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Delivering as One

Annual Results Report 2012

VIET NAM

UNITED NATIONS


Š United Nations in Viet Nam July 2013 Permission is required to reproduce any part of this publication. Permission will be freely granted to educational or non-profit organizations. Please contact: UN Communications Team 81A Tran Quoc Toan, Hoan Kiem, Ha Noi, Viet Nam Tel: (84) 04-3822.4383 Fax: (84) 04-3822.3581 Email: communications.vn@one.un.org This report and additional online content are available at <www.un.org.vn> Cover photo: Š UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery


Delivering as One

Annual Results Report 2012


Preamble Early in 2012, the United Nations signed a new fiveyear plan of cooperation with the Government of Viet Nam. The One Plan 2012-2016 is strategic, coherent and results-oriented, and aims to promote inclusive and green growth, access to quality social services and protection, as well as stronger governance and participation. The One Plan for 2012-2016 also marks the beginning of the 2nd generation of the UN’s Delivering as One (DaO) initiative in Viet Nam. It aims for greater efficiency, effectiveness and a sharper focus on achieving results at country level, in line with General Assembly Resolution 67/226 on the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review1. In signing the One Plan 2012-2016, the Government of Viet Nam has demonstrated its commitment to remain at the forefront of global UN reforms, and the 17 UN agencies2, supporting Viet Nam will continue to ‘Deliver as One’ in ways that benefit the Vietnamese people. The UN system in Viet Nam has adopted a comprehensive results-based management (RBM) approach to monitor and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of DaO, including the One Plan’s implementation. The One UN RBM strategy, finalized in 2012, is designed to ensure strong, consistent joint planning, monitoring and reporting on performance, tracked closely against planned results and indicators. It will also help the UN identify needs, and make adjustments and swift course corrections. The One UN RBM strategy has guided the development of this first ‘Delivering as One’ Annual Results Report. Despite data limitations due to the first year of the One Plan’s implementation, contribution stories fully describe how UN-supported outputs from different agencies came together to achieve expected One Plan results and generate, share and apply lessons learned and good practice. Viet Nam has made impressive progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and has succeeded in meeting several significantly ahead of the 2015 deadline. However with less than three years remaining, vast differences still exist between regions, cities and rural areas, and people of different ethnic groups. Whilst two years ago Viet Nam was ranked sixth globally in terms of MDG progress in absolute and relative terms, urgent action is still needed to ensure that important groups in society – including the most vulnerable and marginalized - do not get left behind. 1

General Assembly Resolution 67/226 on the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review of UN operational activities for development. 2 Including two non-resident agencies, the International Trade Centre (ITC) and United Nations Conference of Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

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Through greater efforts to generate data and evidence, to increase public consultation and participation, and to position this information for consideration by policy-makers and decision-takers, the UN system in Viet Nam is moving beyond process reporting towards describing more tangible results and development outcomes. In particular, this new approach is demonstrating the ability to influence the equity focus of policies and laws, and ensuring that results are being delivered for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged communities. In the following four chapters we highlight the progress made by the UN in Viet Nam in 2012. In Chapter 1 we describe overall progress in Delivering as One. Chapter 2 focuses on the One Plan and illustrates how the coordinated actions and outputs of UN assistance are making a steady contribution towards the One Plan outcomes. Chapter 3 reports on One Budget in 2012 with Annex 2, providing a detailed breakdown by outcome. Chapter 4 summarises major lessons learned and describes the way forward for greater efficiency and effectiveness of Delivering as One in Viet Nam. Moving forward, the UN continues to value the strong collaboration with Government and donors as this productive tripartite partnership is one of the major factors in the DaO initiative’s success in Viet Nam. The UN system looks forward to continuing to work closely with all our national and international partners to build a more inclusive, sustainable and equitable future for all Vietnamese people, no matter who or where they are.

Pratibha Metha Resident Coordinator

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Contents PREAMBLE ................................................................................................................................................. 04 CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................. 06 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ................................................................................................... 08 COUNTRY IN FOCUS ............................................................................................................................... 10 MAP OF VIET NAM ................................................................................................................................... 11 SELECTED INDICATORS ......................................................................................................................... 12 Chapter 1: Progress on Delivering as One ................................................................................. 14 Reflection and review ........................................................................................................................ 16 Results-based Delivering as One in Viet Nam ........................................................................... 17 Strategic positioning .......................................................................................................................... 18 Harmonization of business practices and procedures .......................................................... 20 Chapter 2: Progress towards One Plan Outcomes ................................................................. 22 Progress on Millennium Development Goals ................................................................................ 26 Focus Area 1. Inclusive, equitable and sustainable growth .................................................... 30 People-centred economic growth and decent work [Outcomes 1.1, 1.2] ....................... 32 Results in 2012........................................................................................................................................... 34 Stories: Mainstreaming ethnic minorities into poverty reduction efforts ...................................... 36 Delivering increased employment and income ...................................................................... 38 Planning and decision-making that uses evidence .............................................................. 40 Ensuring the safety of economic migrants, especially women........................................... 42 Inclusive labour market and greater protection of workers ................................................ 43 Addressing climate change, strengthening environmental management and managing disaster risks [Outcomes 1.3, 1.4]................................................................................ 46 Results in 2012........................................................................................................................................... 48 Stories: Harnessing women’s resilience to reduce risk and consequences of disasters ............... 50 Getting ready for REDD+ .............................................................................................................. 51 ‘Greening’ growth in Viet Nam ................................................................................................... 52 Overcoming a toxic legacy ........................................................................................................... 53 Focus Area 2. Access to quality essential services and social protection ........................... 54 A more effective social protection system [Outcome 2.1] ....................................................... 56 Results in 2012........................................................................................................................................... 58 Stories: Making social assistance decrees more inclusive .................................................................. 60 Providing evidence and advice to drive social insurance reform ...................................... 61 Increasing policy-makers’ commitment to older persons .................................................. 62 Partnerships to address child poverty and gender inequalities ......................................... 64 Stronger protection for victims of human trafficking ........................................................... 65 A better functioning health system and care for the vulnerable and disadvantaged [Outcome 2.2]............................................................................................................ 66 Results in 2012........................................................................................................................................... 68

