandate do not conflict with the role of the Embassy, Odembo has a simple riposte: Are there concrete measurable results that demonstrate the efficacy of firms’ activities on behalf of Kenya? Ambassador Odembo is not in the least confrontational about the whole affair, although he states his points strongly. In fact, he has gone out of his way to mend fences with CLS. He recently hosted one of the partners, Peter Schecter, at the Embassy and expressed to him his concerns and how they could better work together to further Kenya’s interests. It would appear that the CLS brief does not entail keeping the Embassy abreast of what it is doing on behalf of Kenya let alone sharing the reports it sends back to Nairobi. Among the requests the ambassador made is the group considers building the capacity of Embassy personnel. At the moment, he said, the Embassy is quite capable knocking on doors on Capitol Hill, think-tanks, and other centers of influence in the US. It has done so and continues to do so. CLS has indeed scored some notable “success” and may have had a hand in influencing the Washington Post to write an editorial in favour of local trials at the height of shuttle diplomacy to defer the Kenya cases at the International

Criminal Court. Unfortunately, the “success” backfired after hundreds of Kenyans in the Diaspora sent messages to the paper’s relevant blog ridiculing their call. The “debate” was quickly pulled. Odembo’s point regarding public advocacy is that the mobilisation of the Diaspora on any given issue affecting Kenya in the US is far more effective in getting the attention of policy makers, particularly members of Congress. Many Diaspora are also US citizens and they can employ time-tested methods of electorate interaction with their representatives. Lobbying industry is huge in Washington and just about every interest with an agenda to push employs its services. That goes for many foreign governments. A recent success story if may be called such is the effort by the Congo Republic (Brazzaville) to have Congress pass the so-called “vulture fund” legislation that would disallow investors from buying on the cheap poor countries’ debts and then suing the countries to repay in full. Stung by brazen attempts by over-eager investors the Republic of Congo went on the offensive and shelled out nearly US$10 million to bankroll the legislative push. The recently ousted Laurent Gbagbo did not fare so well. Lanny Davis, a lobbyist, despite receiving US$ 100,000 a month from the strongman ditched him anyway --and walked away with the money of course. Davis has a US$I million a year contract with President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, the President of Equatorial Guinea and chair of the African Union. Even by standards of African governments that hire lobbyists in Washington D.C., Kenya is merely dipping its toes in the water. Is it worth the effort?

August 2011

Stung by brazen attempts by overeager investors the Republic of Congo went on the offensive and

shelled out nearly US$10 million to bankroll the legislative push

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•HEALTH Mind • Body • Soul

FRESH OFFENSIVE

Battle against Cancer Reinforced as New Foundation is Launched Infectious diseases such as TB, malaria, and HIV are reported to be the number one cause of deaths in Africa but cancer surpasses all those put together, says a medical doctor, Fatma Abdallah By RONALD BERA

N

o one could tell that Margaret Oluka’s three-year old granddaughter had been strapped-up, isolated, in an ICU bed in a foreign country for two and a half months undergoing treatment for leukemia – cancer of the blood: she was too strong and unwavering. Perhaps she had cried out all her anguish. Alexandra “Lexie” Ajowi, now in India, developed chicken pox in September last year. She later came down with flu, fever and a bad chest – the usual symptoms of a nasty

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cold, common among toddlers her age. Her fever persisted and when she went to hospital, Lexie was diagnosed with leukemia after a test showed that ninety percent of her bone-marrow had been taken over, and she had a HB count of three. “At the end of her chemotherapy, Lexie couldn’t walk. Her hair had fallen off. Her nails were black. And she still had ten per cent cancer. She was admitted for a bone-marrow transplant on 24th May and she came out yesterday (11th July),” said an amazinglystrongOluka,alltoowilling,and withoutashredofremorseinhertone

and with renewed optimism that her granddaughter was coming home soon. Lexie’s heartrending story was one in a handful of survivors - in a country that records over 80,000 cancer cases in a year – told during the launch of the African Cancer Foundation (ACF), a new cancer advocacy organisation based in Nairobi. Infectious diseases such as TB, malaria, and HIV are said to be the number one cause of deaths in Africa but cancer surpasses all those put together, said Dr Fatma Abdallah. In Kenya, the most frequently diagnosed are breast cancer and oesophagus cancers leading to an estimated 118,000 deaths annually, majority under the age of 70. In Africa, females suffer mostly from cervical and breast cancers while males suffer most from Kaposis Sarcoma, liver, prostrate, stomach, lung, oesophagus and bladder cancers. The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that there were over 680,000 cancer deaths in 2008. The number of cancer cases is increasing rapidly and it has been projected that by 2020, there will be 16 million new cases of cancer globally – 70 percent of these will occur in the developing countries, many


•HEALTH Mind • Body • Soul

in Africa. Currently, the cancer situation in Africa is alarming yet most people have very little or no information at all on how the disease can be prevented let alone the possibility of treatment. According to a report released on February 4 as the world observed World Cancer Day, cancer is becoming a burden to the already struggling healthcare systems in Africa. If it is not tackled early enough, it may soon prove itself more overwhelming than HIV/AIDS. Most people still live in the rural areas, according to the 2011 Economic Survey report, where access to diagnostic and treatment facilities is hard and unaffordable. “I used about 200 Rupees for consultation fees when I recently went to India for my check-up. This is about Kshs4000, and lasted fifteen days,” says Mbugua Kamau, a colon cancer survivor who had part of his intestines removed. Lexie still needs about $35,000 (Kshs3,096,130) more, even after undergoing chemotherapy and a bone-marrow transplant. Others are not even aware that they have or have been suffering from cancer. Agnes Muthakye, a 51-year old woman with albino, underwent radiotherapy from 1994 to 1996 without fully understanding what was wrong with her. In 1984, she had one of her eyes removed. Her other eye was removed later on in 2003, but she still had no idea why. Doctors only told her that whatever problem was in her first eye had spread to her second eye. Muthakye had been blind for four years when she met Lupita Nyong’o, a filmmaker who was doing a documentary on people with albinism. Because of Lupita, she was able to see a specialist, Dr Fatma Abdallah, who finally explained to her that she had Basal Cell Carcinoma.

“Indeed many suffer and die from cancer without even knowing it; hence the statistics on cancer sufferers in our continent is far from showing us the gravity of the problem,” said Dr Willy Mutunga, Kenya’s chief Justice. The audience - an encompass of top diplomats, businessmen and top government officials and their spouses - were moved to tears as cancer survivors told of their personal struggles with the terminal illness at the launch on July 12. Many donated funds towards the organisation’s cause which seeks to “mobilise resources, carry out research, create awareness and provide services for the prevention, management and treatment of cancer in Africa.” Kenya’s Minister for Medical Services and ACF chairman, Anyang’ Nyong’o, said the major mission for ACF will be to ensure early diagnosis and access to cancer care and treatment irrespective of social status. Dr Opiyo Anselmy, head of

the Cancer Treatment Centre at the Kenyatta National Hospital hinted that there must be proper functioning policies in place so as to be able to deal appropriately with the cancer issue. Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the region, has fewer cancer treatment machines and even with its status as a public hospital, only a few who can come up with the money are treated. Even then, the queues are usually too long and patients sometimes wait for ages before accessing the machines. “Were we to invest sufficiently in genetic engineering and biotechnology, we in Africa would find ourselves in the same league as scientists and researchers in developed countries looking into new techniques to prevent and cure diseases such as cancer,” said Mutunga. Kenya’s vision 2030 states that in the next 20 years, Kenya can achieve the best in health service delivery, added Mutunga

August 2011

ALL IS WELL:

Young Lexxie with hospital staff in India

Most people still live in the rural areas, according to the 2011 Economic Survey report, where

access to diagnostic and treatment facilities is hard and unaffordable 55


•CULTURE

Reviews•Raves•Revues•Repasts

VIEW OF THE EAST

Of Cities and Their Tell-tale Characters

F

Despite and in spite of its rich history and culture that may delight new comers, a visit to Changsha is nothing more than a typical metropolis’ befuddled scents that presage both perfume and pungency in equal measure By NGARI GITUKU, CULTURE EDITOR

rom Dublin in James Joyce’s Ulysses to Kampala in Robert Serumaga’s Majangwa; from Henry David Thoreau’s view of the city’s perennial injury to the human soul to Meja Mwangi’s brilliant but appalling exposé of Nairobi’s downtown dreariness, the underlying import of the city leitmotif in the world of letters remains fairly much constant. Yet it is largely in the city’s demeanour that a visitor would first approximate the pulse of its hinterland. Never mind that the city usually possesses an exceedingly overbearing power over the countryside, sometimes so much so that its character is a complete aberration in the eyes of any good-humoured urbanite. That notwithstanding, it is, indeed, that subtle nose-to-grindstone dialogue that accentuates and assigns character to both the megalopolis and its backwoods, itself a narrative of an eternally mated and congenitally interdependent galaxy of sub-themes. But aside from the seeming universal differences in the age-old citycountryside dialectic—the world over and across history—is a curious interplay of contradictions that tend to attract more than repulse. And in

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the ensuing, yet elusive blend of rustic and urbane temperaments lies one of tourism’s timeless treasure troves… Such too is the truth in the rich and enthralling chronicle of Changsha, China’s Hunan—once upon a time known as Qinyang—Province’s capital city.

