The War for Independence
Question? How would you respond to unfair laws passed by a distant government?
Chapter 4 Vocabulary Stamp Act Townshend Act Boston Massacre Intolerable Acts Committees of Correspondence Boston Tea Party
Inflation profiteering Second Continental Congress Marquis de Lafayette Friedrich von Steuben Treaty of Paris
Chapter 5 Vocabulary • Republic • Articles of Confederation • Land Ordinance of 1785 • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • James Madison
• Great Compromise • Three-fifths Compromise • Federalism • Federalists • Anti-federalists • Bill of Rights
Vocabulary Activity • Choose six words from Chapter’s 4 & 5 vocabulary lists and create your own cartoons. (three from each list) • Viewers should easily be able to identify word or phrase by illustration.
The Stirrings of Rebellion! â€˘ Main Idea! Conflict between America and Great Britain grew over issues of taxation, representation, and liberty.
The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain! The Stamp Act -Stamp Act (1765) requires stamped paper for documents, printed items
Stamp Act Protests -Samuel Adams helps found Sons of Liberty, secret resistance group: - harass customs workers, stamp agents, royal governors -Stamp Act Congressâ€”colonies canâ€™t be taxed without representation -Colonial merchants boycott British goods until Stamp Act repealed -Parliament repeals Stamp Act; passes Declaratory Act same day (1766)
The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain cont. • • • • •
The Townshend Acts Townshend Acts (1767) levy duties on imported materials, tea Colonists enraged; Samuel Adams organizes boycott Women stop buying British luxuries; join spinning bees; boycott tea Customs agents seize John Hancock’s ship Liberty for unpaid taxes Colonists riot; 2,000 British soldiers stationed in Boston Here it comes!
Tension Mounts in Boston, Massachusetts • • • •
The Boston Massacre Soldiers compete with colonists for shipyard jobs Boston Massacre (1770)—mob throws stones, British fire, kill five 1772, colonists burn customs ship; suspects to be tried in Britain Committees of correspondence discuss threat to freedom, form network
The Boston Tea Party • 1773 Tea Act lets East India Company avoid tax, undersell colonists • Boston Tea Party— disguised colonists dump 18,000 lbs. tea in harbor
The Reaction of King George III The Intolerable Acts • King George III, British king, is angered by destruction of tea • 1774, Parliament passes Intolerable Acts as response to Tea Party • Acts close Boston Harbor, quarter soldiers in empty homes, buildings • General Thomas Gage puts Boston under martial law—rule by military • First Continental Congress claims colonial rights, supports protests
Fighting Erupts at Lexington and Concord! To Concord, By the Lexington Road â€˘ Civilian militia or minutemen begin to stockpile firearms, 1775 â€˘ Resistance leaders John Hancock, Samuel Adams hide in Lexington
The British are Coming! â€˘ 700 redcoats sent to capture leaders, destroy munitions, April 1775 â€˘ Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott warn leaders, townspeople
Sweet Revenge or JUSTICE! “A Glorious Day for America” • British shoot minutemen in Lexington; kill eight • 3,000–4,000 minutemen ambush British in Concord, kill dozens Battle at Lexington and Concord
Ideas Help Start a Revolution â€˘ Tensions increase throughout the colonies until the Continental Congress declares independence. â€˘ July 4, 1776.
