Guide to Sustainia
Exploring the sustainable society of tomorrow 2nd edition
GUIDE TO SUSTAINIA
EXPLORING THE SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY OF TOMORROW 2nd EDITION 3
The people behind 'Guide to Sustainia': Sustainia Founding Partners Realdania, DNV, Novo Nordisk, DONG Energy and Monday Morning Sustainia Knowledge Partners
Microsoft, Philips Lighting, VELUX, General Electric, Vestas, Tetra Pak, UBS Investment Bank, Rambøll, IKEA, SAS, Cisco, Gehl Architects Executive Director, Sustainia
& Editor of 'Guide to Sustainia' Laura Storm
Project Manager of 'Guide to Sustainia' Jakob Anker Hansen Lead Writers Laura Storm (Intro, Cities & Homes), Jakob Anker Hansen (Health), Justin Gerdes (Transportation), Morten Jastrup (Energy & Homes), Jakob Riiskjær (Energy), Solvej Karlshøj Christiansen (Fashion), Jonas EderHansen (Fashion), Summer Rayne Oakes (Fashion) Proofread Justin Gerdes Design of 2nd edition Lisa Haglund & Tine Vognsen Acknowledgement Claire Hamer (ASOS), Christian Smith (ASOS), Aaron Bolte (Future Fashion Guides), Marie Engberg (Future Fabrics), Mark Bannister (Echo Sourcing), Gauden Galea (WHO/Europe), Andy Haines (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine), Bjarne Bruun Jensen (Steno Diabetes Center), Christina Warren Schnohr (University of Copenhagen), Buvana Chinnaswamy (Novo Nordisk), Ray Pinto (Microsoft), Charles Nielsen (DONG Energy) The secretariat of Sustainia Monday Morning Valkendorfsgade 13, P.O. Box 1127 DK-1009 Copenhagen K Phone: +45 33939323 Email: Sustainia@mm.dk www.sustainia.me SUSTAINIA
Sustainia is initiated by Monday Morning, Scandinavias largest 54
1P rin t e
independent think tank and monthly magazine.
BUILDING THE WORLD OF TOMORROW
Contents FOREWORD 6-7
WELCOME TO SUSTAINIA 8-47 12
Why go to Sustainia?
Who is behind the vision of Sustainia?
The routes we can take to Sustainia
The language of Sustainia
Your home is not only good for you
Visiting a home in Sustainia
Home improvements – The Sustainian way
Four inspirational cases for sustainable buildings
energy 106-135 110
Powered by nature
The energy system of Sustainia – a smart energy system is like pieces in a puzzle
Introducing the pieces on Sustainia Island
The eight pieces of the puzzle
Giving cities a make-over
Putting the pieces together
Smart and efficient cities
New eco-cities = incubators for creative innovation
Cities built for people – by people 4
Guide to Sustainia
TRANSPORTATION 136-155 140
Shadow three Sustainians on their daily commutes
142 Getting around is easy in Sustainia 146
Smart transport makes urban living easy in Sustainia
150 Rural living and trade are simple and efficient in Sustainia
HEALTH 156-187 160
Four exhibits from the unhealthy society
Sustainia: A healthy new beginning
Visiting healthy Sustainia
The Healthy Town
Health promotion in Sustainia
Patient care in Sustainia
Fashion in Sustainia
How-to guides for the industry, the retailer etc.
What are women wearing?
What are men wearing?
Inspire people to dare dream about a better future Sustainia is about making what may seem impossible a reality. We know climate change is real; it threatens the health of the planet and the people who share it. We know natural resources are scarce. We know we are on an unsustainable path. But we often act like we have no alternative. Sustainia aims to change this false perception. Innovative businesses, cities, and developers are already assembling the nuts, bolts, and designs of a more sustainable future. Sustainia compiles real initiatives and real technologies from around the world into an entirely attainable blueprint for a sustainable tomorrow. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tell people about this. Empower them to demand a sustainable lifestyle.
The Guide to Sustainia introduces you to the world of Sustainia. On the pages to follow, we explain how sustainable societies will unfold. We take you on a tour of our homes and cities. We show you how we get around, how we dress, and where our energy comes from. We show you that a sustainable society is not futuristic science fiction or out of reach â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it is possible. Such is the purpose of this book: Painting a fact-based, realistic picture of a desirable future. In this 2nd edition, we have added new elements and improved others. We added chapters on health and fashion, as we believe sustainability is also about your health and well-being and the clothes you wear. But we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t intend to stop there. We plan to add chapters on more key elements and sectors of a sustainable society in the coming years.
We look forward to taking you on a tour of Sustainia, to presenting you with the arguments for and the benefits of a more sustainable tomorrow, and empowering you to decide on a path for your future. Hopefully you come away inspired. Curious. And intrigued. If so, do join us and our community on the road to Sustainia.
Laura Storm Executive Director, SUSTAINIA
"If you want to build a ship, don't drum up people to collect wood and don't assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea." Antoine de Saint ExupĂŠry
WELCOME TO sustaInia
Welcome to Sustainia Sustainia is a destination. A destination we could reach only 10 years from now if we wanted to live healthier, wealthier, and more sustainable lives. Sustainia is not futuristic science fiction; it is a concrete and realistic proposal on how we could live a better life 10 years from now. It is not tomorrow, but close. This could happen now if we boldly implemented solutions already available1. Ten years is close enough for us to be able to forecast with a high degree of precision. Thanks to years of scientific research, development, innovation, and exchange of ideas between companies and universities, we have a good idea of what is possible and what will help us create a sustainable and healthy society. Sustainia is our vision of what a sustainable world would look like, and be like to live in. It is not Utopia or a distant dream. We base our vision and concept of Sustainia on facts, solutions, and ready and available technologies2. We draw on a rich pool of authoritative sources that includes the world’s leading universities and most respected global institutions, organizations, and corporations3. Together, they provide a solid platform of research, know how, analysis, forecasts, and experience.
In building the Sustainia vision, we have shamelessly reaped intelligence and analysis from a number of recent scenarios with a “sustainability” component. We would especially like to highlight: • International Energy Agency: Scenarios and Projections. • Shell: “Shell Energy Scenarios to 2050” (2009) and “Signals & Signposts” (2010).The Shell scenario work over the last three decades. • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s “IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios” (2000), which suggested 40 scenario families, the so-called SRES-scenarios. • National Intelligence Center: “Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World” (2008), NIC provides intelligence for the U.S. government. • SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050.
This guide will take you on a journey to Sustainia. It is fascinating cities you wouldn’t want to leave. It is attractive homes where you would want to live. We will give you a clear and concrete insight into how Sustainians – our citizens – are getting around, how they live, the clothes they wear, and how their health has improved. We don’t expect to live in a picture-perfect world in 10 years. We will still have a long way to go then,
Sustainia is a place where quality of life matters. It’s a desirable place. A place you would want to go, if you knew about it. Once there, you would want to stay, make a life for yourself and your family.
but what we do believe is the power in inspiring others to see where we could go together. We want to put forward a vision that motivates and inspires people. A clear concept of what sustainable living means, communicated in a language most people can understand and relate to. We believe firmly in empowering people by opening their minds to the benefits of a sustainable society. If we make business leaders and civil society aware of the possibilities, they have the power to move society in a more sustainable direction. A decade from now we will still face immense challenges, but by starting now we can mark the beginning of a systems transformation4. Sustainia is a step in that direction. It is a step towards the ultimate goal defined by the Brundtland Commission on Sustainable Development in 19925: Letting future generations enjoy the same opportunities as we do today. In Sustainia, we will drive cooler cars, live in smarter houses, and eat healthier food. Our cities 11
will be built for people, not cars. Our families will enjoy cleaner air and water. We will wear clothes that don’t cause allergic reactions nor poison our rivers and drinking water. We look forward to showing you around.
1 Copenhagen Climate Council & ClimatesWorks Foundation. 2009. The business case for a strong global deal. 2 An extensive body of studies explore roadmaps and blueprints towards 2020, 2030, and 2050, most linked to the UN negotiating process known as COPs (Conference of Parties) aimed at agreeing on a global convention to prevent dangerous climate change, i.e. a 2 degree rise in global mean temperature above pre-industrial levels, through reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses. IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. McKinsey
& Company. 2007. In McKinsey Quarterly - A cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction. OECD/IEA. 2010. World Energy Outlook 2010. 3 See the back page of this publication for an overview of our partners 4 Green Growth Leaders/ UC Berkeley: “Shaping The Green Growth Economy,” 2011. 5 The UN Commission on Sustainable Development, 1992.
Why go to Sustainia? flected in the “old” economic model. The price of a product was based on the cost of human resources and materials, not the cost of pollution, waste, or natural resource depletion.
The global rates of natural resource exploitation, resource consumption, and pollution today simply aren’t sustainable. Ever more people are being added on a planet that is warming6 (absent action, we’re heading towards a 6 degree Celsius temperature rise scenario7) and running out of critical natural resources. These are global challenges in a globalized world. The response has to be coordinated and collaborative. Environmental problems are interconnected through a well-balanced and complex global ecosystem. If we alter one part, we risk impacting other parts – or tipping the balance altogether8.
We hope to inspire people and make them realize that a sustainable life is not one of scarcity and limitations. It can be a great life were we conserve resources, pollute much less, use clean energy from renewable sources, and think carefully about how we produce and consume.
And the effects follow specific timebound trajectories9. Global emissions of CO2 must be reduced by at least 5085 percent in 2050. If we don’t initiate a sustainable trajectory today, so that emissions peak no later than 2020, we will not be able to prevent runaway climate change10.
We intend to make people excited about sustainable living, to want a sustainable lifestyle for themselves and their families. We believe the world has lacked a clear vision, like Sustainia, that illustrates the benefits of and provides arguments for sustainable living in a way that is relevant to the consumer, the investor, the teacher, the politician, and the business leader.
The full value of natural resources was, unfortunately, not generally re-
The good news is that we have the ability to change this scenario to a more promising one. We have the solutions, technologies, and innovations needed to become more sustainable. That is the vision we share in the pages to follow.
International Energy Agency and 10 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, InterWorld Bank. national Energy Agency & International Energy Agency. 8 Richardson, K. Steffen, W. Liver- World Bank. mann, D. 2011. Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions. Cambridge University Press. 9 IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 6
â&#x20AC;?We need initiatives that go beyond politics, this is why Sustainia is one of the most interesting things we have seen for years.â&#x20AC;? Helle Thorning-Schmidt Prime Minister of Denmark
Why a need for Sustainia? It is quite simple, really. A future that is appealing, engaging, and attractive, something you want to be a part of, has the power to promote change. Doomsday scenarios and pictures of melting icebergs can catch people’s attention for a moment but will never create the excitement and engagement necessary. These images create distance and are a barrier to action. For most people, the scientific data behind climate change and the actions they could take to create positive change are too complex10. We believe change comes when people know what exciting possibilities a sustainable future holds. They need a sense of how their everyday life could be improved by changing their routines and products to more sustainable ones. Soon, they realize there is such a thing as hedonistic sustainability. Sustainability is not about cold showers, shivering through winter, no cars, and no fun. Sustainability is about improving your quality of life. People seem unaware of what sustainability means for them,
how their homes and cities could be better. People are confused. And due to the way media, scientists, and politicians have communicated about sustainability, we don’t blame them. Sustainia is a positive and inspiring visualization of what sustainable living means: How will my life be better in a more sustainable world? What would have happened if Martin Luther King Jr. had said, “I have a nightmare”? Probably not much. But that is what many have done. Travelled the world with PowerPoint slides about fires, deserts, melting icebergs, and catastrophic floods. We have tried selling sustainable solutions by speaking to people’s fears or moral obligations. This has not created the change we need. People are not inspired, motivated, or engaged. Just the opposite. With Sustainia, we seek to communicate in a more empowering and exciting way about sustainable living, without discarding the urgency of the matter. We need Sustainia because we need a clear, positive, and well-argued notion of what sustainable living entails.
“Communicating the Science of Climate Change,” Somerville and Hassol, Physics Today, 2011.
WE BELIEVE CHANGE COMES WHEN PEOPLE KNOW WHAT EXCITING POSSIBILITIES A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE HOLDS. 15
â&#x20AC;&#x153;Motivation and inspiration for positive action will help us move forward towards a better future for all.â&#x20AC;? Gro Harlem Brundtland Former Prime Minister of Norway and Former Director General of WHO - member of the Sustainia Award Committee
Who is behind the vision of Sustainia? Behind Sustainia stands a group of experts, NGOs, foundations, companies, and communication experts. They have come together from different sectors, regions, and disciplines to develop a credible and tangible picture of a sustainable future .
Who ARE WE? Companies / Foundations • Realdania • Novo Nordisk • DNV, Det Norske Veritas • DONG Energy • Microsoft • Velux • Cisco • Philips Lighting • UBS Investment Bank • SAS Scandinavian Airlines • Knoll • Tetra Pak • InterfaceFLOR • IKEA • General Electric • Vestas • Rambøll • Gehl Architects
Our approach is shaped by long experience in sustainability – and frustration with the pace of change. We contend that in order for consumers, employees, and citizens to become agents of change at the speed and scale required we need to offer them a point of reference and a positive, common aspiration. As a group, we believe that change is needed, and that we need to change the way we communicate about sustainability. We must provide people with a constructive way forward based on real solutions, rather than a constant focus on gloom and doom. We will never see change at the scale needed if we constantly put forward negative scenarios. Who wants to follow a pessimist?
Organizations • UN Global Compact • Regions20 • Nobel Sustainability Trust • IFHP • EU Commission on Climate Change
In 1992, the UN summoned global leaders to Rio to initiate a collective, political response to the deterioration of global resources. Governments soon faced a harsh reality and historic dilemma economic growth versus sustainable development.
wHAT SHAPED SUSTAINIA?
At the end of the millennium, environmentalism spread from civil society movements to the private sector, where progressive companies started
The history of Sustainia dates back hundreds of years. From the first observations of negative human impact on nature more than 1,000 years ago, to concerns over smoke from coal burning in London in the 13th century, to the visible pollution from factories during the Industrial Revolution, and to the discovery in the 1960s that spraying DDT caused cancer in humans and killed wildlife. Each time, when humans realized that their actions had a negative effect on the natural environment, debate ensued, but slowly, over centuries, it led to better scientific understanding of ecosystems and, in modern times, environmentalism was born. During the 1960s and 1970s, governments began to develop and implement comprehensive policy solutions to protect the environment and dedicated extensive resources to research the pollution of air, water, and soil, and the disposal of waste and chemicals. In 1983, the UN asked a group of experts to advise global leaders on how to obtain “sustainable development,” and, in 1987, Norwegian politician and current member of the Sustainia Award Committee Gro Harlem Brundtland, who headed the World Commission on Environment and Development (or Brundtland Commission), released a report urging global collaboration on environmental protection. The report gave us the definition of sustainability still in use today.
“Sustainia is a clear articulation 0f the future we want.” Connie Hedegaard EU Commissioner for Climate Action Here seen attending Sustainia event at Rio+20 together with Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Fmr. Prime Minister of Norway.
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Source: “Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future,” United Nations General Assembly (1987).
As scientists assembled evidence that resource stocks were falling, wildlife and forests suffering, and human health declining, not least because of a steep rise in global population and rapid urbanization, governments struggled to implement the instruments that would reduce pollution. However, 2009 also marked a new beginning for leadership within business and civil society. Business leaders demonstrated that sustainability could be profitable, and that they could develop the solutions needed to ensure a low-carbon transformation.
At the Rio+20 Summit, convened in June 2012, campaigners from Sustainia representing business and civil society hosted an event demonstrating that we have the solutions needed to get to Sustainia. With them they brought Sustainia100 – a demonstration of 100 innovative, scalable, and ready and available solutions from 10 different sectors. These solutions reminded all that even though international political negotiations are tough, civil society and business leaders are committed to reach Sustainia and have already developed the solutions needed. That is what Sustainia is all about: demonstrating we have the solutions needed to live more sustainably.
to develop strategies for social and environmental responsibility. In parallel, ever more companies started to shape their business models around products and services developed in response to environmental pressures.
FACTS & FIGURES A world that is ever changing: from to 2010-2020 2010
Global population, billion people
Number of electric and hybrid cars globally, million cars
People living in cities, per cent
People living in rural areas, per cent
Global emissions of CO2, Gt
Produced output in USD per ton CO2 emitted.
Share of renewable in the EU out of total energy production, per cent
Share of wind energy in the global electricity production
Source: These numbers builds on resources from the following: • United Nations Population Division - World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision • The IEA’s 2010 World Energy Outlook • McKinsey & Co. • International Wind Energy Development – World Update 2010 • EU Commission
SAID ABOUT SUSTAINIA
â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sustainia is my kind of world: A desirable place where we live life to the fullest. Without damaging the only planet we have.â&#x20AC;? Arnold Schwarzenegger Honorary Chair of the Sustainia Award Committee & Founding Chair of the R20 Regions for Climate Action
“SUSTAINIA IS A new and needed approach to communicating about sustainiability” Georg Kell Executive Director of the UN Global Compact and Strategic Partner to Sustainia
“SusTAiNIA CAN HELP PEOPLE GET A CLEAR PICTURE OF WHAT THEIR LIVES COULD BE IN A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE - AND HOW IT WILL IMPROVE OUR HEALTH, OUR ENVIRONMENT, OUR ECONOMY” Connie Hedegaard EU Commissioner for Climate Action and member of the Sustainia Award Committee
The corporate world in Sustainia – the rise of a new paradigm
opportunities – reasons to invent new sustainable products and business models, instead of practicing business as usual. The market for sustainable products and solutions is profitable. Innovative businesses compete for first-mover advantage within the new fields of transformative technologies and products that reduce or replace unsustainable behavior.
In Sustainia, we see a remarkable change in the way businesses operate. The demand for sustainable products and brands has increased. The global market for cleantech and renewable energy has for two decades been the most lucrative market of all12. Private sector investment in the transformation of the global energy system increases dramatically each year. A race to the top among entrepreneurs, investors, and multinational corporations to deliver the most innovative low-carbon solutions continues apace. An important driver is the price on carbon and resources, controlled through a patchwork of regional emissions trading schemes and taxes. For most of the last century, companies paid relatively little attention to their consumption of natural resources. But the world that Sustainia has to account for is one where the population has become larger and richer, and consumption has increased rapidly. This development has placed immense pressure on natural resources, waste management, and emissions13. These factors each represent new business
The push for non-fossil fuel-based products and services is the new, major driver in the global economy, much like the ICT industry before it. The number of businesses that fully account for their resource flows throughout the value chain rises steadily. Successful companies, those that significantly outperform their counterparts in terms of stock market and accounting performance, have embraced a sustainable business culture over many years14. That has been predicted in recent reports from Harvard Business School, London Business School, MIT, and BCG15. New Energy Finance, 2010. “Handle with Care: Resource Management as a Competitive Edge,” The Boston Consulting Group and INSEAD. 14 “The Impact of a Corporate Culture of Sustainability on Corporate Behavior and Performance,” Harvard Business School, 2011. 15 Ibid. 12
KEY Business Trends in sustainia
Sustainability is integrated throughout the value chain.
Employees are rewarded based on their ability to support the company’s sustainability targets – key performance indicators include sustainability goals.
A company’s sustainability strategy is implemented at the highest level: board of directors and C-level.
NGOs are a key partner, as is civil society.
Sustainability reporting is a must have – transparency is everything.
Employees prefer missiondriven organizations. The MBA Green Oath is mandatory.
Ten years from now, we will see that many “old” business models and brands, highly dependent on oil, coal, and natural gas, have lost their historic strong positions. As old ways of production and distribution become more costly, companies must reinvent themselves to compete on the basis of a new paradigm: the efficient use of resources16. Companies will monitor the payback from resources by optimizing consumption through the more efficient use of those resources. They will also manage the putback – that is, the effect of their actions on the future supply of natural resources and on the climate – in order to limit damage to the planet.
More sustainable business practice is also demanded by the global consumer. Therefore, in Sustainia, a growing number of products and services carry eco-labels that make decision-making more transparent. And many companies demand proper labeling and certificates throughout their value chain. Supply-chain management goes hand-in-hand with eco-labeling. Energy-wasting products have lost market share. Energyconscious consumers have captured the attention of CEOs. Marketing products as “green” is so last decade – green and sustainable has to be inherent to the product, service, or solution. Consumers want to know the added benefits from using a product.
Sustainia: The new driver of growth 6000
Global GDP per capita
16 “Resource Management as a Competitive Edge – Handle with Care,” Boston Consulting Group & INSEAD, 2012.
A profitable business model in Sustainia is a sustainable one; the strong players and new global super brands are those that realized this first. A decade from now, companies driven by short-term gain and investments have fallen behind.
n o ti
In Source: This illustration builds on research carried out by the UC Berkeley (2011). The graph demonstrates that a low-carbon transformation holds the potential of being the new growth driver
Sustainability gives companies a
â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sustainable firms icantly higher pro returns, suggesti ing a corporate c tainability may be competitive advan
force, a secure license to operate, a m
base, better relationships with stakeh more collaborative community, and a
contributing factors to this potentiall even in the very long term.â&#x20AC;?
rms generate signifofits and stock ing that developculture of suse a source of ntageâ&#x20AC;Ś A more engaged work-
more loyal and satisfied customer
holders, greater transparency, a better ability to innovate may all be
lly persistent superior performance,
(Source: â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Impact of a Corporate Culture of Sustainability on Corporate Behavior and Performance,â&#x20AC;? Harvard Business School, 2011) 29
The people of Sustainia - more powerful than ever
“From Religion to Reality,” Green Growth Leaders/UC Berkeley, 2011. 18 Esty and Winston, 2006:69 and Storm, 2011, p. 58. 19 Esty and Winston, 2006:69 and Arenas et al, 2009, p. 176. 20 Based on research among CEOs and the strategic implications when transforming their strategy to become low-carbon (Storm, 2010). 17
Again: Awareness plus empowerment can move mountains.