Changsha, a stunning 3,000 yearold metropolis was named Hunan’s capital in 1664. With an enchanting history that reveals unique and classical marvels of human civilisation and achievement, Changsha has all the qualifications of a splendid concourse. Set upon the picturesque and elegant banks of Xiang jiang

CALM:

The writer and a statue


•CULTURE

Reviews•Raves•Revues•Repasts River, a tributary of China’s famous “snaking dragon”, the Chang jian, Changsha—which literally means ‘long sands’—is so named because it sits on a strikingly expansive sandy patch along the river’s so long a course. This important Hunanese city is the heartbeat of a province reputed to have pioneered China’s ancient imperial scholarship and one particularly rich in agriculture and antiquity. The city is home to Yeulu Academy that dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279), and one associated with the renowned Chinese thinker, Zhu Xi, the legendary father of Oriental Imperial Examination system. The body of Changsha’s noblewoman Xin Zhui of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-25 AD), now preserved in the city’s Mawangdui Museum, surprised the world when it was excavated from her luxury tomb in 1972 intact and as good as it was when she died at 56 in 186 BC. The dress her body was found in ‘is so far the lightest silk dress discovered in the world.’ To these and many other of attributes add the fact that the stoically curious leader of the Chinese revolution, Chairman Mao Zedong was a Hunanese born in Shaoshan, a 100 km South-West of Changsha. And to his acclaimed name, a mammoth head-and-shoulder sculptor poses majestically on Xiang jiang’s Orange Islet much to any first-time visitor’s sheer delight. Yet with all that history and wellpaved Changsha streets—whole avenues adorned with human-size and gracefully quaint brass sculptors and sidewalks punctuated with meticulously trained and bloomed shrubbery—is a downside reminiscent of certain sections of Dar es Salaam and New York. SENIOR CITIZENS

In Changsha, as would be the case in many a city across the world,

ALL IN A DAY'S WORK:

Ngari Gituku in China

sullen faces of senior citizens, both men and women, rummaging through dustbins for waste plastics and morsels ring a very disturbing bell. These ‘Gods Bits of Wood’ as Sembene Ousmane, the celebrated Senegalese author and film-maker would have referred to them, are an eternal urban phenomenon no matter the state of the economy of the city’s host nation. But those in Changsha, it may seem, are the vinegary relic of legacies of the first (Mao’s) and second (Deng Xiaoping’s) China, a period during which blanket poverty forebodingly enveloped this spectacular and populous Asian nation. Equally disquieting is the occasional sight of an ageing beggar, his or her face ashy with want, eyes beady with penury, extending a scrawny hand to receive that one Yuan change, shoved at you nonchalantly minutes earlier by some young happy-go-lucky shop attendant donning a purple Mohawk hair-do. Heap to that loud techno-ghetto music at every corner to the uniform attraction of gecko-like nods from teens and young adults and the universal cityscape is near complete. Then a warning here and there reminding you to mind our bag, wallet and other valuables… Add to that long queues of mainly young people at KFC, Mac Donald’s and other junk eateries and you now can close your eyes and soak in the typical metropolis’ befuddled scents that presage both perfume and pungency in equal measure. Did anyone say Thoreau read the abiding pulse of the city wrong? 

August 2011

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•ENVOYS OF SPORT Kenya's Overflowing Reservoir of Athletics Potential The most remarkable feat ever achieved by a Kenyan was perhaps Henry Rono’s 5 records in 50 days achieved in 1978 when he set a world record in every track event from the 800m to the 10,000m. By RONALD BERA

“W

ho is he?” a middleaged man perched atop a stool by the counter posed, eyes glued to a giant television screen, as excitement gripped the fans gathered at a popular entertainment spot in downtown Nairobi. Leonard Kirwa Konsecha, a Kenyan – a very young Kenyan had just blasted his way to a World Youth Best record of 1:44.08 at the World Youth Championships in Lille, France. Konsecha had just beaten the former mark of 1:44.34 held previously by Bahrain’s Belal Mansoor Ali since 2005 in the men’s 800m. “Yes I know he is a Kenyan and I am happy we have won, but I’ve never heard of him before,” said the bloke apologetically to the now angry stares leveled at him. I too, had the same excited but quizzical expression, but I chose to remain silent as people began to earnestly question the chap’s patriotic stand. Konsecha, 16, is now ranked fifth in the 2011 world rankings which his near-neighbour and idol world record holder, David Rudisha, leads. But there is a catch. Nobody apart from probably close family, distant relatives and friends – knew the boy before the July IAAF World Youth Championships. Not even the crowd that was celebrating his success. The same goes for Rudisha, and

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a host of other athletes who will be running in the imminent Commonwealth and Daego events, such as Norah Tanui, Grace Kidake, Vincent Kiilu, Julius Sawe, Grace Thoithi, Peninah Arusei and a whole lot more. So where are these track and field athletes coming from? A Kenyan would immediately blurt out “Eldoret” - a town in Rift Valley province, where running in Kenya is believed to have begun, where legends in long-distant races such as Kipchoge Keino and Paul Tergat hail from. Some even joke that athletics is taught as a subject in schools there. But lately there has been an influx of runners from all over the country. Rudisha and Konsecha both hail from the Maasai district of Narok,

Henry RONO:

pictured above in 1980 during an athletics event.

not Eldoret where many believe is Kenya’s running capital. The late Samuel Wanjiru – whom many knew after he bagged gold at the 2008 Olympics - came from Nyahururu, a town further south of Eldoret. Defending women’s champion Grace Momanyi is from Nyanza province, western Kenya, and Monicah Wangari is from Central Kenya. “So where is the athletic bakery?” might be the correct question to ask. “These athletes are not new. They are not “emerging talents” as you portray them. It’s only that people notice them once the media reports that they have won or something has happened to them,” differs Peter Angwenyi, spokesperson for Athletics Kenya (AK), the national body that manages athletics in Kenya.