The War for Independence Causes
• • • •
British tighten controls over colonies Colonies protest against British policies Colonies create militia Declaration of Independence is written
The Colonies Hover Between Peace and War The Second Continental Congress â€˘ Second Continental Congress meets Mayâ€“ June 1775 in Philadelphia: - debate independence - recognize militiamen as Continental Army - appoint George Washington commander - print paper money to pay troops
The Battle of Bunker Hill -British troops attack militia north of Boston, June 1775 -Costly British win: 450 colonist and over 1,000 British casualties -Battle actually takes place on Breedâ€™s Hill
The Olive Branch Petition • July, Congress sends Olive Branch Petition to restore “harmony” • George III rejects petition, orders naval blockade
The Patriots Declare Independence • • • •
Common Sense Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense attacks king Argues independence will allow free trade and foreign aid Independence can give equal social, economic opportunities to all Almost 500,000 copies of pamphlet sold; convinces many colonists
The Patriots Declare Independence • • • •
Declaring Independence Congress urges each colony to form own government Congress appoints committee to prepare formal declaration Virginia lawyer Thomas Jefferson chosen to write it Declaration of Independence -formal statement of separation
Declaring Independence • Declaration, based on John Locke’s ideas, lists complaints, rights: - people have natural rights to life, liberty, property (unalienable rights) - people consent to obey a government that protects rights - people can resist or overthrow government -“All men are created equal” means free citizens are political equals -July 4, 1776 delegates adopt declaration
Americans Choose Sides Loyalists -oppose independence, loyal to Crown for different reasons: - work in government, unaware of events, trust crown to protect rights
Patriots -almost half of population, support independence: - think independence will mean economic opportunity
Taking Sides â€˘ Groups divided: Quakers, African Americans on both sides â€˘ Native Americans support British; colonists threaten their lands
Struggling Toward Saratoga â€˘ After a series of setbacks, American forces win at Saratoga and survive.
Defeat in New York • British decide to stop rebellion by isolating New England • 32,000 British soldiers and Hessians take New York, summer 1776 • Many of Washington’s recruits killed; retreat to Pennsylvania
The Battle of Trenton • Christmas 1776, Washington crosses Delaware River into New Jersey • Washington surprises Hessian garrison, wins Battle of Trenton • Eight days later, Americans win Battle of Princeton against British
The Fight for Philadelphia â€˘ Gen. William Howe beats Washington at Brandywine, PA, summer 1777 â€˘ Howe takes U.S. capital, Philadelphia; Continental Congress flees
Victory at Saratoga • Gen. John Burgoyne leads British, allies south from Canada • Burgoyne loses repeatedly to Continental Army, militia • Surrounded at Saratoga, Burgoyne surrenders to Gen. Horatio Gates
A Turning Point • Since 1776, French secretly send weapons to Americans • French recognize American independence, sign treaty, February 1778 • France agrees no peace until Britain recognizes U.S. independence
Winter at Valley Forge • Valley Forge—site of Continental Army’s winter camp (1777– 1778) • Of 10,000 soldiers, more than 2,000 die of cold and hunger
Prayer at Valley Forge
Financing the War • To get money, Congress sells bonds to investors, foreign governments • Prints paper money (Continentals), causes inflation (rising prices) • Few U.S. munitions factories; must run arms through naval blockade • Some officials engage in profiteering, sell scarce goods for profit • Robert Morris, Haym Salomon use own credit to raise money, pay army
Civilians at War • While husbands fight, women manage homes, businesses • Many women go with troops to wash, cook, mend; some fight • Thousands of African-American slaves escape to cities, frontier • About 5,000 African Americans serve in Continental Army • Most Native Americans stay out of the conflict
Winning the War
Strategic victories in the South and at Yorktown enable the Americans to defeat the British.
European Allies Shift the Balance Training the Continental Army â€˘ 1778, Prussian captain Friedrich von Steuben goes to Valley Forge â€˘ Trains colonists in fighting skills, field maneuvers of regular army
European Allies Shift the Balance Lafayette and the French • Marquis de Lafayette— aristocrat, joins Washington at Valley Forge • Lobbies for French troops, 1779; leads command in last years of war
Early British Success in the South • 1778, British take Savannah; royal governor reinstated in Georgia • British armies capture Charles Town, 1780 —greatest victory of war • British commander Charles Cornwallis smashes through South Carolina • African Americans escape Patriot owners, join British to win freedom
British Losses in 1781 â€˘ 1781, Cornwallis fights Daniel Morgan, Nathaniel Greene in Carolinas â€˘ Weakened Cornwallis gets reinforcements, camps at Yorktown
The British Surrender at Yorktown • French army lands in Newport, Rhode Island in 1780 • Lafayette’s plan: French, Americans attack British at Yorktown • French navy defeats British, blockades Chesapeake Bay • American, French siege Yorktown, shell British for three weeks • Cornwallis surrenders October 1781
Seeking Peace • 1782 peace talks include United States, Britain, France, Spain • American negotiators: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay • Treaty of Paris signed September 1783: - confirms U.S. independence - sets boundaries of new nation - ignores Native American rights - promises repayment of debts - no date set for British evacuation of forts in U.S.