NGOs and civil society play a more significant role than ever before. In Sustainia, mayors, presidents, and prime ministers risk their mandate if they can’t rally support from civil society movements. Likewise, successful industries partner with NGOs to get their input and advice on strategy and supplychain management. Collaboration is essential in Sustainia. The people are powerful in Sustainia. To reach Sustainia, we will need the support and enthusiasm of people. We engage our community – a strong global network representing 119 countries – as we go along the journey. We engage them in our activities, ask for their input, and brief them on the latest developments for our successful transformation to a more sustainable society: Sustainia. They provide input to Sustainia100 (our collection of 100 ready and available sustainable solutions – the building blocks to a new society), vote for their favorite solutions, send us ideas, and attend our events all over the world. We want people to see how powerful they are when they demand change. When in 2012, Greenpeace organized a global campaign against toxic chemicals in the clothing industry it spurred heavy debate. Many people joined the campaign and protests against companies using hazardous chemicals in their production. The pressure persuaded global brands like Nike, Adidas, Puma, H&M, Zara, Levi’s, and many more to commit to eliminating those chemicals from their supply chains. 30
We believe that successful societies emerge when industrialists and environmentalists – whether NGOs, scientists, thought leaders, or politicians – align their interests17. The old guard of environmental NGOs (World Wildlife Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, and Greenpeace) have focused on climate change and sustainability for a long time – many over 30 years – and have earned credibility as multinational entities with considerable expertise, outreach, and influence on the public debate18. Previously, business-NGO relations were mostly confrontational, and many of the biggest environmental NGOs were deeply critical of business19. In Sustainia, businesses view NGOs as trusted strategic partners, essential to their work on climate change and sustainability. They realize that NGOs possess an understanding of sustainability – the science, the policy, and the strategic implications – and that they can accelerate their strategy development process by drawing on this expertise20. We encourage all of you to get involved in our efforts to pave the way towards more sustainable societies. Demand sustainable living.
GETTING TO SUSTAINIA Getting to Sustainia won’t happen overnight. It’s a process and journey that some have already begun, but more progressive action and dedication is needed. The notion that we do not have the tools to confront the environmental crisis changed in the 2000s. Numerous projections and forecasts told us we had most of the needed technologies, policies, and information. While there is no “silver bullet” – a single technology or political agreement that will solve the problem – an array of complementary measures do exist. We know what to do. Fixing the problem comes down to the human factors: Choices, collaboration, and decisions.
Global CO2 emissions (G ton/year) 50
Su ai st n ia
Sustainia: A turning point in global co2 emissions
Source: The graph is based on IPCC (2007) that predicts a potential decrease in emissions after 2020 if we succeed the transformation to a low-carbon society
The routes we can take to sustainia Examples of vehicles that together can take us to a sustainable future21.
PRICING POLLUTION AND NATURAL RESOURCES Before, polluters were more or less free to dump waste in the atmosphere or the ocean. Today, taxes and tradable permissions, internationally agreed, have started to force manufacturers to reflect these costs in their prices.
When governments provide companies stable, long-term frameworks to operate within, such as legally binding standards for energy use in buildings, or tariffs for electricity from wind or solar, it encourages investment and R&D because it minimizes private sector risk and establishes a market for the best solutions.
TARGETS AND TIMETABLES
SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE INVESTMENTS
International laws that require nations, cities, and companies to reduce their environmental impact over time. Setting up fair and achievable targets and timetables, backed by penalties, has proven to effectively spur innovation and technological progress.
The problem is seldom the availability of funds22, but how to direct capital from banks, pension funds, and venture capitalists to address problems. Often, investments can be made attractive for private investors if public funds are used to minimize risk and governments guarantee the stability of the investment. In such cases â&#x20AC;&#x201C; infrastructure such as railroads and energy grids â&#x20AC;&#x201C; one dollar of public money can attract 10 dollars of private capital for the project.
TECHNOLOGY COLLABORATION Publicly funded technology collaboration centers, where the public and private sector partner on R&D to address specific problems, have proven to be a way forward. For companies, collaboration opens up new and often large markets; for countries, it enables them to utilize the best available technology.
TRANSPARENCY23 Carbon monitoring, reporting, and verification – what you can measure, you can control.
CLEAR COMMUNICATION Information is a tool to change consumer behavior.
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS Collaboration among companies, investors, and governments.
21 A number of studies and recommendations to policymakers form the basis of these examples, including IPCC, McKinsey & Co., World Economic Forum, World Business Council on Sustainable Development, Corporate Leaders Group, the Copenhagen Climate Council, IEA et. al. 22 Copenhagen Climate Council, David Blood and James Cameron, “Capitalizing Capital Towards the Low-Carbon Economy,” 2009. 23 Carbon Disclosure Project.
Technologies that helped create Sustainia These are some of the technologies we have implemented in Sustainia to create a low-carbon desirable society. By implementing these technologies at a cost of 1 percent of global GDP (Gross Domestic Product) we will ensure a reduction of CO2 emissions at the level required to stabilize climate change. Cost-free or profitable technologies Need investments technologies
Water heating Efficient new
Efficiency (Carbon Capture
Organic soil Refore
Lighting: Switch to LED
(TV, radio, Coffeemaker)
improvements and Storage)
protection Solar farms
restoration station biomass
Cool city of the Nor with a humid climate. Bo dered by the open ocean the north and the vast mo tain highland to the sout Inspired by: Copenhage Bergen and Stockholm
Sustainia is the society we could have 10 years from now – the dawn of a new sustainable economy and a new way of living. 10 years from now, decades of intensive research is driving a slow-but-steady transformation of the energy system from unsustainable fossil fuels to renewable sources. This transformation has nurtured a range of new businesses, products, and services24 that grow the economy without growing carbon25. The way we consume and produce is still not fully sustainable 10 years from now, in a world with 7.8 billion people, but we are getting there. We have a clear understanding that the global energy, food, water, health, poverty, security, and conflict crises are interconnected, and have to be addressed cohesively and collaboratively across borders, sectors, and economies26. To reduce complexity and make it easier to understand and visualize the infrastructure in Sustainia – how transportation and energy systems are interconnected, how different megacities must implement different solutions according to demography, climate, and culture – we have developed Sustainia Island. Sustainia Island is the application of our solutions and intelligence onto a concrete map to make the renderings of Sustainia more tangible. In the energy chapter, you will see how we use Sustainia Island to explain complex systems.
Westland A TYPICAL us gRID city located in a rainy and fertile climate. Strongly affected by the dominant western winds and strong waves moving over the ocean. Inspired by: San Francisco, Portland and New York.
It is a mini version of our planet – a microcosmos of the world. Sustainia Island is a communication tool that illustrates how cities could transition to more sustainable practices all over the world. We don’t believe in a onesize-fits-all approach. We want people from around the globe to explore the solutions that are best for their region.
estoo Located in a warm and humid region, this city requires lots of cooling. A place of frequent high winds and strong tides. Inspired by: Mumbai, Taipei and Beijing.
rth orn to ounth. en, m.
zulaken A smaller city of dispersed dwellings remotely located in the cold mountain highlands.
cape zul Surrounded by desert in a hot and dry climate with an abundance of sunshine hours. Located just south of the volcanically active regions of the central mountains. Inspired by: Cape Town, Cairo and Nairobi.
is a mini version of our planet – a microcosm of the world. It encompasses varied climate zones and is the home to five very distinct cities. Read more about Sustainia Island in our energy chapter.
“From Religion to Reality,” Green Growth Leaders/UC Berkeley, 2011. 25 “Grow our business, not the carbon” is a slogan coined by The Coca-Cola Company in relation to their energy efficiency and climate protection strategy, “2009/2010 Sustainability Review,” 2010. 26 “Global Risks 2011,” World Economic Forum. 24
the language OF Sustainia The language of Sustainia is easy to understand. The words are clear, the messages empowering, and the language inclusive. It has taken us many years to get it just right, to understand the importance of the words and messages that would ensure the engagement needed to build a sustainable society.
People are not excited about Sustainia because they fear the future; they are excited because they see its potential. The complexity of the matter is reduced and simplified – boiled down to what really matters to people when they’re changing elements in their lives: How will they improve their quality of life by taking this journey?
We realized that more than technology and concrete solutions were needed to get to Sustainia. It took much more than discussions about a global political treaty and scaring people about the dangers of climate change. The missing piece was the right use of communication. Missing was an understanding that language has immense power to inspire and empower people to demand sustainability.
A stack of psychological and anthropological evidence27 tells us the most compelling narrative is one that starts with a positive, desirable picture of the future. This can apply to a housing project, a transport system, a green product series – even a light bulb or a window frame.
Sustainia introduced simple but radical new ways of communicating and talking about climate change, overpopulation, pollution, and resource scarcity. Instead of writing long reports about problems, crises, and challenges, we shifted to rhetoric focused on concrete and easy actions – a language that focused on the benefits of sustainable living and more sustainable societies.
Here is our take on communication:
That’s what we have done with Sustainia: Started with the positive vision.
To us, communication is what makes the difference. It’s the channel through which we can provide you with clear arguments and excite, engage, and empower you. Communication is not just an add-on in Sustainia; it is Sustainia.
Communicate dreams not nightmares Ask any audience to close their eyes and think of a place where they feel happy, relaxed, and in harmony with their surroundings. Nine of 10 people – regardless of geography, income, and culture – will imagine a forest, a beach, or a mountain landscape. For years, environmentalists had been masters of negativity and scaremongering, using fear – pollution and melting ice sheets – to persuade consumers, citizens, and voters. It is unsurprising that an overwhelming majority of the global public ended up being scared of climate change, or found it too complex to deal with. Nothing positive was associated with it – only pointed fingers and scary images. We decided to learn from the masters of positivity and dreams: Marketers. Marketers know that scaring or depressing their audience simply isn’t good for business. The aim of most firms’ messages is simple; to sell. Businesses may sell a product. They may sell a service. Take a closer look and it’s likely they are also selling a lifestyle. The skilled marketer is an expert in promoting dreams and aspirations; the most successful global brands are built on this idea. A marketer would observe that images associated with climate change had for too long been of displaced and hungry people, forest fires, drowning polar bears, and flooded villages. These images and
rhetoric did not sell a sustainable lifestyle people wanted to buy. Nike has not become a successful global brand by showing us pictures of overweight people lying on couches. They show us scenes that feed a positive aspiration: Beautiful, fit people running happily. Something to be inspired by. Something to want, and a taste of what we can get by adopting their lifestyle (that is, their products). We don’t suggest one should simply copy that approach; we want all of our communication to be realistic. What we do suggest is to copy the part of their approach that puts forward an aspiration. Sustainia is a lifestyle; a lifestyle with improved quality of life. We communicate about Sustainia like professional marketers communicate about their products; depicting a wealthy, desirable lifestyle you want for yourself and your family.
“Sell the Sizzle: The New Climate Message,” www.futerra.co.uk
Why a resistance to change? Why are people confused? In order to fully appreciate how we need to change the way we communicate, we must understand what has caused confusion and resistance to change. What are we up against? What should we take into account and avoid?
Our mind does not understand climate change
Behavioral economics research provides some answers as to why the general public still questions the reality of and exhibits less than necessary concern about the risks posed by pollution, resource scarcity, and climate change. These feelings help explain why we do not act. According to Thomas Zoëga Ramsøy28, neuropsychologist, Ph.D. in cognitive neuroscience, and head of the Decision Neuroscience Research Group at Copenhagen Business School, behavioral economics shows that our minds cannot easily process the reality of climate change: “Our minds are not constructed so we can fully comprehend the extent, importance and consequences of climate change.”
Successful lobby campaigns against climate science
For years, incumbent industries have waged wellfunded, well-organized campaigns against sustainability. These campaigns sow doubts about the need for a systems transformation. The negative campaigning suggests that living sustainably will be costly and limit personal freedom. Industry giants reliant on oil and natural gas fear for their short-term profits and are not interested in a systems transformation that includes more renewable energy29. Therefore they have invested heavily in crafting simple, clear messages and fed them repeatedly to the public30.
Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech is famous because it put forward an inspiring, positive vision that carried a critique within it. Imagine how history would have turned out had King given an “I Have a Nightmare” speech instead. From “Death of Environmentalism” (2004)
In times of financial crisis, people tend to equate sustainability with extra costs
Related to the point above, many people tend to associate sustainability with costly, an indulgence you can allow yourself in good times. Or they believe that policies to promote sustainable practices will harm business and reduce competitiveness. We want to stress that it is not more expensive to live in Sustainia. It takes some initial investments, yes, but in the long-run money is saved when you live smarter and use materials and resources more effectively. We also want to communicate to business leaders that a sustainable business model is more profitable than one without sustainability at its core, according to the latest research from Harvard Business School, London Business School, Boston Consulting Group, and MIT. And, finally, market opportunities abound for sustainable products.
Misleading coveRage in media – media searching for controversy
Scientists are not the strongest communicators
Those that really get the science behind arguments for sustainable living, and the science behind climate change, resource scarcity, and pollution, often have no idea how to communicate in a clear and concrete manner. They use language that is hard for most to understand.
We use complex scientific terms, abbreviations, and technical language
Potentially wonderful news on, for instance, new cars that could help us lower global energy use and emissions are often communicated using abbreviations, terms, and specifications loved by engineers: grams of CO2/km, EV, and hybrid. They don’t tell an inspiring story, or promote a desirable lifestyle. Negotiations over international climate agreements presented an impenetrable thicket of acronyms – REDD, COP, UNFCCC, MOP, PPM, and AWG-LCA – not a positive vision of a sustainable future.
Members of the media love controversy, conflicts, and drama. Instead of communicating the benefits of sustainable living, they often highlight opposing viewpoints. They seem to think that portraying the benefits, or taking a positive approach, simply won’t attract an audience.
Copenhagen Business School: http://www.cbs.dk/Forskning/ Institutter-centre/Institutter/ Marketing/Menu/Medarbejdere/ Menu/Videnskabelige-medarbejdere/Videnskabelige-medarbejdere/Postdoc/thomas 29 “Communicating the Science of Climate Change,” Somerville and Hassol, Physics Today, October, 2011. 30 Ibid. 28
Phrasebook Old Language Carbon neutral Microgeneration Unpolluted Low carbon Photovoltaic IPCC CDM mechanisms Emissions Trading Scheme Joint Implementation UNFCC 450 ppm Intelligent Energy BAU Buildings codes LEEDS Subsidies Power grid management Cap-and-trade I.P.O Increase 44
New Language Energy Energy freedom Home improvement Home power Progress Reliable energy Simple Smart Unlimited Upgrade Collaboration Improved quality Healthier Beautiful Wealthier Efficient Livable Fun
Practice what you preach - never over claim, overstate, over sell
Put forward a positive and desirable vision â&#x20AC;&#x201C; then make it relevant, concrete and achievable
Be honest, open and transparent never tell half the story. Be honest about your situation
6 Stress the advantages and benefits of sustainability
4 Know the people you are talking to and talk TO them â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not AT them
Use inspiring words - minimize the use of numbers, figures and percentages. Keep it clear and simple
Principles of Communication in Sustainia
Make Sustainability fun and desirable - remember you are marketers selling a desirable and attractive lifestyle â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not moral obligation or bad conscience
Prioritize storytelling and your relations to Media - If you canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t translate it into a bedtime story for your children then the media probably wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t buy it
“A city exists for the sake of a good life – not for the sake of life only.” Aristotle
Welcome to cities in Sustainia Welcome to our city. We look forward to explaining what we have done to make cities more attractive. In Sustainia, we know that successful cities generate economic prosperity and an improved quality of life for their citizens31. Sustainia is the urban age. The worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; from capitals and metropolises to new, innovative urban areas and old, cultural epicenters â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are home to the majority of the global population, and have regained their historic role as drivers of economic progress. They are the champions of the low-carbon age, platforms for experiments, innovation, and systemic solutions. Cities are innovative production hubs; as metropolitan engines, they drive economic growth32.
than their suburban counterparts. They live closer to work and to each other, and are more likely to use public transport. And many people love living in the city. The cultural diversity and endless possibilities in cities has attracted billions of people in recent decades. Cities offer better access to jobs, education, sanitation, health care, recreation, and social mobility33. Cities attract young people seeking to learn, artists looking to perform, and migrants looking for work. In this chapter, we share the key components of a successful city. We look at how cities can be transformed to make them smarter, more efficient, more sustainable, and, of course, more livable. We hope that you, a visitor to Sustainia, decide to stay.
Cities are, by many measures, greener than suburbs. City dwellers produce much less carbon dioxide
Arguments for change In the past, cities grew too quickly, and were simply not able to sustain themselves. Something had to be done. Pollution increased with population. In Mumbai, for example, breathing the air was the same as smoking 2½ packets of cigarettes a day34. Had changes not been made, demand for resources would have outstripped supply as cities added ever-more inhabitants.
GDP in the country increases by 30 percent36. In Sustainia, we have come a long way in making cities more sustainable. By reducing pollution, we have reduced healthcare costs; by improving energy efficiency in buildings, we have reduced utility costs; and by making infrastructure smarter, we have made the business environment more competitive.
In 1900, 11 cities were home to more than 1 million residents; in 2020, there are 600 such cities35. The number is sure to rise. More people now live in cities than in rural areas. As more people migrate to urban centers, the role of cities on the global agenda increases. Urbanization is not bad if done sustainably – when cities grow, so does GDP. Every time the share of people living in cities increases by 10 percent,
“Living in the Endless City,” London School of Economics (LSE), 2011, p. 349. 32 Bruce Katz, “Intelligent Cities,” 2010. 33 UNEP. Jan. 2010. Green Economy Report: Green Cities (Summary report) 34 London School of Economics. 2011. ibid. p. 368. 35 London School of Economics. 2011. ibid. p. 305. 36 DNV Research & Innovation. 2011 Technology Outlook 2020. p.9. 31
...make up less than 2 percent of the world’s surface area37
Cities… …produce 80 percent of its economic output 38
...are responsible for more than 70 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions39
…account for 70 percent of global energy consumption 40
London School of Economics. 2011. Ibid. P.9. UNEP. 2011. Green Economy: Cities investing in energy and ressource efficiency. P.457 39 Carbon Disclosure Project. 2011. Ibid. 40 UNEP. 2011. Ibid. P.457 41 United Nations. 2011. World Urbanization Prospects the 2011 revision 42 IBM Institute for Business Value. 2009. A vision of smarter cities 37
The population living in urban areas is projected to grow from 3.6 billion in 2011 to 6.3 billion in 205041.
Cities over time 2050
200 years ago, just 3 of every 100 people lived in cities
In 2020, 8 percent of the population in developed countries and 51 percent in developing countries live in cities42.
â&#x20AC;&#x153;Building retrofits were not only greatly reducing carbon emissions but were also an outstanding source of job creation.â&#x20AC;? Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom, State of California
Source: Speech given at the Global Green Cities Conference, February 2011.
Giving cities a make-over You will want to visit Sustainia’s cities. You will come away inspired. By retrofitting our lovely cities, we have improved the quality of life for citizens, reduced negative environmental impacts, and saved money. Another bonus is one that mayors often stress: Retrofitting cities creates jobs. educing carbon emie of Californi
Here is what we have done to make cities in Sustainia more attractive and sustainable:
1 Painted roofs white to reflect sunlight, keeping buildings cooler in the summer and preventing the “urban heat island” effect. 2 Installed solar water heaters. Previously, water heating accounted for 17 percent of the energy used in buildings43.
4 Improved the energy efficiency of buildings. 5 Prioritized community gardens and parks. 6 Cleaned harbors and beaches to make them swimmable. 7 Improved the energy efficiency of street lighting by replacing traditional bulbs with LEDs and ensured that streetlights come on gradually as darkness falls. 8 Attractive and efficient public transport that boasts free Wi-Fi and tickets purchasable via SMS. 9 Encouraged recycling by making it easier. 10 Made it easy for homeowners to generate their own electricity and sell it back to the power company.
3 Made cities bike friendly: bicyclesharing programs and well-developed bike infrastructure are standard.
43 Bielllo, D. September 2011. Article: How Green Is My City? Retrofitting is the best way to clean up urban living. p.68. In Scientific American feature section: Cities – Smarter, Greener, Better.
The simple equ Retrofitting: Spending $10 b to retrofit go buildings = cr jobs + saves ta billion annua price of energ demand falls. 56
billion a year overnment creates 100,000 taxpayers $1.6 ally + reduces rgy as .
Source: Economist Trevor Houser, Peterson Institute for International Economics, speech given Jan 2009: http://www.petersoninstitute.org/ publications/testimony/testimony. cfm?ResearchID=1093.
Smart and efficient cities In Sustainia, we take full advantage of available technologies to help run cities as efficiently and cleverly as possible. We realize that the ability to operate effectively determines if cities succeed at creating a high quality of life for citizens. A city consists of three different kinds of systems: infrastructure, networks, and environments. This includes city services (healthcare, kindergarten, police, security, and schools), business environment (does a city have what it takes? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; employees, customers, and efficient administration), transportation infrastructure (roads, public transportation, and airports), communication (telecommunication infrastructure â&#x20AC;&#x201C; telephone, broadband, and wireless), water (supply and sanitation), and energy (smart grid, power generation, waste disposal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; we explain this in the chapter on Energy in Sustainia)44. These elements can all run more efficiently with the help of smart technologies.
Elements in a holistic smart city system City strategy
City Operations Systems City User Systems City Infrastructure Systems
City services Business
Water (Inspired by: IBM Center for Economic Development Analysis)
What is a smart city? A city can be called “smart” when investments in human and social capital, transportation, and modern communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and high quality of life, with wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance 13 .
Making cities more efficient with the help of technology could, researchers say, create millions of jobs, reduce emissions by 15 percent globally, and save a ton of CO2 per person and nearly a trillion dollars. Some companies working in this space estimate that the smart grid market “may be bigger than the whole internet”45. In Sustainia, we have applied smart technology wherever possible, allowing great control and insight into energy use. This transparency and knowledge helps improves planning and informs decision-making. Citizens make better decisions about resource consumption when informed about their energy and water usage. Technology changes behavior in a positive way as citizens become more educated and aware about the effects of bad habits.