•ENVOYS OF SPORT Athletics Kenya has a youth program in place that scouts for talent in primary and secondary school games. The program is headed by the body’s vice chair, Major-General Jack Tuwei. Kids are scouted and natured when they are as young as under fourteen years old, says Angweny. “You knew about Rudisha only recently. But he has been there from a long time ago. We grew him with another athlete, Kivuva, from 2006. He was good in 400 metres. But we grew him from that to 800 metres,” adds Angwenyi. Beijing games’ champions Janet Jepkosgei (women’s 800m) and Wilfred Bungei(men’s 800m) – former captain of the Kenyan athletics team now retired, were also part of the youth program. Kenya’s reputation for its track and field athletes is renowned the world over. Since 1964, when Wilson KiprugutChuma became the first ever Kenyan champion to win an Olympic medal (bronze) in the 800m, the country has produced more world class athletes, more world record holders and more Olympic medalists in long distance running that any other country. The most remarkable feat ever achieved by a Kenyan was perhaps Henry Rono’s 5 records in 50 days achieved in 1978 when he set a world record in every track event from the 800m to the 10,000m. Back then, the number of athletes lining up for a world or national competition was not as large as today. The number of athletes who take part in the National Athletics Championships has increased tremendously. And the fact that you might have taken part – and won - in a previous race does not guarantee you a place in the next. The number of long distance competitions has also increased. “Now there are about ten, I think, that are nationallyrecognized. Let

alone those held in remote areas,” says Morris “Mras” Njue, a fitness guru in Lower Kabete, west of Nairobi. “I have competed in Eldoret before in a marathon hosted by Kass FM. And you cannot imagine the level of competition there. There are no ranges or distances between the runners,” exclaims Mras. “Judges at the finishing lines have to be extra keen because people finish in groups of ten or twenty. People scouting for athletes have a hard time because you’ll find a whole village full of good athletes.” The competition is even stiffer for those hoping to represent the country in international events. Because the turn-out is usually massive, AK organizes qualification races and then classifies the runners. The best are classified as the A-class, and second best as B-class. Usually, athletes are asked to confirm their attendance well before the races. Those who don’t are replaced immediately. “Back then, I would be training knowing that my next task is going for the medal at the competition. I would be training to perfect the set internationalrecord time that I have already attained. Not to compete to emerge the best and qualify against my fellow compatriots,” says an

Leonard KIRWA KOSENCHA:

Kenya (R) in action during the Boys 800 metres semi final

Usually, athletes are asked to confirm their attendance well before the races. Those

who don’t are replaced immediately

athlete I caught up with one early morning before sunrise at the old naivasha road. Ireri, was his name – I couldn’t trot at his pace long enough to get his full names. It is apparent that the country has a reservoir of talent just waiting to be tapped. Runners have come a long way since they burst their way into the track circuit about fifty years ago – and the impetus is far from going down. Kenyans who took part in the 2011London Marathon in April nearly swept the medal-cabinet clean. In the men’s race Emmanuel Mutai raced past compatriots Martin Lel and Patrick MakauMusyoki to break the course record, while Mary Keitany took the women’s title, followed in third place by Edna Kiplagat. But such triumphs do not linger for long in the athletes’ minds. Practice for the next race immediately resumes once they get back home. Training all over the country is now at its peak ahead of the Commonwealth and Daego events scheduled for August and September. “We are hoping to win more medals,” said Tuwei at a press conference where he announced names of athletes who will be taking part in the All Africa games in Maputo, Mozambique

August 2011

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•DIRECTORY Burundi

EMBASSY OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA The Ambassador of China : Xinsheng LIU Chancery:  2 Kajificheni Close   P.O. Box 1649 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:  2667586, 2667694   Fax No: 2666353   EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA  The Ambassador of Cuba: Ernesto Diaz GOMEZ Chancery:   Lugalo Road  Plot No. 313Upanga , Dar es Salaam Telephone No:  211592  Fax  No: 2115927 8 E-mail: embacuba.tz@raha.com   DANISH EMBASSY   Ambassador: H.E Bjarne Henneberg SORENSEN Chancery: Ghana Avenue   P.O. Box 9171 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:  2113887/91, 2117510 Direct Line:   2111325   Telegraphic Address: AMBADANE Telex No: 41057 Fax No: 2116433    E-mail: daramb@um.dk  EMBASSY OF THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT  The Ambassador of Egypt: Masr UMMULDUNYA Chancery: 24 Garden Avenue P.O. Box 1668,Dar es Salaam Telephone No: 2113591/2117622/ 2111716  Telex No:    41173   Fax No: 2112543   E-mail: egypt.emb.tz@intafrica.com EMBASSY OF FINLAND The Ambassador of Finland: Jorma PAUKKU Corner of Mirambo/ Garden Avenue   P.O. Box 2455,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:  2119170   Fax  No:2119173 e-mail: finemb @twiga.com   EMBASSY OF FRANCE The Ambassador of France: Emmanuelle D’ACHON Chancery:  Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road/Kinondoni Road  P.O. Box 2349 ,Dar es Salaam  Telephone No: 2666021/3  Fax No: 2668435   E-mail: ambfrance@africaaonline. co.tz   EMBASSY OF THE FEDERAL

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REPUBLIC OF GERMANY The Ambassador of Germany: Dr. Guido HERZ Chancery: NIC Building , 10th Floor,Samora Avenue  P.O. Box 9541,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:   2117409 - 15 Fax  No: 2112944   e-mail: german.emb.dar@raha.com HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUYANA   Chancery:   Design House ,  2 Dar es Salaam Place   P.O. Box 34889 ,Lusaka   Telephone No:   73035/7   Telex No: 42960 UYCOMZA HIGH COMMISSION OF INDIA  The High Commissioner of India: Debashish CHAKRAVARTI Chancery:   NIC Investment House  7th & 8th Floor Wing ‘’A’’Samora Avenue   P.O. Box 2684 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:  2117175/6   2116551   Fax. 2118761 Telex. 41335 HICIND TZ    E-mail. Hcitz@cats.net.com   EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA     The Ambassador of Indonesia: Trijono MARJONO Chancery:   299 Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road    P.O. Box  572,Dar es Salaam Telephone No: 2119119,2118133, 2115841   Fax No:  2115849  Telex No: 41575 INDON TZ   Telegraphic Address: INDONESIADAR ES SALAAM  E-mail: kbridsm@raha.com   EMBASSY OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN The Ambassador of Iran: Abbas VAEZI Chancery: Plot 31 Upanga Road  P.O. Box 5802 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:2112255/2117623  Fax No: 2118804/5   Jihad Sazandegi: 2150505   Cultural Center: 2130475   EMBASSY OF ITALY The Ambassador of Italy: Marcello GRICCIOLI Chancery: Lugalo Road 316   P.O. Box 2106 ,Dar es Salaam  Telephone  No:   2115935/36,

2123010/11  Ambassador’s:   2113741 Fax No: 2115938   e-mail: italdipl@raha.com   EMBASSY OF JAPAN   The Ambassador of Japan: Hiroshi NAKAGAWA Chancery:    Plot No. 1018 Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road  P.O. Box 2577 ,Dar es Salaam  Telephone No:     2117384, 115827/9,   2117384, 2117383    Fax No: 2115830    Telex No: 41065 TAISHI   Telegraphic Address: TAISHI HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA  The High Commissioner of Kenya: Zachary Dominic MUBURI Chancery:   P.O. Box 5231   NIC Investment House 14th  Floor  Samora Avenue ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No: 2112955/6,  Fax  No: 2113098   E-mail khc@raha.com EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Ambassador : H.E Soon Chun LEE Chancery:  Plot 8/1 Tumbawe Rd ,Oyster bay   P.O. Box 1154 ,Dar es Salaam    Telephone No:   2600496/2600499/2602000   Fax No: 2600559    E-mail rok@intafrica.com BUREAU OF THE SOCIALIST PEOPLE’S LIBYAN Arab JAMAHIRIYA Ambassador of Libya: Mr.Ahmed ABDULASALAAM Chancery:  Mtitu Street No. 386    P.O. Box 9413 ,Dar es Salaam  Telegraphic Address: ASHABI Telephone  No:  2150166/ 2150188   Fax  No: 2150068   Telex No: 4117     HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOZAMBIQUE   The High Commissioner of Mozambique: Mr.Amour Zacharias KUPELA Chancery:  25 Garden Avenue   P.O. Box 9370 ,Dar es Salaam Chancery:  25 Garden Avenue   P.O. Box 9370 ,Dar es Salaam ROYAL NETHERLANDS EMBASSY The Ambassador of the Netherlands: Karel van KESTEREN