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Stories: Grassroots health networks .......................................................................................................... 72 Health insurance coverage............................................................................................................ 72 Access to essential medicines ....................................................................................................... 73 Evidence for decision-making ...................................................................................................... 73 Tackling smoking-related deaths ................................................................................................ 74 Renewed focus on equity in health services ............................................................................. 75 Controlling communicable diseases of humans and animals ............................................ 76 Attention for young people in national laws and policies .............................................. 78 Expanding the quality and reach of the education system [Outcome 2.3] ....................... 80 Results in 2012........................................................................................................................................... 82 Stories: Inclusion in laws and policies ...................................................................................................... 84 Improving the quality of education ........................................................................................... 84 New abilities and services for quality, inclusive education .................................................. 86 Promoting gender equality and responding to HIV [Outcome 2.4] ..................................... 88 Results in 2012........................................................................................................................................... 90 Stories: Ending the detention of sex workers and improving due process for drug users .......... 92 Integration of the HIV response .................................................................................................. 94 The Gender Equality Law: Reviewing progress and renewing commitments................. 95 Changing Laws â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Changing Lives ............................................................................................... 96 A new Labour Code that protects women ................................................................................ 98 Ending violence against women ................................................................................................ 99 Focus Area 3. Enhanced governance and participation.........................................................100 More accountable and eďŹ&#x20AC;ective government [Outcomes 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4] .................102 Results in 2012.........................................................................................................................................104 Stories: New commitment and tools for effective law-making........................................................106 Human rights advocacy ...............................................................................................................108 Accountable public services .......................................................................................................109 Land and justice for women .......................................................................................................110 Public service reform and anti-corruption: data for action ...............................................112 Chapter 3: One Plan Budget ...........................................................................................................114 Table 1: One Plan 2012-2016 Resource Requirements ........................................................116 One Plan Fund ....................................................................................................................................116 Table 2: Donor Contributions to One Plan Funds as of December 31, 2012 ................117 Figure 1: One Plan Expenditure by Funding Source 2008-2012.......................................119 Chapter 4: Lessons Learned and the Way Forward..............................................................120 Annex 1: Progress towards Outcomes .......................................................................................126 Annex 2: One Plan Expenditure in 2012 ...................................................................................136 Table 3: 2012 Expenditure of projects under One Plan 2006-2011 ...............................138 Table 4: 2012 Expenditure of projects under One Plan 2012-2016 ................................139 Table 5: 2012 Expenditure by UN Agency and Funding Source .......................................140

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Abbreviations & Acronyms (ASEAN) (CEDAW) (CEMA) (CRC) (CSOs) (DaO) (DAV) (DOLAB) (DRM) (DRR) (EC) (EDSP) (ESD) (FETP) (GHG) (GSO) (HACT) (HFA) (HPG) (HPPMG) (HWTS) (ICERD) (ICESCR) (ISCED) (JPGs) (LGBT) (MACC) (MARD) (MCD) (MDGs) (MOET) (MOF) (MOH)

Association of South-East Asian Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women Committee for Ethnic Minority Affairs Convention on the Rights of the Child Civil Society Organizations Delivering as One Drug Administration of Viet Nam Department of Overseas Labour Draft Disaster Risk Management Disaster Risk Reduction European Commission Education Development Strategic Plan 2011-2020 Education for Sustainable Development Field Epidemiology Training Programme Greenhouse Gas General Statistics Office Harmonized Approach to Cash Transfers Hyogo Framework for Action Health Partnership Group Harmonized Programme and Project Management Guidelines Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights I nternational Standard Classification of Education Joint Programming Groups Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Marginal Abatement Cost Curve Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Mechano-Chemical Destruction Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Education and Training Ministry of Finance Ministry of Health

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(MOJ) (MOLISA) (MPTF Office) (MRV) (NBRS) (ODA) (OPD) (OPF) (OPFMAC) (PAPI) (PAR) (POPs) (PSPMOs) (QCPR) (RBM) (RCO) (SEDP) (SEDS) (SOPS) (SRMNCHN) (TPPA) (UNCCD) (UNCT) (UNDAF) (UNFCCC) (UPR) (VNIES) (VSDS) (VSS)

Ministry of Justice Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office Monitoring, Reporting and Verification National Business Registration System Official Development Assistance One Plan Database One Plan Fund One Plan Fund Mobilization and Allocation Committee Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index Public Administration Reform Persistent Organic Pollutants Political, Social, Professional and Mass Organizations Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review Results-Based Management Resident Coordinator’s Office Socio-Economic Development Plan Socio-Economic Development Strategy Standard Operation Procedures Sexual, reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health and nutrition Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement UN Convention to Combat Desertification UN Country Team United Nations Development Assistance Framework UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Universal Periodic Review Viet Nam Institute of Educational Science Viet Nam Statistical Development Strategy Viet Nam Statistical System

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Country in Focus Viet Nam is in Southeast Asia, bordered by Cambodia and Laos to the west and China to the north. More than 88.5 million people from 54 different ethnic groups inhabit this narrow ‘S’-shaped land defined by more than 3,000 kilometres of coastline and a hilly, mountainous interior of which only one-third is arable land. Viet Nam has 63 provinces with Ha Noi in the north serving as the capital and Ho Chi Minh City in the south the largest urban area, with a population estimated at 7.5 million. In 1986, to speed up its economic recovery and reconstruction efforts after decades of conflict, Viet Nam instituted the ‘Doi moi’ or renovation reforms, shifting from a centrally-planned economy to a ‘socialist market economy’. Sustained and rapid economic growth followed, with poverty rates dropping a spectacular 58 to 14 per cent between 1993 and 2008. The estimated poverty rate for 2012 is 11.1 per cent3.