IBM Institute for Business Value. 2009. A vision of smarter cities How cities can lead the way into a prosperous and sustainable future. P.5 45 According to Cisco CEO John Chambers, as cited in The Wall Street Journal, September 29, 2009. The quote has since then been cited many places. 44
New eco-cities = Incubators for creative innovation Just as important as retrofitting existing cities is ensuring that new cities, built to accommodate migrants coming from rural areas, are sustainable. We learned much from the new eco-cities built in Asia at the beginning of the new millennium. These new city projects are a perfect opportunity to constantly improve solutions to citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; energy efficiency, infrastructure, water, and other urban planning challenges. They are creative experiments, providing a clean slate to generate wholly new ideas and approaches that can benefit existing cities.
In Sustainia, we examined these new city developments to ensure that the best ideas are incorporated into existing cities where possible, and to avoid repeating mistakes.
Lessons learned when cities are built from scratch:
Between Mumbai and Delhi alone, 24 new cities were needed after construction of the Mumbai-Delhi Industrial Corridor, a high-speed freight rail line and six-lane freeway. The first seven cities, ready in 2018, each housed more than 2 million people. China estimates it will need 500 cities the size of the New Songdo city project (home to a little over 1 million people) built in South Korea46 (see flipside). The entrepreneurs behind the New Songdo project will use the city as a template, ensuring that each new city is built faster, better, and cheaper than the one before.
A key takeaway from a few of the new eco-cities in Asia is that gradual, government- and citizeninvolved projects are the most likely to succeed. Smaller, local, and more manageable projects have produced the best results. These have a better educational effect, as people are made aware of energy conservation and the means to act more sustainably.
New Songdo, South Korea48 • From the outset, the city focused on setting a new high standard for building design, systems engineering, urban infrastructure, and community planning. • High priority is given to parks and places for refuge and relaxation. Six hundred acres are reserved for green spaces, including a 100-acre Central Park. • World-class hospitals, art centers, preschools, primary schools, and universities are built to attract citizens. • LEED-certified from the outset, designed to emit a third of the greenhouse gases of a conventional metropolis its size. • A smart city. All of the critical components of city infrastructure – utilities, transportation, healthcare, commercial buildings, and emergency response systems – connect via an Internet protocol-based network. This calls for an extensive grid of broadband below the city’s streets, in walls, and in fixtures.
Tianjin, China47 • 90% of trips within Tianjin will be made by public transporta tion via a light-rail system and other infrastructure. • Tianjin eco-city has seven distinct neighbourhoods. There is not a single city center but several, avoiding the need to build ever-expanding suburbs. • All buildings will be outfitted with self-sufficient energy systems.
NEW SONGDGO Is also a Sustainia100 solution which you can read more about it in the Sustainia100 publication. Find it on www.sustainia.me.
Lindsay, G. 01.02.2010. Cisco's Big Bet on New Songdo: Creating Cities From Scratch. Article in Fast Company. 47 From various sources including: http://inhabitat.com/tianjin-ecocity-is-a-futuristic-green-landscape-for-350000-residents/ 48 New Songdo is being built by Gale International. Cisco provides most of the technology (Cisco’s Smart+Connected Communities) From various sources including: http://www.songdo.com/ 46
City ideas that inspired Sustainia: Edmontonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban forest management. This city has a 10-year plan (2006-2016) which will ensure preservation and management of trees within the city limits. The urban forest cleans the air, reduces the urban heat island effect, increases bio-diversity, and improves the livability of the city. City calculations show a net benefit per tree of $64.44 per year49.
Photo credits: Edmonton: Photo by markyeg, Flickr. Licensed under Creative Commons. Curitiba: Photo by ##Erika**, Flickr. Licensed under Creative Commons. Seoul: Photo: INDEX: Design to Improve Life. Freiburg: Photo: Solar-Fabrik AG. 49 The City of Edmonton. May 2012. Urban Forest Management Plan. 50 http://www.curitiba.pr.gov.br/ 51 http://www.designtoimprovelife. dk/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=632 52 The City of Freiburg. 2011. Green City Freiburg: Approaches to Sustainability.
*Curitibaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bus rapid transit (BRT). Through its low-cost, ground-level solution, with dedicated lanes for buses and intelligent traffic lights, the City of Curitiba has made public transportation so appealing that some 70 percent of daily commuters choose this solution for transportation. The result: 30 percent less fuel consumption per capita than the rest of Brazil50.
*Copenhagen’s bicycle culture and harbor clean-up. Thirty-five percent of trips in Copenhagen are made by bike. After a successful cleanup, Copenhagen’s harbor today hosts several swimming pools that attract residents in summer and is flanked by new residential areas.
*Seoul’s design thinking in city planning. Smart design is helping to solve not only aesthetic challenges in Seoul, but also social, environmental, and public health issues. A clear example is the Gwanghwamun Square project where a 16-lane road was converted into a new downtown public space51.
*Freiburg’s solar energy boom. With solar panels covering roofs on everything from City Hall, schools and churches to the local stadium and even the prison, this sunny German city makes the most of the 1,800 hours of annual high-quality sunshine falling on the city52.
*These are Sustainia100 solutions which you can read more about it in the Sustainia100 publication. Find it on www.sustainia.me.
“First we our citie they SHA and our of life.” 64
e SHAPE es, then APE us quality Jan Gehl, Founding Partner at Gehl Architects 65
In Sustainia, we build cities for people – not for cars53. Citizens are our most important economic resource. They bring ideas, skills, and diversity to cities54. We involve residents in the making and development of cities. Research shows a clear correlation between citizens’ engagement and environmental performance; the more involved its citizens, the better cities perform55. We believe that the sum of citizens’ individual actions – retrofitting homes or choosing public transport – is the most powerful force. Citizens are the perfect instrument through which to demand action; that transition starts in cities. It is basic psychology: The more one realizes his or her role and responsibility in achieving solutions, the more committed he or she is likely to be.
INVESTING IN SUSTAINABILITY IS A SELF-REINFORCING EFFORT: • Skilled workers are attracted to sustainable cities that emphasize livability via infrastructure and green spaces56,57. • Businesses locate where skilled workers are to tap into their intellectual and innovative potential. • More businesses lead to new services and products that can help make the city even more sustainable.
THE VIRTUOUS GREEN CIRCLE
CITIES BUILT FOR PEOPLE – BY PEOPLE
CASE: GREEN SUPERS In Sustainia, building managers play a huge role in ensuring that commercial buildings and apartment towers operate efficiently. We have adopted a model, developed in New York City, whereby every superintendent managing the over 1 million buildings in the city is required to take a Green Supers certification program teaching them how to run energy-efficient buildings58,59. During the graduation ceremony for a class in the Green Supers program in New York City, one super said: “I was under the impression that these techniques were very expensive. It’s just time, it’s just dedication and just applying it.”
In Sustainia, we involve citizens by providing education and public awareness that empowers them to make more sustainable choices. In many cities, the deployment of smart electricity and water meters gave residents more information about their consumption habits; armed with this knowledge, they have become more careful about how much energy and water they use 60. We also prioritize providing communal spaces for citizens. City planners make spaces for people – attractive outdoor spaces in which to enjoy free time, and places for citizens to interact. Plentiful public spaces are essential for democracy, places where one comes face to face with the range of people who make up society61.
Register, R. 07.01.2011. Let’s build cities for people (not cars). Article in: What Matters. McKinsey&Company. 54 London School of Economics. 2011. Ibid. p.349. 55 Economist Intelligence Unit & Siemens AG. 2009. European Green City Index. P.15 56 London School of Economics. 2012. Going Green – How Cities are Leading the Next Economy. p. 59. 57 OECD Territorial Reviews: “Competitive Cities in the Global Economy,” 2006. 58 Biello, D. September 2011. Ibid. P.69. 59 One superintendent’s green efforts reduced his building’s annual energy costs by 20%. If all large apartment buildings achieved a 10% reduction in energy use, New Yorkers would save $230 million every year and reduce carbon pollution by the equivalent of taking 150,000 cars off the road. http://www.1000supers.com/ green-buildings.php 60 Economist Intelligence Unit & Siemens. 2009. European Green City Index. P.21. In Amsterdam, installing water meters lead to an average reduction in household water use of 10-15%. P.31 61 Gehl, J. 2004 Public Spaces, Public Life. 53
PARKS, TREES, GARDENS, CANALS, AND LAKES: THE LUNGS OF SUSTAINIA CITIES Transforming cities into wonderful places on Earth takes more than improved public transport and retrofitting of buildings. For a city to be a desirable place to live, it also needs healthy “lungs” – places to get away from the stresses of city life and connect with nature, be it a small lake, park, beach, or garden. In Sustainia, cities use different approaches to ensure residents can enjoy a bit more green in their daily lives. Here are just a few: Easy-access private gardens on traffic hubs: In Osaka Station City, in Japan, officials transformed the rooftop of the city’s main transit hub into 1,500 m2 of private vegetable patches and rice paddies. After work, commuters can swap their work attire for gloves and willies and bring home self-grown vegetables for dinner. The concept allows citizens to “become close to the environment, spend more time with nature and enjoy its blessings”62. Rooftop gardens: Opportunities abound to turn large roofs into wonderful city gardens. In Greenpoint, Brooklyn, residents turned one of many warehouse roofs into a garden 68
where locals grow their own vegetables, or just hang out in an armchair, taking a break from hectic city life. The Greenpoint rooftop garden also provides produce to local restaurants. In addition to reducing the need to truck in produce from outside the neighborhood, the garden offers other environmental benefits. The plants absorb rainwater that otherwise would flow to the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sewers, and the soil and plants insulate the building, reducing energy consumption.
Green walls replace concrete walls: To save money on concrete walls constructed near buildings, highways, and earthworks, green walls are built with holes for plants and vegetation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; replacing ugly concrete walls with beautiful vertical urban gardens. They are easier to build and much lighter to transport63.
Monocle. July/August 2011. Issue 45. Volume 05. P.075, These walls won the Green Building Products award in 2011: http://top10greenbuildingproducts.com/2011/sample-winnerpost-1/
Parks and canals: nature’s air-conditioning. In the summer, in many places of the world, temperatures in city centers can be much warmer than areas just outside the city – a phenomenon known as the urban heat island effect. In Sustainia, planners work with nature to design systems that reduce the need for energy-intensive indoor cooling. Parks and other green spaces cool the air, and canals serve as ventilation channels. Taken together, the components operate as a natural ventilation system for cities, reducing the urban heat island effect and improving flood resilience64.
Green spaces generally record lower temperatures and higher humidity than paved parts of the city. If parks are elevated compared to their surroundings, cool air from the parks will “tumble” downhill at night, pushing hot air upwards – nature’s air-conditioning65 .
London School of Economics. 2011. p. 345. Inspired by “Den klimavenlige by økologiske potentialer,” Skov og Landskab, 2009, and “How Cities Use Parks for Climate Change Management,” American Planning Association, 2010. 64
Growing green in the city. By 2050, 70 percent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population will live in cities and towns66. With the population projected to reach 9.1 billion by that year, agriculture and food security will be key priorities. Inspired by cases such as Sky Greens Farms, in Singapore67, and Plantagon, in Sweden68, vertical farming is a popular solution in Sustainia.
(Center for Urban Agriculture, copyright Mithun)
These farms produce five times more vegetables per m2 than conventional farms via the use of modern technologies. For instance, the vertical farm in Singapore rotates at one millimeter per second, allowing sunlight to reach plants throughout the day. And water that powers the system is constantly recycled to keep energy consumption low69. These farms are also better able to shelter crops and produce from shifting weather and damaging pests, reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers70.
Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a win-win: local organic produce grown with low energy consumption and sold at low prices.
http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/4/10-010410/en/ http://www.wired.com/ design/2012/10/vertical-farm-insingapore/ 68 http://www.plantagon.com/ 69 http://www.greenbusinesstimes. com/2011/06/28/innovation-inthe-farming-industry-news/ 70 Dr. Dickson Despommier, Environmental Health Science of Columbia University, http://www. verticalfarm.com/more 66
Sustainia city Solar hot water Rooftop tanks, heated by the sun, provide domestic hot water instead of furnaces.
Hybrid taxis Taxi fleets converted to hybrid vehicles reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
White rooftops Rooftops painted white reflect heat, lowering a buildings cooling cost and a city's heat buildup.
Green walls See page 69.
Underground parking Subterranean garages near commuter destinations eliminate the need for cars to surface.
Harbour with clean water
Underground transportation Commuter trains, subways and primary roads run underground in massive tunnels, freeing the ground level for easy, clean bike and pedestrian traffic.
Community gardens and parks These do not only function as recreative spots for citizens, but also as a natural air conditioning for the city.
Vertical farms Food grown indoors could reduce fertilizer and freshwater use, shorten transport and recycle gray water otherwise dumped by treatment plants.
Solar power Panels generate electricity instead of power plants and also shade rooftops to lower a buildings cooling needs.
Solar films Photovoltaic sheets on south-facing building facades generate electricity.
Green roofs Rooftop vegetation insulates buildings against heat and cold and absorbs storm water.
High-efficiency windows ENERGY STAR qualified windows and skylights allow employees to enjoy the light and views in their office buildings while the company saves money on utility bills and protect valuable furnishings from sun damage.
Three-bin recycling Requiring businesses and homes to separate trash, recyclables and compost spares landfills; collection charges drop as trash drops.
Bike racks and lanes Ample bike lanes and racks encourage more people to ride instead of drive; they also promote fitness.
(This illustration is inspired by: Scientific American, September 2011)
8 Clean rivers, harbors, and beaches
7 Easy and efficient public transportation
6 Walking anywhere in the city should be easy and safe
5 Attractive spaces between buildings in vite citizens to interact
4 New buildings meet energy efficiency requirements such as LEED certification
3 Improved energy efficiency in existing buildings
2 Access to fresh food and clean water
1 Citizens should live within a 5- to 7-minute walk to green spaces
Sustainia City Principles
14 Improve quality of life for citizens
13 City leaders recognize sustainability as a driver for innovation, creativity, and prosperity
12 Engage citizens in sustainability â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which leads to ownership and empowerment through education
11 Well-designed bike infrastructure
10 Electric cars and plenty of charging stations will reduce air and noise pollution
9 Educational opportunities for young people to ensure a vibrant atmosphere
"A house is not a home unless it contains food and fire for the mind as well as the body." Benjamin Franklin
Welcome Home Though many Sustainians love the outdoors and ride bikes both for fun and transport, they eventually get to their destination and spend quite a lot of time there. Like people everywhere, Sustainians spend the majority of their time inside71. We work, sleep, eat, learn, and love in buildings. Buildings have long been the dominant habitat of humans. That is why in Sustainia we build and renovate our houses to be a part of the solution, not part of the problem. For some time, reducing the negative impact of the building sector was considered enough. But we have moved beyond this approach – first, to buildings that aim for zero negative impact, and, second, to buildings designed to have a net positive effect on nature and the health of the people using them.
71 Globally, people spend approximately 70 percent of their time indoors; in developed countries, it is close to 90 percent. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/ insidestory.html #Intro1, consulted the 12/07/12; SMITH K.R., “Looking for pollution where the people are”, East West Center, 1994, n 10, 8p.
We measure success towards these goals in the well-being of the people using the buildings, in the biodiversity of the land- or cityscape the buildings are part of, and in resources generated by the buildings during their lifetime. The hard part was changing the way we think about buildings – to realize that we could transition to the net-positive impact buildings of Sustainia and still meet the needs of a growing population. Once people realized this, a world of new solutions opened. What was once considered waste is now used as valuable building material. Construction in undeveloped areas doesn’t have to mean degradation of the natural environment. Indeed, the restoration of former industrial sites has improved local biodiversity and the health of those living nearby. Cleverly designed and sited buildings encourage people to live more active, healthy lives. The standard new building today generates more power than it uses. After all, buildings are our habitat, and our habitat should support us.
Arguments for change Buildings today are a major source of stress for people and planet. Many people live in unhealthy houses or apartments with poor indoor air quality, without direct access to fresh air or sunlight, that are over-air- conditioned and too dark. These environmental stress factors have a negative impact on the body, mental well-being, and productivity. They can lead to discomfort, allergic reactions, and ailments such as chronic tiredness, dry and itchy red skin, dry eyes, runny nose and sneezing, chest pain, depression, and chronic coughing72. In many buildings, the air holds two to five times as many pollutants as the air just outside73. Indoor air pollution is more often the cause of health problems than the polluted air we may encounter outside our homes and it is linked to lower respiratory infections responsible for about 11 percent of all human deaths globally each year74.
In 2011, people living in developed countries spent 90 percent of their time indoors; globally, the number is 70 percent75. Just as the food we eat has a direct bearing on our quality of life, the air we take into our lungs around 22,000 times every day is essential to our well-being. And these are just the health impacts. Buildings are also the largest consumer of energy in the world. To heat, cool, and light buildings requires a huge amount of energy.
Buildings account for: • 40% of all energy consumed76 • 40% of carbon emissions77 • 20% of the world’s water-use78 • 40% of our solid waste79 • 33% of humanity’s resource 80 consumption
72 Bluyssen, P.M. (2009): The Indoor Environment Handbook: How to make buildings healthy and comfortable, Earthscan, London. 73 http://www.epa.gov/air/basic.html consulted on 11. dec. 2012 74 Statistics on-line, in UNEP-SBCI, Draft briefing on the sustainable building index, Paris, France, May 2010, 28p. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, http://www. epa.gov/iaq/pubs/insidestory.html#Intro1, consulted 12/07/12; SMITH K.R., “Looking for pollution where the people are”, East West Center, 1994, n 10, 8p.; 75 IEA 2010, ”Energy performance in buildings,” p. 5 76 IBID. 77 UNEP-SBCI website, consulted 27/06/12. 78 UNEP-SBCI, Draft briefing on the sustainable building index, Paris, France. May 2010, 28p. 79,80 UNEP-SBCI, Draft briefing on the sustainable building index, Paris, France, May 2010, 28p.
great opportunities Buildings account for a large share of total energy and resource consumption. But instead of seeing them as an obstacle to sustainability, we see them as an opportunity. With so many people involved, and so much money invested, just think of all the opportunities for positive change the building sector offers. Source: Betts & Farell: Global construction, 2020: Global Construction perspectives and Oxford Economics (2009), ILO, 2001, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The construction industry in the twenty-first centuryâ&#x20AC;?, IEA: World Energy Outlook 2009.
7,500 billion dollars the global worth of the building sector per year.
111 million people the number employed in construction worldwide.
2,500 billion dollars the investment in sustainable buildings from 2010 to 2030 required to keep building energy use in check in the period.
dollars energy savings from the investment. 81
Your home is not only good for you Building sustainably offers a range of positive effects for the building owner as well as the surrounding community and the larger world.
Community level Building lev el Reduced operating expenses Renovating and building sustainably have cut the operating expenses in Sustainiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s buildings, freeing funds for new investments. Higher productivity Better indoor climate and more daylight in our offices have increased productivity. Health of residents and users We have designed indoor environments to stimulate physical activity and increase the health of residents and users.
Health The energy efficient buildings of Sustainia have greatly reduced the need for power generation, leading to lower emissions of air pollutants and fewer incidents of respiratory illnesses. Water management Rain water is retained in roofs and gardens reducing the need for fresh water and protecting communities against rain floods. Reduced waste Recycling and reusing building materials have cut the amount of waste from construction. Stimulating the local economy What we save on energy, we can use for other purposes, stimulating local businesses and shops. Comfortable local climate Our green roofs and gardens reduce the local heat island effect in cities, cooling the area for the greater comfort of people living there.
National level New jobs Creating a greener and more sustainable building mass has been a huge task creating a lot of jobs. Recycling materials and keeping green roofs are steady new sources of income for a range of largely local businesses. Getting the budget under control Investing in sustainable buildings has repaid generously on the national level. We have not only cut the energy bills, we have also improved work productivity and reduced expenses in the health system as a result of making the building mass more sustainable.
Global level Curbing the climate Reduced energy consumption has been a key factor in reducing the use of fossil fuels and mitigating global warming. The emissions of other pollutants such as sulphur and mercury have also been greatly reduced. More stable energy supply Reducing the amount of energy we consume in buildings have been pivotal in creating the stable energy market we have in Sustainia.
Source: The benefits outlined on this page are based on extensive research done for the â&#x20AC;?Sustainia Sector Guide on Buildingsâ&#x20AC;?. To read more about the benefits of sustainable buildings, visit www. sustania.me
Resource efficiency Recycling and choosing sustainable materials have reduced the pressure on stretched resources.
2010: The trend was that we reduced ventilation below recommended level to ensure savings on our energy bill. 2020: The trend is, that we allow as much fresh air as possible while saving money on our energy bill.
Homes for health and well-being In Sustainia, we value quality of life as highly as the need to be more resource-efficient and less polluting. We build homes that cater to our need for daylight, fresh air, adequate lighting, and a comfortable temperature. Previously, architects minimized access to fresh air as a means to save energy. Research shows, however, that people need fresh air and good ventilation in buildings to function well, be comfortable, and to avoid illness81.
Another key component of a comfortable indoor environment in Sustainia is the temperature. Studies used to tell us that whatever our race, wealth, or lifestyle, whatever the season, country, or continent, people prefer an indoor temperature of about 22 degrees Celsius. Engineers worked hard to stabilize indoor temperatures at that level using highly mechanized heating and cooling systems. Recent studies of human behavior in buildings show, however, that as long as indoor air comes from natural ventilation systems moving fresh air, we can tolerate deviation from 22 degrees Celsius84. That has led us to design buildings in Sustainia that allow controlled fresh air intake and ventilation.
Move it Buildings constructed to encourage physical activity can greatly benefit your health. A study of more than 11,000 men showed that those who climb at least eight flights of stairs daily exhibited a mortality rate 33 percent lower than those who are sedentary82 .
We believe the impulse to minimize ventilation and fresh air to reduce costs is misguided. In Northern Europe, companies and schools commonly tried to lower costs by reducing ventilation in buildings83. Poor indoor air quality at those facilities, however, led to lower productivity and performance. Forcing the question: How much did you really save?
81 Billings, J. S. (1883): Ventilation and heating, The engineering record. 82 Lee & Paffenberger, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Physical activity and stroke incidence: The Harvard Alumni Health Study,â&#x20AC;? Stroke 1998. 83&84 Pearce, Fred (2010) in Daylight & Architecture, Indoor Climate, Velux Magazine. Ibid.â&#x20AC;¨ 85 Katz, G., presentation sourced from www. cap-e.com.