Chancery: ATC Town House Terminal Blg Ohio Street , 2nd Floor  P.O. Box 9534 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:    2118566/8  2130428   Telefax  No: 2112828   Fax  No: 112828 HIGH COMMISSION OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA   The High Commissioner of Nigeria: Dr.TAFIDA Chancery: 83 Haile Selassie Road, Oyster bay  P.O. Box 9214 , Dar es Salaam Tel No: 2667620/2666000/  2666834/2666843   Telefax No:    2668947   Telex No:  41240    E-mail: nhc-dsm@raha.com   ROYAL NORWEGIAN EMBASSY   The Ambassador of Norway: Mr.John LOMOY Chancery:    Plot 160, Mirambo Street     P.O. Box 2646 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:  2113666    Fax  No: 2116564   Telex No: 41221 NORAMB   Telegraphic Address: NORAMB   E-mail: ambassade-dar@norad.no EMBASSY OF THE STATE OF PALESTINE   The Ambassador of Palestine: Fariz MEHDAWI Chancery:   612 United Nations Road  P.O. Box 20307,Dar es Salaam  Telephone  No: 2150636/2150643   Dir. 2153257  Fax No: 2153257 EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND The Ambassador of Poland: Ryszard MALIK Chancery:   1/9 Chisiza Close  P.O. Box 2188  Oyster bay, Dar es Salaam Telephone  No: 2667501    Fax  No: 2668309   E-mail: polamb@twigas.com   EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA The Ambassador of Rwanda: Zemo MUTIMURA Chancery:Plot  No. 32 Ali Hassan Mwinyi Rd   P.O. Box 2918 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone  No: 2115889, 2117631   Fax No:  115888  Telex No: 41292  


•DIRECTORY Burundi

Telegraphic Address: AMBARW TZ EMBASSY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION The Ambassador of Russia: Mr.Valery ORLOV Chancery:  Plot 73 Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road   P.O. Box 1905 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone  No:  2666005/6   Fax No: 2666818  E-mail: embruss@intafrica.com  SOUTH AFRICAN HIGH COMMISSION  The High Commissioner of South Africa: HE Mr SG MFENYANA Chancery: Plot 1338/9 Mwaya Road ,Masaki   P.O. Box 10723 ,Dar es Salaam  Telephone No: 2601800   Fax No:  2600684 EMBASSY OF SPAIN  Ambassador: H.E Mr. Gerran ZURITA Chancery:   Plot No. 99B ,Kinondoni Road  P.O. Box 842, Dar es Salaam  Telephone  No: 2666018/9 Ambassador’s:  2666936

Fax No: 2666938 E-mail: embesptz@mail.mae.es   EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SUDAN   Ambassador: H.E Abdelbagi KABIER Chancery:   64 Upanga    P.O. Box 2266   Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road,  Dar es Salaam Telephone No:  2117641   Tel:/Fax No:  2115811   E. mail - sudan.emb.dar@raha.com  EMBASSY OF SWEDEN   Ambassador of Sweden: Lennarth HJELMÅKER Chancery:   Mirambo Street/Garden Avenue  P.O. Box 9303 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone No:   2111235     Fax: 2113420  E-mail.www.swedemb-dar.com EMBASSY OF SWITZERLAND The Ambassador of Switzerland: Emmanuel JENNI Chancery:   79 Kinondoni Road / Mafinga Street  

HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA High Commissioner: H.E Ibrahim MUKIBI Chancery:   Plot No. 25, Msasani Rd , Oyster bay   P.O. Box 6237 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone  No:2667391/2667009  Fax: 2667224   E-mail: ugadar@intafrica.com EMBASSY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  Ambassador: H.E Alfonso E. LENHARDT Chancery:  140 Msese  Road  P.O. Box 9123 , Dar es Salaam  Telephone No: 2666010   Telex No: 41519    Fax No: 2666701   EMBASSY OF THE FEDERATION REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA Ambassador: H.E Richard VIIETZ Chancery:  Plot No. 35/36 Upanga Road   P.O. Box 2838 ,Dar es Salaam Telephone  No:  2115891 - 2   Fax No: 2115893  

E-mail: ambyudar@raha.com HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA High Commissioner: H.E Inonge MBIKUSITA Chancery:     Plot No. 5 & 6 ,Junction of Ohio/ Sokoine Drive   P.O. Box 2525 ,Dar es Salaam  Telephone  No:   Fax/Phone: 2112977   E-mail:zhcd@raha.com HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ZIMBABWE High Commissioner: Major Gen Rt. John EDZAI Chimonyo Chancery:  Plot 2097 East Upanga Off Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road   P.O. Box 20762 ,Dar es Salaam  Telephone  No:   2116789  Fax No: 2112913 T Telex No: 41386    E-mail: zimdares@cats-net.com

Calling on all Missions... Update your contacts

habari@diplomateastafrica.com

+254 20 2525253/4/5 August 2011

61 61


•DIRECTORY Kenya

HONORARY CONSUL FOR MALTA Kennedy MUSEBE Daphton Court, B4 Riverside Drive, off Chiromo Rd Opposite PRIME Bank P.O.Box 2713-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel(Cell): +254 729 696 700 Tel(Office) : +254 20 2672822 Email:maltaconsul.nairobi@gov.mt EMBASSY OF THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF ALGERIA Ambassador & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN HABITAT: H. E. Mr. Saad MAANDI Muthaiga Road , No. 37 P. O. BOX 53902, Nairobi Telegraphic Address: Ambalg - Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3755559 / 3752121 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 3755560 / 375558 Email: algerianembassy@hotmail.com EMBASSY OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC Ambassador & Permanent Representative of UNEP &UN-Habitat: H. E. Mr. Daniel CHUBURU Kitisuru Road (3.3 E. km) P. O. BOX 30283 – 00100 Nairobi Telephone No.: +254 (0) 20 - 4183119 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 4183054 Email: ekeny@bidii.com AUSTRALIAN HIGH COMMISSION High Commissioner: H.E. Mr. Geoffrey Peter TOOTH Riverside Drive (400 M, off Chiromo Road) P.O. BOX 39341- 00623, Parklands, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4445034 -9 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 4444718 Website: www.kenya.embassy.gov.au AUSTRIAN EMBASSY Ambassador: H.E. Mr. Christian HASENBICHLER 2nd floor, City House Corner Standard/Wabera street P. O. BOX 30560 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 319076/7/8 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 342290 Email: nairobi-ob@bmeia.gv.at AUSTRIAN HONORARY CONSULATE, Mombasa 3rd floor, Ralli House Nyerere Avenue P.O. BOX 84045 Mombasa Tel: +254 (0) 41 - 313386 Fax No.: +254 (0) 41 - 451084 Email: tabor@tgaalarchitects.co.ke HIGH COMMISSION FOR THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH High Commissioner & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT : Vacant Ole Odume Road, off Argwings Kodhek Road, Kilimani P. O. BOX 41645 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3870701 / 3870467 /

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3862816, Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 3874133 Email: bdhc@bdootnairobi.com EMBASSY OF BELGIUM AMBASSADOR H.E. Mr. Igor HAUSTRATE Limuru Road, Muthaiga P.O. BOX 30461 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 7122011 / 7122166 / 7122181 / 7123093 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 7123050, Consular Department - +254 (0) 20 - 4262130 Email: nairobi@diplobel.fed.be Website: www.diplomatie.be/nairobi HONARARY CONSULATE OF BELGIUM Eculines Mombasa Office: Sheetal Plaza 3rd Floor, Mohdhah M. Habib Road P.O BOX 91276, 80103 Mombasa Tel: 0736-394 298 Fax 041-222 31 46 E-mail consulbel @mombasa.be HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA High Commissioner and Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Mr. Charles T. MOGOTSI LR / Block no. 91 / 238 Gigiri Drive, Gigiri P. O. BOX 754 - 00606, Sarit Centre, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 7123412 - 4 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 7123418 Mobile: +254 (0) 727 53222 / 733 605607 Email: botken@gov.bw EMBASSY OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL Ambassador and Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-Habitat: H.E. Ms. Ana Maria Sampaio FERNANDES Tanar Center UN Crescent Road, UN Close Gigiri P.O. BOX 30754-00100 GPO Nairobi Tel: 7125765 / 6, Fax: 7125767 E-mail: embassy@brazil.or.ke EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI Ambassador: H. E. Ms Ntahonkuriye EMMERNECE Co-op Trust Plaza, Upper Hill (Off Bunyala Road) P. O. BOX 61165 - 00200, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 – 310826 / 310828 Fax : +254 (0) 20 - 310827 Email: embunai@yahoo.fr

