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QUARTER 03 ISSUE 11 / 18



The Local Food Economy



The Good Food Festival




Saving the Samanga Baboons and Climate Change

Solar Irrigation restores food security to a starving community



Community Participation in Sustainable Biodiversity Management Page 8


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QUARTER 03 ISSUE 11 / 18



The Loval Food 04 Economy



The Good Food Festival

Saving the Samanga

Baboons and 12 Climate Change


Solar Irrigation restores food security to a starving community


Community Participation in Sustainable Biodiversity Management Page 8

SustainZim is a publication that promotes a green culture within Zimbabwean homes, schools, work places and everyday lives. It aims to step up the fight against Global Warming and Climate Change by raising awareness about the need to reduce our carbon footprint and a push towards sustainable development. It will showcase green initiatives already being done by government, civil society groups, companies and individuals. PARTNERING We are available to work as implementing partners for projects in Zimbabwe. Get in touch if you would like to partner with us PUBLISHERS POVOAfrika Trust (MA0001023/2015) ZIM - Harare +263 77 228 3186 / +263 77 291 8810, 1 Verona Gardens, 70 Livingstone Ave RSA - Johannesburg +27 72 600 5283 / +27 760999770 210 Klein Drakenstein, 31 Snipe Street, Horizon, 1724, Roodepoort



ish farming which comes in different ways namely fresh water fish ponds, cages and dams have been done since time in other countries such China, Australia and America. FAO once came in with a hand in (1981) helping Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, but Zimbabwe did not crop out well. In 2014 companies such as Agrimarine solutions with a partnership of institutions such as Development Reality institute came in training people. This led to Zimbabweans buying in the idea , schools, hospitals, security services are now one amongst the major players in the industry.

This became easy since it is one of the major agendas of the government of food security and nutrition through ZimAsset. Today since 2014 fish production has increased with 4%. Rural areas such as Mutasa in Manicaland , Zimuto in Masvingo are one amongst the major participators.

Ian Kazingizi is one of the Co-Founders of Agrimarine Solutions a private organization which offers consultancy in aquaculture, aquaponics and hydroponics. He is an affluent speaker and has confident stature in everything he does. He holds an Honours degree in Regional and Urban planning from the University of Zimbabwe , a Post Graduate Diploma in Project Management and a Certificate in Aquaculture from Aquaculture Innovations from South Africa.

Tel: 04 705 270 Email: Agrimarine solution is an organization which trains people in fish farming, it does fish pond construction, do aquaculture project management sell the seeds ( fingerlings) also buy and sell the fish from farmers. It is based in Harare at 52 Selous Ave, Corner 6th and have farms in Mapinga and Mbire where they do production

CONTRIBUTE ADVERTISING A rate sheet is available on request ZIM +263 77 291 8810 / +263 77 228 3186 RSA +27 72 600 5283 / +27 760999770 Email: Limited Space Available! KEY PERSONNEL EDITOR Archibald Mathibela PROJECT COORDINATOR Raymond Muwaniri DESIGN AND LAYOUT Baynham Goredema FINANCE DIRECTOR Rodrick Longwe CARTOONIST Tafadzwa Tarumbwa DISCLAIMER SustainZim is published by POVOAfrika Trust. The information, opinions and views set out in this journal are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of POVOAfrika Trust nor any of their partners. Neither POVOAfrika Trust nor any person acting on their behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein. Neither are they responsible for citing references within articles, stated facts or credits to photos supplied, this is the responsibility of the contributor. Rights to the photographs and articles remain with the photographers and with the authors respectively. Contact them respectively for reproduction. While all care has been taken during proofing, errors and omissions may slip through and we sincerely apologise for these.




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Food Security, Conservation and Energy By Raymond Muwaniri, POVOAfrika Trust

This is the editorial for SustainZim Issue 11, with focus on food security, conservation and energy for those living in both rural and urban areas. Food security and nutrition is one of the major agendas of the government through ZimAsset.


e have an article from Ian Kazingizi who discusses fish farming in Zimbabwe and its progression over the years. He attributes the increase in fish farming to companies like Agrimarines Solutions and the Development Reality Institute who train people. If our readers would like to know more about fish farming please refer to their websites, including Aquaculture who have been helping communities set up these projects. In the very first SustainZim edition of 2016 I wrote an article on the “Muunganirwa Fish Project” in Bindura district which can be found on the SustainZim website ( Fish farming improves people’s livelihoods by meeting their dietary needs and providing a viable income. It also helps to preserve the wild stocks of fish which are under a lot of pressure from overfishing and water pollution. Food economy is the examination of the human and ecological cost of what we eat. Tanaka Tsikiri, a n i n d e p e n d e nt s u s t a i n abl e development consultant writes about the ’local food economy’, its production and transport, aka ‘food miles’. Tanaka explains the current crisis in Zimbabwe and links fuel shortages and sudden price hikes. He calls for an inadvertent shift towards a stronger and more sustainable local food economy. He describes how people are shifting to urban farming and food production, ditching lawns for greenhouses, swimming pools for fish ponds, increasing food security. Je n n i f e r M a y e r f r o m B i o Innovation Zimbabwe discusses how Zimbabweans in the past 5/6 generations have moved from highly diverse and nutritious traditional foods to reliance on more processed foods, e.g. maize. This is affecting the whole population’s health and she give statistics on how it is affecting children, women and men. Jenifer goes on to talk about the recent ‘Good Food Festival’ held in Harare. The purpose of this festival is to change the perception of Zimbabweans towards local food and facilitating a return to traditional healthier foods. It brings together

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small holder farmers, food and seed producers, farmers organisations and agribusinesses to interact and exchange information. Edson Dambaz’s article talks about how Zimbabwean’s focus more on adding mineral fertilisers and improved seed to increase production, as opposed to more sustainable agricultural practices. Current issues in Zimbabwe include the degradation of cropland and the loss of forest cover due to unsustainable agricultural practices. Edson gives suggestions on increasing food production without contributing to deforestation and land degradation. Our feature article is from Violet Makoto from Forestry Commission who writes about ‘community participation in sustainable biodiversity management’. Violet discusses the Global Environment Facility program which supports initiatives in the North West of Zimbabwe with focus on forestry, wildlife and landscape management. She lists the benefits of such initiatives, including bee farming which enhances livelihoods through the sale of honey and other bee keeping products. In this project farmers would have to look after the forests where their bees forage. Staying with conservation, I decided to write an article that brings attention the plight of the Samanga baboons in Honde Valley, Manicaland. These animals are unique to the area and at risk of becoming locally extinct. I explain how banana plantations have taken over the landscape in Honde Valley causing loss of habitat for the baboons. I go on to explain

other associated issues, the unique micro climate of the area, water usage and deforestation. I give plenty of illustrations, so readers can visually see the devastation being brought upon the valley. Honde Valley is very familiar to me because this is where my mother comes from. I am sure there are other cases whereby indigenous animals are becoming extinct due to human expansion. If you know of any, please let us know so we can highlight them. Prisca Daka, an environmental lawyer explains the new report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The report describes the effects on our planet if the temperatures continues to increase, including loss of life, extinction of animal and plant species. Prisca calls for more political will and international unity. Martha Munyoro Katsi of Practical Action previously wrote an article titled, ‘Solar brings joy to Gwanda’. We have 2 more articles on the same project from Nevson Mpofu and Innocent Katsande. Nevson discusses how the solar project is providing energy for irrigation thereby supporting 10,000 families in the Gwanda area. Innocent highlights 56-year- old Sharon Sibanda, a provider for her family of 8 and how her life has been transformed by this solar project. Wellington Madumira from ZERO describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe, the citizens engagement meeting held by ZERO and its objectives. He discusses access to electricity in rural and urban areas, giving statistics. Wellington gives suggestions to