The War Becomes a Symbol of Liberty The Impact on American Society • • • • •
War stimulates egalitarianism— belief in equality of all people Equality for white men; women do not gain legal or political rights African Americans still enslaved; those free face discrimination Planters in upper South debate morality of slavery; some free slaves Native Americans continue to be forced off their lands by settlers
The Challenge of Creating a Government •
U.S. attempts to create government by the people, not by a king
The War for Independence Effects • British recognize American independence • United States borders extend to Florida and Mississippi River • United States establishes its own government
Chapter 5 Experimenting with Confederation Americans adopt the Articles of Confederation but find the new government too weak to solve the nationâ€™s problems. If at once you do not succeed; try, try again!
Experimenting with Confederation â€˘ Americans find the new government too weak to solve the nationâ€™s problems.
Americans Debate Republicanism Colonies Become States • People consider selfgoverning colonies basic political unit • colonists give their allegiance to colony • idea persists when colonies become states
Georgia’s first flag, 1879
What relics survived in the New Government?
â€˘ The system of distinct self-governing colonies survived in the form of distinct, self-governing states
Unity Through a Republic • • • • •
Colonists believe democracy gives too much power to uneducated Prefer republic—citizens rule through elected representatives Views of republicanism, government based on consent of people: -John Dickinson: put nation’s good above self - Adam Smith and followers: pursue own interests
continued Americans Debate Republicanism State Constitutions • Many states limit powers of government leaders • Guarantee specific rights to citizens; stress liberty, not equality • Only white males can vote; in some states must own property
Political Precedents • Previous republican governments cannot be adapted to U.S. needs: • - none balanced concerns of state and national governments • Ancient Greece, Rome, Italian city-states did not last
Why did differences between the states cause problems of representation? • People couldn’t decide whether delegates to anew government should represent a state’s population or each state should send the same number of reprsentatives.
The Continental Congress Debates • •
I. Representation by Population or by State? Size, population varies; represent people or states in Congress? Congress believes it represents states; every state gets one vote
II. Supreme Power: Can It Be Divided? • Confederation or alliance: national and state governments share powers • Articles of Confederation— laws assigning national, state powers • National government handles war, treaties, weights, measures, mail • No executive or court system established to enforce, interpret laws
Western Lands: Who Gets Them? • By 1779, 12 states approve Articles of Confederation • Maryland approves when western land claims given to U.S. • Articles of Confederation go into effect March 1781
Governing the Western Lands • Land Ordinance of 1785 creates plan for surveying western lands • Northwest Ordinance of 1787—plan for creating territories, statehood
What is the basic difference between the two land ordinances? â€˘ The Land Ordinance of 1785 establishes a plan for surveying and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided for dividing the land into three to five territories and established the requirements for the admission of new states.
Requirements for Statehood 1. Congress appoint territorial governor and judges. 2. When a territory had 5,000 voting residents, the settlers could write a temporary constitution and elect their own government. 3. When the total population reached 60,000 free inhabitants, the settlers could write a state constitution, which had to be approved by Congress before it granted statehood.
Confederationâ€™s Greatest Achievement!!! â€˘ The Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 because these laws established a blueprint for future growth on the nation
Problems with the Confederation! Political and Economic Problems • Confederation lacks unity; states pursue own interests • Congress amasses huge debt during Revolutionary War • Rhode Island rejects tariff on imports; foreign debt cannot be paid
Borrowers Versus Lenders • Creditors favor high taxes so they will be paid back • Taxes put farmers in debt; many lose land and livestock • Debtors want large supply paper money; creditors want small supply
What weakness in the Confederation was highlighted by the actions of Rhode Island? â€˘ The governmentâ€™s power to tax could be vetoed by a single state.