REPRESENTATIVE TO UNEP & UN HABITAT H.E.Mr. Konrad PAULSE Riverside Drive No. 66 Riverside P.O.Box 45554 00100 Nairobi Tel: 254(20) 4452950, 254(20) 4452951 Fax: 254(20) 4443209 Email: echile@echile.co.ke THE EMBASSY OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Ambassador: H.E. Mr.Guagyuan LIU Woodlands Road Nairobi, Kenya P.O. BOX 30508, Nairobi Telephone Nos.: +254 (0) 20 - 2722559 / 2726851 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 2726402 / 2711540 Email: chinaemb.ke@mfa.gov.cn Website: ke.chineseembassy.org EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA Ambassador to Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Tanzania, P. Observer to the AU and Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Mrs. Maria Victoria Diaz de SUAREZ 6th floor, International life House, Mama Ngina Street P. O. Box 48494 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2486982/ 69 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 – 7120850-7120304 Email: emkenia@colombia.or.ke EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA 5th floor, International Life House, Mama Ngina Street P.O. Box 198 - 00606,Sarit Centre, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2241003 / 05 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 2241023 Email: embacuba@swiftkenya.com, acc. cuba@embacuba.or.ke HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS High Commissioner / Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Agis LOIZOU 6th floor, International Life House, Mama Ngina Street P. O. BOX 30739, 00100 NAIROBI. Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2220881 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 312202 Email: cyphc@nbnet.co.ke

HIGH COMMISSION OF CANADA High Commissioner: H. E.David B. COLLINS Limuru Road, Gigiri P. O. Box 1013 - 00621, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3663000 Email: nrobi@international.gc.ca Website: www.nairobi.gc.ca

EMBASSY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC Ambassador & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN Habitat: Head of Mission Mrs. Margita FUCHSOVÁ 2nd floor, Jumuia Place, Lenana Road P. O. Box 48785 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2731010 / 11 / 12 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 2701013 Email: nairobi@embassy.mzv.cz

AMBASSADOR & PERMANENT

EMBASSY OF THE DEMOCRATIC

August 2011

REPUBLIC OF CONGO Ambassador / Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Mr. Tadumi ON’OKOKO 12th floor, Electricity House, Harambee Avenue P. O. BOX 48106 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 – 2229772/1 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 3754253 Email: nairobi@ambardcke.org EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF CONGO Charge D’ Affairs: Mr.Jean-Pierre OSSEY 162,Wispers Avenue, Gigiri P. O. BOX 1722-00621, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 – 207121880/1 Email: ambacoken@yahoo.com ROYAL DANISH EMBASSY Ambassador & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-Habitat: H.E. Mr. Mr. Geert Aagaard ANDERSEN 13, Runda-Drive, Runda Estate P.O. Box 40412-GPO 00100, Nairobi Tel: 7122848 - 51 Fax No.: 7120638 E-Mail: nboamb@um.dk Web: www.ambnairobi.um.dk DANISH CONSULATE IN MOMBASA, KENYA Mikanjuni Road, Liwatoni Bay P.O. Box 99543 Mombasa, Kenya Phone: +254 41 229241/2/3 Fax: +254 41 221390 Email: jhn@africaonline.co.ke EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF DJIBOUTI Ambassador: H. E. Mr. Aden Houssein ABDILLAHI 2nd floor, International Life House, Mama Ngina Street P. O. BOX 34446 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2122859 / 2101124 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 313120 Email: info@djiboutiembassyke.org EMBASSY OF THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT AMBASSADOR H. E. Mr. Kadri Fathi Abdel-MOTTALEB Othaya Road, Kileleshwa P. O. BOX 30285 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3870360 / 3870298 / 3870278 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 3870383 Email: eg.emb_nairobi@mfa.gov.eg OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL ENVOY TO SOMALIA Charge d’ Affaires: H.E. Mr. Mohamed Ali NUR Nyeri Road, Kileleshwa P. O. BOX 30635, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3861060 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 3865335 Email: egyptembassysomalia@yahoo.com Email: nairobi@tamseel-ecs.gov.eg


•DIRECTORY Kenya

EMBASSY OF THE STATE OF ERITREA Ambassador: H. E. Mr. Salih Omar ABDU 2nd floor, New Rehema House, Westlands P. O. BOX 38651 - 00623, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4443163 / 4443164 / 4448174 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 4443165 Email: info@eritreanembassy.or.ke eriembk@africaonline.co.ke EMBASSY OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA Ambassador: H.E. Mr. Shemsudin Ahmed ROBLE State House Avenue, P. O. BOX 45198 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2732052 Mobile Nos.: +254 (0) 735 333035 / 722 207025 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 2732054 Email: info@ethioembnairobi.org DELEGATION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION TO THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA Ambassador: Lodewijk BRIET Union Insurance House, Ragati Road PO Box 45119 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2713020 / 1 / 2802000 +254 (0) 20 - 2712830 / 2713250 (Somalia Unit) Telefax: +254 (0) 20 - 2716481 +254 (0) 20 - 2710997 (Somalia Unit) Email: delegation-kenya@ec.europa.eu (Kenya Delegation) somalia@ec.europa.eu (Somalia Unit) Website: www.delken.ec.europa.eu EMBASSY OF FINLAND Ambassador Extraordinary & Plenipotentiary & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-Habitat: H. E. Ms. Heli Annikki SIRVE Block 3,6th floor, Eden Square Greenway Road, Off Westlands P. O. Box 30379 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3750721 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 3750714 Mobile: +254 (0) 722 541247 Email: sanomat.nai@formin.fi EMBASSY OF FRANCE Ambassador & Permanent Representative to UNEP &UNCHS : H.E. Mr. Etienne De PONCINS 9th floor, Barclays Plaza, Loita Street P. O. BOX 41784 - 00100, Nairobi Telegraphic Address: Ambafrance Telephone No.: +254 (0) 20 - 2778000 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2778181 Diplomatic Chancery Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2778680 Consular Section Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2778780 Cultural Section Email: ambafrance.nairobi@diplomatie. gouv.fr

EMBASSY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY Ambassador: H. E Mrs Margit Hellwig-BOETTE Lugwig Krapf House, Riverside Drive 113 P.O. Box 30180 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4262100 Consular Department: +254 (0) 20 4262129 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 4262129 Consular Department Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4262130 Email: info@nairobi.diplo.de Website: www.nairobi.diplo.de HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF GHANA High Commissioner & Permanent Representative to AU & ECA: H.E. Yaw Konadu-YIADOM Karura Avenue, Muthaiga Tel: 020-8025265/2421801/3748974 Fax: 020 8025477 Email: info@ghc.or.ke HELLENIC REPUBLIC EMBASSY OF GREECE Ambassador & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Mr. Dimitri LOUNDRAS 7th floor, Nation Centre, Kimathi Street P.O. BOX 30543 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 340722 / 340744 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 216044 Email: gremb.nai@mfa.gr HONORARY CONSULATE OF GREECE IN MOMBASA Honorary Consul: Mr. Panayiotis LAGOUSSIS 1st floor, Inchcape House, Archbishop Makarios Close P.O. BOX 88426 - 80100, Mombasa Tel: +254 (0) 41 – 2224482 / 2220898 Fax: +254 (0) 41 – 2222751 HOLY SEE APOSTOLIC NUNCIATURE IN KENYA Apostolic Nuncio: H. E. Archbishop Alain Paul LEBEAUPIN Manyani Road, west, plot no. 151, off Waiyaki way P.O. BOX 14326 - 00800, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4442975 /6/ 7 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4446789 Email: nunciokenya@nunciokenya.org EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY Ambassador: H.E Mr. Sandor JUHASZ Kabarsiran Avenue(off James Gichuru Road), Lavington P. O. BOX 61146 - 00200, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 – 4442612 Mobile: (+254)-738905187/736319078 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4442101 Email: mission.nai@kum.hu HIGH COMMISSION OF INDIA High Commissioner / Permanent

Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H.E. Mr. Sibrabata TRIPATHI Jeevan Bharati Buillding, Harambee Avenue p. o. box 30074 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2225667 / 2224500 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 316242 / 2248320 Email: hcindia@kenyaweb.co hcinfo@wananchi.com EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA Ambassador Extraordinary & Plenipotentiary / Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-Habitat: H. E. Mr. Budi BOWOLEKSONO Menengai Road, Upper Hill P.O. Box 48868 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2714196 / 97 / 98 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2713475 Email: indonbi@indonesia.or.ke Website: www.indonesia.or.ke EMBASSY OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN Charge d Affairs: Mr. Mohammad Hossein Khosh AMADI Dennis Pritt Road, Off State House Road P.O. box 49170 - 00100, Nairobi Telephone Nos.: +254 (0) 20 - 2711257 / 2710873 / 2715338 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2728686 / 2713966 / 2728891 Mobile: +254 (0) 722 974421 Email: nai.embarani@yahoo.com EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF IRAQ Ambassador /Head of Mission: H.e Dr. Adel Mustafa Kamil ALKURDI Off UN Avenue, Magnolia Close Lobelia Drive No. 52, Gigiri P.O. BOX 399 - 00621, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 7122962 Fax Nos.: +254 (0) 20 - 7122962 Email: narbemb@mofairqmail.net EMBASSY OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL Ambassador: H.E. Mr. Jacob KEIDAR Bishops Road, Opposite Fairview Hotel P. O. box 30354 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2722182 / 3 / 2710381 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2715966 / 2725946 Mobile: +254 (0) 722 208613 / 0735 888818 Email: info@nairobi.mfa.gov.il EMBASSY OF ITALY Ambassador / Permanent Representative to UNEP & HABITAT: H.E. Mr. Pierandrea MAGISTRATI 9th floor, International Life House, Mama Ngina Street P. O. box 30107 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2247750 / 224769 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2247086 Email: ambasciata.nairobi@esteri.it Website: www.ambnairobi.esteri.it EMBASSY OF JAPAN

Ambassador and Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H.E. Mr. Toshihisa TAKATA Mara Road, Upper Hill P.O. box 60202 - 00200, nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2898000 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2898220 / 2898120 Website: www.ke.emb-japan.go.jp THE EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Ambassador : H.E. Mr. Lee HAN-GON 15th floor, Anniversary Towers, University Way p. o. Box 30455 - 00100, nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2220000 /2218888 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2217772 / 312317 Website: ken@mofat.go.kr Email: emb-ke@mofat.go.kr Website: Ken@mofat.go.kr EMBASSY OF THE STATE OF KUWAIT Ambassador: H. E. Mr.Yaqoub YOUSEF EID Muthaiga Road, Off Serengeti Avenue p. o. box 42353 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3767144 / 3761614 / 3763593 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 3762837 / 3767053 Email: kuwait@wanainchi.com kuwait1@wananchi.com MISSION OF THE LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES Head of Mission Special Envoy to Somalia, Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: Amb. Salim Mohammed Al Mutundu Road, Muthaiga P. O. BOX 6274 - 00200, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3745311 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 3740824 Email: nairobi.mission@las.int THE PEOPLE’S BUREAU OF THE GREAT SOCIALIST PEOPLE’S LIBYAN ARAB, JAMAHIRIYA Charge d’ Affaires: Mr. Hesham Ali SHARIF Jamahiriya House, Loita Street p. o. box 47190, Nairobi Telephone Nos.: +254 (0) 20 - 2250380 / 2221625/2247848 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 243730 Email: jamahiriyanbi@wananchi.com HIGH COMMISSION OF MALAYSIA High Commissioner : H.E. Mr. Zainuddin RAHIM No. 58, Red Hill Road, Gigiri P. O. BOX 42286 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 7123373 / 4 / 5 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 7123371 Email: malnairobi@kln.gov.my EMBASSY OF THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES Ambassador :                                               H. E. Mr. Luis Javier CAMPUZANO                Kibagare way, Loresho p. o. box 14145 - 00800, Nairobi

August 2011

63 63


•DIRECTORY Kenya

Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4183009/ 4182850 / 4182593 ; 0728 389 813, 0737 681 219                Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4181500                            Email: embkenia@sre.gob.mx; mexico@ embamex.co.ke Website: www.sre.gob.mx/kenia EMBASSY OF THE KINGDOM OF MOROCCO Ambassador/ Permanent Representative to UN & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Mr. Abdelilah Benryane UN Avenue, Gigiri p. o. box 617 - 00621, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 7120765 / 7120795 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 7120817 Email: sifmanbi@clubinternetk.com HIGH COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOZAMBIQUE High Commissioner: H. E. Mr. Manuel Jose GONCAVES 3rd floor, Bruce House, Standard Street p. o. box 66923, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2221979 / 2214191 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2222446 Email: mozhicom@mozhighcom.or.ke Website: www.mozhighcom.or.ke ROYAL NETHERLANDS EMBASSY Ambassador / Permanent Representative to UNEP & Habitat: H. E. Ms. Laetitia van den ASSUM Riverside Lane, Off Riverside Drive p. o. Box 41537 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4288000 Visa - +254 (0) 20 - 4288333 Consular - +254 (0) 20 - 4288555 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4447416 Email: nlgovnai@africaonline.co.ke Web site: www.netherlands-embassy. or.ke

Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4451517 Email: emb.nairobi@mfa.no

Email: secretariat@romanianembassy. co.ke

Mobile: 0733 609565 Email: modigell@africaonline.co.ke

EMBASSY OF THE SOVEREIGN MILITARY ORDER OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM OF RHODES AND OF MALTA Ambassador/Permanent Representative to the UNEP: H. E. Count Gianfranco Cicogna MOZZONI 209 Ndege Road, Karen P. O. Box 1556 - 00502, Nairobi Telephone Nos.: +254 (0) 20 2397445 Fax: +27 (0) 86 505 7809 Email: kenyaembassy@orderofmalta.org

THE EMBASSY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION Ambassador and Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Mr. Valery E. EGOSHKIN Lenana Road p. o. box 30049 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2728700 Visa Section Tel.: +254 (0) 20 - 2722462 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2721888 / 2722462 Telex: 25261 Email: russembkenya@mail.ru

EMBASSY OF THE SOMALI REPUBLIC Ambassador: Mr. Mohamed Ali NUR Jabavu Road, Hurlingham P. O. BOX 623 - 00606, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2736618 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2736619

HIGH COMMISSION OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN High Commissioner: H.E. Mr.Masroor JUNEJO St. Michael’s Road, Off Church Road, Off Waiyaki way, Westlands P. O. Box 30045 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4443911 / 2 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4446507 Email: info@pakhc.or.ke

EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA Ambassador: H. E. Mr. George William KAYONGA Limuru Road, Gigiri p. o. box 30619 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 7121321 /2 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 7121324 Cell (Office): +254 (0) 0735600537/0722207844 Email: rwanemba@wananchi.com ambanairobi@minaffetg.gov.rw

EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Ambassador Extraordinary & Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative to UNEP &UN-HABITAT: H.E Domingo D. LUCENARIO, JR. State House Road p. o. box 47941 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2725310 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2725316 Telefax: +254 (0) 20 - 2725313 Email: nairobipe@philembassy.or.ke/ nairobi.pe@dfa.gov.ph

NEW ZEALAND CONSULATE, Honorary Consul: Mr. Tom Diju OWUOR Street address: Diju Investment, Mirage Plaza, Room 2C, Second Floor, Nairobi P.O.Box 48311, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 601074 Fax +254 20 601076 Email: dijuinvest@indus.co.ke

EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND Ambassador: H. E. Ms. Anna GRUPINSKA 58 Redhill Road, Off Limuru Road p. o. box 30086 - 00100, nairobi Telephone Nos.: +254 (0) 20 – 7120014/20 /7120106 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 3872814 / 3874572 Email: ambnairo@kenyaweb.com nairobi@pol.emb.net Website: www.nairobi.polemb.net

HIGH COMMISSION OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA High Commissioner: H.E. Dr. C. W. WIGWE, fwc Lenana Road P. O. BOX 30516-00100, Nairobi Telephone Nos.: +254 (0) 20 - 3864116 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 3875871 Email: ng@nigeriahighcom.org Website: www.nigeriahckenya.org

EMBASSY OF PORTUGAL AMBASSADOR AND PERMANENT Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H.E. Mr. Alexander VASSALO 10th floor, Reinsurance Plaza, Taifa Road P. O. Box 34020 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2251879 / 313203 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2214711 Email: embassy.nairobi@portugal.co.ke Consular Section: consular.affairs@ portugal.co.ke

