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Americans Debate Republicanism Colonies Become States • People consider selfgoverning colonies basic political unit • colonists give their allegiance to colony • idea persists when colonies become states


Unity Through a Republic • Colonists believe democracy gives too much power to uneducated • Prefer republic—citizens rule through elected representatives • Views of republicanism, government based on consent of people:

Adam Smith


Articles of Confederation • Two levels of government share fundamental powers – It allowed the National Government the power to • Declare War, Make Peace, Sign Treaties, borrow money, set standards for coins and weights and measures, establish postal service, deal with Natives


Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation • Congress could not enact and collect taxes • Couldn’t regulate interstate or foreign trade • Each state had only one vote in congress • 2/3’s majority vote needed to agree to pass any law

• Articles could only be amended if all states approved. • No executive branch to enforce laws • No national court system to settle legal disputes • Lack of National unity. – Un-United States of America


Problems encountered by weaknesses • The Rev. War had cost the nation $190m CC had borrowed from foreign countries. After the war the $ was worth nothing. • W/O the power to tax congress suggested enacting a tariff. RI rejected. No control over trade. • B/C British merchants did not get paid back they refused to abandon military forts on the Great Lakes. • Spain who we borrowed money from decided to close the Miss. River.


Nationalists Strengthen the Government • •

• •

Shays’s Rebellion 1786–87 armed farmers demand closing of courts to avoid losing farms Shays’s Rebellion— state militia defeats farmers led by Daniel Shays Many leaders fear rebellion will spread through country George Washington calls for stronger national government


Drafting the Constitution At the constitutional convention in 1787, delegates reject the Articles of Confederation and create a new constitution.


Nationalists Strengthen the Government Call for Convention • 5 states send delegates to meeting on interstate trade (1786) Madison and Hamilton call for the mtg. • Shays’s Rebellion leads 12 states to join Constitutional Convention • James Madison of Virginia known as “Father of the Constitution”

James Madison


Constitutional Convention Highlights • In 1787, 55 delegates meet at Pennsylvania State House • Windows kept shut to prevent eavesdropping on discussions • Washington unanimously elected presiding officer • Rich and well educated, outstanding leaders • Ben Franklin, James Madison, Alex. Hamilton


Conflict Leads to Compromise Big States Versus Small States • • • •

Delegates recognize need to strengthen central government - decide to form new government Madison’s Virginia Plan: bicameral legislature based on population William Paterson’s New Jersey Plan: single house, one vote per state Roger Sherman, delegate from Connecticut, proposes Great Compromise: - Senate has equal representation, elected by state legislatures - House of Representatives, based on population, elected by people


Conflict Leads to Compromise • • • • •

Slavery-Related Issues South wants slaves in population count for House, not for taxes North wants slaves in population count for taxes, not for House Three-Fifths Compromise allows 3/5 of state’s slaves to be counted Congress given power to regulate foreign trade Cannot interfere with slave trade for 20 years


Division of Powers in the New Government • Federalism—division of power between national and state governments • National government has delegated or enumerated powers • Nation handles foreign affairs, defense, interstate trade, money • Powers kept by states are called reserved powers • States handle education, marriage laws, trade within state • Shared powers include right to tax, borrow money, establish courts


Separating the Powers! • Legislative branch makes laws • Executive branch carries out laws • Judicial branch interprets laws • Checks and balances prevent one branch from dominating the others • Electoral college— electors chosen by states to vote for president


Baron de Montesquieu • a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Era of the Enlightenment • famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers


Ratifying the Constitution • Ratification (official approval) requires support of nine states • Voters elect delegates to vote on ratification at state convention • Process bypasses state legislatures, who are likely to oppose


Controversies over the Constitution Federalists • favor balance between state, national governments • Urban, white collar

Anti-federalists oppose strong central government: - may serve interests of privileged minority - unlikely to manage a large country well - Constitution does not protect individual rights - Farmer’s, blue collar


Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers—essays that defend, explain, analyze Constitution written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay


The Bill of Rights Leads to Ratification People Demand a Bill of Rights • Anti-federalists demand written guarantee of people’s rights • Federalists promise bill of rights if states ratify Constitution


Ratification of the Constitution! • December 1787–June 1788, nine states ratify Constitution • The new government becomes a reality in 1789


Adoption of a Bill of Rights • 1791, Bill of Rights, or first ten amendments, ratified by states • First Amendment—freedom of religion, speech, press, politics • Second, Third—right to bear arms, no quartering of soldiers • Fourth through Eighth—fair treatment for persons accused of crimes • Ninth—people’s rights not limited to those mentioned in Constitution • Tenth—people, states have all rights not specifically assigned


Launching the New Nation • George Washington becomes the first president. • Elected unanimously in 1789


The New Government Takes Shape Judiciary Act of 1789 • Judiciary Act of 1789 creates Supreme, 3 circuit, 13 district courts • State court decisions may be appealed to federal courts

Washington Shapes the Executive Branch • Creates Cabinet: – Treasury: Alexander Hamilton – State: Thomas Jefferson – War: Henry Knox – Attorney General: Edmund Randolph


Hamilton and Jefferson Debate Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict • Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated • Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation • Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, Western

Hamilton

Jefferson


Hamilton’s Economic Plan • Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debt • Some Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North • U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizens


Plan for a National Bank • Hamilton proposes Bank of the United States: - funded by government, private investors - issue paper money, handle taxes • Disagreement over Congressional authority to establish bank • Debate begins over strict and loose interpretation of Constitution


The District of Columbia • To win Southern support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggests: - moving nation’s capital from NYC to South • Washington, D.C. planned on grand scale; government seat by 1800


Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans • Split in Washington’s cabinet leads to first U.S. political parties: - Jefferson’s allies: DemocraticRepublicans - Hamilton’s allies: Federalists

• Two-party system established as two major parties compete for power


The Whiskey Rebellion • • •

Protective tariff— import tax on goods produced overseas Excise tax charged on product’s manufacture, sale, or distribution In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay excise tax on whiskey - beat up federal marshals, threaten secession Federal government shows it can enforce laws by sending in militia


U.S. Response to Events in Europe Reactions to the French Revolution • Federalists proBritish; DemocraticRepublicans proFrench • Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side


Treaty with Spain • Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain • Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed: - Spain gives up claims to western U.S. - Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel - Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic


Washington’s Farewell Address • Dangers of political parties • American neutrality in European politics • Established the two term tradition


First Party-Based Elections Adam’s Presidency • 1796, Federalist John Adams elected president - Jefferson, a DemocraticRepublican, is vice-president • Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nation


Adams Tries to Avoid War • French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships • XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister • called to lead army • Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years


Adams Provokes Criticism The Alien and Sedition Acts • Federalists push Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 through Congress • Alien Acts raise residence requirements for citizenship - permit deportation, jail • Sedition Act: fines, jail terms for hindering, lying about government • Some Democratic-Republican editors, publishers, politicians jailed


Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Jefferson, Madison see Alien and Sedition Acts as misuse of power • Organize opposition in Virginia, Kentucky legislatures • Resolutions call acts violation of First Amendment rights • Nullification—states have right to void laws deemed unconstitutional

The New Nation  

The New Nation

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