Foreign-Relations Problems • U.S. does not pay debts to British merchants or compensate Loyalists • In retaliation, Britain refuses to evacuate forts on Great Lakes • In 1784, Spain closes Mississippi River to American navigation • Westerners unable to ship crops east through New Orleans • Congress unable to resolve problems with foreign nations
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation • Congress could not make or collect taxes • Could not regulate interstate trade • Each state had only one vote in Congress • 9 out of 13 states needed to pass any law.
• All states must approve to amended Articles • No executive branch to enforce laws • No national court system to settle legal disputes • No national unity
Drafting the Constitution At the Philadelphia convention in 1787, delegates reject the Articles of Confederation and create a new constitution.
Nationalists Strengthen the Government • • • •
Shay’s Rebellion 1786–87 armed farmers demand closing of courts to avoid losing farms Shay’s Rebellion—state militia defeats farmers led by Daniel Shay Many leaders fear rebellion will spread through country George Washington calls for stronger national government
Nationalists Strengthen the Government Call for Convention • 5 states send delegates to meeting on interstate trade (1786) • Shays’ Rebellion leads 12 states to join Constitutional Convention • James Madison of Virginia known as “Father of the Constitution”
Convention Highlights • In 1787, 55 delegates meet at Pennsylvania State House • Windows kept shut to prevent eavesdropping on discussions • Washington unanimously elected presiding officer
Conflict Leads to Compromise Big States Versus Small States • • • •
Delegates recognize need to strengthen central government - decide to form new government Madison’s Virginia Plan: bicameral legislature based on population William Paterson’s New Jersey Plan: single house, one vote per state Roger Sherman, delegate from Connecticut, proposes Great Compromise: - Senate has equal representation, elected by state legislatures - House of Representatives, based on population, elected by people
continued Conflict Leads to Compromise • • • • •
Slavery-Related Issues South wants slaves in population count for House, not for taxes North wants slaves in population count for taxes, not for House Three-Fifths Compromise allows 3/5 of state’s slaves to be counted Congress given power to regulate foreign trade Cannot interfere with slave trade for 20 years
Division of Powers in the New Government • Federalism—division of power between national and state governments • National government has delegated or enumerated powers • Nation handles foreign affairs, defense, interstate trade, money • Powers kept by states are called reserved powers • States handle education, marriage laws, trade within state • Shared powers include right to tax, borrow money, establish courts
Separating the Powers! • Legislative branch makes laws • Executive branch carries out laws • Judicial branch interprets laws • Checks and balances prevent one branch from dominating the others • Electoral college— electors chosen by states to vote for president
Creating the Constitution
â€˘ Constitution can be changed through amendment process
Ratifying the Constitution • Ratification (official approval) requires support of nine states • Voters elect delegates to vote on ratification at state convention • Process bypasses state legislatures, who are likely to oppose
Controversies over the Constitution Federalists â€˘ favor balance between state, national governments
Antifederalists oppose strong central government: - may serve interests of privileged minority - unlikely to manage a large country well - Constitution does not protect individual rights
The Opposing Forces • Urban centers Federalist; merchants, workers favor trade regulations • Small or weak states want protection of strong government • Rural areas Antifederalist; farmers fear additional taxes • Large or strong states fear loss of freedom to strong government • The Federalist—essays that defend, explain, analyze Constitution • Antifederalists read Letters from the Federal Farmer: - lists rights they want protected
The Bill of Rights Leads to Ratification People Demand a Bill of Rights • Antifederalists demand written guarantee of people’s rights • Federalists promise bill of rights if states ratify Constitution
Ratification of the Constitution! • December 1787–June 1788, nine states ratify Constitution • Federalists need support of large states Virginia and New York • After opposition and debate, Virginia and New York ratify by 1788 • The new government becomes a reality in 1789
Adoption of a Bill of Rights • 1791, Bill of Rights, or first ten amendments, ratified by states • First Amendment—freedom of religion, speech, press, politics • Second, Third—right to bear arms, no quartering of soldiers • Fourth through Eighth—fair treatment for persons accused of crimes • Ninth—people’s rights not limited to those mentioned in Constitution • Tenth—people, states have all rights not specifically assigned
Launching the New Nation â€˘ George Washington becomes the first president. President Thomas Jefferson doubles U.S. territory with the Louisiana Purchase. The U.S. fights the British in the War of 1812
Washington Heads the New Government President Washington transforms the ideas of the Constitution into a real government.