ROYAL NORWEGIAN EMBASSY Ambassador & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H. E. Mr. Per Ludvig MAGNUS Lion Place, Waiyaki way p. o. box 46363 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4451510 – 6 / 4251000

EMBASSY OF ROMANIA Charge D’affairs’: Dumitru NEATU Street Eliud Mathu, Runda p. o. box 63240 - 00619, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 7120607 / 7123109 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 7122061

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August 2011

ROYAL EMBASSY OF SAUDI ARABIA Ambassador / Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H.E. Mr. Ghorm Saeed MALHAN p.o. box 58297 - 00200, Nairobi Telegraphic Address: Najdiah, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 3762781 / 2 / 3 / 4 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 214527 / 243174 Email: keemb@mofa.gov.sa EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA Ambassador, Extraordinary & Plenipotentiary Permanent Rep. to UNEP & UN-HABITAT: H.E. Mr. Zdravko BISIC State House Avenue P. O. Box 30504 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2710076 / 2714016 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2714126 Email: nairobi@embassyofserbia.or.ke EMBASSY OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC Ambassador & Permanent Representative to UNEP & UN-Habitat: H. E. Mr. Milan ZACHAR Milimani Road P. O. Box 30204, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2721896 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2717291 Email: slovakembassy@jambo.co.ke HONORARY CONSULATE OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC Honorary Consul: Mr. Christoph MODIGELL Leopard Beach Hotel P.O. BOX 34, Ukunda Diani Beach Road -South Coast Mombasa Tel: 254 – 40 – 3202101 / 02 Fax: 254 – 40 - 3203424

SOUTH AFRICA HIGH COMMISSION High Commissioner: H. E. Mr. Ndumiso Ndima NTSHINGA Roshanmaer Building, Lenana Road, Kilimanu Area p. o. box 42441 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2827100 Immigration & Civic Affairs +254 (0) 20 - 28961791 General Fax Line: +254 (0) 20 - 2736393 Email: sahcadmin@africaonline.co.ke EMBASSY OF SPAIN Ambassador: H. E. Mr. Nicholás MARTÍN 3rd floor Commercial Bank of Africa Building, Upper Hill P.O. Box 45503 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 – 2720222/3/4/5 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2720226 Email: emb.nairobi@mae.es HIGH COMMISSION OF THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA High Commissioner: H.E. Mr. J.B.B DISSANAVAKE L. R. No. 1/1102, Lenana Road, Kilimani P.O. BOX 48145 - 00100, Nairobi Telephone Nos.: +254 (0) 20 - 3866681 / 3872627 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 3872141 Email: slhckeny@africaonline.co.ke EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN Ambassador: H. E. kamal Ismael SAAED Kabarnet Road, Off Ngong Road p.o. Box 48784 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2686868 / 2686888 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 3875187 / 38575159 Email: embassy@sudanembassyke.org Website: www.sudanembassyke.org EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN Ambassador: H. E. Michael Majok Ayom DOR 5th Ngong Avenue / Bishop Road p.o. Box 73699 - 00200, Nairobi Tel: +254 20 - 2711382/4 Fax: +254 20 - 2711387 Email: goss@iconnect.co.ke Website: www.sudanembassyke.org EMBASSY OF SWEDEN Ambassador: Her Excellency Mrs. Ann DISMORR Lion Place, Waiyaki Way -Westlands p.o. box 30600 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 4234000 Duty Officer Cell Phone: +254 (0) 734


•DIRECTORY Kenya

600851 Visa Section: +254 (0) 20 - 4234060 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 4452008 / 9 Email: ambassaden.nairobi@foreign. ministry.se EMBASSY OF SWITZERLAND Ambassador: H.E. Mr.Jacques PITTELOUD 7th floor, International Life House, Mama Ngina Street P. O. BOX 30752-00100, Nairobi

Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 2228735 Fax: +254 (0) 20 - 2217388 Email: nai.vertretung@eda.admin.ch CONSULATE OF SWITZERLAND Honorary Consul: Mrs. Claudia STUART C/O Orion Hotels Limited, Shanzu Beach P.O. BOX 10283 - 00100, Bamburi Tel: 0727 695452 / 0733 490209 Fax: 041 - 5486321

Email: claudia.stuart@orion-hotels.net HIGH COMMISSION OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA Vacant 9th floor, Reinsurance Plaza, Taifa Road P.O. BOX 47790 - 00100, Nairobi Tel: +254 (0) 20 - 312027 / 311948 / 311950 Fax No.: +254 (0) 20 - 2218269 Email: highcom@tanzaniahc.or.ke

CONSULATE OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA Vice Consul General: Mr. Yahya Haji JECHA 12th floor, TSS Towers Nkurumah Road P. O. BOX 1422, Mombasa, Kenya Tel: +254 - 41 - 2228596 Telefax No.: +254 – 41 - 2222837 Email: tancon@africaonline.co.ke

Rwanda SOUTH AFRICAN EMBASSY Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H E Mr. G D GWADISO P.o Box 6563 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252583185-89 Fax: +250(0) 252511760 Email: saemkgl@rwanda1.com www.saembassy-kigali.org.rw GERMAN EMBASSY H.E Ambassador: ELMAR Timpe-German Ambassador P.o Box 225 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 575222 www.konsulate.de/rwanda_e.php BELGIUM EMBASSY H.E Ambassador: Francois ROUX P.o Box 81 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 575551 Fax: +250(0) 252 575551 www.diplomatie.be/Kigali/default BURUNDIAN EMBASSY Burundian Ambassador to Rwanda:

H.E. Remy SINKAZI P.o Box 714 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 515512 CANADIAN EMBASSY Canadian Ambassador to Rwanda: H.E Ross HYNES P.o Box 1177 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 573210 www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/africa/ rwanda-contact-en.asp CHINESE EMBASSY Ambassador to Rwanda: H.E Mr. Sun SHUZHONG P.o Box 1345 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 575415 Fax: +250(0) 252 576420 EGYPT ARAB REPUBLIC EMBASSY Egyptian Ambassador to Rwanda: H.E Ahmed Rami AWAAD Tel: +250(0) 252 587510 Fax: +250(0) 252 576420

KENYAN EMBASSY Kenyan Ambassador to Rwanda: H.E Mr.Alex.A.KETER P.o Box 6159 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 583336 Fax: +250(0) 252 51091 BRITISH EMBASSY British Ambassador to Rwanda: H.E Nicholas CANNON P.o Box 576 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 584940 Fax: +250(0) 252 510588 www.britishembassykigali.org.rw RUSSIAN EMBASSY Russian Ambassador to Rwanda: H.E Chirinsky MIRGAIAS P.o Box 40 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 575286 Fax: +250(0) 252 503322 www.russianembassy.biz/rwan da-kigali NUNICATURE EMBASSY Apostolic Nunciature Ambassador to Rwanda-Apostolic

P.o Box 261 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 575293 Fax: +250(0) 252 575181 SWEDEN EMBASSY Swedish Ambassador to Rwanda: Her Excellency Anna BRANDT P.o Box 547 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 5753534 Fax: +250(0) 252 586808 TANZANIAN EMBASSY Ambassador: H.E Zeno MUTIMURA P.o Box 3973 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 505400 Fax: +250(0) 252 505403 USA EMBASSY U.S. Ambassador to Rwanda: W Stuart SYMINGTON P.o Box 28 Kigali Tel: +250(0) 252 505601 Fax: +250(0) 252 572128 http://www.usembkigali.net

Tanzania EMBASSY OF BELGIUM Ambassador of Belgium: Joseph SMETZ B.P. 1920 Bujumbura Phone: + (257) (22) 22.32.66 + (257) (22) 22.61.76 Fax: + (257) (22) 22.31.71 http://www.diplomatie.be/ bujumbura Email: Bujumbura@diplobel.fed.be CANADIAN CONSULATE Ambassador of Canada: Rejean FRENNET 4708, Boulevard de l’uprona,Bujumbura City: Bujumbura Phone: 257 22 24-58-98 Fax: 257 22 24-58-99 Email: bujumbura@canadaconsulate.ca