Photo: Adam MĂ¸rk, Velux Model Home 2020
Healthy homes Better ventilation can reduce flu incidence by up to 87 percent and respiratory disease by up to 46 percent. Control of moisture inside can reduce asthma by up to 73 percent85.
Visiting a home in Sustainia Design Design for sustainability can dramatically reduce energy consumption and create settings that encourage us to be more physically active.
Orientation towards the sun Homes are placed with large facades facing east and west, letting in morning and evening sun. Offices have large facades north and south, letting in high quality daylight.
Windows Create views, provide daylight and add passive solar energy and natural ventilation to the building. Automated shading is essential in warmer climates to keep out heat from the sun.
Green roofs and walls Adding plants to rooftops, walls and balconies offers many benefits: added insulation, reduced runoff of water during heavy rainfall, noise reduction and reduced heat island effect. And it looks good too. Heat pumps Heat pumps can draw energy from the surroundings into the buildings. The good thing is, that every 1 kWh of electricity used can deliver 2-4 kWh of heat. 86
Solar heating Solar heating system can provide heat and hot water. Combine them with heat pumps to create heat depots for use when the weather gets colder. Solar power Photovoltaic cells can deliver clean energy to the building. Combined with a heat pump this can create heating too.
Building materials Use building materials without harmful chemicals. Recycling building materials can reduce the environmental impact of the building process dramatically.
Insulation From mineral wool to aerogel, insulation materials are essential in every climate for keeping heat either in or out of the building.
Using water several times Reusing water from wash basins or showers to flush toilets reduces water consumption.
Smart homes Monitoring and controlling energy demand in the house can reduce energy consumption and create a more comfortable home.
Reduce covered ground Reduce the amount of ground covered by buildings, pavements, parking lots etc. It reduces both the local heat island effect and the pressure on sewage and drainage.
Rain water retention and collection Rain water can be held in fascines or tanks, reducing runoff of water during heavy rainfall. The water can be used for toilets, watering the garden, etc. 87
Home improvements – the Sustainian way In Sustainia, we believe in home improvement – big time. Renovating homes for efficiency, well-being, and health is crucial in creating the comfortable, sustainable houses we want to live in. There are many ways to go about it, but here we introduce two: retrofitting and smart homes. Though different in approach, they are quite complementary. Retrofitting focuses on upgrading the physical systems of a house – insulation, air exchange, windows – to create homes that use less energy and are healthier to be in. Smart homes give occupants better control over their energy consumption through electronic monitoring and controls. That users also get a house that can adjust temperature and light levels to your preferences is just an added benefit.
Smart homes Smart homes use integrated communication systems to monitor and manage the performance of the home, and to support the lifestyle choices of occupants. Electronic systems control key elements in the home or apartment to suit your needs. You select the preferred lighting and temperature throughout the day, scheduled for when you are home or away, and how many people â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or even which people â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are in the house. The systems can also handle fire checks, security, and control your electronic devices. Besides improving quality of life, the primary goal of a smart home is to minimize environmental impact: energy usage, water usage, and carbon emissions.
Upgraded homes This category includes the upgrades and repairs made to a dwelling to reduce energy consumption and improve livability. Retrofits can be small and simple or large and complex. Home retrofits can include: replacement of windows, added insulation, sealed leaks, and installation of solar panels. Most of these improvements can be do-it-yourself projects, and need not be complicated. On the following page we present a list of ways to upgrade your home to make it healthier and more energy efficient.
Giving homes a make-over In Sustainia, we prioritize upgrading existing homes to make them as efficient, healthy, and comfortable as possible.
Use recycled building materials whenever available: Evermore companies specialize in reclaiming excess or used building elements or materials that can be reused, such as doors and windows.
Connnect to district heating: District heating, especially when supplied by a combined heat and power plant, often offers the cheapest and most energy-efficient heating solution in urban settings.
Use heat pumps: If you have a garden, even a small one, heat pumps can drastically reduce energy consumption compared to conventional heating systems. Heat pumps nicely complement solar heating systems.
Switch to compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) or LEDs: Replacing the five most frequently used incandescent bulbs in your home with CFLs or LEDs can save $100 per year or more on electric bills.
Program your thermostat: Programmable thermostats allow you to automate systems to reduce energy use. No need to run heating and cooling systems when no one is home during the day, or at night when everyone is sleeping.
Weather proof your house's outer shell: Simple steps such as plugging leaks can go a long way, saving money on heating and air conditioning bills. Replacing old, inefficient windows helps maintain a constant temperature in your home. You can choose windows with electrochromic shading that adjust tinting based on the intensity of sunlight, helping to keep your home cool in summer. Insulating the roof, attic, and wall cavities makes a home warm in winter and cool during the summer.
Switch to energy-efficient appliances: Look for appliances and devices rated by ENERGY STAR or other ambitious energy efficiency schemes, as these will often be the most energy-efficient products on the market. When the time has come to replace an old appliance – refrigerator, microwave, clothes washer, or tumble dryer – remember that even if an ENERGY STAR-qualified appliance costs a bit more, it could reduce your energy bill by $50 annually.
Install solar panels: Solar panels are increasingly affordable for homeowners. Solar power can be harnessed to create electricity for your home, to heat water, and to improve indoor lighting.
Be water smart: Install low-flow showerheads and faucets and lowflush toilets. Use gray water – collected in rainwater tanks – for your toilet and garden. Buy simple filter bottles instead of bottled water.
Use environmentally friendly painting and cleaning products: These don’t give off volatile organic compounds, or VOCs. Low- or no-VOC products greatly improve indoor air quality and protect your health. Look for low-VOC paints and cleaning products.
The NEXT Living Suite also features the Cisco Smart Connected Home Controller and remote, allowing residents to control their environment and media centre through their television. (Image courtesy Tridel and Tom Malone from McRann & Malone Studios.)
The Cisco touch screen display installed within the NEXT Living EcoSuite in Tridelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Reve in Toronto, Canada. The screen enables touch control of environmental and entertainment settings within the EcoSuite. (Image courtesy Tridel and Tom Malone from McRann & Malone Studios.)
Your wish is your home’s demand In Sustainia, we use technology to simplify our lives. Intelligent home systems are widespread, offering an impressive range of possibilities for convenience and energy efficiency. Demand response systems can regulate the energy use of your house and operate appliances so that energy is consumed only when it is cheapest or most sustainable. Automatic heating and bathing solutions create a pleasant indoor environment, while boosting energy efficiency. And integrating rooftop solar panels and a ground source heat pump with the power grid ensures that occupants get the most from their investment in a home that creates its own energy.
And energy is just one area where the smart home can improve quality of life. Mood lighting, home cinemas, automated cleaning, security solutions, and monitoring the health of occupants are some of the other areas where the smart home provides for a more convenient life. An intelligent home helps you control and monitor: • Heating • Water usage • Communications and entertainment (TV-recorder, personal computers) • Safety and security systems • Lighting
Many of these elements reduce energy consumption, but, more importantly, they make life simpler. They allow greater control of temperature, lighting, water usage, and ventilation. Smart homes make it much easier for occupants to track energy consumption. Real-time display of energy usage makes it easy to see which appliances or devices consume a lot of energy. The display illustrates energy consumption against electricity fed back to the grid via onsite renewable installations such as rooftop solar panels.
• Health and well-being • Climate control
" if you saw $20 bi floating through into the atmosph figure out how y to keep that. But what's happening the lack of effic buildings.” Source: www.whitehouse.gov/the-pressoffice/remarks-president-energyefficiency-and-job-creation
ills just sort of gh the window up sphere, you'd try to you were going that's exactly g because of ciency in our Barack Obama, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
four inspirational cases for sustainable buildings Sustainable buildings already exist. In Sustainia we have been inspired by many different cases, and on the following pages we would like to share four of these cases with you.
Sustainable supermarket: REWE Where Berlin What New built grocery carbon neutral store Effects Compared to a standard store of the same size, this building uses 48 percent less energy and appr. 40 percent of the energy used is produced by the buildingÂ´s photovoltaic cells and geothermal energy system. Details: The 2,550 m2 store (of which 1,830 m2 is store area) is one of the first of its kind to let in great amounts of daylight. This saves energy and creates a very different shopping experience compared to the classic supermarket with no views to the outside world. Building materials are chosen for sustainability. In this case, wood is used extensively, which reduces CO2 emissions by 435 tons compared to more commonly used materials. The prefabricated elements makes the construction process less cumbersome, and the building concept with laminated timber frames can be copied in many sizes for different kinds of stores. 96
Structure Twelve 46 m glued laminated timber frames span the store at intervals of 6.38 meters, forming the supporting structure. The walls are made with prefabricated wood sandwiched elements filled with cellulose insulation enabling simple, fast and safe assembly. Lighting A 280 meter strip of windows combined with 18 domed skylights lets in daylight. Light sensors turn artificial lighting on and off as needed. Heating and cooling Excess heat from coolers and refrigerators are stored in a buffer tank and reused for heating the building. Geothermal energy is used for both heating and cooling the store. Rainwater retention Rainwater is collected and used for toilets, watering of the grounds and floor cleaning. Energy 1,600 m2 of solar photovoltaic cells are on the roof. 331 m2 of photovoltaic cells are integrated in the glass on the projecting roof. Together with the geothermal energy system this makes the building app. 40 percent self-sufficient in energy.
( SOURCE AND PHOTO CREDIT: KOCH ARCHITEKTEN/REWE® GROUP )
REWE SUPERMARKET Is also a Sustainia100 solution. You can read more about it in the Sustainia100 publication which can be found on www. sustainia.me. 97
( Source and Photo credit: deutcshe bank ag )
Height of each office tower: 155 m Site area: 13,021 m² Gross floor space: 21,522 m² Rental area: 75,093 m²
DB Group’s Head Office Deutsche Bank Where Frankfurt am Main, Germany What Office building constructed from 1979 to 1984. Complete renovation, modernization and reoccupation: December 2007-February 2011; formal reopening: February 2011 Effects 67 percent less heating and cooling energy used – corresponds to the heating power required for approx. 750 family homes 55 percent less electricity consumption – corresponds to the electricity used annually by approx. 1,900 family homes 74 percent saving in annual water consumption – enough to fill 22 Olympic-sized swimming pools 89 percent less CO2 emissions p.a. – corresponds to the emissions of 6,000 cars each driving 12,000 km.
Details In 2006 Deutsche Bank decided that that the bank´s twin towers headquarters would have to undergo a major renovation after 22 years. The direct cause was changes in fire regulations, but the bank seized the opportunity to retrofit the entire climate screen as well as the heating, water and lighting systems. The facades have been reglazed with opening windows. Architect MBA Mario Bellini Architects Technical architect Gmp Architekten von Gerkan, Marg und Partner Workplace capacity in flexible offices max. 3,000
LichtAktiv Haus Where Wilhelmsburg Germany
What Typical “settlers house” from Germany (13 million of the same type in Germany), converted into a carbonneutral home with focus on optimal livability. Fulfilling the standards for 2020. Effects Energy surplus (from heatpumps, PV and solar thermal collectors) of 16 kWh/m2/year. Overall good performance on the Activ House principles (see radar graph). Details The LichtAktiv Haus is a renovation project bringing a typical small onefamily house up to Active House standards. The house uses solar energy, passive solar gains, natural ventilation, and energy design to turn a classic 1950s semi-detached house into a carbon-neutral home. Daylight is ample in every room.
( Photo: Adam Mørk )
Fresh water consumption and waste water treatment
Consumption of non-renewable energy sources
Environmental Impact from Emissions to air, soil and water
E n vi 1
I n doo
3 2 r climate
Light and View out
Noise and acoustics Indoor air quality
Active House radar: This radar graph shows how all parameters within the ten Active House principles are balanced against each other, enabling a holistic approach.
(ILLUSTRATION: LENDAGER ARKITEKTER )
Upcycled family house Where Nyborg, Denmark
Building Owner Realdania Byg.
What Family residence for four built from up-cycled waste materials.
Architect Lendager Arkitekter.
Effect A life cycle assessment has evaluated the potential environmental impacts and shows that impacts can be reduced to less than 25 percent of a reference house built with the most commonly used materials in Denmark. This applies for both the global warming potential and the total sum of all environmental impacts included in the evaluation. Details The upcycled house is built from a variety of materials, ranging from used car tires to retired shipping containers. The choice of materials highlights and takes to the extreme the possibilities in upcycling and recycling building materials, and shows the effects of using highly durable and recyclable materials. However not all the solutions used in this case are scalable to broader use due to such factors as the availability of materials.
Building basis/terrain Columns of recycled steel, mis-produced concrete elements as ground anchors, gravel as stabilizer, insulation from upcycled styrofoam fruitboxes. Structural parts columns 2 tons of recycled steel is added to stabilize the containers. External walls/faรงade Container steel substitute concrete. Faรงade plates made of reused paper pressed with bioresin combined with aluminum facade made from beer/ soda cans. For insulation mineral wool is replaced by paper from recovered newspapers. Roof Container steel substitutes the concrete or steel substructure. Recyclable aluminum sheets, and ventilated paper-insulation substitutes the vapor barrier. 102
Interior walls Bricks are replaced by container steel, partially recycled gypsum sheets and recycled wood, poly-bricks made from upcycled plastic bottles makes for a translucent wall, tiles from upcycled glass, secondary structural support in recycled wood.
Internal floors Rubber tiles made from reused car tires, reused glass and reused champagne corks substitute new tiles and wooden floors. Faรงade windows 35 percent are reused.
Patio Made from 95 percent upcycled stickers and labels, recovered paper and plastic fibers. 103
5 Buildings are designed to make full use of the natural assets in their surroundings, including daylight and water
4 Homes are safe, inviting, and affordable
3 Buildings are vehicles for innovation, constantly spurring us to explore, develop, and scale solutions for sustainable construction
2 Buildings are constructed and renovated with the environmental, social, and economic aspects of sustainability in mind
1 Buildings must be a net benefit to nature, human health, and quality of life
SUSTAINIA BUILDING PRINCIPLES
10 Buildings are built to be accessible, giving equal opportunity for all users
9 Buildings are flexible â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ready to accommodate future users, or easy to demolish and recycle
8 Buildings are adapted to local conditions
7 Relevant stakeholders, including local communities and authorities, are involved in the planning of buildings
6 Buildings are planned with a whole lifecycle perspective
"Electric Power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need for coal, oil or gas". Nikola Tesla
Welcome to the energy system in Sustainia Energy is life – we need it to survive. It gives us warmth, light, and the power to create goods needed for daily life. It gives us mobility and communication. We use energy all day – from when we get up in the morning till we go to bed at night. Even asleep, we use energy to keep our houses warm or cool. Some appliances and facilities – freezers and refrigerators, hospitals and data centers – use energy 24 hours a day. We are addicted to energy, but luckily there is more of it around us than we will ever need86. It’s easy to tap in to, it’s clean, and it’s largely local.
In Sustainia, we live in rooms with comfortable indoor temperatures, we travel, and we use communication technologies extensively. And we recognize the right for all to do the same. Energy poverty is not accepted. We strive to use energy efficiently and source clean renewable energy from the wind, the sun, waste, the oceans and rivers, and the heat of the earth. In Sustainia, we even extract greenhouse gases from the atmosphere by capturing and storing carbon from power plants running on agricultural and forestry waste. As most of our energy is locally or regionally produced, we don’t worry much about security of supply.
Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation – Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2012.
Arguments for change A transformation of our energy system had to happen. The path we were on was neither sustainable nor reliable. More than 60 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions were associated with energy production and consumption87, not even counting transportation. Scientists warned we were on a catastrophic path towards climate disaster and resource depletion. Realizing that neither lowering energy consumption nor changing the energy supply to more sustainable sources alone were sufficient, we developed a broad approach that has served as a driver for a change of the energy system:
• Working to include the real costs of pollution into energy prices. • Highlighting the benefits of sustainable energy to create greater public demand. We now enjoy cleaner air and a blue sky. And we love not having to worry about supply. The sun will always shine and the wind always blows.
• Investing in energy efficiency creates jobs and saves money that can be reinvested in further efficiency or new cleaner energy sources. • Supporting the development and deployment of promising sustainable energy technologies, creating new industries and job opportunities.
87 World Resources Institute, “World Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 2005.”
powered by nature
World energy SUPPLY (2008)
492 EJ per year
Clean energy sources can create far more energy than we will need
Renewable energy sources can cover our energy needs many times over. The graph shows the potential energy created from six sources of renewable energy if used in a way that balanced the need for energy with the technical and social limitations; after all, we don’t want solar panels everywhere – and we don´t have to. Regions of the world have access to different resources and must find the optimal mix of clean energy sources.
Data source: Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation – Special Report of the Intergovernmental, Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2012. The graph shows the middle value of the technical potential identified in the report for the six sources of energy. The illustration is made with inspiration from ‘Daylight & Architecture’ published by the VELUX Group
Renewable energy resources
Hydro 51 EJ per year
oCEAN 169 EJ per year
Biomass 275 EJ per year
Solar 25,706 EJ per year
wind 332,5 EJ per year
Geothermal 774,5 EJ per year
The energy system of Sustainia Many call the energy system in Sustainia a “smart grid.” It is “smart” because it is efficient and because it connects different energy sources into a single system able to balance multiple sources of clean energy. It even allows homeowners to be energy producers when an onsite energy system, such as rooftop solar photovoltaic panels, produces more energy than is used inside the home.
We can’t control when the sun shines or when and how hard the wind blows, but we can control how much heat is extracted from inside the earth, how much water flows though dams, and how much wastegenerated biogas is burned in combined heat and power plants.
But the smart grid is not just nice to have; it has enabled the proliferation of clean energy sources by balancing intermittent solar and wind energy with easier-to-control sources such as waste, geothermal, and hydro power. And to ensure a reliable energy supply of clean energy, we need to combine the renewable energy sources whose output we can’t control with those we can control and storage.
A smart energy system is like pieces in a puzzle… The grid and the various sources of power are actually like pieces in a puzzle. When put together correctly they can create the perfect sustainable energy system which can accommodate our needs. In this chapter we will piece by piece explain how clean energy sources interlock to form the electricity system we have in Sustainia88. And we will explain how the various pieces can fit nicely together and complement each other. The rise of electricity Electricity is dominant in Sustainia. Bio-based fuels are still used, such as for air travel and a log on the fire on a cold night, but electricity is a much larger part of the entire energy system in Sustainia. Approximately 40 percent of all energy consumed in Sustainia is electricity89. This is due to several factors: • Multiple sustainable energy sources, mainly wind and the sun, produce electricity directly. 88 The Sustainia electricity system draws from the visions expressed in: Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy, 2010. Green Energy – The Road to a Danish Energy System Without Fossil Fuels; MacKay, D.J.C., 2009. Sustainable Energy – Without the Hot Air. Cambridge, England: UIT; Waterloo Global Science Initiative. August 20. Equinox Communiqué. University of Waterloo, Perimeter Institute, 2011 [cited 2011 August 20]. Available from: Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation – Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2012. 89 Energy Roadmap 2050, European Union, 2012.
• Electricity can be transmitted long distances with little loss. • Electricity can be easily transformed into other energy forms such as heat. The other way around is much harder and comes with greater losses.
INTRODUCING THE PIECES OF SUSTAINIA ISLAND
A COASTAL CITY SITUATED IN THE COOL AND HUMID NORTH, Nordfjord is bordered by the open ocean to the north and a vast mountainous highland to the south.
Until recently, the energy we needed largely came from a rather simple mix of generically useful fossil fuels. This has changed. Today, the energy system in Sustainia is based on a mix of many different sustainable energy sources. It is clean, reliable, and utilizes resources available in each region. The secret to creating this system: integrating an ideal mix of complementary clean energy sources. There is no one-size-fits-all when it comes to the energy mix, but tying the systems together gives us a system that rivals any fossil fuel-based system on both output and reliability. To illustrate this vision, we will take you on trip to a place we call Sustainia Island. There, the puzzle pieces of the energy system have been assembled on a small and large scale in regions encompassing varied climate zones â&#x20AC;&#x201C; you can read more about Sustainia Island on page 39. On Sustainia Island, each geographic region has deployed the mix of clean energy sources best suited to its needs. In the rugged North, hydro power is abundant, while the arid, hot South benefits from intense sunlight. The West enjoys strong and steady winds and waves, while the East takes advantage of strong foehn winds that power onshore wind turbines. On the following pages we will take you through the eight pieces of the Sustainia energy system puzzle.
Westland A CITY LOCATED IN A RAINY AND FERTILE REGION, Westland is buffeted by prevailing western winds and strong ocean waves.
zulaken A SMALL CITY of dispersed dwellings located in the remote cold mountain highlands
estoo LOCATED IN A WARM AND HUMID REGION, Estoo requires lots of cooling. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a place of steady winds and strong tides.
cape zul SURROUNDED BY DESERT, Cape Zul is located in a hot and dry region blessed with plentiful sunshine. It is located just south of the volcanically active zones of the central mountains.
#1 YOUR HOUSE On Sustainia Island, almost any house can be a power plant. In colder climates, windows let in light and solar heat to warm the house, while solar panels on the roof generate electricity or heat in conjunction with a heat pump. In warmer climates, solar panels generate power when it is needed most.
photo: Illustration of LichtAktiv Haus by Cenario and The Velux Group
You can use the electricity, store it in the battery pack of an electric car you share with neighbors, or sell it to the utility â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a smart meter keeps track of what is most profitable for you.
Zooming in on sustainia island
Electric vehicle (EV) Electric vehicles are found in the parking lots of many homes on Sustainia Island and provide battery storage to the electrical system. They can be programmed to charge only when excess power is on the grid â&#x20AC;&#x201C; surplus wind power when winds are strong or solar power at midday. The car batteries provide flexibility to the system, making it possible to incorporate large amounts of renewable energy sources whose output cannot be controlled90.
Heat pumps Heat pumps are great for converting electricity to heat. They can generate two to four units of heat for every unit of electricity, a much more efficient use of energy than traditional electric heating. When combined with solar panels and connected to a district heating system, a house with a heat pump becomes a heating plant capable of selling excess heat to its neighbors.