While the global economic crisis, domestic economic restructuring and macroeconomic stabilization measures slowed GDP growth to 5 per cent in 2012, Viet Nam still remains one of the fastest growing economies in the world. However, the quality and social costs of this rapid growth are a concern. Vulnerabilities are on the rise and significant disparities prevent some citizens, particularly from ethnic minority groups, people with disabilities, families in remote rural areas, new migrants and those living in chronic poverty, from enjoying essential quality education and health services. Corruption and mismanagement within the public sector are still major challenges, and there is growing public pressure for more transparent and responsive systems for decision and law making, public administration and justice.

3 The poverty rate in 2012 was calculated by the average monthly income per capita of households and measured by the Government’s poverty line for 2011-2015 (for 2012: VND530,000 for rural areas and VND660,000 for urban areas), Statistical Handbook of Viet Nam 2012, General Statistics Office.

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Map of Viet Nam

Disclaimer: The designations employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations or UN Agencies concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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Selected Indicators Human Development Index (ranking out of 186 countries, 2012): 127th Viet Nam is in the ‘medium human development’ group Population (2012): 88.5 million Life expectancy at birth (2012): 75.4 [ Male = 73; Female = 77 ] Sex ratio at birth (2012): 112 boys per 100 girls GDP growth rate (2012): 5% GDP per capita (Preliminary 2012): US$1,749 Poverty rate4 (2012): 11.1% [Urban (2012): 3.9%; Rural (2012): 14.4%] HIV prevalence: General population (2011): 0.45% Men who inject drugs (2012): 11.6% Female sex workers (2012): 2.7% Men who have sex with men (2009): 16.7% Rural population with access to clean water sources (2010): 93% Gross primary school enrolment rate (2011): 106% Children under five mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 live births, 2011): 23.2 Maternal mortality ratio (deaths per 100,000, 2010): 59 Global Climate Risk Index ranking* (1992-2011): 6th most affected nation Environmental Performance Index ranking (2012 - modest performer): 79th best performer out of 163 nations Governance and Public Administration Performance Index [2012, scale 1 (min) to 10 (max)]: Participation at local levels: 5.16 Transparency: 5.61 Vertical Accountability: 5.58 Control of Corruption: 5.84 Administrative Procedures: 6.87 Public Service Delivery: 6.90 Main exports (Preliminary 2012): US$114.57 billion - garments and textiles (13.2%), phones and phone parts (11.1%), crude oil (7.2%), computers, electronic products and product parts (6.8%), footwear (6.3%), sea products (5.3%), others (50.1%) Main imports (Preliminary 2012): US$113.79 billion - capital equipment (14.1%), computers, electronic products and their parts (11.5%), petroleum products, refined (7.9%), fabric (6.2%), steel (5.2%), phones and phone parts (4.4%), others (50.7%). Sources: Human Development Report 2013; United Nations Viet Nam 2010; Population Change and Family Planning Survey 2012; General Statistics Office 2013; Statistical Handbook 2012, General Statistics Office; Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index 2012; World Development Indicators database; 2011; Viet Nam UNGASS 2010; Health Statistics Year Book 2010, Ministry of Health; UNICEF Viet Nam 2008, 2010; Viet Nam Household Living Standards Survey 2010; Germanwatch 2012. *The Global Climate Risk Index 2012 analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.) - both in terms of fatalities as well as economic losses - using the most recent available data. It is developed by the organization Germanwatch. 4 The poverty rate in 2012 was calculated by the monthly average income per capita of households and measured by the Government’s poverty line for 2011-2015 (for 2012: VND530,000 for rural areas and VND660,000 for urban areas), Statistical Handbook of Viet Nam 2012, General Statistics Office.

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Š UNESCO Viet Nam\2010\Ngo Dinh Hoa

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Chapter 1

Progress on Delivering as One I

n the mid 2000s, with Viet Nam rapidly approaching lower middle-income status, the process of reforming the UN in Viet Nam grew out of the need for the UN to stay relevant, coherent, efficient and effective against a backdrop of declining Official Development Assistance (ODA). Within the broader context of the Ha Noi Core Statement 2005, Viet Nam at the end of 2006 volunteered to be a pilot country to implement the recommendations of the High Level Panel on System-Wide Coherence. Right from the start, DaO in Viet Nam was a Government of Viet Nam and UN-driven initiative.

In Viet Nam, the DaO initiative is based on six pillars: One Plan One Budget One Leader One Set of Management Practices One Voice One UN House

DaO is already transforming the way the UN works together, the way it provides leadership and the way it delivers clear, common messages about development challenges and potential solutions in Viet Nam.

Chapter 1

1 2 3 4 5 6

In Viet Nam, DaO is based on six complementary and mutually reinforcing pillars. Achievement of One Plan results relies on the support of the five other pillars that, together, seek to avoid duplication, improve coherence, coordination and complementarity, reduce transaction costs and help UN agencies work more effectively together.