The New Government Takes Shape Judiciary Act of 1789 • Judiciary Act of 1789 creates Supreme, 3 circuit, 13 district courts • State court decisions may be appealed to federal courts
• • •
Washington Shapes the Executive Branch Washington elected first president of U.S. in 1789 -executive branch is president, vice president Congress creates State, War, Treasury Departments Alexander Hamilton becomes secretary of treasury Washington adds attorney general; these Department heads are Cabinet
Hamilton and Jefferson Debate Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict • Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated • Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation • Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, Western
Hamilton’s Economic Plan • Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debt • Some Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North • U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizens
Plan for a National Bank • Hamilton proposes Bank of the United States: - funded by government, private investors - issue paper money, handle taxes • Disagreement over Congressional authority to establish bank • Debate begins over strict and loose interpretation of Constitution
The District of Columbia • To win Southern support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggests: - moving nation’s capital from NYC to South • Washington, D.C. planned on grand scale; government seat by 1800
Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans • Split in Washington’s cabinet leads to first U.S. political parties: - Jefferson’s allies: DemocraticRepublicans - Hamilton’s allies: Federalists
• Two-party system established as two major parties compete for power
The Whiskey Rebellion • • •
Protective tariff— import tax on goods produced overseas Excise tax charged on product’s manufacture, sale, or distribution In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay excise tax on whiskey - beat up federal marshals, threaten secession Federal government shows it can enforce laws by sending in militia
Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation
Events in Europe sharply divide American public opinion in the late 18th century.
U.S. Response to Events in Europe Reactions to the French Revolution • Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans pro-French • Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side • Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates diplomatic protocol
Native Americans Resist White Settlers • Fights in the Northwest • Native Americans do not accept Treaty of Paris; demand direct talks • In 1790 Miami tribe chief, Little Turtle, defeats U.S. army
Native Americans Resist White Settlers Battle of FallenTimbers â€˘ Gen. Anthony Wayne defeats Miami Confederacy at Fallen Timbers, 1794 â€˘ Miami sign Treaty of Greenville, get less than actual value for land
Jay’s Treaty • Chief Justice John Jay makes treaty with Britain, angers Americans • British evacuate posts in Northwest, may continue fur trade
Treaty with Spain • Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain • Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed: - Spain gives up claims to western U.S. - Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel - Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic
First Party-Based Elections â€˘ 1796, Federalist John Adams elected president - Jefferson, a DemocraticRepublican, is vice-president â€˘ Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nation
Adams Tries to Avoid War • French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships • XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister • Congress creates navy department; Washington called to lead army • Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years
Adams Provokes Criticism The Alien and Sedition Acts • •
• • • •
Many Federalists fear French plot to overthrow U.S. government Federalists suspicious of immigrants because: - many are active Democratic-Republicans - some are critical of Adams Federalists push Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 through Congress Alien Acts raise residence requirements for citizenship - permit deportation, jail Sedition Act: fines, jail terms for hindering, lying about government Some Democratic-Republican editors, publishers, politicians jailed
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Jefferson, Madison see Alien and Sedition Acts as misuse of power • Organize opposition in Virginia, Kentucky legislatures • Resolutions call acts violation of First Amendment rights • Nullification—states have right to void laws deemed unconstitutional
The Nation Mourns the Death of Washington
Washington dies December 14, 1799
Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course • The United States expands its borders during Thomas Jefferson’s administration.