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Articles to be between 350 - 750 words maximum. Content must be original work, and must not have been published/accepted for publication elsewhere. In the event that there is a request to republish the work elsewhere, POVOAfrika will link the creator directly and will not act as a middle man. It is the responsibility of authors to ensure that all copyright issues have been addressed prior to submission. Any consequences for copyright law of infringement will be duly borne by the defaulting author. You the creator will retain all rights to your work. All articles will also be published online on After article has been published on the website the author may publish on their own platforms.

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the government and its statutory bodies on providing adequate and sustainable energy supplies. He also makes suggestion for the private sector, citizens and nonstate actors like SustainZim, to keep raising awareness on energy issues in Zimbabwe. Lastly, Karen Maturure defines ‘sustainability’ and how it has moved from being a complicated term to daily life. Karen defines the terms and concepts that are associated with sustainability. In my opinion, Sustainable Development should be introduced as a compulsory subject in secondary schools so that young people are aware going forward what is required of them as a citizen of Zimbabwe and the world. Details of our contributors if you would like to get in touch with them are included at the end of each article.


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The Local Food Economy By Tanaka Tsikira, Independent Sustainability Consultant

Have you ever thought about where your food comes from? How it was grown? The people involved? The processes involved? Though these are clearly important questions to ask, we often don’t take time to ponder on this. Our modern day food systems are vast, complex and highly interconnected networks that rely on various components to function efficiently.


The emergence of a local food economy in the majority of Zimbabwe’s urban settlements has mainly been fueled by the harsh economic environment over the last 20 years. In an attempt to survive, urban citizens have ditched lawns for green houses, swimming pools for fish ponds and sprawling backyards for chicken coups. An inadvertent shift towards a more sustainable local food economy has occurred and continues to grow. More and more people have taken up some form of urban farming and food production as the rewards of doing so become more evident. This growth has however not been complemented appropriately by government as the focus continues to be on commercial and rural farming. However a strong and robust local food economy in Zimbabwe would provide the following benefits. Eco-Friendly Farming Practices

The size of most urban farms allows for the exploration of alternative farms practices. Practices that require little or no agro-chemicals like permaculture, aquaponics and biodynamic agriculture. All these allow for a high quantity and quality of yield without poisoning the soil and consumers with pesticides.


he vast and complex nature of these systems inevitably result in trade offs, compromises and inefficiencies with regards to both access and quality of food that consumers ultimately get. Challenges in the system are most evident in the vast distances food has to travel from source to consumers. This dependence on petrochemicals in both the production and more importantly the transportation of food leaves the system vulnerable to a resource that is highly volatile in pricing and accessibility. Evidence of this can be seen by the recent fuel shortages here in Zimbabwe which have resulted in food price hikes. A strong local food economy provides a panacea to some of these issues.

Resilient Food Networks

Community Building

A local food economy reduces the distance food has to travel from the producer to the consumer. This helps to protect the system from shocks due to changes in the price or availability of fuel. When the system is supported by targeted government investments, it can ultimately result in more resilient urban settlements as a greater percentage of food demand is met by local production.

The nature of a local food system encourages deeper connections between producers and consumers as they tend to interact face to face at the point of sale. This is usually done at farmers markets or at the producers residence. It also creates greater wealth within the community as money stays circulating within the local economy.

Dietary Diversity

The nature of large scale conventional agriculture does not encourage diversification in the range of crops that are grown. The focus on producing crops with high yields,high value and long shelf life resultantly leaves consumers with less choice. Small scale urban production encourages and rewards diversification in both crop variety and product types.

It is however acknowledged that alone, local food economies might not meet all of a country’s food requirements. It does however remain an important element that needs strengthening and support. A food system is held to the virtue that it must efficiently provide us with healthy food that we know the source of. We therefore remain with much work to do in light of this virtue.

Healthier Population

A local food economy rebuilds the connection between consumers and the natural processes of growing food. Through the use of clever advertising strategies, consumers have been influenced to consume more and more nutritionally deficient and overly processed foods. Local food systems encourage consumers to make wiser decisions and purchase healthier alternatives. This is due to the fact that the market for local foods rewards products that are organic, free of pesticides, preservatives and minimally processed,

Tanaka Tsikira is an independent sustainability consultant with a special interest in sustainable food systems and circular economics. He holds a Bachelor of Commerce degree in Economics and Finance from the University of Cape Town and is a qualified in GRI sustainability reporting. His main work towards building a more resilient food system in Zimbabwe is through his work with Chikafu ( Chikafu is Zimbabwe’s first online local food directory which enables consumers to find and connect with quality local food producers in their neighbourhoods. +263784581273 Email –


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Looming Climate Change Crisis,12 Years to Act: IPCC 2018 Report Warns By Prisca Daka

Global climate change is affecting our planet but it is difficult for people to see the effects over just a few years because the process takes a long time. This is not a far-fetched phenomenon as the world has seen wild climate events that destroyed cities, livelihoods and most importantly life (animal life included).


and 2010 was caused by fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. To reach the 2 °C target, the experts warned that the global energy supply must dramatically change, with at least a tripling of the use of “zero and low-carbon” energy, such as renewables or switching to wind and solar power,

On Monday climate experts, known as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the much anticipated IPCC report. This report is a progress report following the decision on the adoption of the Paris Agreement, by the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at its 21st Session in Paris, France (30 November to 11 December 2015). They invited the IPCC to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above preindustrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. The report make it crystal clear what is at stake, and no government can justifiably say the case hasn’t been made for strong and urgent action. Without further action, temperatures will increase from about four to five per cent compared with preindustrial levels. Even a slight change in this could be fatal and this could see the loss of life, it could lead to the extinction of some species. However the only thing that’s standing in the way is political will and lack of international unity, as shown in the paragraph below.


frica’s already high rates of under nutrition and low water supply & quality can be expected to increase compared to a scenario without climate change. To be specific, particularly vulnerable to these climatic changes are the rain-fed agricultural systems on which the livelihoods of a large proportion of the region’s population currently depend.