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Chapter 1

Reflection and review 2012 was a year of reflection and review on the past five years of piloting the Delivering as One approach and a year of consolidation and transition to the 2nd generation of DaO. In Viet Nam, as globally, DaO has evolved and found its voice over time in answering unique, country-specific development questions. In the lead up to the 2012 Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review (QCPR), the UN conducted an independent evaluation of lessons learned from the initial eight DaO pilot countries. One important conclusion was that the voluntary adoption of the DaO approach by national governments, such as Viet Nam’s, had greatly enhanced the ownership and leadership of their UN development programmes, as well as of the UN reform process itself. Another important independent review conclusion was that whilst previous UN reform initiatives focused on particular aspects, such as programming, funding or management and accountability, DaO

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is unique in the way it has brought these aspects together in an integrated approach. The ability to effectively draw on expertise from across the entire UN system is already delivering programmatic results in Viet Nam. In addition to the independent evaluation, the UN’s experience in Viet Nam helped inform a number of other DaO assessments prepared for the QCPR. These included analysing how the UN Resident Coordinator system and its funding can be made more effective and sustainable, as well as evaluating how the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) can be further improved. In his report for the 2012 QCPR, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon recommended the General Assembly draw on the findings of the independent evaluation and surveys, stressing that ‘noone-size-fits-all’, and the need for DaO to remain a voluntary approach.


Following intense negotiations and consultations between member states, on December 21, 2012 the General Assembly adopted a landmark resolution for ‘UN operational activities for development’ by consensus. The far-reaching changes endorsed in General Assembly Resolution 67/226 underlined the importance attached to building on the experiences of DaO countries, as well as being an important vote of confidence in the DaO approach. These experiences will be vital in continuing to enhance system-wide coherence to improve the relevance and effectiveness of the UN development system at a country level. In Resolution 67/226, the UN General Assembly: “Requests that the United Nations system build on the best practices and lessons learned in implementing “Delivering as One” by a number of countries and to further consolidate the process by clearly outlining the core elements of each of the “ones”, based on lessons learned, including by formulating standard operational procedures as guidelines for the successful work of the United Nations country teams in “Delivering as One” countries, as well as for other countries that consider joining “Delivering as One”, and to report on this process and standard operating procedures to the Economic and Social Council during its operational activities5.”

By engaging in preparation for the QCPR review process, the UN Country Team (UNCT) in Viet Nam also reflected on its own experience of the 1st generation of DaO and One Plan 2006-2010, and agreed on the need to move into the 2nd generation of DaO with an even stronger focus on results. The signing of the One Plan 20122016, between the UN system and the Government of Viet Nam in March 2012, marked the 2nd generation of Viet Nam’s DaO initiative. One important result achieved in October 2012 was the finalization of the One UN RBM strategy, that laid the foundation for more effective management of DaO results, including monitoring and reporting on the One Plan. Detailed baselines, targets and indicators have already been established for the One Plan 2012-2016, but a more comprehensive results matrix, as well as benchmarking for all six DaO pillars, will be finalized in 2013 as soon as DaO standard operating procedures have been globally agreed. The One UN RBM strategy and associated One Plan Database (OPD) are already providing the Resident Coordinator, UNCT, UN staff, and national and international partners with more effective ways of managing One Plan results, as well as results from other DaO pillars. The One UN RBM strategy outlines how the main elements of DaO in Viet Nam reinforce one another to achieve One Plan results and effectively meet national priorities. The renewed results-based focus is already delivering much stronger results reporting, evidencebased decision-making with partners, the work of the Joint Programming Groups (JPGs) in implementing the One Plan, as well as a growing sense of mutual accountability.

5 General Assembly Resolution 67/226 on the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review of UN operational activities for development.

Chapter 1

To safeguard the future sustainability of UN support to developing nations, Resolution 67/226 also calls for a more strategic and coherent results culture across the entire UN system, driven by interventions based on clear and robust results frameworks. Going forward, DaO in Viet Nam will continue to be guided closely by the QCPR resolution with standard operating procedures for countries voluntarily opting to adopt a DaO approach, which is expected to be finalized in 2013.

Results-based Delivering as One in Viet Nam

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This first chapter of this report highlights some of the key DaO results achieved in 2012. Results achieved so far for One Plan implementation are presented in Chapter 2, with results related to the One Budgetary Framework included in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 captures lessons learned and the way forward.

Strategic positioning A key UNCT objective in 2012 was to design appropriate internal and external coordination mechanisms to support the 2nd generation of DaO, including the effective implementation of One Plan 2012-2016 with a particular focus on a strengthened results-based culture. To promote the UN’s internal coherence in Viet Nam, a UN coordination structure was established to promote a joint approach consisting of eight JPGs convened and coconvened by the UN Heads of Agencies.

Chapter 1

Within the UN, JPGs are responsible for joint planning, monitoring and reporting on One Plan 2012-2016 results and promoting a joint programming approach. (see Chapter 2 for further details on JPGs). The joint programming approach among UN agencies in Viet Nam was also promoted through the allocation process for the One Plan Fund (OPF). Since 2007, the OPF has been a mechanism for donors to pool resources and it has served as an effective incentive tool for the UN to strategically allocate funding. The OPF was extended with the signing of the new One Plan 20122016 and to align it with DaO objectives. The OPF allocation criteria was extensively reviewed by the One Plan Fund Mobilization and Allocation Committee (OPFMAC) during 2012 and revised to further promote the joint programming approach, and ensure capacity for timely delivery. To further improve coordination with Government and development partners,