Jefferson Wins Presidential Election Presidential Campaign of 1800 â€˘ Bitter campaign between Adams and Jefferson; wild charges hurled
Jefferson wins Presidential Election! • • • •
Electoral Deadlock Jefferson beats Adams, but ties running mate Aaron Burr House of Representatives casts 35 ballots without breaking tie Hamilton intervenes with Federalists to give Jefferson victory Reveals flaw in electoral process; Twelfth Amendment passed: - electors cast separate ballots for president, vice-president
The Jefferson Presidency • • • •
Simplifying the Presidency Jefferson replaces some Federalists with Democratic-Republicans Reduces size of armed forces; cuts social expenses of government Eliminates internal taxes; reduces influence of Bank of the U.S. Favors free trade over government-controlled trade, tariffs
Southern Dominance of Politics • Jefferson first to take office in new Washington, D.C. • South dominates politics; Northern, Federalist influence decline
The Jefferson Presidency • John Marshall and the Supreme Court • Federalist John Marshall is chief justice for more than 30 years • Adams pushes Judiciary Act of 1801, adding 16 federal judges • Appoints Federalist midnight judges on his last day as president • Jefferson argues undelivered appointment papers are invalid
Marbury v. Madison • Marbury v. Madison— William Marbury sues to have papers delivered - Judiciary Act of 1789 requires Supreme Court order - Marshall rules requirement unconstitutional • Judicial review— Supreme Court able to declare laws unconstitutional
The United States Expands West Westward Migration • From 1800–1810, Ohio population grows from 45,000 to 231,000 • Most settlers use Cumberland Gap to reach Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee • In 1775, Daniel Boone leads clearing of Wilderness Road
The United States Expands West The Louisiana Purchase • Louisiana returned to France; Jefferson fears strong French presence • Jefferson buys Louisiana Territory from Napoleon - doubts he has constitutional authority • Louisiana Purchase doubles size of U.S.
The U.S. Expands West Lewis and Clark â€˘ Jefferson appoints Lewis and Clark to lead Corps of Discovery: - explore new territory, find route to Pacific - gather information about people, plants animals â€˘ Native American woman, Sacajawea, serves as interpreter, guide
The War of 1812 War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812.
The War Hawks Demand War • •
British and French Rivalries British blockade or seal French ports to prevent ships from entering Britain, France seize American ships, confiscate cargoes
• • • •
Grievances Against Britain Impressment—seizing Americans, drafting them into British navy Chesapeake incident further angers Americans Jefferson convinces Congress to declare embargo, or ban on exports Embargo, meant to hurt Europe, also hurts U.S. - Congress lifts it, except with Britain, France
continued The War Hawks Demand War Tecumseh’s Confederacy • William Henry Harrison makes land deal with Native American chiefs • Shawnee chief Tecumseh tries to form Native American confederacy: - tells people to return to traditional beliefs, practices - presses Harrison, negotiates British help; many tribes don’t join
continued The War Hawks Demand War The War Hawks • Harrison is hero of Battle of Tippecanoe but suffers heavy losses • War hawks—want war with Britain because natives use British arms
The War Brings Mixed Results • • • •
The War in Canada Madison chooses war, thinks Britain is crippling U.S. trade, economy U.S. army unprepared; early British victories in Detroit, Montreal Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British on Lake Erie; U.S. wins battles Native Americans fight on both sides; Tecumseh killed in battle
The War at Sea • U.S. navy only 16 ships; 3 frigates sail alone, score victories • British blockade U.S. ports along east coast
British Burn the White House â€˘ By 1814, British raid, burn towns along Atlantic coast â€˘ British burn Washington D.C. in retaliation for York, Canada
The Battle of New Orleans • General Andrew Jackson fights Native Americans, gains national fame • Jackson defeats Native Americans at Battle of Horseshoe Bend - destroys military power of Native Americans in South • In 1815, defeats superior British force at Battle of New Orleans
The Treaty of Ghent • • • • • •
Treaty of Ghent, peace agreement signed Christmas 1814 Declares armistice or end to fighting; does not resolve all issues 1815, commercial treaty reopens trade between Britain and U.S. 1817, Rush-Bagot agreement limits war ships on Great Lakes 1818, northern boundary of Louisiana Territory set at 49th parallel Agree to jointly occupy Oregon Territory for 10 years
Published on Jul 14, 2012
The War for Independence Question? How would you respond to unfair laws passed by a distant government? Inflation profiteering Second Contin...