Upon election as the 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump announced that he was pulling the USA out of the Paris accord. This decision as surprising as it was, it was met with criticism by the rest of the world. A stark warning was given by the former UN General Secretary, Ban Ki Moon, who stated that “he is standing on the wrong side of history because his vision was politically shortsighted, and economically irresponsible and scientifically wrong”. This stance was virtually an attack on efforts to address climate change that governments have been working on for so long. The world does not need this at a time like this. What happens when temperatures rise above 1.5°C?

Carbon Brief created an excellent interactive page detailing the differences in climate impacts between 1.5°C and 2°C, based on 70 peerreviewed studies.  Generally speaking,

the IPCC report finds that “Climaterelated risks to health, livelihoods, food security, water supply, human security, and economic growth are projected to increase with global warming of 1.5°C and increase further with 2°C. The IPCC report concludes that a world with 2°C of global warming will lead to more heat-related deaths, smaller crop yields, worse extreme weather events, slower economic growth, more people in poverty, and increase the population facing water stress by up to 50% compared to a 1.5°C world. And the impacts will get progressively worse if temperatures warm beyond the 2°C limit. At the national level, fighting climate change means making drastic changes in how we generate electricity, how we get around everyday. According to the report almost 80 per cent of the emissions growth between 1970

Governments have to act fast, the scientist submitted their findings through the IPCC report and what remains to be seen is whether they will enact policies that are responsive to the warnings that have been given. The report is helpful in that it also seeks to give assistance and direction on strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty. What do we take away from the report?

The take-home message is that the faster we cut carbon pollution, the less severe impacts we’ll face. We’re not yet doing nearly enough, although the Paris agreement was an important first step, and countries that withdraw from it should become international pariahs. It is still not too late to act and mitigate, but that action has to be done as soon as yesterday to prevent the worst-case scenario. The report can be equated to a suspended sentence, the crime been, emitting more than the earth can handle and the sentence been a warming earth that will become uninhabitable and eventually expire.



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European Union Solar Renewable Energy Project Scores A First As Zimbabwe Moves Towards A Go Green Environment... By Nevson Mpofu

Zimbabwe in its consented effort to bring Renewable Energy home has been supported by European Union, SNV which is Netherlands Development Corporation and Davani Trust to develop spat of Solar Energy projects.


n a multi-faceted move to disseminate the outstanding Solar Energy Project, Zimbabwe Women Resource Centre and Network and Practical Action conducted a Media Tour to news showcase the work so far done. The Mashava Sustainable Solar Energy for Communities Project is located in Gwanda Matabeleland South 800 kilometers away from the capital city of Harare, Matabeleland South Province. It consists of 400 panels with each 255 watts .It generates 100 kilowatts of energy which supplies 3 Irrigation Schemes ,

Mangongoni , Sevasa and Rasta Gorge Irrigation , a clinic , Msendai Business Centre and Mashava . An Expert in the field of Solar who works for Practical Action, Zibanai Kisimusi said the project is highly targeting 10,000 families around the area . However he said only a minimum number is at the moment utilizing the Energy resource because of the high costs in terms of payment. ‘’The challenge is that people in the areas surrounded are paying money in order for them to get the energy provision. However, it is a blessing to those at the school, clinic and some who

can afford despite high costs. ‘’The cost of the renewable energy may sound high , but it’s not really high if we talk it in terms of energy utility for renewable energy support of the Green Energy for all . The high costs may be attributable to high standards of living. ‘’People in the area do farming along the Shashi and Thuli Rivers. This is their livelihood. This is Region 5 five, but they survive because of the Alluvial soils along the rivers . The soil is a bit fertile. They need water for sustainable Agriculture. The community has become livable particularly owing attention to Agricultural activities.’’ Mr Kisimisi said at the moment the community has means of survival because of the effort of these Humanitarian organizations which at first supplied energy for free. He pointed out that there is sustainability and livability in terms of Agriculture and food security because there are a total of 15 water pumps meant for the farming activities to move on well at the Gorge, Mangongoni and Sevasa schemes . ‘’Sustainability at the Centre of every development in terms of Agriculture is there yes because there are a total of 15 pumps , 8 hours supply . The Gorge has 41 farmers, Mangongoni 36 farmers and Sevasa 34 farmers, ‘’Sustainability’’, he reiterates, ‘’makes them be in a livable community. They are relying on both commercial crop farming and subsistence farming. They have better chances to feed the communities around the southern province. ‘’Livelihoods rely on this farming in support of this. However we call for more support though this may not completely do away poverty in the country. At list we reduce poverty and extreme hunger. As a country we move forward in success. Professor Maria Tsvere a Lecturer in Sustainable Livelihoods at Chinhoyi

University said it is a blessing to get donor funding done at the advantage of communities. However these people need training and input support in order for them to develop further. She also pointed that there is need for better models which practically must be put at the site, ‘’It is great work done by Donor Ag e n c i e s . Po v e r t y m a y b e reduced and food security lifted up . Communities need training. Secondly, the need for better models at the site so that this sounds and looks practical. ‘’The kind of models spells out more on what the donor agency shows as an example on the ground pertaining what is being done and how best through practical demonstrations activities are done and what they bring as profit to the community .’’ Giving a conclusion, Mazibisa came back into the discussion cycle. He said at the moment there is no smart –climate Agriculture. This, he said is impossible because of the Irrigation Technologies. He indicated that there is Flooding in terms of the Irrigation systems. Also Non-Governmental Organizations capacitating communities on smart climate, mitigation and adaptation and sustainable Environment are not yet quite active in the area. The project which started in 2015 is going down in 2019. It stood up at a cost of US 1 million dollars. However there are fears that this may become a failed project is planning, leading, organizing and controlling fails community people in terms of holistic and strategic management. NEVSON MPOFU is an award winning Media Practitioner currently lecturing on Community Development , HIV and AIDS. Email:


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The Good Food Festival A Celebration of Zimbabwe’s Traditional and Organic Food and Seed By Jennifer Mayer Background: The Zimbabwe Traditional and Organic Food Forum

he traditional Zimbabwean diet was historically highly diverse and nutritious. However, over the past 5 or 6 generations, people in Zimbabwe have moved away from traditional foods to a heavy reliance on processed foods, particularly maize. This shift has taken a toll on the health and nutrition of Zimbabweans on both ends of the malnutrition spectrum: 26.6% of children suffer from stunting linked to poor dietary diversity while 35% of adult women and 12% percent of men are overweight or obese. In 2014, lifestyle diseases killed 138,000 people – 31% of all deaths – in Zimbabwe (WHO). The Zimbabwe Traditional and Organic Food Forum seeks to change this. The Food Forum’s approach aims to treat the causes of nutrition problems rather than the symptoms. We do this through a range of activities— community outreach, product development, marketing campaigns, and capstone events like the annual Good Food Festival. As a network of like-minded organizations and individuals, our aim is to increase the consumption of nutritious traditional and organic foods. We work through multiple channels and efforts to re-establish a healthy food culture by changing the perception Zimbabweans have of local foods, facilitating a return to traditional ingredients and food preparations, and promoting the consumption of healthy local foods. The Food Forum considers this its core business and the Good Food Festival its most highprofile effort. About the Good Food Festival The first Traditional and Organic Food Festival took place in December 2013 and has become a popular annual event on the Harare calendar. Now in its 6th year and renamed the Good Food Festival, it is the only event in Zimbabwe that brings small holder farmers, food and seed producers together with consumers to interact, receive direct market feedback, and learn and exchange information, all in celebration of