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efforts were made to design a highlevel DaO governance structure to sustain and strengthen the tripartite partnership guiding and monitoring the implementation of the 2nd generation of DaO in Viet Nam. In 2012, a joint UNGovernment of Viet Nam working group developed a three-level governance structure. It consists of a high-level, tripartite DaO Steering Committee to provide overall direction, prioritization and monitoring on all six pillars of the DaO initiative in Viet Nam, a high-level joint UNGovernment One Plan Steering Committee to review the implementation and results of One Plan 2012-2016 and guide the OPF allocation, as well as multi-stakeholder Focus Area Coordination Groups to serve as a forum for joint research, policy dialogue as well as joint monitoring and evaluation. The proposed structure is pending final approval and it is expected that all three mechanisms will be rolled out mid-2013. The One Plan 2012-2016 clearly articulates the UN in Viet Nam’s increased focus on high-quality upstream and crosscutting policy work, and places a greater emphasis on the UN’s role in providing technical assistance, capacity development, engaging different stakeholders and expanding partnerships. The One Plan tripartite governance structure is a good demonstration of how the UN works in partnership with the Government and development partners to deliver effective results, leadership and oversight going forward. In 2012, the UN system continued to identify ways to promote greater UN joint policy review and analysis for evidence-based advocacy messages on Government priority issues, as well as identifying emerging issues requiring a platform for common dialogue. The UN’s joint advocacy work was supported by an ongoing shift from mandate-specific advocacy to more integrated and issuebased advocacy by pooling different expertise and competencies from various


© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

UN agencies and communicated with “One Voice”. This unified approach delivered the well-received One UN issues paper on Sustainable Poverty Reduction and Natural Disaster Risk Management shared in the mid-term Consultative Group meeting in June, 2012 and the One UN Discussion Paper on “CEDAW, Women’s Rights and Retirement Age in Viet Nam” to advocate for an equal retirement age to address gender equality and women’s rights issues.

Meanwhile, the UN played an active role in coordinating and supporting a more coherent development partners approach to policy dialogue on a number of critical issues in Viet Nam, including those related to climate change, gender, HIV/ AIDS and land. The UN system actively led or supported a number of key policy coordination fora with development partners and the Government in Viet Nam, including the informal Ambassadors Group and several Sector Partnership Groups focussing on a range of areas, including education and health. Given the important role of media in development, the UN enhanced its focus on strategic media placement and engagement with the resulting expanded coverage generating an average of 56 different stories or key messages each month. This highlighted the full spectrum of UN work in mainstream media channels with national

Chapter 1

The UN also used its normative mandate and neutrality to add value to collaborative work with development partners on joint policy advocacy and revisions to several new laws of critical importance to the Vietnamese people. This included the revision of the Labour Code that extended maternity leave from four to six months, and the Law on the Handling of Administrative Violations which effectively ended the practice of detaining sex workers in ‘05’ centres, as well as allowing people accused of illegal drug use to have legal representation and their cases heard by a court. The drafting of the joint recommendations and a policy brief on

“Revising the 2003 Law on Land in Viet Nam: Creating Equitable Treatment for Land Use Right Holders” also underlined this affective new approach.

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reach6, contributing significantly to a greater public awareness of the UN’s work and position on a range of issues of public concern in Viet Nam. Taking advantage of the growing popularity of social media in the country, the UN also laid the foundations for a multi-pronged digital strategy to make it possible to interact more directly with an interested public. The UN has established an initial presence on Facebook, Twitter and Youtube and each day packages content on issues such as climate change and the environment, human rights, gender and governance mainly for a young socially aware and increasingly internet literate audience. Although the digital strategy will take time to research, refine and roll-out, use of social media is already opening the door to new ways for the UN to interact with a wide spectrum of society, especially the younger generation.

Chapter 1

Harmonization of business practices and procedures One of the DaO approach’s main aims is to identify innovative ways to simplify and harmonize UN engagement with its implementing partners, as well as establishing business practices that lead to greater efficiencies and a reduction in transaction costs. At a country level, the scope for making changes to UN implementation procedures has often been limited by the need for changes to be made at headquarters level. While the UNCT in Viet Nam also faced this bottleneck in 2012, it continued to explore ways to harmonize business practices. The upcoming move of the 14 participating UN agencies to the Green One UN House in Ha Noi in 2014 helped to accelerate the process by identifying common services that will help enable the UN system deliver in a more 6 UN news coverage captured by the daily ‘What’s Making News’ media monitoring service for the UN in Viet Nam.

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cost effective and environmentally friendly manner from 2014 onwards. The location of the 14 UN agencies under one roof in the Green One UN House is a key pillar of the 2nd generation of DaO and will usher in a new era of operational efficiency. Following a long and intense design, legal negotiation, administrative approval and resource mobilization process, a contract for civil works was issued on December 27, 2012 and it is expected that the Green One UN House will open its doors on schedule for the UN agencies to move in during the first or second quarter of 2014. In 2012, the UNCT also agreed on how the principle of ‘functional clustering’ in the Green One UN House should be applied in practice, to promote UN thematic team work to deliver on One Plan. This will entail various agency staff sitting together and working more closely on issues, rather than being located by agency affiliation. Within the UN globally, this is a unique innovation designed to promote greater programme coherence and enhance development effectiveness. The UN will also operate on a common ICT platform in the Green One UN House to support functional clustering and help increase flexibility and manoeuvrability. Substantial cost savings are also anticipated in housekeeping, rent, reception, security and utilities. The move to the Green One UN House is already accelerating the harmonization of procurement processes, and will expand the use of common longterm agreements for shared services such as banking, printing, travel and vehicle maintenance. In terms of strengthening the harmonization of programme management practices, the UNCT in 2012 continued to explore ways to help the UN system implement projects in a coherent and effective manner such as:


The Harmonized Programme and Project Management Guidelines (HPPMG) is a unique Viet Nam-specific DaO initiative designed to assist the UN and its implementing partners to prepare, implement and manage UNsupported programmes and projects in a coherent, simplified manner. In 2012, a comprehensive revision of the guidelines was undertaken to ensure they are updated to be fully in line with the latest UN and Government regulations. It is envisaged that the revised guidelines will cater for more UN agencies participating – either partly or fully – by using the HPPMG in their daily management of programmes and projects. As a result, implementing partners will benefit from a consistent and unified methodology when implementing UN-supported projects in Viet Nam. The Harmonized Approach to Cash Transfers (HACT) is a global initiative to harmonize the ways cash assistance from the UN to implementing partners is managed. It aims to reduce transaction costs by increasing the use of national systems and strengthens national capacity for programme management and accountability.

