The Civil War "It is well that war is so terrible, else we should grow too fond of it." General Lee to General Longstreet "War is cruelty. There is no use trying to reform it. The crueler it is, the sooner it will be over." General William Tecumseh Sherman
More manpower Factories Food production Railroads Political leadership
“King Cotton” profits Capable generals Strong, military tradition Defending their home
Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
Generals Union: Anderson Confederacy: Beauregard
1st battle of the Civil War Lincoln will mobilize troops
1st Battle of Bull Run: July 20, 1861
Generals Union: McDowell Confederacy: “Stonewall” Jackson
Both sides have inexperienced troops This battle will earn Jackson his nickname “Stonewall”
Battle of Antietam: Sept. 17, 1862
Generals: Union: McClellan Confederacy: Lee
Union Victory or draw
Bloodiest single-day battle in US History South lost 25% of it’s soldiers
Union strategy to “suffocate” the Confederate States of America Blockade Southern Ports Take control of the Mississippi River to divide the South in two. Capture the CSA’s capitol-Richmond
The Politics of War
Foreign Assistance Causes Great Britain had little need for Southern cotton, since it possessed large inventory. Plus a failed wheat crop in England made the Northern Wheat crops essential. Britain’s also opposed slavery
Effects Great Britain remains neutral
Lincoln’s Proclamation Causes Lincoln’s desire to win the war His need to discourage Britain from supporting the Confederacy And his need to harm confederate war effort (slaves were being used to fight for the South)
Effects Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.
Disloyalty & Dissent among Confederate sympathizers in Maryland Need to win war Protect Union Army soldiers from Confederate sympathizers.
Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in the state of Maryland.
Conscription Causes Heavy Casualties and massive desertions in the armies Need to win the war with more soldiers
Effects Both the Union and Confederate governments pass draft laws
Forced military service; the draft Would lead to class discrimination when the wealthy could pay to have someone serve in their place. Plus there were exemptions such as workers needed at home and owners of 20 or more slaves.
Class Distinction: "A rich man's war and a poor man's fight..."
Draft laws passed favoring and protecting the wealthy. Lower class white workers were angered about fighting a war to free slaves who would then take over their jobs.
Low wages, bad living conditions, and high unemployment among the lower class stirred up a mob mentality and racism.
Effects In 1863, a riot breaks out in New York City
Copperheads ď Ž
A Northerner who advocated peace with the South
Life During Wartime
After the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, many African Americans enlisted. By the end of the war, they made up 10 percent of the Union Army They were usually paid less and suffered many kinds of discrimination. If captured by the Confederate soldiers, they were returned to slavery or executed on the spot.
African American Soldiers (cont.)
The Confederacy also considered drafting slaves and free blacks in 1863, and again in 1864. As the war dragged on, slaves refused to work or destroy property. So ran away to join the Union armies. By 1864, the plantation system and the institution of slavery were crumbling
The War Affects Regional Economies
With slaves running away, the South’s workforce declined. As a result, the South’s economy suffered. Food became scarce and prices increased. In 1863, food riots broke out in some cities. The Union blockade created shortages of other items including; salt, sugar, coffee, nails, needles, and medicines. As a result, many southerners smuggled cotton into the North in exchange for gold, food, and other goods
The war caused the Northern economy to grow rapidly. Factories produced supplies needed by the army, but wages for factory workers did not keep up with prices. Some workers went on strike for higher wages Due to the booming economy and rising prices, many businesses in the North made immense profits. This lead to corrupt practices—especially by businesses with government contracts
Greater involvement of women
Both economies changed in another way: greater involvement by women. Women replaced men in the factories and on the farms. In the North, women also obtained government jobs for the first time. They worked mostly as clerks.
Thank the Civil War
To help pay for the war, Congress decided to collect the nation’s first income tax. This tax took a part of an individual’s earned income
Soldiers Suffer on both Sides
Soldiers Suffered on Both Sides…
Life for soldiers on both sides was difficult. Many soldiers suffered and died from wounds they received in battles. They also suffered from poor army food, filthy conditions, and disease. Early in the war, some Northern women and doctors founded the United States Sanitary Commission to improve sanitary conditions for soldiers. More than 3,000 women served as nurses during the war. Some, like Clara Barton, worked on the front lines. The Confederacy had many volunteer nurses, too.