A Celebration of Zimbabwe’s Traditional and Organic Food and Seed

October 18-20, 2018 Harare Botanical Gardens



healthy, sustainably produced local food. In the lead-up to the festival day, the Food Forum members bring together farmers, farmer organizations and agribusinesses from around the country for two days of exchange and market dialogue, creating huge value for farmers. Here is a quick overview of what’s in store for the 2018 Good Food Festival. Festival Day 1: Marketing Day (Thurs, Oct 18)

•Key speakers and workshops tailored to farmer-identified priority topics •A trade fair for the farmers to interact with larger buyers invited by the Festival •Support on marketing and merchandising for smallholders provided by marketing studentvolunteers from the University of Zimbabwe •Compilation of a farmer catalogue with contacts and available stocks Festival Day 2: Seed Expo (Fri, Oct 19)

• A seed swap for farmers to exchange seeds, organized by the Zimbabwe Seed Sovereignty Program • The day will build in discussions and activities designed to actively bring together representatives of informal seed networks, research and commercial seed producers to examine opportunities for expanding and improving seed access for traditional crops in Zimbabwe Festival Day 3: (Sat, Oct 20)

On Saturday, it’s all about celebrating the best of Zimbabwe’s food and seed. We’re making it even more exciting this year, as well as easier to explore.

Activities include:

• A wide variety of exhibitors offering a diverse array of unique and local products • A fantastic food court highlighting traditional Zimbabwean dishes, a wide range of African cuisines and even popular international cuisines that will use Zimbabwean ingredients into their national dishes • This year we’re bringing back the massively popular tie-in with Battle of the Chefs Harare in a fully equipped BOTC Chefs Pavilion where celebrity chefs will compete in food challenges using only traditional ingredients. In between chefs battles, the Pavilion will host cooking demonstrations where the audience can learn how to make delicious dishes with traditional ingredients and taste the results! • This year’s live music line up is incredible—starting off at 11am with Tariro neGitare, followed by Blessing Chimanga, Tamy Moyo and finishing up with Sylent Nqo. • There will be tons of fun and learning at the Kidz Zone, with games, competitions, face painting, storytelling, arts and crafts and kids cooking demonstrations. • The seed expo will continue on the festival day, so visitors can shop for novel plants and seeds

As the Food Festival is about raising awareness around healthy and traditional eating for Zimbabweans from all walks of life, it has been purposely maintained as a nearlyfree ($1 entry, free for kids under 12) public service event, and not a profitmaking enterprise. This means that the Food Forum works with a dozen funding partners each year, without whose support the Good Food Festival could not happen. We’re proud to partner with: • The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation’s Seed and Knowledge Initiative • The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization • Hivos • Bio-Innovation Zimbabwe • Afrideli • Four Seasons • Cluster Agricultural Development Services • Welt Hunger Hilfe • Battle of the Chefs Harare • Trocaire • UNDP’s Zimbabwe Resilience Building Fund



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Community Participation in Sustainable Biodiversity Management By Violet Makoto, Forestry Commission

Bee keeping in Practice-A demonstration at Qalabuze apiary in Fatima Village (Menyezwa Ward-Hwange District)

The Government of Zimbabwe is implementing a five-year Global Environment Facility (GEF) - funded program to support conservation initiatives in North Western Zimbabwe. The project known as the Hwange-Sanyati Biological Corridor Program has the overall objective to develop land use and resource management capacity of managers and communities in the Hwange-Sanyati Biological Corridor (HSBC) of Zimbabwe and is executed through the World Bank.


he Project focuses on three key environmental components; Forestry, Wildlife and Landscape Management with the Worldwide Fund for Natu re ( W W F ) , Fo re s t r y Commission, Environmental Management Agency (EMA), Parks and Wildlife Management Authority and the Communal Areas Management Program fo r In d i g e n o u s R e s o u rce s (CAMPFIRE) as the implementing agencies. Th e Fo re s t r y C o mp o n e nt supports improved forest and wildlife management activities in two gazetted forests (Ngamo and Sikumi) in Hwange as well as REDD+ activities as a tool for good forest stewardship in Zimbabwe. The objective of this component is to improve forest and land management across the HSBC area by developing tools to

Headman Victor Bitu of Magoli Village ( Ward 15-Hwange District)“the Forests are ours, the animals are ours. Forestry Commission is only here to help monitor and regulate the use of our resources.�

address land degradation, land use change and deforestation. Through the project, there has been improvement in the capacity of the forest protection unit to deal with the challenges of wildlife and timber poaching as the project has made significant investments in improving radio communication for better responsiveness by the forest protection unit and improving game water supply. Overall this has facilitated an improvement in delivery on the implementation of forest management op e ration a l pl an s by the Forestry Commission. More significantly, the HSBC project is piloting a REDD+ sub project in the two forests in order to build national capacity on Reducing Emissions from D e fo re s t a t i o n a n d fo re s t Degradation (REDD) in the country. REDD+ takes a critical look at the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of carbon stocks in developing countries. A total of 228 sampling plots have been established in Ngamo and Sikumi to quantify the above ground carbon stock for the purposes of trading on the carbon market. The potential social


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Magoli Village Community members, women and youth included demonstrate fire guard construction

Community engagement is imperative for any project success and the greatest challenge in the project area has been the existence of a divide between the communities and the Forestry Commission. Ngamo and Sikumi forests form the buffer area between the community and the Hwange National park and the project has come in to foster community engagement which has seen communities participating and playing a pivotal role in conservation activities like fire protection (through establishing of community fire brigades) as well as anti-poaching. The HSBC project forestry component has strengthened the relationship between communities and the Forestry Commission. Through engagement, understanding and a sense of ownership of the forest resources has been created and community leadership has taken an active role of in creating awareness


and environmental benefits of implementing this project include; improved provision of other ecosystem services (water quality regulation, ecotourism, provision of non-timber forest products) by the forests; biodiversity conservation; complimentary activities such as sustainable forest management and long term revenue streams for the communities and government.