Rooftop solar Rooftop solar panels on private homes convert solar energy to electricity or heat. In most climates of Sustainia Island, rooftop photovoltaic panels can provide a significant portion of the total electricity used in the home91, and producing electricity where it is used reduces transmission losses.
90 Danish Energy Association and Energinet.dk., 2010. Smart Grid i Danmark. Copenhagen. [cited 2011 August 20]. 91 MacKay, D.J.C. 2009. Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air. Cambridge, England: UIT.
the POWER LINES
For that reason, the power grid in Sustainia has been upgraded in two ways. First, it can now transmit even larger amounts of electricity over long distances. This “supergrid” makes it possible to transfer electricity between regions, which addresses the intermittency of wind and solar energy – after all, it’s always windy or sunny somewhere. Second, the “smart grid” combines transmission of electricity with transmission of information about the electricity. This might not sound important, but it enables electrical appliances to “talk” to the rest of the system to make sure you buy only the electricity you want – be it from the wind and sun, at the lowest cost, or from the most socially conscious power company.
Think of the different service packages available for your cell phone. Now, electricity is sold in the same way, allowing you to make the deal you want with the power company of your choice, and enabling you to sell surplus electricity to the grid. The power lines, or “the grid,” on Sustainia Island, have been digitized. The “smart grid” refers to the integration of information technology into the electricity grid, enabling communication between individual elements of the system to improve integration of variable-output renewables, to boost the overall efficiency of the system,92 and to allow a large number of “pro-sumers” (homeowners whose houses sometimes use and sometimes produce net energy) to sell electricity to the grid.
92 This definition is loosely based on those presented by the European Technology Platform, the Danish Energy Industry Association, and the Danish Transmission System Operator Energinet.dk with an emphasis on the advantages with respect to renewables and system efficiency: European Commission. 2006. “Vision and Strategy for European Electricity Networks of the Future” [cited 2011 August 20] available from; Danish Energy Association, and Energinet.dk. 2010. Smart Grid i Danmark. Copenhagen. [cited 2011 August 20] Available from:
photo: DNV/Per Sverre Wold-Hansen
Renewable energy, by definition, won’t run out. Not tomorrow, in one year, in 10 years, or in 100 years. However, some renewable energy sources – wind and solar power especially – have another and less beneficial thing in common: little control over how much power they produce at any given time. A conventional thermal power plant can burn more natural gas as needed up to its capacity. Wind turbines only generate power when the wind blows.
Zooming in on sustainia island the grid The Sustainia Island smart grid connects the energy systems of the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cities, ensuring access to energy at all times. For instance, at night, when wind turbines off the coast of Westland generate more electricity than the city uses and the solar panels surrounding Cape Zul are in darkness, the smart grid re-distributes electricity from one city to the other.
WIND POWER The International Energy Agency estimates that 8 percent of the world’s electricity needs will be met by wind power in 203593. The Danish Commission on Climate Change asserts that Denmark has the potential to cover all of its electricity needs from wind power – the main obstacle being the variability of the resource94. In Sustainia, wind power delivers a portion of your electricity needs somewhere in between the two estimates; its variability is offset by the ability to store or otherwise utilize surplus electricity when the wind is blowing by charging electric vehicles, pumping water into reservoirs, or selling it to other regions.
93 World Energy Outlook 2010. Paris: International Energy Agency (IEA). 94 Richardson, K. Dahl-Jensen, D. Elmeskov, J. Hagem, C. Henningsen, J. Korstgård, J. Buus Kristensen, N. Morthorst, P. Olesen, J. Wier, M. Nielsen, M. Karlsson, K. 2011. Denmark’s Road Map for Fossil Fuel Independence. Solutions. Vol 2, No. 4. As numbers vary, we do not make a specific claim as to the share of wind power. Rather, we emphasize general agreement about the potential for significant contributions to electricity systems from wind power.
Zooming in on sustainia island Off-shore wind in westland Large offshore wind farms deliver electricity for the people of Westland. The combination of higher wind speeds and lower noise and visual impacts at sea prompted Westland to choose offshore over onshore wind.
Onshore wind in estoo The people of Estoo benefit from strong foehn winds sweeping down from the central mountains of Sustainia Island. Harvesting their power in wind corridors has maximized wind energy production and confines noise pollution to specific areas.
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Solar heating in Nordfjord Large solar panels transfer heat from the northern summer sun to water flowing in the city’s district heating grid. Together with seasonal storage, this provides a cost-effective option for the city’s heating needs.
Rooftop photovoltaics in Zulaken Rooftop photovoltaic panels deliver power for Zulakeners. Surplus solar electricity is stored in batteries in homes and electric vehicles for use when the sun doesn’t shine.
Solar cooling in Cape Zul During the warm summer months, roof-mounted solar cooling systems work alongside electricity generating solar panels to meet the buildings’ need for both cooling and power.
Concentrated solar power in Cape Zul Sunlight is focused onto a central receiver that heats a molten salt fluid. The fluid in turn heats water to create steam used to drive turbines. The system is able to store heat for later use, meaning that it can deliver clean energy 24/7.
#4 SOLAR POWER The potential of solar power is awesome. The Earth receives on the order of 6,000 times its total energy needs from the sun each day, and even the least optimistic scenarios reckon that solar power alone could cover the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy demand more than three times over â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the most optimistic reckons approximately 1,000 times10. In Sustainia, solar power is harnessed passively in houses and actively in solar panels. Houses can be outfitted with rooftop solar panels or the power of the sun can be captured in commercial-scale solar power plants
like those in Southern California11 or Gemasolar in Spain12. The latter concentrates the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rays to heat molten salts that drives a steam turbine. Storage tanks enable the plant to produce electricity from the heated salts for up to 15 hours with no sunlight, making solar energy much more flexible and dependable. Plants envisioned for the deserts of the Sahara13 could supply a significant portion of the electricity consumed in northern Africa and Europe.
photo: Torresol Energy
Gemasolar Concentrated Solar power in spain Is a Sustainia100 solution and is a unique combination of solar power and thermal storage. You can read more about it in the Sustainia100 publication which can be found at www. sustainia.me.
GEOTHERMAL POWER The Earth is basically a ball of molten metal and rock covered by a thin layer of solid ground – where we live. This immense reservoir of energy can be utilized by drilling deep and injecting cold water into one well and extracting it from another – now heated considerably by the hot geological formations the pipes pass through. At ground level, the hot water can be used for space heating or, at higher temperatures, to generate electricity using a steam turbine. The potential of enhanced geothermal power (where high pressure techniques are used to create a greater flow of water through the underground and thus enhancing energy generation)is, in theory, almost unlimited, but the cost of drilling limits its use to areas with suitable geology. Still, the potential is deemed to be between approximately 0.25 and 3 times the current total energy need globally95.
Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation – Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2012.
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Geothermal electricity in Cape Zul Outside Cape Zul, energy is harvested by extracting heat from within the earth. Cold water is injected into a deep well and extracted via another as warm water or steam used to feed a district heating system or to produce electricity.
hydro ENERGY In 2011, hydro power accounted for 16 percent of the world’s electricity mix and, in Sustainia, it contributes a similar amount. Critically, hydro power can easily be dispatched to match the fluctuations of the variable pieces in the puzzle: wind and solar 96. The ability to store and retrieve energy efficiently is crucial to Sustainia’s energy system. Surplus wind and solar electricity can be exported to other areas, but to maximize their potential – and to have ample energy year round – storage is vital. With hydro energy, surplus electricity can be used to pump water into reservoirs for later usage.
Whether hydro power increases its share of global electricity generation in the models of the IEA depends on the scenario used. In the reference case, the share remains the same. In the “current policies,” scenario the share falls from 16 percent.
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Dams in Nordfjord The NordstrĂ¸m, Fjordbro, and Fjellbacka dams provide cheap and clean power for Nordfjordians. The dams also provide most of the energy storage for the greater Sustainia system.
Lake water district cooling in Estoo Utilizing naturally cold water from deep below the surface of Lake Estoo in the district cooling system saves Estoonians money, minimizes damage to the environment, and provides businesses with a sustainable solution to meet their cooling needs.
OCEAN ENERGY This latest addition to the energy mix, ocean power utilizes the energy in the waves, tides, and ocean currents as well as the energy that can be derived from differences in water temperature (e.g. between surface and bottom water and salinity gradients). A range of technologies have matured over recent decades, and ocean energy now plays a significant role in many countries as these technologies have proven more resilient to changes in weather due to climate change than solar or wind97.
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Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2012.
Wave energy in westland Wave energy technologies leverage the force of waves to produce electricity. Colocated wave energy generators and offshore wind farms utilize the same transmission grid, with the electricity sent onshore for use by Westlanders.
photo: Courtesy of Pelamis Wave Power
THE PELAMIS FROM SCOTLAND. An offshore wave energy converter that uses the motion of waves to generate electricity.
tidal power in estoo Turbines generate electricity from the natural tidal water flow in the canal running through the city. A local public-private consortium is building the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first ocean thermal power plant. The plant will generate electricity based on the temperature difference between the warm surface waters of the sea and the colder water at great depths off the continental shelf, and it will supply cold water for district cooling as well as fresh water for farming and consumption by city residents.
One such facility is the REnescience technology developed by DONG energy, which separates materials for recycling as well as producing biogas and solid fuels for energy generation:
photo: DONG Energy
In Sustainia, waste is considered a resource, but after recyclable or reusable materials have been removed there is still a large portion remaining. We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t believe in landfills, so the remaining organic waste is combined with industrial and agricultural waste to produce biogas in decomposition plants98. Biogas can be burned in power plants to create electricity needed to support variable wind and solar energy or refined and used for transport.
Zooming in on sustainia island Waste incineration in nordfjord After recyclable materials have been recovered, waste in Nordfjord is put to good use. Waste from households, companies, agriculture, and forestry is incinerated in waste-to-energy plants to generate electricity for the city. District heating in nordfjord District heating â&#x20AC;&#x201C; utilizing a by-product (waste heat from electricity production) of a by-product (waste from industry and households) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; is a highly efficient way for Nordfjordians to heat their homes.
biogas in westland A biogas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant outside the city delivers heat and electricity for Westland.
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BALANCING THE ENERGY SOURCES Of SUSTAINIA ISLAND The Sustainia Island smart grid connects the energy systems of the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cities, ensuring access to energy at all times. For instance, at night, when wind turbines off the coast of Westland generate more electricity than the city uses and the solar panels surrounding Cape Zul are in darkness, the smart grid re-distributes electricity from one city to the other. Furthermore, it enables the large-scale exchange, storage, and trade of energy on the island. Nordfjordâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reservoirs and electricity generating dams together act like natural batteries, adding or releasing water as needed to balance the energy needs of the island. Compressed air energy storage is also used to balance demand on the grid. The supergrid paves the way for massive installations of wind turbines and solar panels across Sustainia Island in two ways; first, when the sun isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t shining in Cape Zul, the wind may be blowing extra hard in Westland, allowing its wind power to make up for the lack of solar power in the south. Second, should the sun and the wind be absent in Sustainia, the dams of Nordfjord function like large batteries. Surplus wind and solar electricity is used to pump water into reservoirs; on cloudy and windless days, the water is released to generate electricity.
Smart grids make you, the ordinary consumer, part of the power solution. Electrical appliances can be programmed to operate when there is ample energy (and the price is low), and heating or cooling systems can be set up to align with price and personal comfort Storage, like the dams of Nordfjord, is built into the system, giving it flexibility. Once again, consumers are part of the solution, such as when electric car batteries provide energy storage. The added benefit: power for transport when electricity is at its cheapest. Between Cape Zul and Westland, a large compressed air energy storage facility adds yet another way to save energy for a rainy day.
Combining heat and power Combined heat and power generation is not a new idea, but, in Sustainia, it is the standard for generating power from incineration of combustible materials. The idea is simple: heating water to drive a turbine in order to make electricity generates a lot of waste heat. If surplus heat is directed to a central heating system, the efficiency of the system can be raised from approximately 35 to 80 percent or more .
Putting the pieces together Put all of the pieces together and the picture you see is the energy system in Sustainia. Homeowners have become a player in the electricity game by installing rooftop solar panels and investing part of their pension in a combined wave- and wind energy facility off the coast. Power lines have been upgraded to handle this transformation. With the addition of renewables whose output we can control – hydro, geothermal, biomass, and ocean – the flexibility provided by the smart grid, and the growing fleet of electric vehicles, we have freed ourselves from fossil fuels. The transformation makes it possible to walk your city without the roar of internal combustion engines, enjoying the clean air that follows from non-polluting sources of energy. Ahhhh… fresh air.
5 Leapfrog halfway solutions. Energy investments are long term; today’s “better” solution might quickly become the “badder”
4 Resilient energy systems are built by linking different sources of energy
3 Energy efficiency is the cheapest way to meet demand without compromising lifestyle
2 No energy is free – even wind and solar energy require resources to tap into
1 Energy access for all
SUSTAINIA ENERGY PRINCIPLES
7 Energy storage is almost as important as generation capacity; storing electricity and heat allows maximum use of sustainable energy sources such as wind and solar
6 There is no one-size-fits-all in energy; each society must find its optimal energy system in cooperation with its neighbors
â&#x20AC;&#x153;The world is a book and those who do not travel read only one pageâ&#x20AC;?. St. Augustine
Welcome to a new way of getting around In Sustainia, mobility is paramount. Cities, once designed for cars, now give preference to buses and trains, pedestrians and pedalers. Walking paths, cycle tracks, bus rapid transit corridors, high-speed trains, electric cars – residents in Sustainia have sustainable options to reach school and work, errands and play. Motors run not on oil or coal but batteries charged by the wind and sun, the tides and earth’s heat. Next-generation biofuels come not from corn but jatropha, camelina, and newsprint. In Sustainia, getting around means mobility without carbon, miles without oil.
Biello, D. 03.01.2011. Driving to the Future: Can China – and the World – Afford 2 Billion Cars? Scientific American. 100 Graham, P. CSIRO. 26.05.2011. Could bio-derived jet fuel give aviation a future? The Conversation. 101 World Resources Institute. October 2010. Citywide Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories: A Review of Selected Methodologies. 99
Arguments for change Cars were supposed to be a blessing. Fast and convenient, cars promised freedom and adventure, an unbroken span of asphalt reaching to the sunset. Instead, it’s a love story gone horribly wrong. Cars took over our cities, fouled the air we breathe, and spewed gases that are warming the planet. By 2010, some 1.2 billion cars99, trucks, buses, and motorcycles clogged the world’s streets and highways. Cars weren’t the only means of getting around that got us into trouble. Commercial ships belched soot and burned dirty bunker fuel. The aviation industry, which saw its emissions soar as low-cost airlines made long-distance travel easier, became one of the fastest-growing sourcesof global greenhouse emissions100. Altogether, transport accounts for about 14% of the planet-warming emissions released each year101.
But, at the moment the situation seemed most dire, we pushed the sector in a new direction. Clever engineers discovered ways to shave weight from cars, planes, and trucks. They created biofuels to replace traditional petrol. They electrified cars and trucks, planes and ships. Smart consumers were ready to buy low-polluting vehicles, to live closer to transit, to give up owning a car, if a bike or bus would do. Getting around in Sustainia means less carbon and more choices. Getting around never felt so good.
Shadow three Sustainians on their daily commutes Three stories from three parts of Sustainia
In this chapter, you will meet three Sustainians and shadow them on their daily commutes. This will give you a clear picture of how Sustainians are living better by making full use of smarter, cleaner transportation options. Prabhu, in Seattle, drives an electric car and commutes to work on lowcarbon planes and high-speed trains;
Jia, in Guangzhou, China, commutes to work on a next-generation bus system and relies on a bike-sharing network and video-conferencing to meet with clients; Fredrik, in Kristianstad, Sweden, drives a biogas-fueled car and subscribes to a car service rather than buy a second car102. Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s what getting around will look like 10 years from nowâ&#x20AC;Ś
102 All stories are based on the technologies and transportation system that could be available in 2020 in their region.
Story 1 Getting Around is Easy in Sustainia EVs and Smart Phones, Efficient Planes and High-Speed Trains Prabhu, 44, Venture Capitalist, Seattle, United States Startled by the alarm clock, Prabhu rises, picks up his phone, and opens a text message from his utility. His electric sedan, plugged in and parked in the garage, is fully charged. Charging didn’t begin until 2:33 a.m., when strong winds in the Columbia River Gorge pushed output at all of the regions wind farms to full capacity, sending electricity prices tumbling. Prabhu’s account settings103 ensure that each night his car charges only when electricity is cheapest and supply strong. Temperatures plunged overnight, so Prabhu, through the A helpful resource for information on EV charging, the smart grid, and the networked EV is CleenFleetReport.com. Inspiration for Prabhu’s interaction with his EV comes, in part, from this source. Addison, J. 07.09.2011. Electric Car Charging and Smart Grid, Networked EV. CleanFleetReport.com. 104 Tuffner, F. et al. July 2011. Using Electric Vehicles to Meet Balancing Requirements Associated with Wind Power. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (U.S.) PNNL-20501. 105 Wassener, B. 18.08.2011. Have Solar Panels, Will Travel. The New York Times. 106 Barry, K. 18.08.2011. Electric Ferry Is a Solar Boat to China. 103
Autopia Blog, Wired.com. More cities are looking to follow Stockholm and London’s example and charge drivers a congestion fee to enter city centers. The latest is Beijing, where drivers will soon face a levy to drive on selected roads, Chinese officials announced in September 2011. Loveday, E. 07.09.2011. Beijing to Levy Congestion Charge to Ease Traffic, Reduce Pollution. AutoBlogGreen 108 Gordon, R. 15.09.2011. Texting Service to Make it Simpler to Park in S.F. San Francisco Chronicle. 107
app on his smart phone, pre-heated the car 10 minutes before rolling out of the garage. The app saves him time, and, by heating the car while it’s still connected to the charger, conserves energy stored in the battery for driving. Prabhu commutes each morning to downtown Seattle from his home, located on an island in Puget Sound. This morning he rolls up to the pier and waits for the signal to drive into the belly of the ferry that will carry him to the dock in Seattle. A few years before, the ferry operator upgraded its fleet. Gone are ships burning dirty bunker fuel in aging diesel engines. Instead, the roof is lined with solar panels, which charge the battery. A hybrid propulsion system – a fuel cell stack and electric motor – pushes the ferry toward Seattle.
Wind and EVs – a perfect match Electric vehicles (EVs) don’t just eliminate emissions at the tailpipe. The cars are mini power plants on wheels, with their battery packs available to store or dispatch power during the 90% of the day cars sit idle. A report104 released by the U.S. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in September 2011, found that the region’s electrical grid could better handle additional intermittent wind power if just 13% of cars were EVs.
Solar-powered hybrid and all-electric ferries
Forty-five minutes later, Prabhu rolls his car down the ramp and turns toward the financial sector. His phone beeps. Waiting at a stop light, Prabhu glances at the text message: his bank has debited his account $10.00 for the ferry toll, and $8.00, a commuting hour congestion charge107, to enter the city center. Reaching his building, Prabhu enters the parking garage, pulling into one of the designated EV charging stations. He plugs in. The utility will top off his battery mid-morning, when demand on the grid eases. Prabhu gave the utility permission to tap energy stored in the battery, at home or at work, when needed. It happens just a few times a year – hot summer afternoons when air conditioners are humming, or a storm knocks out electricity in a neighborhood – but when the utility does tap the battery, it deposits a credit into his account.
In Sustainia, as on Prabhu’s ferry to Seattle, diesel engines burning high-sulfur bunker fuel have largely been replaced by electric motors powered by the sun or hydrogen fuel cells. Examples of hybrid ships include the Tûranor PlanetSolar105, a solar-powered catamaran that circled the world in 2011, and a system of all-electric ferries106 constructed by BMT Nigel Gee for use on routes between Chinese coastal cities beginning in 2012.
A few hours into the morning, Prabhu, late for a meeting with a potential client, an engineer with a start-up spun out of a local university research lab, rushes down to the parking garage. There won’t be time to catch the light-rail, he thinks. He leaves in his car and, a few moments later, his phone beeps. At a stop, he glances at a text from Seattle’s smart parking service. On his way out of the office, he had asked his secretary to reserve a parking space near the café where he’s to meet the engineer – no more circling the block looking for parking. Spot #734 waits, just a 3-minute walk, one block, from the café.
Demand based-price parking, with smart phone interface Inspiration for Prabhu’s parking experience in downtown Seattle comes from the SFpark system launched108 in San Francisco, in September 2011.The service gives drivers real-time information on the availability of parking spaces at city-owned garages and meters.
A partner at one of the West Coast’s leading venture capital firms, Prabhu travels often to meet with prospective clients and check in on his firm’s investments. On this day, he needs to make a 3:30 p.m. flight for San Francisco. Once each month he visits his firm’s Silicon Valley office, in Palo Alto, for a meeting with the other partners in the cleantech practice. On shorter trips in Washington and Oregon, he takes the new Cascadia high-speed train. The past two months, he’s made a weekly visit to Portland, Oregon, to visit a thin-film solar panel factory – an investment he had shepherded from the research lab to market. On each trip, Prabhu notices more riders. Just one year after opening, the highspeed rail line connecting Seattle and Portland has lured away half of the airline traffic on the same route109.
Fuel-saving measures for airliners Eager to cut surging fuel costs, and forced to cut emissions after the inclusion of commercial aviation in the European Emissions Trading Scheme, the aviation industry started to invest heavily in fuel-saving measures114. Boeing claims the 787 Dreamliner, outfitted with high-efficiency GE and Rolls Royce engines and a light-but-strong carbon composite fuselage, burns 20 percent less fuel115 than similar aircraft. In the future116, major airlines, such as SAS, are looking to add solar power to supplement the energy supply during flight, harvest the energy from landing wheels for re-use at taxiing, and to reduce emissions from air traffic with implementation of advanced traffic control systems such as the Single European Sky initiative.