Under the One Plan, the HACT is used with all new and existing implementing partners. In 2012, the UN conducted a global survey on the HACT and based on its findings and local lessons in Viet Nam, the HACT for Viet Nam was redesigned to be an effective harmonization tool for the implementation of One Plan 2012-2016. •

The UN-EU Cost Norms7 guidelines were originally established to ensure a gradual alignment of donor and Government of Viet Nam cost norms for programme support that better reflected market conditions. Following a comprehensive revision by stakeholders (Government, donors and UN), the cost norms were updated in 2012 to ensure project management and implementation costs were better aligned between the UN and donors, for example in the use of national consultants or venues for workshops, for greater simplification, harmonization and transparency.

7 UN-EU Guidelines for Financing of Local Costs in Development Cooperation with Viet Nam.

Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

Progress towards One Plan Outcomes T

he One Plan for 2012-2016 is designed to respond to Viet Namâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs as a new lower middle-income country. It is both a strategic framework and an operational document that articulates what the UN is striving to achieve through joint outcomes and outputs. Its overarching aim is to more eďŹ&#x20AC;ectively promote and support inclusive, equitable and rights-based development in Viet Nam and respond to Government needs for high quality policy support to address national priorities and MDGs.

Chapter 2

This chapter is organized according to the JPGs and expected outcomes of the One Plan. It is based on the reports of eight JPGs, responsible for implementing the One Plan.

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Joint Programming Groups

Focus Areas and One Plan Outcomes 2012-2016

Focus Area 1: Inclusive, equitable and sustainable growth People-centred Economic Growth and Decent Work

Outcome 1.1: Evidence-based Development Policies in a LMIC Viet Nam

Climate Change and Environment

Outcome 1.3: Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management

Outcome 1.2: Opportunities for Decent Work

Outcome 1.4: Natural Resources and Environmental Management

Focus Area 2: Access to quality essential services and social protection Social Protection

Outcome 2.1: Social Protection

Health

Outcome 2.2: Health

Education

Outcome 2.3: Education and Training

HIV

Outcome 2.4: Gender Equality and HIV

Gender

Outcome 2.4: Gender Equality and HIV

Focus Area 3: Enhanced governance and participation Outcome 3.1: Elected Bodies and the Legislative Process Governance and Rule of Law

Outcome 3.2: Legal and Judicial Reform and Access to Justice Outcome 3.3: Public Administrative Reform Outcome 3.4: Political, Social, Professional and Mass Organizations (PSPMOs)

Chapter 2

Methodology Throughout 2012, the JPGs tracked progress against joint annual work plans and the expected results outlined in the Detailed Project Outlines agreed and approved by the Government, and aligned with the One Plan 2012-2016. This involved periodic review meetings with implementing partners, field visits, spot checks, desk review of reports and key informant discussions.

8 One Plan between the Government of Viet Nam and the United Nations in Viet Nam, Ha Noi, March 27, 2012. See: http://www.un.org.vn/en/the-one-un-initiative-in-viet-nammainmenu-265/one-plan.html

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The eight JPGs reported on results achieved, lessons learned, good practices and implementation constraints which were then consolidated. Each section of the report compares actual progress in 2012 against expected results in the One Plan and includes reference numbers to One Plan outcomes and outputs8. Sections of Chapter 2 begin with a brief overview of the actual outputs or major activities supported by the UN in 2012, and highlight how these annual results have contributed to achieving


targeted outcomes. Key data is highlighted and all available data for outcome indicators are provided in Annex 1 of this report. One Plan Database The OPD, a web-based tool designed to monitor and report on all One Plan outcome and output indicators, supported inputs from the JPGs to inform JPG decisionmaking processes. The database is used to consolidate, track and share real-time information about changes in quantitative and qualitative indicators for every outcome and output in the One Plan. It includes information about targets, means of verification and provides comments from UN staff on issues such as the source and quality of data. Outputs As defined in the One Plan, ‘outputs’ are new skills and abilities, products and services that are available to Government, civil society partners and at a community level. They are also the direct products of cooperation between the UN and implementing partners, as well as a result of the UN’s targeted advocacy, technical assistance, policy expertise and advice.

Key Results In a development cooperation context, claiming results at an outcome level is challenging. In fact, outcomes are achieved through the collective efforts of numerous partners, including the Government, UN, development partners and stakeholders at various levels. In Viet Nam, this challenge is amplified as many One Plan outcomes are expected to influence laws and policies. However, the policy-making process is not linear. Many actors work to influence policy, but these changes can take a long time to gain traction. Policy-making is inevitably a political process, in which the Government in Viet Nam has a significant sphere of influence. As a result, the UN and all development partners in Viet Nam face a unique challenge in gauging their influence and contributions to policy changes. Despite these limitations, the contribution stories offer compelling evidence of strong UN collaboration and results.

Chapter 2

© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Contribution Stories Contribution stories are an innovative feature of this report and describe how

changes, often qualitative and occurring at institutional or behavioural levels, are translating into the achievement of targeted outcomes. These Viet Nam-specific stories also highlight the UN’s unique role in making a difference and how these changes affect people’s lives for the better.