A forest carbon-monitoring plot in Sikumi Forest

on the importance of protecting and conserving the forests and also mobilising the youth to participate in forest protection activities such as fireguard construction and firefighting. This has led to a gradual decline in forest fire occurrences through combined efforts with communities such as Magoli Village (Ward 15, Hwange district) whilst a decline in timber and wildlife poaching in the two forest estates has also been noted and attributed to community participation in anti-poaching activities To further incentivise the community towards forest conservation, the HSBC project is supporting a forestbased enterprise of beekeeping. Bee-farmer field schools have been established and selected farmers have been supported in setting up apiaries

in the forest area to establish a honey value chain. This mutually benefits the farmers (as they derive income for livelihood enhancement through the sale of honey and other beekeeping products) and the forest conservation agenda (as farmers intensify their efforts to protect the forest from which their bees forage). Farmers are educated on sustainable ways of beekeeping which encompass the use of modern beehives like the Kenyan Top Bar (KTB) and Langstroth hives. This is a shift from use of traditional hives which were made from tree logs and tree barks and therefore not friendly to the environment. Harvesting techniques are also pro-conservation as they do not cause forests fires in the forests.

Violet Makoto is the Information and Communications Manager at the Forestry Commission Email:

Tel: 04-498436-9 Email: Forestry Commission is a parastatal under the Ministry of Environment, Tourism and Hospitality Industry contributing to national socio-economic development through regulation and capacity enhancement in the utilization and management of forest resources. Its mandate is derived from the Forest Act (Chapter 19.05 as amended in 1999) and the Communal Lands Forest Produce Act (Chapter 20 of 1987), which provides for the Regulation of Forestry Sector; Forestry Extension, Management of gazetted forests; Forestry Research and Training; and Income Generation.


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Value addition of coal fines and sawdust to briquettes using molasses as a binder

(Dr. Mercy Manyuchi (Pr. Eng; CEng, MZweIE)

Dr. Mercy Manyuchi (Pr. Eng) @MercyManyuchi

Read More Papers by Dr. Mercy Manyuchi are available online and you can get updates when she publishes new papers at https://hit-ac.academia. edu/MercyManyuchi

(Dr. Mercy Manyuchi (Pr. Eng; CEng, MZweIE)

In this study, the potential to generate electricity from sewage sludge biogas harnessed from municipal sewage plants was investigated. Two sewage plants Crow borough and Marlborough were investigated as the potential raw material suppliers for the b i og a s g e n e ra t i o n . S e w a g e s l u d g e s a m p l e s we re co . . .

Integrative Municipal Sewage Sludge Management through Biogas Production: A Case Study of Municipal Plants in Harare, Zimbabwe

Value addition of brewers spent grains to bio coal using hydrothermal carbonization

(Dr. Mercy Manyuchi (Pr. Eng; CEng, MZweIE)

Harare Institute Of Technology, Chemical And Process Systems Engineering, Faculty Member

Nutrient Removal from Wastewater through Bio augmentation

In this study, the co-briquetting of coal fines saw dust and molasses as a binder is explored as an option for value addition of the wastes generated in the various industries. T h e e ff e c t o f t h e s a w d u s t concentration and the molasses concentration was investigated through measuring the briquette... 02

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In this study, the potential to generate electricity from sewage sludge biogas harnessed from municipal sewage plants was investigated. Two sewage plants Crow borough and Marlborough were investigated as the potential raw material suppliers for the biogas generation. Sewage sludge samples were co...

Tweeted News Sustainable Development in Zimbabwe Use #SustainZim and follow us on twitter @SustainZimbabwe


(Dr. Mercy Manyuchi (Pr. Eng; CEng, MZweIE)

The production of alternative energy sources from waste residues is increasingly becoming popular. This paper focuses on the value addition of brewery spent grains waste by converting it to bio coal using hydrothermal carbonization. Brewery spent grains (BSG) from a local brewery company were use...

Grow oyster mushrooms in 5 easy steps STEP 1



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Dry cotton seed hulls, a by product of cooking oil extraction from cotton seed.

Wet and pasteurized cotton waste, ready for spawning “planting”

1 Day

1 Day

Mushroom spawn (“seed”) that is mixed with cotton seed hulls to make a block as shown in step 4. Spawning/planting takes one day to complete, and one waits fourteen days to get to step 4 14 Days



Mushroom block fully covered with fungi and developing Mushroom pinheads (“germination”) in about 5 days mushrooms will be ready for harvesting. 5 Days 0773 842 677 @mushtella Mushtella Specialty Mushrooms

Mushroom block with mushrooms ready for harvesting.

5 Days


It takes about

DAYS 30 days to Harvest.


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Citizens’ Statement On The Current Energy Situation In Zimbabwe By Wellington Madumira, ZERO Statement 18/10/18

On the 17 and 28th of August 2018, ZERO Regional Environment Organization, the civil society coordinator of Green and Inclusive Energy (GIE), in collaboration with Hivos the finance and technical supporter held a citizen engagement meeting. The objective of the meeting were: 1. To raise awareness of role renewable energy and energy efficiency amongst urban communities 2. To stimulate renewable energy and energy efficiency debate that will trigger the development of pro poor energy efficiency policy 3. To enhance networking amongst urban residents in Zimbabwe on energy issues

WE, the citizens of Zimbabwe, who in the past years, have been experiencing power outages have come together to articulate a shared vision for the renewable energy sector in Zimbabwe we want, make the following observations and statement concerning the Zimbabwe’s energy sector. With the current international drive on climate change, renewable energy presents a most viable and welcome opportunity to supply energy without harming the environment. WE celebrate that Zimbabwe has a number of laws that affect renewable energy development, some lying within the jurisdiction of the parent Ministry (MEPD) and others in other ministries, especially the draft Renewable energy policy and the energy policy of 2012 among others. We applaud and are proud of the penetration of renewable energy technology in the energy space especially solar energy. WHILE welcoming the licensing of Independent power producers as well as removal of duty on renewable energy products especially solar panels, we seek to call attention to the fact that: • Access to electricity in the urban areas has been stagnant at around 85% since 1990 while that of the rural areas doubled from around 8% to 16%. This may be attributed to rural electrification Programme. However, the overall electricity access level is around 40% and chances of Zimbabwe attain 100% in the next 12 years are very slim. The global access

levels are 97% for urban, 76% for rural and 87% for the total population. • The access to sustainable cooking fuels for Zimbabwe is 30% (as of 2015) while the global average is 59%. WE affirm and defend the citizens to have access to abundant, safe, clean and affordable energy. We stand guided by SDG number 7 and the targets on access to modern energy services, energy efficiency improvement and share of renewable energy in the energy mix we set for ourselves in the Action Agenda and investment prospectus document. WE unequivocally ask for the Government to provide adequate and sustainable energy supply through formulating and implementing effective policies and regulatory frameworks. The government should provide a welcoming environment to investors who want to invest into energy through implementing what is in the Action Agenda and Investment Prospect document of 2016. The government should give subsides on energy projects and also lower duties and tariffs on all energy related imports. FURTHER, WE call on the Government to replicate Projects started by NGOs at bigger scale. And we also call for the Launch of the renewable energy policy for it to be a working document and start working on the energy efficiency policy document which is critical if we are to promote energy efficiency as a country. Also important to mention are laws proposed by MEPD contained in the National Energy Policy Implementation Strategy (NEPIS) document but which have not yet been developed. These include the Energy Management Act which shall include legal provisions to empower the Minister of Energy to have oversight over all energy resources and energy related cross-cutting issues such as energy pricing, product and service quality, energy efficiency and demand side management (NEPIS Document