Prabhu arrives at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac) with plenty of time to make his flight. He parks at one of the long-term EV charging stations. Sea-Tac, like many American airports110, began adding EV charging stations as soon as the first wave of next-generation plug-in vehicles hit the market, in 2010 and 2011. The beep coming from his phone, he knows from routine, is the text message from his bank debiting his account $15 for the parking fee. The utility will top off the battery overnight. Seated at the gate, Prabhu looks out the window. His San Francisco-bound plane is waiting, ready to board passengers. His client in Portland, the thinfilm solar company, had won a lucrative contract only the year before to outfit the airline’s fleet with solar. He smiles, glancing at the plane – a hefty return on investment for his firm, and plenty of clean power for the airline. With the lightweight solar panels affixed to each wing and fuselage111 feeding electricity to the plane’s battery pack and auxiliary motor, the plane is able to turn off its powerful, fuel-hungry main engines at the gate, and burn less fuel in the air.
In the air, Prabhu rides with a cleaner conscience than he did even a few years before. Clever engineers had discovered creative ways to save fuel. They shaved pounds by replacing metal in the frame with carbon fiber and using ceramics in the engine; they reduced drag by adding an acrylic resin to the exterior paint job to fill in cracks. Beginning in 2011 and 2012, global airlines and the United States military started replacing petroleum-based jet fuel with biofuels112. In two hours, he’s on the ground in San Francisco. An automated AirTrain carries him to the platform where a train waits. The high-speed rail line links San Francisco to Los Angeles. Prabhu boards; he had purchased a ticket from the plane using his phone, but doesn’t bother finding a seat. The train – capable of speeds of up to 220 mph – covers113 the 12 miles to his stop in Palo Alto in just 8 minutes. When he arrives in Seattle 24 hours later, after a morning of meetings in Silicon Valley, his car will be waiting, fully charged, and ready for the trip home.
Summary: Innovations that make Prabhu’s life easier and better: • Electric vehicle outfitted with grid-friendly charging technology • Solar-powered, hybrid, and allelectric ferries • Demand-based price parking, with smart phone interface • Vehicle-to-grid technology – EVs can store surplus green power and dispatch it when needed by the utility • Airplane fuel-saving measures: solar panels, carbon fiber frame, ceramic engine parts • Next-generation biofuels – including camelina-based jet fuel • High-speed rail
109 RENFE, Spain’s state-owned train operator, reports that the 375-mile Madrid-Barcelona AVE high-speed train route has captured nearly half of Iberia Airlines’ traffic on the same route. Selcraig, B. 16.08.2010. Taking High-Speed Trains into the Future. Miller-McCune.com. 110 Addison, J. 25.05.2011. Oakland Airport 15 Coulomb Charging Spaces for Electric Cars. CleanFleetReport.com. 111 The Solar Impulse SB-HIA, a super-light, carbon-fiber aircraft outfitted with 12,000 solar cells, recently completed three international flights on a European tour powered by solar alone. http://www.solarimpulse.com/ 112 Murray, J. 17.08.2011. Obama Readies Jet Biofuels for Takeoff With $510m Investment. BusinessGreen.com, and Nichols, W. 03.08.2011. Aeromexico Pilots First Trans-Atlantic Commercial Biofuel Flight. 113 On Prabhu’s short trip from SFO to Palo Alto, he rides
California’s in-the-works high-speed rail line. The line will connect San Francisco to Anaheim, and make the trip from Los Angeles to San Francisco in just under two-and-a-half hours. California High-Speed Rail Authority. Trip planning current as of September 16, 2011. http://www. cahighspeedrail.ca.gov/ 114 A thorough guide to recent aviation industry research into fuel-saving measures is this special report. The Economist. 03.09.2011. Changes in the Air. 115 Paur, J. 26.08.2011. Feds Sign Off on Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner. Autopia Blog, Wired.com. 116 Scandinavian Airlines (SAS). Email correspondence. September 12, 2011.
Story 2 Smart transport makes urban living easy in Sustainia Buses, Bikes, and Car-Sharing Jia, 29, Architect, Urban Planner Guangzhou, China Jia does not own a car. Unlike many people her age in China, she has never really wanted to drive. For as long as she can remember, cars have increased in popularity, especially in fast-growing Chinese cities such as Guangzhou117, her hometown of 14 million people. It was not always so. China is still one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s great biking countries, but, as the middle class expanded, car sales boomed as bike sales slumped. In Guangzhou, the percentage of trips by bike bottomed out at just over 10%. By 2009, the city had not built a new bike lane in a dozen years and was adding 300,000 cars to its streets each year118. But, at about that time, Guangzhou officials decided on a new course. An architect and urban planner, Jia had, at university, studied plans for the signature project credited with turning the tide against cars: the bus rapid transit (BRT) corridor along Zhongshan Avenue. Planners re-imagined a 22.5-kilometer stretch of the street, located in the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bustling commercial district. They replaced a 146
12-lane free-for-all that left cars, buses, and bikes jostling for position with a layout with dedicated lanes for cars and buses, and included two separated bike lanes. Jia depends on the new system. The apartment she shares with her husband, Xue, is located in a high-rise tower constructed along Zhongshan Avenue a few years after the BRT corridor was installed. Some days Jia bikes to her office, some days she rides the bus, deciding based on the weather. On this day, she takes the bus. She rides the elevator down 27 stories to the street and walks two blocks to her station. She remembers Zhongshan Avenue before the changes, when, as a young girl, she rode the bus with her parents to reach the produce markets. Then, Zhongshan Avenue was loud, congested, and dangerous.
Bus-Rapid Transit corridors In Sustainia, bus rapid transit (BRT) corridors ease congestion, reduce travel times, and slash emissions. Buses in the systems, like the one Jia rides to work, operate much like trains, with exclusive or priority lanes, street-level boarding, and pay-before-you-board stations. Onboard IT, including GPS units, estimate arrival times and communicate with traffic signals. Nearly 100 cities launched BRT systems from 2000-2010; 50 more were under construction in 2011119.
Today, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s much calmer. She walks up the ramp to the bus station and reaches for the transit card in her pocket. She carries a pass pre-loaded with money, linked to her bank account, which she can use for buses, trains, and bikes. She glances up at the digital screen announcing arrival times. Her bus is due in two minutes. With her free hand she reaches for her smart phone and checks email for the first time that morning. A client asks if she can meet in three hours to talk over revisions to the plans for his firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new headquarters in Shanghai. Her bus rolls up, the doors open. With no need to queue at the front door to pay the fare, or steps to climb to reach the seats, boarding is easy and fast. She holds her transit card up to the scanner and waits for the beep of approval. She finds a seat and looks again at her phone. She confirms the time with the client and opens the app she uses to reserve a bike to ride to the meeting, 10 blocks from her office. The bus corridor is efficient, carrying more passengers per hour than any metro line in mainland China outside of Beijing. On the days Jia rides to work, she parks her bike a block from her office at one of the two-tiered bike garages installed when Guangzhou re-made Zhongshan Avenue, in 2010. Two hours later, Jia rolls up blueprints for her meeting and leaves the office, heading for the nearest bike-sharing station. Along the redesigned Zhongshan Avenue, planners added 147
117 Inspiration for Jia residing in Guangzhou comes from an article written by your chapter author that describes the bus-rapid transit and bike-sharing improvements made along Zhongshan Avenue. Gerdes, J. 09.06.2011. A Two-Wheeled Future? Chinadialogue 118 Statistics on mode share by bike in Guangzhou, the years between bike lanes, and drivers added each year from: Gerdes, J. 09.06.2011. A Two-Wheeled Future? Chinadialogue. 119 Lovaas, D. 15.03.2011. Bus Rapid Transit: An Inexpensive Solution for Cash-Strapped States and Regions. Natural Resources Defense Council Staff Blog.
hundreds of such stations, with many located next to bus and train stops. With riders able to pedal in safe, separated lanes, bike trips exploded â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a 50 percent increase in the first year120. Travel times improved for motorists, bus riders, and cyclists alike. Jia finds her reserved bike, #1515, at the station. Her confirmation text message included the bike number and identified the rack where the bike would be waiting. Jia reaches for her transit card, and holds it up to an electronic scanner. After a beep and a click, the bike is released from the rack. If she returns the bike within an hour, she pays nothing. Beyond that, she pays a small hourly fee. Riding in the cycle track, where cyclists zip along efficiently with the aid of their own traffic signals, Jia makes it to her meeting in less than 10 minutes. Jia also frequently uses video-conferencing technology to conduct client meetings. Her firm asks that the equipment be used for meetings with outof-town clients when possible to hold down travel
Car-sharing Students and young professionals are increasingly choosing car-sharing membership over car ownership. A University of California Transportation Center study122 surveyed 6,281 households that were part of car-sharing networks. The households owned 2,968 cars before car sharing and 1,507 after.
expenses and reduce its carbon footprint. Several days each month, Jia avoids commuting to work altogether via telecommuting equipment that gives her remote access to her office desktop computer and the firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s conference room. Later that afternoon, back at the office, Jia prepares to leave. Her concentration is broken by an incoming text message from her car-sharing service. She cycles or takes the bus to work, and most errands are a short walk from her apartment tower. But once a month she visits her parents, who returned to the countryside two hours outside Guangzhou for their retirement. Their village is not served by transit, but can be reached by car. Jia drives, grudgingly.
She meets Xue at home. A few years before, the owner of their apartment tower agreed to allow a car-share service to park eight vehicles in the garage. Jia walks up to space #7 and reaches for her swipe card. She slides the card into the reader, and with a click, the doors unlock. The sedan is a plug-in hybrid, which couples a small gas engine with a battery and electric motor. When the battery is depleted, the gas engine kicks in to replenish its charge.
Video-conferencing and telecommuting Many business meetings are conducted virtually in Sustainia. Companies opt for video-conferencing, when possible, to save money and reduce carbon emissions. A study122 published by the Boston Consulting Group on behalf of the Global e-Sustainability Initiative in December 2012 found that increased use of information and communication technology (ICT), including video conferencing, telecommuting, and smart building management, could cut global greenhouse gas emissions by 16.5 percent by 2020, resulting in $1.9 trillion in gross energy and fuel savings.
They have made the drive many times, but Jia still turns on the navigation aid in the center console and punches in her parents’ address. They settle in for the drive, hoping to beat the Friday afternoon rush. With luck, they’ll roll into her parents’ driveway just in time for dinner.
Summary: Innovations that make Jia’s life easier and better: • Bus rapid transit (BRT) corridors • Dense, transit-oriented development – homes and apartment located adjacent to transit hubs • Sheltered bike garages and safe, separated bike lanes • Bike-sharing systems • Video-conferencing and telecommuting technology • Car-sharing systems
120 Hughes, C. K. 20.04.2011. Bicycle Infrastructure in China – Case Study: Guangzhou. Panel presentation, San Francisco, California. 121 Fehrenbacher, K. 06.09.2011. It’s Official: Car Sharing Reduces Vehicle Ownership. Earth2Tech Blog, GigaOm.com 122 “SMARTer2020,” Global eSustainability Initiative (GeSI), December 3, 2012.
Story 3 Rural living and trade are simple and efficient in Sustainia Biogas transport, Car-Service Model, and Efficient Trucking
Fredrik, 67, Retired truck driver â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Kristianstad, Sweden Fredrik and his wife Hanna had always wanted to retire in the country. Ten years before, when he retired from his job as a long-haul truck driver, they decided to buy a home on the outskirts of Kristianstad. The town was familiar to Fredrik. His regular route for many years took him from Stockholm, south through Kristianstad on the way to Malmo, Berlin, and back again. He and Hanna had long lived in an apartment in Malmo, but they craved more room and a yard big enough for her to keep a flower garden. In good health, they didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t worry about leaving a bigger city for a more isolated life in the country. For Fredrik, who had burned more liters of diesel than he could count driving his truck all those years, life in Kristianstad held a special appeal. Thirty years before, city officials had charted a path beyond oil, coal, and natural gas. Assisted by grants from the government in Stockholm, Kristianstad invested in a centralized
Biogas transportation infrastructure Inspiration for Fredrik and Hannaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life in Kristianstad comes, in part, from a New York Times feature123 by Elisabeth Rosenthal. Rosenthal describes how Kristianstad, population 80,000, built the infrastructure necessary to make the switch to locally sourced biogas for central heating and transport. The town has already eliminated fossil fuels for heating, and city planners expect that by 2020, local greenhouse gas emissions to be 40 percent below 1990 levels.
plant that burns biomass to create heat and electricity, and a network of pipes to distribute heat through the city. It built a plant to convert plant and food wastes into biogas, a form of methane, burned to heat homes or propel a car. Once settled in Kristianstad, Fredrik and Hanna happily replaced their petrol-burning sedan for a three-cylinder engine, biogas-powered hatchback. The new car burns cleaner than the old one, and Fredrik and Hanna take comfort in knowing that that fuel in the tank comes not from ancient carbon locked deep in the Earth but from manure, used cooking oil, and other food and agriculture wastes sourced from the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s abundant farms and food processing plants. In the early years of Kristianstadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy shift, biogas was available only for the municipal fleet of cars. But the city expanded the pipe network and required increased use of biogas in private cars; with more biogas to sell, private firms added filling stations. Now, whenever Fredrik fills the tank, about twice a month, he simply drives to a station two kilometers from their home. The fuel costs 20 percent less than conventional petrol. The plan has worked so well that Kristianstad halved its fossil fuel use and slashed its planet-warming emissions by onequarter in the first 10 years. Rosenthal, E. 10.12.2010. Using Waste, Swedish City Cuts Its Fossil Fuel Use. The New York Times. http://www. nytimes.com/2010/12/11/science/ earth/11fossil.html
Fredrik and Hanna own just the one car. For most trips, it suits their needs. But occasionally they have need for something other than the hatchback. For two weeks each June, for instance, their three grandchildren visit from Malmo. Rather than buy a second car big enough to carry the grandkids and vacation gear but would otherwise sit idle for the rest of the year, Fredrik and Hanna subscribed to a car service. They love the flexibility.
The car-service model124 launched in California in 2013, and came to Sweden and the rest of Europe a few years later. Automakers realized that car-sharing networks were competing for their customers and spotted an opportunity to diversify. Frederick and Hanna pay the carmaker an annual fee and then, when they need a second car, reserve online a minivan or station wagon from the local dealer. They pay the automaker a daily rate that covers unlimited mileage and insurance. Today, Fredrik is driving their hatchback. He’s due to meet shortly with a friend, Anders, a fellow truck driver. They meet each week for lunch, on a day when Anders stops in Kristianstad. Fredrik makes it to their favorite lunch spot, a roadside café frequented by truckers, a few minutes early. He looks at the vehicles parked out front; nearly every spot is taken by a delivery truck. Much has changed in the 10 years since Fredrik retired. Trucks today burn less fuel – new fuel economy standards in Europe125 and United States126 prodded manufactures to build more efficient engines – and most do not run on conventional diesel. Some run on a variety of biodiesel blends made from used cooking oil and animal fats. In the United 152
The UnderTray 128 Large, 18-wheel trucks, called semi-trailers, haul much of America’s goods. A South Carolina company, BMI, invented an under-trailer wind deflector, dubbed the UnderTray, that made the trucks more aerodynamic. BMI estimated that installing the wind deflector on a semi can boost fuel efficiency by 12%. Deploy UnderTray on all 1.3 million of America’s semis, says the U.S. Department of Energy, and it would save 1.5 billion gallons of diesel annually. Payback is in as little at 12 to 18 months.
States, some trucks were converted to run on natural gas. Still others are hybrids powered by hydrogen fuel cells and an electric motor. Some did away with fuel altogether and run entirely on batteries. Fredrik glances at the parked trucks a bit longer, noticing even more changes. A few trucks sport thin film solar panels on the roof127, charging a battery under the trailer deck. Nearly all have been outfitted with an under-trailer air deflector that reduces drag. Anders rolls up. Over lunch he shares the good news that he had just turned in his retirement papers. A new driver would soon take over the Stock-
124 Car-service model inspired by Bill Reinart, National Manager, Advanced Technology Vehicles, Toyota Motor Sales USA, Panel: “Pole Position,” Climate One at The Commonwealth Club of California, May 16, 2011. 125 GreenBiz.com, “Despite Vocal Complaints, European Car Makers Meeting New Rules,” By Will Nichols. September 29, 2011. 126 Greentech Media, “A 54.5 MPG Standard to Hit in 2025: Here Are Ten Ways to Improve Mileage,” By Michael Kanellos. July 28, 2011. 127 Merchants in the Dutch cities of Utrecht and Haarlem have recently started receiving
deliveries from diminutive solar-powered, all-electric vans called the Cargohopper. Treehugger.com, “How Tiny Solar Trucks Can Save American Cities,” By A.K. Streeter. September 6, 2011. 128 The Economist, “Rig On a Roll,” June 4, 2011.
The Undertray System is a Sustainia100 Solution. You can read more about it in the Sustainia100 publication which can be found at www.sustainia.me.
holm-Berlin route. On the drive home, Fredrik is down – Anders’ retirement means the end of weekly lunch with a good friend. But his spirits lift when he remembers the to-do waiting for him at home: going online to reserve a station wagon. In two days, he and Hanna leave for the summer cabin.
Summary: Innovations that make Fredrik’s life easier and better: • Biogas infrastructure – biomass-fired combined heat and power plants combined with regional pipe distribution network to deliver biogas for transport. • Car-service model – automakers will soon offer customers a non-ownership subscription option. • Fuel-saving and cleaner-burning delivery trucks – fuel-saving engines; natural gas and biodiesel used as fuel; some trucks powered by hydrogen fuel cells and electric motors. • Energy-saving truck upgrades – solar roofs and under-trailer air deflectors.
4 Efficiency slashes demand for fuel â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fuel economy standards and weight-shaving improvements boost the efficiency of the global vehicle fleet
3 Mobile apps make it easier to get around â&#x20AC;&#x201C; consumers pay to charge EVs, reserve parking spaces, pay congestion pricing fees, purchase transit tickets, and rent bike and cars all via smart phones
2 motors run on bio-based fuels or batteries charged by clean energy sources
1 preference is given to buses, trains, pedestrians and pedalers over cars
SUSTAINIA TRANSPORTATION PRINCIPLES
9 Video-conferencing and telecommuting technology reduces need for carbonintensive travel
8 car-sharing services and car-service models provide flexibility to those who might need but donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t own a car
7 Bike-sharing systems reduce trips by car, ease congestion, and reduce pollution.
6 Bus rapid transit systems relieve congestion and reduce emissions in hightraffic corridors
5 Travelers and commuters opt for highspeed rail over planes for short- and medium-range trips
â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver.â&#x20AC;? Mahatma Gandhi 157
wELCOME TO HEALTH IN SUSTAINIA In Sustainia, healthy living is the natural and convenient choice. Quality of life and well-being are at the core of everything we do. We realized that the transition towards a sustainable society would not succeed unless we learned how to preserve the most precious resource of all: people. Accomplishing this isn’t easy. It takes a joint effort involving many stakeholders: The healthcare and educational sectors, business, the food industry, cities and municipalities, and, last but not least, people. This is why, in Sustainia, we see initiatives to improve health emerging from all parts of society. We truly believe in creating change from the bottom up.
Sustainia is a destination where people take it upon themselves to create a healthier society and to counter infectious and non-communicable diseases*. It’s a society where emphasis is placed on ensuring improved quality of life for the ill and healthy alike. *Non-communicable diseases Throughout this chapter we will be using the term ‘non-communicable diseases’. In Sustainia we usually refrain from becoming too technical in our language, but in this case we have chosen to stick to this term. In all simplicity, the term noncommunicable diseases covers: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases. These conditions are characterized by not being passed from person to person, but instead they are mainly caused by risk factors such as lifestyle and environment.
The traditional healthcare sector has assumed a slightly different role in Sustainia. Its primary focus has shifted from treatment to an advisory role in shaping new healthy societies. All our decisions ultimately affect our health, well-being, and quality of life. You could say that in Sustainia, every minister is a minister of health in Sustainia.
ARGUMENTS FOR CHANGE A healthy life is a sustainable life and vice versa. When people are healthier, less pressure is put on the health care sector, medical expenses and our environment, less people experience reduced functionality as consequence of diseases, and quite simply, less quality of life is lost. And when we live in a sustainable society, we live in environments limiting our exposure to the risk factors of unhealthy living. During the first decade of the 2000s, non-communicable diseases were the number one killer, accounting for almost two-thirds of deaths worldwide129. The main reason: Unhealthy lifestyles that were a byproduct of the physical and social environments surrounding us. Our food, houses, cities, education, energy systems, and infrastructure did little or nothing to improve our health. Some of these areas instead had clear deteriorating impacts on public health. On the following pages are four exhibits showing why it was so important in Sustainia to focus on health.
World Health Organization. 2008. 2008-2013 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. 129
four exhibits from the unhealthy society EXHIBIT #1 FROM THE UNHEALTHY SOCIETY
OBESITY BECOMES GLOBESITY Obesity* is a major risk factor for developing both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. From 19802008, obesity rates nearly doubled. Before Sustainia, we were on a course towards a global obesity epidemic – also known as “globesity.”
The dangerous cocktail that causes obesity: • Poor diets consisting of unhealthy processed foods with elevated salt levels • Excessive consumption of saturated fat, especially from meat and dairy products • Insufficient physical activity in modern societies
*Obesity is by the WHO defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of over 30.
• Increasingly sedentary jobs
In 1980, 4.8 percent of men and 7.9 percent of women were obese. These numbers had reached 9.8 and 13.8 percent by 2008130 and gloomy predictions point to obesity rates of over 50 percent for both men and women by 2050 131 .
EXHIBIT #2 FROM THE UNHEALTHY SOCIETY
OUR AIR IS NOT CLEAN Access to clean air should be a basic right the world over. However, air pollution exposing citizens to health hazards such as NOX and fine particulate matter kills millions every year.
Global deaths was caused by air pollution in 2004132
The major causes of air pollution are: • Fossil fuel combustion from electricity generation • Motorized transportation • Cooking indoors with solid fuels, combined with poor ventilation
130 The Lancet, 2011. National, Regional, and Global Trends in Body-mass Index Since 1980: Systematic Analysis of Health Examination Surveys and Epidemiological Studies With 960 Country-years and 9·1 Million Participants. 131 International Diabetes Federation. June 2012. Diabetes and Climate Change Report. p. 10. 132 World Health Organization (WHO). Data extracted from the Global Health Observatory. http://www.who.int/gho
EXHIBIT #3 FROM THE UNHEALTHY SOCIETY
THE ECONOMIC BURDEN IS GROWING The economic cost of non-communicable diseases includes more than the cost of treatment. Lost working hours for the patient and their relatives, reduced productivity, and financial insecurity of involved persons all place great economic burdens on societies. In many cases, treatment constitutes just half the economic cost133.