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Progress on Millennium Development Goals Of all the MDGs, Viet Nam has made the most impressive progress on MDG 1, focused on poverty reduction. The population below the national poverty line decreased from 58 to 14 per cent between 1993 and 2008, and was estimated at 11.8 per cent in 2011. However, reducing poverty further in the coming years will require highly tailored and multi-sectoral approaches, where poverty is viewed as a multidimensional phenomenon, not just in monetary terms.

MDG 1: STATUS AND PROSPECTS HALVE THE POVERTY RATE FROM 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2122;S LEVEL AND ACHIEVE FULL AND PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK FOR ALL The population below the national poverty line decreased from 58 to 14 per cent between 1993 and 2008, and was estimated at 11.8 per cent in 2011. But, national data hides some stark disparities.

MDG Progress

Of the poor, nine out of 10 live in rural areas, while 66 per cent are from ethnic minorities compared with just 13 per cent of the majority Kinh people. Child poverty rates remain high, at 21 per cent in 2010. On the employment front, the share of vulnerable employment remained steady at 62 per cent. In urban areas women working in the informal sector struggle to cope with rising living costs and have few social protection or employment benefits. An effective social protection system is essential for Viet Nam to weather future economic shocks and greater efforts are needed to protect the rights of informal sector workers.

MDG 2: STATUS AND PROSPECTS UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO PRIMARY EDUCATION BY 2015 Viet Nam boasted a 97 per cent primary school enrolment rate and a 88 per cent completion rate during the 2008-2009 school year. Still, this notable progress towards the goal masks significant disparities. Primary and secondary completion rates are up to 20 per cent lower in some remote areas, such as the Mekong Delta and for children from ethnic minorities. Nearly one-in-five ethnic minority women can neither read nor write and amongst the Hâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;mong ethnic group total literacy drops to just 38 per cent. [Source: MDG database and Viet Nam MDG Report, 2010]

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MDG 3: STATUS AND PROSPECTS PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN In 2012, women accounted for 24 per cent of seats in the National Assembly, down slightly from a decade ago. While gender parity has been reached in education, there are large disparities between urban and rural areas and between ethnic groups and the majority Kinh. Breakthrough changes to the Labour Code now recognize and protect domestic workers. Increasing efforts are being made to address domestic violence and the sex ratio at birth imbalance. The goal could be reached if more women are promoted into positions of leadership, law enforcement is strengthened to safeguard equal opportunities for women and there is urgent action to engage men and boys to address domestic violence and the sex ratio at birth imbalance.

With under-five mortality down to 22 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2011 from 50 deaths in 1990, Viet Nam is on track to achieve the goal. But, disparities persist. Newborn deaths represent a growing proportion of deaths in children under five years old and children from ethnic minorities are three to four times more likely to die in the first year of life. For progress to be sustained and shared equally across all regions and amongst all population groups, greater efforts are needed to implement the integrated package of services for maternal and child health and nutrition in underserved areas, and to strengthen the availability of data to better target and manage scarce health resources.

MDG Progress

MDG 4: STATUS AND PROSPECTS REDUCE BY TWO-THIRDS, BETWEEN 1990 AND 2015, THE UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY RATE

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Progress on Millennium Development Goals Although Viet Nam has achieved most MDGs ahead of the 2015 deadline, it is not on track to achieve MDG 6 HIV/AIDS and MDG 7, particularly on biodiversity and environmental protection, clean water and sanitation, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the economyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy consumption.

MDG 5: STATUS AND PROSPECTS REDUCE BY THREE QUARTERS THE MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO AND ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH The mortality goal has been achieved with maternal deaths per 100,000 live births decreasing from 240 in 1990 to 59 in 2010. But marked disparities exist. Maternal deaths in the 62 poorest districts are five times the national average and five times higher for women who deliver at home.

MDG Progress

The use of modern contraceptives among women 15-49 years old has increased only 15 per cent since 1994. There is an urgent unmet need for family planning amongst more than 10 per cent of married couples and more than 30 per cent of single, sexually active women.

MDG 6: STATUS AND PROSPECTS HALT AND REVERSE BY 2015 THE SPREAD OF HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES Viet Nam has made great progress against HIV. Antiretroviral treatment has increased 22-fold since 2005, and new infection rates among people who are sex workers and/or inject drugs are stable. However, Viet Nam is in danger of missing the MDG target. HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs is still high and the rate of new infections among men who have sex with men is high and increasing. Donor funding for HIV is decreasing, but the Government of Viet Namâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s budget is yet to fill the gap. Viet Nam will need to do more with less by focusing investment on costeffective and rights-based approaches in high-burden areas.

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MDG 7: STATUS AND PROSPECTS ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY STATUS AND PROSPECTS REDUCE BY HALF THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE WITHOUT SUSTAINABLE ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND BASIC SANITATION In 2011, 96 per cent of the population had access to safe drinking water up from 77 per cent in 2000. During the same period rural households with access to safe water rose from 71 to 94 per cent. In 2011, 75 per cent of all households and 67 per cent of rural households had access to hygienic latrines, up from 55 and 48 per cent in 2000. Open defecation is largely practiced by the poor and ethnic minority groups. Three regions with the lowest use of sanitary toilets are the Mekong Delta, Central Highlands and Northern mountainous region. Greater investment and involvement of local authorities and communities is needed to ensure sustainable service delivery, as is partnerships with the private sector to provide low-cost sanitation options to rural households. Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation,

MDG 8: STATUS AND PROSPECTS DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Government is making efforts to pay greater attention to citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opinions and to make needed reforms to the civil service system. In 36 provinces there were small, but encouraging increases from 5 to 15 per cent compared with 2011 in control of corruption, transparency, public service delivery and accountability. [Public Administration Performance Index, 2012]

MDG Progress

Updated April 2013.