p.39), and the Energy Research Act to provide for policy defining target budget and funding for energy related research and development. WE also register our concerns on the SI 21 of 2017 (section 4(1)) which speaks about banning of importation, selling or manufacturing of inefficient lighting products. This SI is good but is lacking implementation because in some areas these inefficient bulbs are still in place at affordable price as compared to the efficient lighting products. AND also in the market the appliances which use less energy efficient are expensive to acquire as compared to inefficient appliances. We express deep concern over the presence of contrabands products in the market which is affecting our perception towards renewable energy products. With that we call upon Zimbabwe Energy Regulatory Authority (ZERA) and Standard Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ) to work together in making sure that the products on the market are genuine products. And the Government must implement policies on the quality of electrical appliances to be sold and/ or imported FURTHERMORE, we remind all energy stakeholders that WE lack capacity building on energy issues especially on installation and

maintenance of energy products and how to properly and effectively practice energ y efficiency at household level. AND TO THE Private sector companies both suppliers and manufactures of energy products, CAN you introduce payment plans that we afford and also decentralize your outlets. We also call upon the manufactures to open plants for the production of renewable energy products so that we have our own products that suit our own environment. This will boost our local industries. Lastly furnish us with genuine products so that our perception towards renewable energy products can change for better. To non-state actors, continue raise awareness on energy issues especially energy efficiency and renewable energy. We also lack technical expertise on solar installations because we fail to venture into solar because we are not really aware of what solar energy can really do to us. GOING FORWARD, we the citizens, commit to practice energy efficiency so as to save our electricity. Some of the practices we are going to practice includes to switch off the lights during the day, switch off plugs that are not in use, Always keep the fridges closed among other energy efficiency practices and also buy energy efficient appliances among others. For further information Contact: ZERO Regional Environment Organisation 158 Fife Avenue Greenwood Park Tel +263 794637 Cell 0774418778 or 0733300741 Website:

visit our website now! Instagram: @stockproviders


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Saving the Samanga Baboons and Climate Change By Raymond Muwaniri, POVOAfrika Trust

Samanga is an area located in Honde Valley, Manicaland, 120 km from Mutare under Chief Mutasa. Honde Valley is a unique area in region 1 of Zimbabwe, the soil is very fertile with plenty of rainfall, probably the highest in the country. Due to this climate, the valley has biodiversity that is unique to the area. As far back as the 90’s, Honde Valley had lush vegetation, plenty of water and wild spaces.


ast forward 20 years and things couldn’t be more different, the lush vegetation has been replaced by banana plantations, water is limited depending on the time of the year and there are no more wild spaces. Every patch of land is now inhabited or owned by somebody thanks to the village heads who keep allocating land, illegally. Villagers can no longer own cattle because there is no more herding space, affecting their livelihood where cattle are traditionally seen as a symbol of wealth. Bananas have become the new cash crop in the region, they need plenty of sunlight and water which Honde Valley has in abundance. With the soil being very fertile and plenty of rainfall, more people are cutting down forests to make way for banana plantations. Bananas are grown commercially in only 3 regions of Zimbabwe, Honde Valley, Burma Valley and Chipinge. The demand for this cash crop has made it a mono culture with everyone getting involved, leading to the loss of habitat for the local wildlife including the Samanga baboons. These baboons are a unique species only found in the Samanga hills and they are facing local extinction if nothing is done, hence this article. The baboons have been pushed into pockets, habitat patches on the hills sounded by banana farms. They are at risk of inbreeding, affecting the gene pool and natural behaviour. Due to this loss of habitat, less food is available to the baboons, they resort to eating bananas causing a backlash from the farmers whereby they are hunted using dogs, further decreasing their numbers. Banana plantations have not only changed the landscape but other elements in the region. Plenty of water is needed for banana production, water is piped from the local rivers and streams, water

Dogs chasing a Samanga baboon

What remains of a local river, with bananas being planted down to the river bank

that should be going downstream supporting biodiversity and the people further down. In the dry season there is less water to go around, villagers are taking each other to traditional courts as local tension increases over land and water disputes. Smaller farmers are coming together to form cooperatives,

which collectively put money together to obtain larger pipes and placing them further upstream. Farmers are undercutting each other by placing larger pipes further upstream, closer to the source, having disastrous effects on the environment dependent on these natural springs. All these developments

are causing there to be less water for aquatic life, the baboons and other creatures dependent on these water systems. To add, too much fertilisers are being applied to the soil for maximise production, the excess runs off into the rivers and streams contaminating the water and killing


Q3 I S S U E 1 1 / 1 8 13

Local stream replaced by pipes


Samanga Hills

Land being cleared for banana planting

aquatic life. The whole water system is being affected. Deforestation in the valley is also contributing to climate change, trees and plants are responsible for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and converting to oxygen. The more the forests are cut down, the less CO2 captured, contributing to climate change. CO2 is also stored in the ground, so when an area is cleared, burnt and dug up for cultivation, CO2 trapped in the ground is released into the atmosphere. Climate Change affects the availability of water, especially in the dry season. This pushes villagers to expand and improve their food production, resulting in more forests being cut down. Honde Valley has a unique micro climate, vapour from trees and plants collectively moves up the mountains forming clouds which release rain. So, less trees means less water vapour rising, less rainfall, hotter and drier seasons. The rains are

workshops aimed at the farmers, local youths and leadership. They need to be informed on what is really happening on the ground and collectively come up with alternative income generating activities. For example; eco-tourism, Mutarazi falls (2nd tallest in Africa) and the famous Eastern Highlands are in Honde Valley. Government and the NGO sector need to create local employment and make it conducive for; solar farming, biogas production, conservation farming, mini hydro, water harvesting, afforestation and fish farming. Recently US AID were celebrating the success of its banana farmers in Honde Valley. In most circumstances this would benefit the community, boosting the local economy. In this instance it is coming at the cost of the environment. Studies need to be conducted to find

also coming late, the rainy season used to start in October less than 2 decades ago, last year the first rains came in late December. A sure sign the climate is changing. With water being piped into the plantations, there is less surface water for evaporation. Less evaporation means less rainfall, the whole micro climate is affected. Water is the derivative of climate, it is being drained for human activity at an alarming rate, rather than being absorbed into the natural systems. Bananas are transported out daily, increasing the number of vehicle coming in and out of the valley. These vehicles emit more CO2 especially when carrying heavy loads, contributing to climate change. The valley becoming hotter and drier impacts the Samanga baboons as less food and water is available to them. Climate change affects the space becoming the constriction on the baboon’s habitat. To tackle the above issues, I propose awareness and capacity building

Plantations replacing wild spaces, Banana Valley

out the remaining number of the Samanga baboons and the amount of habitat still available to them. Also, finding out how climate change is affecting their behaviour. More pressure needs to be applied on the local council, the MP and other leadership to enforce regulations on land allocation and irrigation pipes. We need to influence youths, policy makers and government to come up with more effective habitat conservation strategies. To save the Samanga baboons we need to find a balance between human needs and those of nature. We need to promote more environmentally friendly practices that ultimately cater for people’s livelihoods and the local biodiversity.