CHINESE EMBASSY Ambassador of China: Mr. Zeng XIANQI B.P. 2550 Bujumbura Phone: +257-224307 +257-216856 Fax: +257-213735 +257-224082 Email: chinaemb_bi@mfa.gov.cn COMORAN CONSULATE IN BURUNDI Phone: (257) 93-93-10-27 Fax: (257) 929-728-09 CYPRIOT CONSULATE IN BUJUMBURA, BURUNDI 1660 Bujumbura, Burundi City: Bujumbura Phone: (00257) 22 242630, (00257) 77735325 (Mob.) Fax: (00257) 22 223917

Email: cyprusconsulate.bjm@gmail.com DANISH CONSULATE 6, rue Nyabagare, B.P. 2880 City: Bujumbura Phone: 226099 Fax: 227786, 216697 Email: andersen@cbinf.com EGYPTIAN EMBASSY Ambassador of Egypt: Ahmed FADEL Kinindo, Avenue Nzero, NO. 12 Bujumbura City: Bujumbura Phone: (+257)22223161 Fax: (+257)22222918 FRENCH EMBASSY Ambassador of France: Laurent CONTINI

60 avenue de l’Uprona City: Bujumbura Phone: [257] 22 20 30 00 Fax: [257] 22 20 30 10 Email cad.bujumburaamba@d iplomatie.gouv.fr GERMAN EMBASSY Ambassador of German to Burundi: Joseph WEISS Hotel Source de Nil, Suite Nr. 301, Avenue de Stade, Bujumbura. City: Bujumbura, Burundi. Phone: (00 257) 22 64 12 / (00 257)22 64 16 GREEK CONSULATE IN BUJUMBURA Ambassador of Greek: Dimitri ALEXANDRAKIS

August 2011

65 65


•DIRECTORY Tanzania

P O BOX 1660, Bujumbura, Burundi City: Bujumbura Phone: (00257224) 242532 KENYAN EMBASSY IN BUJUMBURA Kenyan Ambassador: Benjamin MWERI PTA Bank Building 2nd floor, West Wing Chaussee du Prince Louise Rwagasore B.P. 5138 Phone: +257-22-258160/62/ 63/67 Fax: +257 22-258161 Email: information@kenyaembassy.bi

Avenue de Grece no. 5 1 etag City: Bujumbura Phone: 00-257-222082 / 223614 Fax: 00-257-2-22615 Email: conspaysbas@mapatro.com

SENEGALESE CONSULATE BP 382 City: Bujumbura Phone: (+257) 223771 / (+257) 222147

RUSSIAN EMBASSY Russian Ambassador: Vladimir TIMOFEYE Phone: +257 22-60-98 Fax: +257 22-42-37 Email: ustas@cbinf.com

SOUTH AFRICAN EMBASSY South African Ambassador: Mr. M.D. LEMBEDE Hotel Novotel, Chaussee du Peuple Murundi, Room 215 and 217 PO Box 185 Phone: +257-244650/+257-248219 Fax: +257-244650 / +257-248219 Email: saebujfin@usan-bu.net

RWANDAN EMBASSY Rwandese Ambassador: Remy SINKAZI Boite Postale 40024 Avenue de la République City: Bujumbura Phone: (+257) 223255, 226865 Fax: (+257) 223255 Email: arbuja@cni.cbinf.com. ambabujumbura@minaffet.gov. rw

DUTCH CONSULATE IN BUJUBURA, BURUNDI Dutch Ambassador: Robert KRUEGER Consulate Honoraire du Royaume de Paya Bas

SWISS CONSULATE Swiss Ambassador: Georges MARTIN. Also ambassador to Kenya, Rwanda,Uganada,Somalia, Seychelles Rue du Commerance 11 City: Bujumbura

Phone: (+257) 968471 Email: bruno_vincenti@heineken.nl BRITISH EMBASSY British Embassy Liaison Office: Building Old East, Parcelle No1/2, Place de l’Independance, City: Burundi Phone: (257) 22 246 478 Fax: (257) 22 246 479 Email: belo@cni.cbinf.com AMERICAN EMBASSY U.S.A Ambassador: Marcia S.BERNICAT B.P. 1720 Avenue Des Etats-Unis City: Bujumbura Phone: (257) 22-34-54/ (257) 21-48-53 Fax: (257) 22-29-26 Web Site: http://bujumbura. usembassy.gov/

Uganda EMBASSY OF ALGERIA Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H. E Aziria ABEDELKADER P.O. Box 4025, Kampala Tel. No. 256-312-265212/3 Fax: 256-312-265214 Telex 61184, Jazaira E-mail: ambalgka@imul.com Ambassador's Line: 256- 41-232689 APOSTOLIC NUNCIATURE (VATICAN EMBASSY) Ambassador & Head of Mission): H. E. Archbishop Christophe PIERR Chwa II Road, Mbuya Hill P.O. Box 7177, Kampala Tel. 256-41-505619 Fax: 256-41-221774 E:mail: nuntius@utlonline.co.ug EMBASSY OF AUSTRIA Head of Bureau: (Charge d'Affaires a.i.) Mr. Franz BREITWIEZER Regional Office for Development Co-operation of the Austrian Embassy in Kampala Crusader House, Annex 3rd Floor 3 Portal Avenue P.O. Box 7457, Kampala. Tel. 256-41-235103/179 Fax: 256-41-235160 Email: franz.breitweiser@ada.gv.at

66

ROYAL BELGIAN EMBASSY, KAMPALA Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E. Jan DE BRUYNE Email: jan.debruyne@diplobel.org 3rd Floor Ruwenzori House Lumumba Avenue Plot 1 P.O. Box 7043, Kampala. Tel. 256-41-349559/569/570 Emergency No. 256-772-704400 Fax. 256-41-347212 E-mail: kampala@diplobel.org , coop. kla@diplobel.org (development cooperation) Website : www.diplomatie.be/kampala. EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E. Jean NGENDANGANYA Plot No.14 Hannington Road SM Chambers Building, 1st Floor P.O.Box 29214. Kampala Tel: 256-41-235850 Fax: 256-41-235845 Email: ambabukpl@utlonline.co.ug CHINA EMBASSY OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E Fan GUIJIN Plot 37 Malcolm X Avenue Kololo P.O. Box 4106, Kampala

August 2011

Tel. 256-41-231095/259881/234058 Fax: 256-41-235087/341463 E-mail: chinemb@infocom.co.ug

Telex: 61560 AMBADANE E-mail: kmtamb@um.dk Website: www.ambkampala.um.dk

EMBASSY OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO Minister Counselor/ Charge d'Affaires A.I. Mr. Biselele WA MUTSHIPAYI 20 Philip Road, Kololo P.O. Box 4972 Kampala Tel. 256-41-250099/232021 /230610 Fax: 256-41-340140 Email: amba_rdc_kla@yahoo.fr

EMBASSY OF THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E. Reda Abdel Rahman BEBARS E-mail: stibar@um.dk 33 Kololo Hill Drive P.O. Box 4280 Kampala Tel. 256-41-254525/245152 Telex No. 61122 EGYPT UGA Fax. 256-41-232103 Email: egyembug@utlonline.co.ug

EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E. Ricardo Antonio Danza SIGAS KAR Drive Plot 10 Lower Kololo Terrace P.O. Box. 9226, Kampala Tel. 256-41-233742 Fax. 256-41-233320/236438 E-mail: ecuba@africaonline.co.ug ROYAL DANISH EMBASSY Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E. Mr. Stig BARLYNG Plot. 3 Lumumba Avenue P.O. Box. 11243 Kampala Tel. 256-312-263211 Emergency Mobile: 256-772-221470 Fax. 256-312-264624

EMBASSY OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E. Terfa Mengesha REMCHIE Plot No. 3L, Off Kira Road, Kit ante Close. P.O. Box 7745, Kampala Tel. No. 256-41-348340/ 256-41-341881 Fax. No. 256-41-341885 E-mail: ethiokam@utlonline.co.ug THE FRENCH EMBASSY IN UGANDA Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: H.E Bernard GARANCHER Plot 16 Lumumba Avenue,


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World's Indigenous People

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Pakistan Independence Day

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India Independence Day

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