Prisoners of War Camps ď Ž
The worst Confederate camp was at Andersonville, Georgia. Prisoners were not provided with any shelter and was very overcrowded.
The North POW camps were not much better. They provided little or no heat for Confederate soldiers, resulting in thousands contracting pneumonia and dying.
The North Takes Charge
May, 1863…The South defeated the Union Army at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Gen. Lee outmaneuvered Union Gen. Hooker and forced them to retreat Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot by his own men and had to have his left arm amputated. He died a few days later of pneumonia.
Lee invades the North
After Chancellorsville, Lee decided to press his advantage and invade the North. He needed supplies and hoped a victory on Northern soil would tip the political climate to proSouthern Democrats The results however would prove to be the turning point of the war in the Union’s favor
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (July 1863)
Considered the most decisive battle and turning point of the Civil War. Confederate soldiers looking for shoes run into brigades of Union cavalry. Union soldiers take defensive positions surrounding the town and both sides send for reinforcements. The Union Army defeated Lee’s troops after three days of fierce fighting. Each side lost more than 50,000 soldiers
Results of Gettysburg
Three day battle produced staggering loses. Total casualties were more than 30 percent. Union losses included 23,000 men killed or wounded Confederate losses included 28,000 were killed or wounded. Lee would continue to lead his men for another two years, but the Confederacy would never recover from the loss at Gettysburg or the surrender of Vicksburg, which occurred the very next day.
General Grant captured Vicksburg, Mississippi, for the Union. As a result of the battle, the Union controlled the Mississippi River. The Confederacy was split in two.
In November 1863, a cemetery was dedicated at Gettysburg. President Lincoln delivered a short speech known as the Gettysburg Address. It honored the dead and asked Americans to rededicate themselves to preserving the Union. Lincoln promised that “this government of the people, by the people, for the people” would survive
The Confederacy Wears Down
Losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg caused Southern morale to drop The Confederate Army was low on food, ammunition, and supplies. Soldiers began to desert. Some even joined the Union Army. Southern leaders started fighting among each other and the Confederate Congress accused President Davis of ineffective leadership.
Meanwhile…Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union armies
Grant gave William Tecumseh Sherman command of the military division of the Mississippi. Both generals sought a total victory over the South. This meant conquering not only the South’s army and government but also its civilian population.
Lincoln Re-Elected to 2nd Term!
Despite the Union’s military success, Lincoln feared he would not be reelected in 1864. Many Northerners felt the war had gone on too long and caused too much destruction. But news of Sherman’s victories helped Lincoln win a second term
Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address
"With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations."
The End is Near
By March 1865, it was clear that the end of the Confederacy was near. President Davis fled Richmond. Generals Lee and Grant met in a Virginia village called Appomatox Court House and arranged the confederate surrender
It’s Finally Over
Within a month, all Confederate resistance collapsed.
After four long years, the Civil War was over!!!
The Legacy of the War
How did the Civil War change the nation?
After the Civil War, no state ever threatened secession again The federal government became much more powerful and a part of people’s everyday lives. During the war, the federal government had passed conscription and an income tax for the first time
Economic Changes ď Ž
During the war, the federal government did much to help businesses in the nation. It helped fund a national railroad system and passed the National Bank Act of 1863, which created a new national banking system. The war widened the economic gap between North and South. The Northern economy boomed, while the Southern economy collapsed.
The human cost of the war was huge. More than 600,000 soldiers died. More than 500,000 were wounded. Nearly 10 percent of the nation’s population had served in the military, leaving their jobs, farms, and families. African-Americans’ lives began to slowly improve —at least on paper due to the Thirteenth Amendment which abolished slavery everywhere in the United States.
Social Changes (cont.) ď Ž
After the war, military leaders in both the North and South had to find a new direction for their lives. Some turned their wartime experience to good. Clara Barton helped to start the American Red Cross.
Five days after the end of the Civil War, President Lincoln was shot in the back of the head by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford’s Theatre. He was the first president to be assassinated. Over 7 million mourners will turn out for his trip back home to Springfield, Illinois.
February 5, 1865
Presidential photo taken of Lincoln Photographic plate dropped Only one photo was made from plate Bullet’s path