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Defining Sustainability By Karen Maturure


he first time I heard the word sustainability was during a lecture in college, or perhaps let’s say that was my first memory of it. Like many other students, I then attached the word to high level topics such as international and national environmental policies etc. Before recent enlightenment Sustainability was indeed a complicated term that I associated with occurrences beyond my ordinary, daily life. If somehow you have had a similar experience this article is for you, it will be a worthwhile journey to unpack the meaning of this seemingly popular word in terms of usage especially in discussions around the environment. Sustainable development (SD) is a holistic and systemic phenomenon that. . . . No this is not that kind of article. I will speak in a language that is not of professors and that is more colourful. My aim is to bring sustainability closer to home and to also help you understand the concepts related to the term. Let’s start off with defining the word itself. In dictionaries, sustainability is typically described as a capability of a system to endure and maintain itself. Sustainability, however, has many more other definitions but that are not too far from this one. The next definition I encountered was: Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment. Another definition I encountered was that Sustainability is the process of maintaining change in a balanced fashion, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. What all these definitions have in common is that they all speak of the ability to thrive and with a balance within a system of dependency whilst there is a clear focus on the future. This simply means they all echo the need for a balance, highlight how economic, social and environmental aspects are

connected and finally the importance of keeping the future in mind. This is what sustainability is about. Now let’s look at some concepts that will help us understand sustainability a little bit more. Fi rst le t’s lo ok at the word Development- This is the growth of an individual, society, a nation or entire world in terms of economic as well as non- economic activities. From the 1980s, sustainability as a term has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this leads us to the concept of sustainable development which is defined by the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations (March 20. 1987) as follows: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainable development involves env ironment al, economic and social aspects and these are the three pillars. For a particular process to be sustainable, it should not cause irreversible change to the environment, should be economically viable, and should benefit society. This means the three pillars are interdependent or rather are connected and in the long run none can exist without the others. The environmental aspect is about making sure ecological integrity is maintained, all of earth’s environmental systems are kept in balance while natural resources within them are consumed by humans at a rate where they are able to replenish themselves. The economic aspect involves human communities across the globe are able to maintain their independence and have access to the resources that they require, financial and other, to meet their needs. The social aspect is about making sure universal human rights and basic necessities are attainable by all people, who have access to enough resources in order to keep their families and communities healthy and secure. Also healthy communities have just leaders who ensure personal, labour and cultural rights are respected and all people are protected from discrimination. Although all three pillars are important, the environmental pillar has been the most emphasised and often the other two are discussed in relation to it.

This takes us to the concept of Sustainable Development GoalsThe Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the current set of seventeen future international development targets, set by the United Nations that replaced the Millennium Development Goals that expired in 2015. Another term related to Sustainable development is the Ecological Footprint – This is the measure of consumption of the earth’s carrying capacity. Here we are saying that the earth has its limits and we have to thrive to stay within that limit. This concept emphasizes the need for us to save resources and be more responsible as we consume the earth’s resources. Lastly we have the Carbon footprintThis measures how much you are contributing to the gases that cause global climate change; also known as “greenhouse gases”; such as Carbon dioxide usually attributed to the use of energy. So why should you be spending time reading about these concepts? As I mentioned before, sustainability is more than just an agenda of high level meetings at the United Nations but something that should be considered as part of our daily decisions. Living sustainably or sustainable living is important in the light of climate change and global warming, the depletion of natural resources and the impact of these on all life on earth. What this means is that as an individual there are repercussions of your everyday choices. Sustainability means your life and your choices have a direct influence on the lives of others and generation s to come. What this means is that sustainability entails a responsibility we all have on a daily basis. So for example, when you dispose of things, do you separate your waste, do you try to reuse whenever you can and do you try to avoid unnecessary plastic packaging? When buying products are you considering reusable versions? Let me help you reflect more by adding a few more questions. In terms of water use, are you saving water as much as you can? Do you ensure that you close all taps after use or ensure minimal use when you do your dishes, laundry or when you shower? Have you fixed that “small” leak from the toilet or bathroom? Water conservation is critical in light of the growing population and the many drought cases in the world.

In light of bringing sustainability to your daily context I could also ask this: Have you made the switch to energy efficient versions that come with longer life span and a reduction on your energy bill? This is also because using these energy saving light sources will also have the benefit of reducing the amount of waste that goes in t landfills. Another enquiry would be: Are you contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and more healthy soil by growing trees in your yard or simply having a small garden? Remember that growing your own food is also an economically sustainable practice. Also of importance is minimizing the use of paper and moving towards a paperless homes or offices in a bid to reduce deforestation. Lastly has your car been serviced recently? This is important because keeping your car in a good condition can improve e your fuel efficiency and reduce emission of harmful gases. All in all are you practicing a “minimalist life style” which is making sure that everything you own and use is put to maximum purpose? Before you purchase anything ask yourself if it’s really something you need. The “Reduce, reuse, recycle” mantra is still very much important and it simply means reduce your consumption levels, reuse certain items you will have bought and recycle valuable material otherwise considered to be trash. Its ok if your answer to most of these questions was a No, assuming that you were not aware of the bigger picture, but with your newly found knowledge comes with a new responsibility. We all need to take effective action to actually achieve the sustainability of all that we need or depend on and all that we love. Altogether sustainability has multiple definitions and has many concepts related to it. Understanding the concept of sustainability is now more than ever important as we work towards saving key natural resources for generations to come, having healthy communities, clean air, enough drinkable water, cultivatable land and other resources. After all is said and done, looking after our social, economic and physical environment is something we should all be part of as we keep in mind the kind of future we want for ourselves and generations that are yet to exist.


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Solar Irrigation restores food security to a starving community By Innocent Katsande, Practical Action

56-year-old Sharon Sibanda is a single mother of four children and a grandmother of three from Patana village Ward 24 in Gwanda District, Southern part of Zimbabwe.

