"Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came." Abraham Lincoln
Nat Turner’s Rebellion • Literate Slave Preacher • Rebellion in Va. – Turner and 60 followers kill about 60 white men women and children – Hanged on Nov. 11, 1831 – South blames northern radical abolitionists for causing rebellion – Pass harsh laws against slaves being able to read and write
Slavery and Politics • William Lloyd Garrison – Abolitionist, founded antislavery newspaper The Liberator – Organized the American Anti-slavery Society – Extreme abolitionist view – Burned the Constitution causing him to almost be lynched by an angry Bostonian mob
Missouri Compromise (1820) • Maintained balance of free and slave states • Missouri admitted as slave state • Maine admitted as free state • A line would extend west at 36*30’ N latitude. • Areas north of line would be free, areas south of line would be slave
Expansion in Texas • Mexican Independence and Texan Land Grants • Mexican government offers former Spanish mission lands to settlers • Stephen F. Austin forms colony between Brazos and Colorado rivers • By 1830, over 20,000 U.S. settlers; more Anglos than Tejanos
The Texas Revolution â€˘ Cultural differences arise: - Anglos speak English, not Spanish - Southerners bring slaves; Mexico abolished slavery â€˘ Rebellions break out; Texas Revolution begins (1835)
“Remember the Alamo!” • In 1836, Santa Anna attacks the Alamo; all Anglos, many Mexicans die • Meanwhile, Texans declare independence, ratify constitution • Sam Houston, rebel commander, leads attack; captures Santa Anna • Treaty of Velasco grants independence; Houston elected president
Texas Moves Toward the Union • Texas, South want annexation; North fears slavery, war with Mexico • James K. Polk elected president in 1844; favors slavery, annexation
The War with Mexico • Annexation of Texas – Texas enters Union in 1845; Mexico breaks off relations with U.S.
• Polk Urges War – Polk believes war will bring New Mexico, California to U.S. – Mexico refuses to negotiate Texas border, sale of NM and CA
• The War Begins – John C. Frémont leads military party to California, provokes war – Stephen Kearny marches to Santa Fe; New Mexico joins Union (1846)
The Republic of California • American settlers proclaim Republic of California in 1846 • Kearny joins Frémont; Mexican troops retreat from California
America Wins the War â€˘ U.S. victories lead to Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 - Texas border set at Rio Grande - Mexico cedes western lands for $15 million â€˘ Franklin Pierce authorizes Gadsden Purchase, sets present border
Mexican Cession (1848) • Land received as a result of the War with Mexico • Would become California, New Mexico territory, and Utah territory • Source of controversy and one of the early causes of the Civil War
Wilmot Proviso (1846) • David Wilmot added an amendment to the military bill concerning the Mexican Cession • He stated, “neither slavery or involuntary servitude shall ever exist in lands that may be gained as a result of the war with Mexico • Would close California, New Mexico, and Utah to slavery forever
Statehood For California (1850) • As a result of the gold rush, California skipped the territorial phase of becoming a state • California forbade slavery • Went against Missouri Compromise (most of California was below 36* 30’ N latitude
Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850 • • Compromise of 1850 has provisions for both sides • • California becomes free state; tougher fugitive slave law enacted • • Popular sovereignty, or vote, decides slavery issue in NM, Utah • -John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster two past enemies agree on the compromise. • -Senate rejects the compromise ;Stephen A. Douglas disassembles the compromise and has it passed one issue at a time. • -Zachary Taylor dies, his successor Millard Fillmore helps with the compromises passing.
Protest, Resistance, and Violence • Fugitive Slave Act – Slaves denied trial by jury – Could not testify on their own behalf – All that was needed was a statement from the slave owner – Federal commissioners received $10 to return a slave and $5 to free a slave – If you helped a fugitive slave you were fined $1,000 or 6 months in jail, or both
Protest, Resistance, and Violence • The Underground Railroad – personal liberty laws – passed by 9 northern states to resist Fugitive Slave Law • forbade imprisonment of fugitive slaves • guaranteed trial by jury
• Harriet Tubman – Born into slavery in 1820 or 1821 died at the age of 93 – Freed over 300 slaves on the UR including her parents
Protest, Resistance, and Violence •
Uncle Toms Cabin – Written in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe – spoke out about the injustices of slavery – This book became a best seller in the North – over a million copies by 1853 – “So you are the little bitty woman that started this great big war” – Abraham Lincoln
Kansas-Nebraska Act • Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas • Territory west of Iowa (Nebraska Territory) to be split into two territories: Kansas and Nebraska • Popular sovereignty would be practiced in the territories • Made the Missouri Compromise null and void
Bleeding Kansas – Term given to violence erupting in Kansas over slavery – Both pro-slave and abolitionists began sending settlers in for the statehood vote. – Kansas divides over slavery • Sets up two separate gov’t. • Civil war breaks out b/t pro and anti slavery gov’t.
– John Brown • a staunch abolitionist • Wanted to avenge the death of 5 men from “Sack of Lawrence • Along with a posse – took 5 pro slave supporters, cut off their hands and stabbed them
Dred Scott • •
A slave from Missouri who lived in the free territory of Wisconsin for two years Sued his owner for his freedom claiming that living on free soil should make him free Court ruled on three major points 1. Scott had no right to sue as a slave, because slaves were not citizens
Dred Scott 2. Slaves were property and Congress could not deprive any person of property, then Congress could not exclude slavery from any federal territory 3. The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
The decision in Dred Scott opened all territories of the United States to slavery.
Raid on Harper’s Ferry • Brown attempted to start a slave uprising at Harper’s Ferry Virginia • Attempted to take the arsenal and distribute weapons to the slaves • No slaves showed up to help • Brown was captured and tried and found guilty of treason • Brown was hanged for his crime
Election of 1860 • The election was highly contested • Four parties participated: Republicans, Northern Democrats, Southern Democrats, and Constitutional Unionists • Each party had their own candidate • Lincoln wins all the northern states and becomes president • Proved free states had enough electoral votes to override the popular vote
Election of 1860
Southern Secession • South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas secede from the Union • Confederate States of America is formed • Capital at Montgomery, Alabama • Jefferson Davis (Mississippi) was elected president • Alexander Stephens (Georgia) was elected vice president