Cost of non-communicable diseases in billion dollars134 8000
Cancer CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES Respiratory diseases Diabetes
1000 Harvard School of Public Health & World Economic Forum. Sep. 2011. The Global Economic Burden of Non-communicable Diseases
133 & 134
For every dollar invested in prevention of non-communicable diseases, there is a return of three dollars. Within a decade, millions of premature deaths can be averted.
Source: Chatham House briefing paper, 2012. Sudeep Chand. Silent Killer, Economic Opportunity: Rethinking Non-Communicable Disease. & The Lancet. 2011. Beaglehole, et. al. Priority Actions for the Noncommunicable Disease Crisis
EXHIBIT #4 FROM THE UNHEALTHY SOCIETY
LOST QUALITY OF LIFE Quality of life is not just about living a long life; it is also about living a healthy one. Every year someone lives with the burden of a disease is a year with diminished quality of life. Scientists often use the term disability adjusted life years (DALY)* to measure this. Predictions show that if nothing changes the burden of non-communicable diseases in years lost due to ill-health, disability, or death will keep growing, contrary to the burden of other conditions which can be treated.
Other conditions Non-communicable diseases
Millions of years of â&#x20AC;&#x153;healthy lifeâ&#x20AC;? lost globally measured as DALY*
*DALY (Disability adjusted life years) = number of healthy years lost due to ill-health or disability + number of years lost due to early death.
Source: World Health Organization. 2008. The Global Burden of Disease: Updated Projections
SUSTAINIA: A HEALTHY NEW BEGINNING Many of the factors and conditions leading to the deterioration of public health, be it obesity or air pollution, are manmade. It is therefore within our reach to make changes. The food we eat, the energy we use, and the cities we live in are all important elements of the transformation to a society that is more environmentally sustainable and healthier.
Though Sustainia is a world of prosperity, it is not a world of infinite resources. In health, we still must prioritize. While large costly initiatives to improve public health launched by governments or the healthcare sector remain the key drivers to improved quality of life, we found that many other factors could be added to the equation. Stakeholders from all parts of society are now co-contributors to creating healthier environments. Small changes in schools, supermarkets, and workplaces make a big difference. To us, this broader effort is what makes health in Sustainia sustainable, and we are eager to show you what it looks like!
VISITING HEALTHY SUSTAINIA If you thought Sustainia is only about clean energy and green transportation, you missed our most important message: Sustainia is about you! It is about people, and it is about health and well-being. SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY = HEALTHY SOCIETY Climate change and the rise of non-communicable diseases pose two of the biggest threats to the modern world, but they are more integrated than one would think. In the European Union alone, a 30 percent reduction in greenhouse gases from 2008-2020 would result in more than 320,000 less life years lost and more than 28 million less restricted activity days 135 .
At the beginning of the millennium, the collateral health benefits of a sustainable society were often overlooked and not mentioned in public debates136. We talked of energy prices, resource scarcity, and greenhouse gases but failed to include health in the equation. In Sustainia, this has changed. Here we focus on always exploring and harvesting all the benefits of the sustainable society â&#x20AC;&#x201C; with people at the center.
135 CAN Europe, WWF and Health & Environment Alliance. 2011. The Co-benefits to Health of a Strong EU Climate Change Policy 136 British Medical Journal. 2012. Haines, Andy & Dora, Carlos. How the Low-Carbon Economy Can Improve Health.
A SOCIETY THAT IS BOTH HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE There are many solutions, which counter both climate change and poor public health. In Sustainia we aim at exploring and implementing these â&#x20AC;&#x201C; here are a couple of examples: The agricultural system and food sector as a whole are in Sustainia focused on encouraging less consumption of meat and more of vegetables through marketing campaigns, special offers etc. Less meat consumption not only reduces the industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production, it also provides more food for a growing human population as less grain is needed for animal feed. Finally, it makes Sustainians healthier and less inclined to develop diseas-
es related to excessive consumption of saturated fat such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Transportation systems in Sustainia focus on making active transportation easy and appealing through traffic safety measures and urban planning favoring bicyclists and pedestrians over motorized transportation. This has not only lowered pollution from fossil fuel combustion, it also increases physical activity, which positively affects public health and reduces the risk of obesity and related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes137.
Health & Environment Alliance and Healthcare Without Harm. 2010. Acting Now for Better Health. p. 4.
EVERYONE PLAYS A PART IN PUBLIC HEALTH Health is and always will be one of the most important issues for people everywhere. In modern times, it has become â&#x20AC;&#x153;the most personal of public issues and the most public of personal issuesâ&#x20AC;?138. So why not focus on empowering all of the public? In Sustainia, we learned it was not enough to rely on governments and the healthcare sector to achieve even greater improvements in public health. These remain the primary drivers139, but with many societal stakeholders involved, large and expensive initiatives can be complemented by local initiatives that empower people to live healthy in their daily lives in schools, urban environments, workplaces, and supermarkets. An important part of raising public health is integrating efforts between various stakeholders. Knowledge sharing and cooperation between various institutions, organizations and groups can create efficient health promotion initiatives, which not only encourage healthier living, but also does so at low cost. On the following page, we present you with two examples of how this is done in Sustainia.
Expression coined by Nancy Mensch Turett, Global Chair at Edelman. Taken from the following blog: http://blog.pharmexec. com/2012/01/18/close-to-homeis-good-health-communicable/ 139 The Lancet. 2011. UN High-level Meeting on Non-communicable Diseases: Addressing Four Questions. p. 452. 138
Encouraging physical activity in children
SCHOOLS PARENTS CITY OFFICIALS URBAN PLANNERS
In Sustainia, we have integrated efforts to encourage more kids to bike to school. SCHOOLS arrange biking days, where children and PARENTS are taught about traffic safety and the benefits of physical activity. School officials assist CITY OFFICIALS in locating places where children feel unsafe in traffic, and URBAN PLANNERS help identify safe and green alternative routes. This joint effort has created a culture amongst Sustainia children where biking is the natural choice for getting around from a very early age.
Making people healthier through their work We all spend a lot of our time at work; traditionally, the main payoff was a salary. This is still the case in Sustainia, but an extra payoff has been added: health. Many WORKPLACES in Sustainia involve HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS and INTERIOR DESIGNERS in creating offices that encourage physical activity by promoting the use of stairs over elevators and ensure sufficient ventilation and daylighting in all areas. Furthermore, NUTRITIONISTS, chefs, and SUPERMARKETS are all involved in developing healthy lunches made from ingredients that are available in the supermarket and in-season. The result: employees adopt healthier habits on and off the job.
WORKPLACES HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS INTERIOR DESIGNERS NUTRITIONISTS SUPERMARKETS
THE healthy town
Clean air Electricity generated from the wind, the sun, and the waves, not the combustion of fossil fuels, cleans the air and reduces exposure to fine particulate matter.
Sports facilities Integrating recreational and sport facilities into the city inspires people to become more physically active.
School kitchen gardens Local farmers help maintain school kitchen gardens where young children can grow their own vegetables and learn about healthy food.
Bicycle paths Bicycle paths detached from big roads ensure safety and persuade people to choose the bike as the favored means of transportation.
Supermarkets & Local agriculture In-store displays are organized to promote healthy products like in-season fruits and vegetables, which are supplied by local farmers at competitive prices.
Workplaces A healthy employee is a productive employee. Workplaces encourage healthy lifestyles through lunch programs, corporate sports, and workshops.
Bike to work Efficient public transportation linked with corporate or public bicycles encourage employees to leave their cars at home and get some exercise on their way to and from work.
Homes Healthy indoor climates are a product of building materials that don’t emit harmful chemicals, proper ventilation, and access to daylight.
Walking meetings Green areas around office buildings encourage employees to get up and go outside for walk-and-talk meetings, rather than sitting inside all day.
Green areas and play grounds Green areas and playgrounds invite people of all ages to come out and play, do sports, or simply go for a walk.
The walking school bus With a grownup ‘driver’ and ‘conductor,’ a walking school bus picks up children at various stops and teaches them they can easily and safely walk to school.
Schools By making health an integrated part of everyday school activities, children have become a catalyst to improving public health.
ZOOMING IN ON THE HEALTHY TOWN Workplaces Employers in Sustainia invest in the health of their employees; for every dollar spent on worker wellness programs, there is an average return of $3.27140 . Healthy workplaces in Sustainia include features such as141 : • Office landscapes encourage physical activity – smart design persuades employees to use stairs rather than elevators and get up and walk for water or coffee. • Healthy lunch programs planned by nutritionists and health experts. • Smoke-free working environments. • Educational health campaigns: Employees who are knowledgeable and empowered in health promotion are not only more productive, they can also be powerful advocates for change within their families and communities142 . 140 “The Workplace Wellness Alliance – Investing in a Sustainable Workforce,” WEF, 2012. 141 These points are inspired by Novo Nordisk: “NovoHealth” and Kaiser Permanente: “Live Well Be Well.” 142 “The Private Sector, International Development and NCDs,” Christine Hancock, Lise Kingo, and Olivier Raynaud, 2011, p 5.
• Walk-and-talk rather than sedentary meetings. • Individual health check-ups every second year. • Employee-organized sports events and recreational activities.
Supermarkets Supermarkets in Sustainia are no longer only focused on trying to convince customers to buy this week’s special offer. They are now a source of inspiration for healthy living, where consumers are presented with a cornucopia of healthy food options and inspiration – and they feature a new offer on “this week’s healthy choice” every week. This does not mean you won’t be able to find your favorite chocolate; neither have they stopped selling wine. Features of Sustainia supermarkets are instead: • Healthy products such as fruits and vegetables are strategically placed to catch the eye of the consumer. The shelves of impulsebuy candy, which used to be placed next to cash registers, have been replaced with shelves of fruit and nut snacks. • Supermarkets cooperate with the local farms and nutritionists to inspire Sustainians with healthy food plans and recipes consisting of produce that is fresh and in-season in order to minimize consumption of processed food. • Many supermarkets have “people’s kitchens” where products that have reached their sell-by date are prepared and sold as healthy ready-made meals for busy Sustainians.
We spend around 90 percent of our time indoors143 , and a large part of this at home. Healthy homes where we can breathe and spend time without concern for our well-being are essential to Sustainians. Several measures have been taken to ensure healthy indoor climates: • Building materials are carefully chosen to prevent the release of indoor air pollutants and growth of mold, which can cause asthma, allergies, or respiratory diseases144 . • Efficient ventilation is a must. It helps prevent bacterial diseases, reduces indoor air pollution caused by cooking stoves, and lessens exposure to radon in our homes.
“Buildings and their Impact on the Environment: A Statistical Summary,” U.S. EPA, 2009. 144 http://www.euro.who.int/ en/what-we-do/health-topics/ environment-and-health/Housingand-health 143
• Houses are designed to maximize daylighting.
Urban environment In Sustainia, we know that our surroundings shape our lives. The urban environment connecting our homes with schools, shopping, and work is a green, people-friendly environment that encourages Sustainians to get up and get outside. Important characteristics of the healthy Sustainia urban environment are145: • Green areas spread throughout the community with play facilities for children and recreational spots for adults, too. Safe walking trails connect these green areas with the rest of the city allowing for safe travelling. • Bicycle paths detached from major roads and safe walking paths to encourage active transportation. • Integrated public transportation system that is an alternative to private motorized transportation. 145 These points are inspired by “Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health,” WHO, 2010.
Schools Schools in Sustainia play a central role in helping children adopt healthy habits. They are the focal point for teaching children what healthy living is and how fun and exciting healthy living can be. Schools control the level of physical activity and diet of children during school hours, and they also give children tools for healthy living outside of school. • Schools in Sustainia participate in local public health campaigns through projects and theme weeks. Children are very efficient drivers of habit modification at home via concepts learned in schools146 . • Schools assist the neighboring community in creating healthy environments that foster physical activity such as green spaces and bike paths. • Every child should be moderately physically active for at least 60 minutes each day147. Sustainia schools know this, and make sure it happens through physical activity and inspiring playground designs. • School officials in Sustainia have learned that physical activity not only improves students’ health, it also relieves them of stress and can improve academic performance148 .
146 http://www.escardio.org/about/ press/press-releases/esc11-paris/ Pages/children-first-preventionprogramme.aspx 147 WHO Information Series on School Health – Document Twelve, 2007. 148 “Physical Activity and Performance at School: A Systematic Review of the literature Including a Methodological Quality Assessment,” Singh, et. al., Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2012, p. 166.
“Good health successful l Successful l supports hea Education an are insepara Source: The World Health Organization’s Information Series on School Health. Local Action Creating Health Promoting Schools
th supports learning. learning alth. nd health ableâ&#x20AC;?. Dr. Desmond Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Byrne Coordinator for Health Promotion, Department of Chronic Disease; and Chief of Health Promotion, WHO Geneva
HEALTH PROMOTION IN SUSTAINIA CREATE THE RIGHT FOUNDATION FOR A HEALTHY SOCIETY In Sustainia we learned that we needed to look holistically at how to improve health. We could not just sit around and wait for diseases to occur and then focus all our energy on treating them. We had to look at all the elements of peoples’ lives, which affect their health and consider how to shape these elements in ways that positively impacts peoples’ health. This meant looking both at the physical as well as on the social structures of our society. Elements such as: level of education, economic status, employment, urban or rural environments and the food system all impact public health. Scientists often refer to these elements as the social determinants of health, and most of them are mainly changed through actions taken outside what is traditionally called the healthcare sector149.
Closing the gap in a generation,” WHO, 2008. http://www.psychologytoday. com/blog/the-healing-factor/201201/the-impact-socioeconomic-status-health
Transportation 6 social determinants to health
Although we still strongly believe in medical, technological, and procedural breakthroughs in the healthcare sector, we now also place emphasis on addressing the social determinants shaping people’s lives and health. We no longer assume that spending more money on high-tech treatments and sophisticated new drugs is sufficient to improve the health of the people of Sustainia150. After all, lack of healthcare is not the primary cause of disease.
EDUCATE AND EMPOWER PEOPLE
PROMOTING HEALTH LITERACY IN SUSTAINIA • Schools integrate healthy living and well-being into the curriculum and organize theme weeks and project days on the subject.
Knowledge is power – and when it comes to health, knowledge is the power to understand and choose a healthy lifestyle. In Sustainia, we recognize that before people become patients, they need to be informed and empowered to improve their own health151. And here education is a powerful tool. Studies show that better-educated people are less likely to smoke, to drink alcohol in excess, and to become obese152. Health literacy is more than just knowing what to do when you are sick. Many health-related decisions are made in the context of staying well in everyday life rather than managing illnesses and conditions153. Being healthy entails knowledge on everyday hygiene, nutrition, physical activity, alcohol, and tobacco. In Sustainia, public health literacy is a secret weapon. It empowers people to take more control of their health154. It equips people to make informed decisions when buying groceries, when cooking for themselves and their children, when choosing a mode of transportation for work, and when planning activities for their spare time.
• Workplaces arrange workshops and involve employees in creating healthy workspaces. • Public institutions include health literacy in places where they interact with citizens such as driver’s license courses and birth preparation classes.
Early origins of health Good health starts before birth. Research shows that the mother’s health during (and even before pregnancy) has a big impact on a child’s future health, especially in relation to developing non-communicable diseases155. Educating mothers-to-be in their own and their future child’s health helps build a solid foundation for the health of future generations. Ensuring high levels of health literacy in young women before pregnancy gives children the best possible start in life and is a key priority in Sustainia. “People-Centred Healthcare – A Policy Framework,” WHO Western Pacific Region, 2007, p. 5. 152 “Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence,” David M. Cutler and Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2006. 153 “Health Literacy Revisited: What Do We Mean and Why Does It Matter?,” Anita Peerson and Margo Saunders, 2009. 154 “Health Literacy: Addressing the Health and Education Divide,” Ilona S. Kickbusch, 2001. 151
“Developmental Origins of Non-communicable Disease: Population and Public Health Implications,” Mark Hanson and Peter Gluckman, 2011.
MAKE HEALTHY FOOD AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE Food is fuel for body, mind, and soul. It gives us nutrition; it keeps us alive; and some food, like chocolate, can even provide us with a sense of happiness. An old saying goes: “You are what you eat” – in Sustainia, we have slightly adjusted this proverb into: “You are what you eat, so why not eat healthy?” Making healthy food options attractive, cheap, and available has been key in shaping the food industry in Sustainia. But it could not have been done without commitments from the food and retail sectors. Enjoy a meal - nice ‘n’ less salty Diet and health are inseparable. But the decision to take in healthy food is determined more by the food landscape we encounter than by 75% individual choices: more than 75 percent of buying decisions are made in-store 156, so the food industry holds great potential for creating change.
We learned that reducing salt consumption held great potential for improving our health. Previously, the majority of our food contained elevated salt levels that caused high blood pressure, and it was one of the main risk factors for strokes and heart diseases157. The food industry proactively reduced salt concentrations in many Not so salty sustainia People used to consume an average of 9-12 grams of salt daily; in Sustainia, to the goal is to lower this to the recommended 5 grams per day158 . Research shows that over a 10-year period a 15 percent reduction of population-wide salt consumption could avert up to 8.5 million deaths in the 23 most affected countries159 . 75 percent of the salt we consume comes from processed and packaged food and is therefore added before the food even reaches our plate, according to research from Canada from 2012159 .
products. Salt levels were gradually lowered over time to ensure that consumers didn’t turn their back on products due to differences in taste.
156 “2012 Shopper Engagement Study – Media Topline Report,” POPAI, 2012. 157 “Priority Actions for the Non-communicable Disease Crisis,” The Lancet, 2011, p. 1441. 158 http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/unhealthy_diet_text/en/index.html 159 “Chronic Disease Prevention: Health Effects and Financial Costs of Strategies to Reduce Salt Intake and Control Tobacco Use,” Beaglehole, et. al., The Lancet, 2007. 160 “Guidance for the Food Industry on Reducing Sodium in Processed Foods,” Health Canada, 2012.
‘Access to health’ goes beyond simple access to healthcare. It is about empowering people to make choices that enhance physical and mental wellbeing and to act upon those decisions. Source: “The Private Sector, International Development and NCDs,” Christine Hancock, Lise Kingo, and Olivier Raynaud, 2011, p. 5.
PATIENT CARE in sustainia PEOPLE-CENTERED HEALTHCARE In Sustainia, we have built a society fostering healthy lifestyles for all, and eventually we will have a world with little or no occurrences of chronic conditions. But as the graphs on page 162-164 show, old practices and habits had created living conditions leading to widespread chronic disease. Unfortunately, no magic trick will make all these occurrences go away overnight. Therefore, the healthcare sector in Sustainia is as important as ever. It excels in ensuring improved quality of life and functionality for the diseased and the chronically ill through a people-centered, holistic approach to treatment. Traditionally, the supply side of the health equation – biomedical and technological advancements –received the most attention161. In Sustainia, we shifted attention to the demand side. Increased involvement by patients, families, and communities has been crucial to improving quality of life for the chronically ill. 161 “People-Centred Healthcare – A Policy Framework,” WHO Western Pacific Region, 2007, p. 6. 162 “Declaration on PatientCentred Healthcare,” International Alliance of Patients Organizations, 2006.
Balancing a disease The overarching goal of the patient-centered healthcare system in Sustainia is to ensure that people with diseases, acute and chronic, experience minimal loss of quality of life. We learned that family and friends, the healthcare system and the patient, all play an important role in ensuring optimal quality of life for afflicted persons. By promoting greater patient responsibility and family involvement, we learned that patient-centered healthcare leads to healthier patients as well as optimal value for healthcare investments162 .
Patient • Attends public classes and seminars to increase health literacy, which provides greater control over personal health. • Proactively uses available health information to better his condition. • Takes active part in planning of treatment.
THE PATIENT IN THE CENTER 163 By putting the patient at the center of the healthcare model, synergies can be created between various actors. Family and friends, society and the healthcare system, all contribute to creating a costeffective healthcare model which emphases quality of life for the patient.
Family and friends
Family and friends
• Participate in educational programs on how to provide emotional and practical support. • Take part in the treatment process as main providers of support.
• Schools, supermarkets, and workplaces shape physical and social environments into places where the chronically ill experience minimal loss of functionality and quality of life. Accessibility, education, and flexibility are key drivers for a supportive society that improves health.
• Provide the best possible treatment for the patient. • Make health information easy, accessible, and understandable for the patient to ensure trust, security, and engagement. • Educate patients and families in self-management and provide counseling for the duration of an illness. • Ensure comfortable and health-promoting environments for patients receiving care.
Inspired by “People-Centred Healthcare – A Policy Framework,” WHO Western Pacific Region, 2007 and the Novo Nordisk Social Support Model http:// novonordisk.com/diabetes_care/ social_support/default.asp
how TO EMPOWER PEOPLE WITH CHRONIC DISEASES Outfitted164 with equipment to monitor their own health, patients in much of Sustainia are increasingly able to effectively diagnose themselves. Healthcare professionals are still on standby for advice or treatment when needed, but educated patients are able to handle many day-to-day issues on their own. This empowerment gives affected persons flexibility in their lives and significantly reduces the need for hospital re-admissions165.
164 Inspired by Epitalet in the publication “Guide to The Patients Journey,” Monday Morning, 2012. 165 “Nurse Tele-consultations With Discharged COPD Patients Reduce Early Readmissions – An Interventional Study,” Clinical Respiratory Journal, January 2011.
STAY IN THE GREEN ZONE With an easy, intuitive system, patients can monitor their own health. A diagnostic display informs patients whether they are in green, yellow, or red zones and guides them according to their condition. Green zone: In the green zone, the patient is in good health, and the focus is on education of the patient and relatives in creating and maintaining a healthy and supportive environment. Yellow zone: In the yellow zone, the patient’s condition is more critical. Focus will turn to improving the factors leading to the deterioration. Healthcare professionals, the patient, and relatives engage in a dialogue on how to improve the condition. Red zone: In the red zone, the patient’s condition has deteriorated to a level where hospital admission is needed. Treatment is carried out, and a plan for quick improvement is made in cooperation with the patient, family, and healthcare professionals.