“Before the solar water came in, we depended on rain fed agriculture and it was difficult, we would plough and plant expecting the rains but the rain would not come, our crops would get burnt” said Sharon. In an effort to supplement for the failed crops in the field, the irrigation scheme which Sharon is a part of had been heavily reliant on diesel engines for water pumping however this was not without its challenges. “We used to have six diesel engines but all are no longer working, they died. It was difficult and expen- sive for us with the income we get to maintain and pay for the repairs” she said. Without reliable access to water for irrigation both their dry land and irrigation plots suffered and were not able to produce a harvest. “Due to the changing climate, the rainfall became even more less reliable, we suffered from starvation, we survived on social welfare and food aid from donors” said Sharon. Th r o u g h t h e S u s t a i n a b l e Electricity for Rural Communities’ project, Practical Action in

response to the food need in this community was able to install a solar power system which is now powering water into the irrigation canals. “It had been 15 years since we left this irrigation scheme but now we are back, when the solar system was installed we had to clear ten hectares of land to open up the field for cultivation” said Sharon. Where the 68 hectares of an irrigation Scheme used to be, had become a thick forest but now it has been cleared up. The solar water pumping system has been able to bring back the life and passion farmers of this community have in food production and agricultural activities. “This Solar system has helped us a lot, it is less Labour intensive and more reliable, the engines would break down often and where very expensive to fuel and maintain for us” said Sharon. “While in the midst of our challenges, we have found joy, we now have something to look forward to, we now have food. We were at home doing nothing, but now having access to water has given us the strength and capacity we needed to produce food. My family is happy; we now have something to live on”. She said.



aising a family of eight as a single mother has never been easy for her, she struggled to put food on the table and take care of her family’s daily needs. All she could and knew to do was faming however the planting seasons had not been generous and the changing climate made it worse.


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Food security and Climate change

The Green Snippets FORESTRY

Forest Regulations, Laws and Statutory Instruments in Zim Zimbabwe has a very high level of biodiversity, and the dominant forest ecosystems in the country can be loosely grouped into Flora Zambeziaca and Afromontane phyto-regions and exotic plantations found in the Eastern Highlands, Manicaland Province. The Flora Zambeziaca phyto-region has five woodland types named according to the dominant species, miombo -- musasa and munhondo trees, mopane, teak -- mukusi in the deep Kalahari sands in the central and western part of the country and terminalia/ combretum -- mususu and mugobo. About 53 percent of the country is covered by woodland forests and shrubs, and 43 percent of the forest land is designated as communal forest that provide a variety of valuable products that are key to the livelihoods of both rural and urban communities.

“Fundamental initiatives for Zimbabwe” By Edson Dambaz


he African continent will be the most affected by climate change, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In a region where 70 percent of inhabitants still directly rely on the land for their livelihoods, the amount of usable land is decreasing as the number of people who need it is increasing. With the need for food increasing fast, some farmers are exhausting their soils, thereby preventing their replenishment.

These include widespread degradation of cropland and loss of forest cover, affecting arable land which has been hit by soil erosion, nutrient depletion and deforestation. Hence, it makes no economic sense for farmers to apply expensive fertilizers on soil that is too degraded to allow the fertilizers to do their job. And farmers who aren’t sure of their rights to the land and its resources may be reluctant to invest in longer term actions needed to restore soil fertility. In addition, it has to be noted that global challenges in the 21st Century have reached unprecedented levels of complexity and magnitude. Chief among them are food insecurity, climate change, and environmental degradation. Addressing these challenges will require urgent, innovative, and lasting solutions underpinned by the concerted efforts on the part of the global community. Zimbabwe need not to lag behind on these significant moves if ever we are to safeguard against the adverse impacts of this climate change saga. Meanwhile globally, agriculture accounts for 24 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including 11 percent from deforestation and land


A Call to Action for Africa’s Biodiversity Crisis


So far, many efforts to grow more food in Zimbabwe have focused on the increased use of mineral fertilizers, improved seed and strengthening targeted agricultural value chains. This is reasonable. While ongoing programs supporting agricultural development in the country are laudable, they have not yet sufficiently addressed several fundamental causes of reduced resilience to climate change and increasing food insecurity.


use change. Annually a significant amount of farm land in the country and region become so degraded from unsustainable agricultural practices that they are abandoned, pushing some farmers to clear more forest for cultivation. It would be unwise and unnecessary to keep expanding the area of cropland by cutting down carbon-rich forests that support millions of people. However, innovative farmers in some parts of the world have demonstrated what can be done at scale to sustainably increase food production without contributing to deforestation. These include, restoring agroforestry parklands, increasing the density of nitrogenfixing trees on farms, investing in rainwater harvesting, adopting conservation agriculture and integrated soil fertility management to reclaim degraded land, restore cropland productivity and improve food security. These improved practices are at the core of climate smart agriculture. Apart from that, current research in Zimbabwe has not adequately addressed the socio-economic dimensions of climate change and food security. The economics of adaptation and mitigation, as well

Former President of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo, has called on his fellow African leaders to take action to tackle the current biodiversity crisis facing the continent and do more to protect Africa’s natural resources. This comes in light of the Living Planet Index’s release last week, which showed that species have declined by 60 percent on average. As a continent that relies so heavily on biodiversity for food, water, jobs and cultural heritage the President has urged African policy makers to take action when they meet at the African Biodiversity Summit later this month. Earlier this year I had the great privilege of travelling to Rwanda to take part in the unique Kwita Izina ceremony. This ceremony celebrates Rwanda’s treasured gorilla population by inviting friends to come and name the years’ new-born babies. [Source:


as linkages between climate change, human health, water, food systems, and food security have been the least studied. That being the case, the development of a common conceptual and methodological framework for vulnerability and adaptation case studies would greatly assist in generating results that could be compared, up scaled, and used to inform adaptation plans and programs regarding the nation’s ability to prepare and implement mitigation and adaptation strategies in relation to food security.

1000MW renewable energy by 2025 Zimbabwe Is set to increase renewable energy investments in line with the global climate change mitigation measures with a target of generating 1000MW clean energy by 2025. Given the reality of climate and its impact on economies and livelihoods in particular, global leaders are agreed that adoption of clean energy technology is an effective way of minimising negative effects. [Source:]


Hwange Sanyati Biological Corridor Project

The Hwange Sanyati Biodiversity Corridor (HSBC) project covers an area of 5.7 million ha in north western Zimbabwe and falls within the Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) Trans-frontier Conservation Area (TFCA). It is a $6.4 million project being funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) over 5 years. World Bank is the implementing agency for the project, WWF is the activities implementing entity and the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Management is the coordinating authority. Key project partners are: Parks and Wildlife Management Authority; CAMPFIRE Association; Environmental Management Agency; and the Forestry Commission. [Source:http:/ /]


Zimbabwe: Sugar Annual

FB: Mushtella Specialty Mushrooms Tw: @mushtella

Post forecasts that sugar cane production in Zimbabwe will increase by 9 percent to 3.5 million MT in the 2018/19 MY, based on a return to normal weather after the previous year’s drought and improved sugar cane yields from more available irrigation water. Post forecasts that sugar production in Zimbabwe will increase by 17 percent to 460,000 MT in the 2018/19 MY, based on an increase in the quantity of sugar cane delivered to the mills and better quality sugar cane for crushing, resulting in good factory recoveries. Post forecasts that Zimbabwe will fully utilize the United States Tariff Rate Quota (TRQ) allocation for the 2018/19 MY. [Source:]

SustainZim - Issue 11