â&#x20AC;&#x153;Healthy citizens are the greatest asset any country can haveâ&#x20AC;?. Winston S. Churchill
Healthcare is performed with people at the center of all decisions
Access to safe green areas encourage active lifestyles for people of all ages
High levels of health literacy are ensured for all citizens
6 Work environments foster healthy lifestyles
4 Health is integrated in all school activities
Everyone has the opportunity to live a healthy life
SUSTAINIA HEALTH PRINCIPLES
Active transportation is a top priority when planning urban infrastructure
10 Well-ventilated buildings, constructed from non-toxic materials, provide healthy indoor climates
9 All have access to fresh food and low salt levels in processed food
Renewable energy production is emphasized to ensure healthy, clean air
â&#x20AC;&#x153;For me, buying is like votingâ&#x20AC;?
photo: honest by
Bruno Pieters, Honest by
WELCOME TO FASHION IN SUSTAINIA High quality, sexy design, coolness, and a desirable lifestyle have replaced the scratchy and wrinkled image of sustainable fashion. Stereotypes of tree-huggers in hemp suits are long gone. Welcome to fashion in Sustainia.
In Sustainia, the fashion industry has moved beyond “throwawayism” and developed new, fully functioning closed-loop business models focused on incentivized take back and refund systems; re-, up-, and down-cycling initiatives; and organized wardrobe stewardship through smartphone applications. Resource efficiency and conscious shopping are key values making light living in and owning stuff out of fashion. Behavior change in Sustainia relies on cross-cutting partnerships comprising government, civil society, industry and campaigns that target specific incentives to motivate change, including social pressure, financial incentives, or intrinsic motivation. Sustainia fashion is mainstream, and is not just the new black like some other fashion trend – it is here to stay.
With manufacturers and mills occupying 60-millionpeople166,167 and clocking in the $1.8-trillion, fashion is a truly global business168 .
166 July 16, 2012. China’s Cotton Prices Soar to 150-year High. www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt. aspx?id=20120716000022&cid=1202 167 2012. Textiles, clothing, leather, and footwear. ILO. www. ilo.org/global/industries-and-sectors/textiles-clothingleather-footwear/lang--en/index.htm 168 Datamonitor. Global Industry Overview. www.datamonitor.com
Arguments for change Within the food chain of the fashion industry there were common challenges that led to the transition to Sustainia.
Pollution As manufacturing migrated to Asia, fashion’s footprint became a topic of conversation. The textile industry was found to be the second largest polluter, and one of the top ten energy users, in China – the major producer of the world’s textiles and garments169. By the end of 2010, global fiber consumption was more than 70.5 million tons170.
169 Nrdc, clean by design campaign The rupp report http://www.Textileworld.Com/articles/2010/may/the_ rupp_reportx_the_fiber_year_200910.Html 170 Http://safe.Puma.Com/us/ en/2011/05/puma-announces-resultsof-unprecedented-environmentalprofit-loss/ * please note consumer care is not factored into the corporate environmental p&l
Textiles and clothing was the first sector to be industrialized, in 1765171. Since that time it has been a cornerstone for many developing countries, often serving both as a springboard for national development and an Achillesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; heel for progressive environmental and sociocultural progress. With the sheer size of the industry, it is no wonder that textiles and clothing have been the center of attention for centuries. 171 January 2005. Labour Implications of the Textiles and Clothing Quota Phase-Out. Hildegunn Kyvik Nordas. Working Paper. 224. International Labour Office, Geneva.
Social and labor issues Since textile and apparel production is such a labor-intensive industry, it is inextricably linked to people. Apparel became highly commoditized, and the workforce was required to meet stringent and unfair requirements â&#x20AC;&#x201C; sending textile and garment workers into a vicious cycle of unfair labor practices and, in some cases, indentured servitude.
Waste With all that consumption comes waste. Around 13.1 million tons of textiles were disposed of in 2010 in the U.S. alone, accounting for 5.3 percent of the total municipal solid waste going into landfills . In the U.K., 80,000 tons of material was incinerated and 350,000 tons sent to landfill in the same year.
The waste has cost the U.S. $641.9 million (at $49/ton tipping fee172) and the U.K. $18.49 million (at $78/ton for incineration and $35/ton for landfill â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not including the landfill tax, which is around $111/ton!173) annually.
172 Tipping Fees Vary Across the U.S. https://home.wasterecyclingnews.com 173 January 6, 2012. Waste Opportunity, Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/ intl/cms/s/2/8cfd120a-2673-11e1-91cd00144feabdc0.html#axzz25PfVwMBi
Los Angeles – Denver Transport
A zipper from Japan, cotton from Brazil, production in China, and retail in the U.K. – fashion travels a long way even before it hits the stores. Before Sustainia, a garment had, on average, components from three countries174, and the industry moved fast to catch the latest trend.
UsA Calculations by NRDC 175 led to the following tips: 1. Avoid air transport – up to 99% of carbon emissions can be avoided simply by putting goods on a ship instead of a plane 2. Choose the type of ship wisely – only use fuel-efficient ships 3. Choose the optimal route to market and avoid empty trucks on the return trip
(The data from this graph is from NRDC) 174 Energy and Waste, Ethical Fashion Forum, Jan. 2010. www.source.ethicalfashionforum. com/article/energy-and-waste 175 NRDC, Clean by Design Campaign, May 2012. www.nrdc.org/international/cleanbydesign/transportation.asp
Shanghai – Los Angeles Air Pollutant
(Kg. Nox) 17.0
(Kg. CO2) 950 96,618
Xinjiang – Shanghai Air Pollutant
Water Before Sustainia, the production of and care for clothing consumed a lot of water. Consumption depends on the type of raw material, but, according to the Sustainable Cotton Project, over 3,000 liters of water is used during the lifecycle of a single pair of Levi’s 501 jeans – from cotton production and manufacturing to consumer care.
45% ... of water consumption occurs during clothes washing by the customer.
Puma’s environmental profit and loss measurements show that the majority of its water use – 52 percent – stems from raw material production, such as cotton farming and oil drilling, whereas 37 percent involves the processing of raw materials, such as leather tanneries and oil refining176.
http://safe.puma.com/us/en/2011/05/puma-announcesresults-of-unprecedented-environmental-profit-loss/ * Note: consumer care is not factored into the Corporate Environmental P&L.
"There's a saying that gets repeated a lot in China:
窶郎ou know the color that's in fashion this season by the color of the rivers.'
In my work in China, I've seen rivers of every color."
ﾂｩ Qiu Bo / Greenpeace for Detox
Linda Greer Ph.D.Senior Scientist, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
before sustainia All these sectors below shared the same challenges, but they were never dealt with collectively.
Highly labor- and resource-intensive farming and the use of pesticides cause severe strains on the environment, biodiversity, and, ultimately, the livelihoods of farmers177.
Designers produce several collections a year, adding trendspecific garments in between without consideration or responsibility for its impact.
One ton of fabric on average pollutes as much as 200 tons of water with toxic dyes, not to mention the social effects of laborintensive production methods178.
Nrdc, clean by design campaign Nrdc, clean by design campaign Nrdc, clean by design campaign 180 U.S. Epa, www.Epa.Gov/ osw/conserve/materials/textiles. Htm 177
At times, the fashion industry was a big mystery. No one knew who was doing business with whom. So who are the players and the A-listers you simply have to know about in fashion? In the chart below is an introduction to the fashion industry before Sustainia.
Before, a garment had a large environmental impact throughout its life span. From land use when growing materials, to design, manufacturing, and sales, and, finally, the end of the line at the landfill, there were negative effects on the environment and, ultimately, everyoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wallet, well-being, and future.
End of life
In the U.K., supermarkets have outperformed traditional fashion retailers, and have no specific focus on their responsibility for the products' end of life.
Garments are not labelled with information on the environmental impact. Thrift shops are dodgy and getting rid of old clothes is a hassle179.
Around 13.1 million tons of textiles were disposed of in the U.S. alone in 2010, accounting for 5.3 percent of the total municipal solid waste going into landfills180.
FASHION IN SUSTAINIA Fashion is no longer a linear process but a closed-loop and holistic industry.
In a world where raw materials, energy, water, and land were becoming scarce resources and populations were growing by the second, Sustainia prevailed by implementing muchneeded changes in policy, business practices, and manufacturing techniques. Pre- and post-consumer waste has become too valuable to waste. Radical technology innovations are designed to do more with less and have changed the way fashion is produced and sold. Collaborative, open-source industry tools like the Higg Index181 , which was previously used as an internal environmental and social assessment tool for apparel and footwear products, has become the dominate consumer-facing index – and is the main sustainability indicator for a product. Consumers are now able to see, rank, and compare the environmental, social, and cultural scores of products of interest with their mobile device.
In Sustainia, consumers have dramatically shifted habits on how they wear and care for their clothes. Reuse and remanufacturing of clothing has developed in response to higher prices for old-world fibers such as cotton, while new materials are made of natural waste and by-products.
In Sustainia, labels
– “fair trade,” “organic,”
and others – are less relevant to consumers and more so to businesses to help them assess the environmental credentials of products.
See textbox on page 202
End of Life
In Sustainia, transparency and communication has paved the way for a new holistic wave of sustainable design. But how did it happen, and how can others join? Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the how-to guide for fashion in Sustainia. 201
Use Raw Materials Analyses have shown that the largest environmental impacts occur where raw materials are derived from natural resources (e.g., cultivation of fibers, oil drilling for petroleum-based fibers, and cattle ranching for leather)182. So how to use raw materials? Use raw materials that reduce or ultimately eliminate environmental and social impact, including the growing of fiber from bio-cultures, removal of invasive plants from landscapes, and the use of their fiber for clothes. Avoid materials that are fossil fuel-based such as polyester, acrylic, and nylon183 and use polymer-based sustainable materials derived from plants. Recycle materials like polyester e.g. creating fleece jackets from recycled bottles184.
To know where you are going, understand where you are. The Higg Index is an open-source, metrics-based tool that analyzes elements of the entire product value chain from materials sourcing to garment manufacturing. It includes industry-wide acceptance of philosophies such as cradle-to-cradle, the standardized practice of environmental profit and loss, and governmental requirements.
182 May 16, 2011. Puma and PPR Home announce final results of unprecedented Environmental Profit & Loss Account. http://about.puma.com/puma-and-ppr-home-announcefirst-results-of-unprecedented-environmental-profit-lossaccount/ 183 Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008, www.rsc.org/images/ Synthetic%20fabrics_tcm18-114532.pdf 184 CIRFS, 2012. www.cirfs.org/SUSTAINABILITY/SustainabilityIssues/PolymerWasteasRawMaterial.aspx
FRom Coop and Remei AG. Naturaline textiles are grown in India and Tanzania with over 8,000 farmers involved. The companies focus on organic cotton production, ecological processing and fair working conditions along the entire supply chain. This is also a Sustainia100 solution which you can read more about in the Sustainia100 publication on www. sustainia.me.
BE A Designer Dress made with silk, where the moth is allowed to hatch and fly out before the cocoon is used, organic cottons, natural dyes and fair wages
In Sustainia, fashion designers consider in the design process how different styles of clothes are combined, used, and disposed of, creating environmental value.
Key rules are: • Design for durability. This has become the design mantra and the most eco-efficient option. Garment lifecycles have been expanded due to new retail business models, allowing for styles and whole collections to be repeatedly leased, which also brings new margins to retailers. • Partnerships with consumers and crowdsourcing.
Designers take into account, in the creative process and decision-making, the full garment lifecycle. Designing for disassembly and reuse is another integrated paradigm in Sustainia fashion; everything that goes into making a garment is designed for reuse and remanufacture – minimizing consumption of scarce resources.
Atelier Tammam Photo: Mirozlav Zaruba
• A flexible approach to design for different patterns of clothing use. Selecting durable materials for the black trousers and biodegradable ones for the oneoffs offer a more sustainable solution.
BE A Manufacturer In Sustainia, manufacturers use the smartest materials possible at the outset because they know they will reuse this material later when garments are returned. In Sustainia, the entire value chain acknowledges that the most valuable resource in the industry is its people. The NICE Manual and Code of Conduct has been developed for the fashion and textile industry to move towards a more ethical and environmentally responsible industry185.
How to become a manufacturer in Sustainia? Engage in collaborative initiatives to improve the environmental performance of textiles across the supply chain – design for durability, new fibers and fabrics, maximize reuse/recycling/end-of-lifemanagement, and sustainable cleaning. For a basic cotton T-shirt, this means using organic materials, non- toxic dyes, alternative fabric softeners and no treatment that improve color fastness186. Efficiently recycle bio-based and synthetic materials – this means that excess process energy is recaptured and reused in a cyclical fashion. Show complete transparency and traceability in production methods and adhere to all international labor conditions and rights. Manufacturers explore sustainable options and offer these to their current clients, explaining the benefits to the client.
185 NICE, www.nicefashion.org 186 Søren Ellebæk Laursen; John Hansen; Hans Henrik Knudsen; Henrik Wenzel; Henrik Fred Larsen; Frans Møller Kristensen, EDIPTEX, Environmental Assesment of Textiles, 2007. www.mst.dk/Udgiv/publications/2007/978-87-7052-515-2/ pdf/978-87-7052-516-9.pdf
BE A Retailer At the other end of the fashion value chain, retailers are constantly considering how to apply their core competencies to new markets. Sustainia retailers have thrown themselves into the game, turning parts of their spaces into huge thrift markets for clothes and other services such as on-the-spot tailoring, mending, cleaning, and 3D-body scanning187. Pre-loved, custom, and vintage clothing is growing in popularity, and retail spaces become community building spaces, where new youth cultures emerge. In Sustainia, the leading brands are those that understand how to engage with customers to build communities and create loyalty. Online voting determines which styles go into production â&#x20AC;&#x201C; saving energy and eliminating waste. New business opportunities have emerged from smartphone technology whereby small producers in Africa, Asia and South America have found access to world markets for their creations. Big brands save resources by creating and sourcing styles that can easily be combined and adapted to changing consumer wants and needs, and provide options for how to recycle your pieces, when it is time.
Marks & Spencer
Retail spaces are carbon positive, safe havens for fresh and clean air in larger cities, so you can breathe in when deciding between pairs of shoes.
187 Tesco Clothing, 2012, www.clothingattesco.com/f+f-virtual-fitting-room/page/ tesco-virtual-fittingroom
From Marks and Spencer and Oxfam. Getting customers into the habit of recycling while shopping and gaining store credit. Shwopped clothes is given to Oxfam for reselling or recycling. Shwopping is also a Sustainia100 solution which you can read more about in the Sustainia100 publication on www.sustainia.me.
be a Consumer
Eco-label measuring environmental impact
Fashion brands and retailers in Sustainia are obsessed with full value chain transparency. The companies involve consumers and other civil society actors in regular risk assessments of their business models and supply chains to continuously improve the understanding of the social and environmental context in which their products and services are used. Consumers avoid information overload by following the simple, accessible guidance provided by the Sustainia eco-label, a global standard inspired by the EU Energy Label that was successfully introduced in the previous millennium. The fashion eco-label took all the complexities in the existing labeling schemes, specifications, and small print and summarized it into A-G letter grades that enable consumers to shop quickly, with a conscience. The eco-label ensures consumers know the origin and social and environmental impact of their clothes.
A B C D E F G
New consumer-oriented services with built-in sustainability have been introduced: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-tagged clothes are collected from customers by eco-efficient community laundries, automatically separated to be cleaned with similar clothes, and then returned to their owners according to their preferences (folded, on hangers, or back in wardrobe).
TIPS FOR THE SHOPPER In Sustainia, shopping has made way for swapping, borrowing, bartering, and renting. However, both online and experiential brick-and-mortar shops have been set up where buyers can purchase clothes and scan clothing QR codes to assess the supply chain impacts.
1. Inspired by Honest by188, look for brands that promote transparency, offering an accessible, on-demand track-and-trace system along the supply chain. 2. Buy shoes designed to be repaired, reused, and, ultimately, disassembled. 3. Seek out durable, high-quality garments. This ensures that products are well-loved by the wearer and will fetch higher prices or higher bargaining chips if sold or traded on the market. 4. Buy products with a reduced need for washing and ironing – and don’t worry. It’s not gross.
See more about Honest By in Sustainia100 Page 19
Swishing is a worldwide phenomenon, started by the Sustainability Communications Agency Futerra, where people mix having a great time with getting their wardrobe an upgrade. Their rules are simple: • Everyone has to bring at least one item of quality clothing • You will have half an hour to browse before the swish opens • No item may be claimed before the swish opens • As soon as the swish is declared open, everyone may take what they want • Remember no scratching, spitting or fighting
5. Look for locally made products. Buying local supports nearby merchants and reduces negative environmental impacts. 6. Source additions to your wardrobe made using traditional artisanal skills, bought direct from trader in new producer markets in Africa, Asia and South America. 7. Go online to find the best and biggest selection of sustainable clothes. 8. Look for the trendy community laundries with zero-water washing machines.
Deal with End of Life Nothing is disposed of â&#x20AC;&#x201C; hightech take-back systems and automated sorting machines collect vast amounts of textile waste close to the consumers. Disposal of textile waste is tightly regulated due to resource scarcity, and clothes have become a favorite fencing item. Region-wide refund systems operate, and consumers bring unwanted clothes for refund to grocery stores, alongside refundable bottles and cans.
Waste is a widely traded and valued commodity in Sustainia. For years, post-consumer textile waste has surpassed e-waste as the most valued waste product. Waste management firms thrive.
"People don't (generally) want to cause harm or damage, but they have to be given the licence to do the positive things" ASOS
WHAT ARE women WEARING? Sustainians are crazy about the sharingand service-based economy – spurred by the rapid uptake of peer-to-peer software and mobile technology designed to reduce the pressures of ownership while satisfying the desire for a little retail therapy.
When new clothes are needed, online rental outlets enable Sustainians to rent the latest fashions – helping eliminate waste. The service-based sector also thrives in this new economy, marked by an increase in tailors, seamsters, and seamstresses who tuck, tighten, and embellish new and old creations to give them second, third, and fourth lives. Well-worn clothes end up in homebased recycling bins and are picked up by the municipalities of Sustainia. The fabric is turned into wash rags, insulation, padding, and even compost (the latter is especially popular because so much clothing is cradleto-cradle and safe to cycle back into the environment). Less clothing waste reduces the need for landfills, which saves cities money – a win-win for everyone involved.
Dress like the first lady ASOS Africa collection is the flagship brand in the Green Room. Often worn by first lady Michelle Obama, it is made by SOKO, the Kenyan clothing workshop which creates employment opportunities for communities in Kenya. The eco-factory is based at the Sustainia100 solution Wildlife Works who provide innovative market based solutions to the conservation of biodiversity.
But what is the Sustainian wearing? Here is a sneak peek into the holiest of places: the closet.
Asos africa, spring/summer 2013
These pieces are traded using digital apps that virtually place the pieces online through a number of highly visible, networked websites that encourage the business of swapping, borrowing, and bartering. In short, consumers become their own retailers. And because better-made clothes fetch better prices and better swapping, the behavioral patterns of consumers and respective manufacturers have shifted towards quality and not quantity.
Elsien Gringhuis, Photo David Joosten
Colorful outfit Durable high-quality garments made from certified eco materials
leather bag Vegetable tanned avoiding toxic chemicals
black body Using only Fairtrade cotton
Asos Africa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Autum/Winter 2012
Aikyou, Photo: Will Whipple
Jacket from a Swishing party where you left with as many pieces as you brought
black evening dress Made from leftover cloth
Fromsomewhere, Photo: Will Whipple
Ada Zanditon, photo: Elliot Morgan
Little black dress Organic and Fairtrade cotton
Fromsomewhere, Photo: Will Whipple
Red dress Using selective fabrics from ethical and reliable manufacturer
Pattern dress 100% organic cotton. Environmentally sustainable and Fairtrade fashion People Tree
Classy daywear Made out of recycled garments
East Fourth Street
Upcycled jEWLERY with Fairtrade gold and reused gem stones
What ARE Men wearing? Traditionally, men had been slower to embrace sustainable fashion. But celebrity endorsements from football heroes, fashion icons, and rock stars changed this dramatically. Sustainia men love repair and customizing and often bring garments to a tailor to replace frayed linings and secure loose buttons. They enjoy dropping off a few articles at the nearest in-store recycling bin, receiving a store credit redeemable at some of the largest clothing brand stores.
Honest bym, Bruno Pieters
Most of all, he loves his jeans because of the durability and the one-year period between washes.
White organic cotton shirt with wooden buttons 216
Today, business, community and government supported campaigns such as the Japanese classic “Super Cool Biz” encourage whitecollar male workers to wear outfits appropriate for the office yet cool enough to endure the summer heat and air-cons set on 28°C to reduce electric consumption.
Summer Rayne Oakes
Sustainable suit From the buttons to the lining, it is one of the greenest suits ever made
Marks and Spencer
Glasses Made from recycled plastic
Marks and Spencer
spring Shoes Designed to be disassembled and reused
Silk tie Made with peace silk, where the moth is allowed to hatch and fly out before the cocoon is used 218
Winter Boots Boots made from recycled materials
Shoes that produce electricity New technology by MIT Researchers
leather bag Vegetable tanned leather avoiding toxic chemicals
Yulex and patagonia189, 190
Bio rubber Wetsuit Made out of material from the non-food crop Guayule instead of the oil fossil-based neoprene
www.yulex.com/materials/biorubber/solids www.yulex.com/press/press-releases/ November 16, 2012
4 Work with others! Collaborative initiatives are aimed at low-impact care such as reducing wash cycle temperatures and line-drying
Expand garment lifecycles, allowing for styles and whole collections to be leased, swapped, borrowed, and resold for others to love
Redesign the process to reduce negative social and environmental impacts
Absolute transparency and traceability is the expectation, not the exception
Sustainia Fashion Principles
The designer is king â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and should also be responsible for environmental impacts
6 New business! Sustainable fashion paves the way for new businesses
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