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Focus Area 1

Focus Area 1

© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Inclusive, equitable and sustainable growth

In common with other lower middleincome countries that have experienced rapid growth and poverty reduction, Viet Nam today faces significant challenges. These are clearly set out in the SocioEconomic Development Strategy (SEDS) 2011-2020 and the Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP) 2011-2015. The challenges include: • The need to move to a high-skilled, high-tech economy • Difficulties in ensuring sustainable development • A widening gap between rich and poor, and different regions • The need to strengthen institutional capacity to cope with changing circumstances, and to implement priority policies effectively.

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Recurring bouts of macroeconomic instability and high inflation have blighted the economy and negatively impacted on people’s livelihoods and living standards in recent years. The Socio-Economic Development Strategy and Plan call for ’breakthroughs’ to improve market institutions and administration to create a more equitable environment for economic growth and competition. Alternative economic models are now needed to reinvigorate the stagnant economy and promote quality, sustainable and equitable growth for all members of society. As acknowledged in the SEDS and in independent analyses by the UN and other development partners, a transformation in Viet Nam’s economic structure is needed to achieve better quality, sustainable growth.


It is also important to ensure a greater balance between economic growth and social, human and sustainable development goals, so all citizens can benefit from the development process, and the most vulnerable and disadvantaged are not left behind. The One Plan’s focus on inclusive, equitable and sustainable economic growth is aligned with the SEDP’s priorities to stabilize the macro economy, maintain reasonable growth associated with economic restructuring, and develop innovative growth models that improve efficiency and competitiveness, without neglecting equity concerns. The One Plan’s expected outcomes include the need for:

Despite significant poverty reduction efforts, some members of society risk falling back into poverty, because of excessive out-of-pocket payments for education and health services and insufficient social safety nets. Reducing poverty in the coming years will require highly tailored and multi-sectoral approaches, where poverty is viewed as a multidimensional phenomenon, not just in monetary terms. Although Viet Nam has achieved most MDGs ahead of the 2015 deadline, it is not on track to achieve MDG 6 HIV/AIDS and MDG 7, particularly on biodiversity and environmental protection, clean water and sanitation, GHG emissions and the economy’s energy consumption.

Focus Area 1

• Evidence-based socio-economic development planning and decisionmaking • Evidence and options for ‘green’ economic growth • New opportunities for decent work, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged • Implementation of Viet Nam’s commitments to climate change adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk management, and for more effective environmental management.

1993 and 2008, and was estimated at 11.8 per cent in 2011. But, national data hides some stark disparities, with an unequal pace of reduction in regions and population groups. Of the poor, nine out of 10 dwell in rural areas, while ethnic minorities represent only 13 per cent of the total population but make up 66 per cent of the poor. Meanwhile, those working in the informal sector also struggle to cope with rising living costs and have few social protection or employment benefits.

Of all the MDGs, Viet Nam has made the most impressive progress on MDG 1, focused on poverty reduction. The population below the national poverty line decreased from 58 to 14 per cent between

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People-centred economic growth and decent work [Outcomes 1.1, 1.2] In 2012, ‘green’ growth and structural reforms moved to the centre of the Government policy agenda. Structural reforms to the financial sector, public investment and State-owned enterprises were introduced in the Master Plan for 2013-2020, approved in February. The Viet Nam Green Growth Strategy was approved in September, 2012 calling for a reduction in GHG emissions and the greening of production and people’s awareness and behaviour.

Outcomes

Poverty reduction efforts were stepped up with the launching of the roadmap for Resolution 80 and National Target Programme for Sustainable Poverty Reduction, in October 2012. The resolution aims to streamline poverty reduction policies and mobilize resources to support the country’s poorest districts, communes and villages to achieve an accelerated poverty reduction target of 4 per cent, compared with the current national average of 2 per cent, per annum. The Government is also committed to new ways of encouraging community development and participation in programme implementation and monitoring, amid a backdrop of slow implementation of these reforms. Although implementation is likely to be challenging, the impact of these strategic documents and targets has far-reaching implications for workers, businesses and society as a whole. They also provide critical entry points for the UN to provide decision-

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makers with accurate data, evidence and alternative policy options based on international good practice. However, a number of important bottlenecks still need to be addressed: • An insufficient legal framework for national statistical development, weak data collection systems and limited data sharing between Government institutions and the public • Significant pockets of poverty still exist, especially in mountainous, remote areas, and among ethnic minorities, informal workers and migrants • A dominant informal economy with many jobs that offer poor working conditions and low wages, combined with insufficient coverage of social assistance schemes • A labour force whose skills are not meeting current demands for higher level technical and managerial expertise • Stigma and discrimination prevent vulnerable groups, especially women and migrant labourers, from full access and participation in the formal labour market, while persistent gender wage gaps remain.


Š UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

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Results in 2012

Key Results

The following major outputs were achieved in 2012. Greater use of statistics for evidence-based socioeconomic planning and decision-making [1.1.1]

• Breakthrough enhancements proposed for the revision of the 2003 Statistics Law to restructure the Viet Nam Statistical System, ensure its operational independence and update the definition of key indicators to conform with international standards • A harmonized support package launched to help implement and monitor the Viet Nam Statistical Development Strategy (VSDS), including a M&E framework for the VSDS’ implementation, support for a VSDS baseline, mid-term and end-line assessments and establishment of an online survey to gauge users’ satisfaction.

Strategic options for peoplecentred development produced and considered by policy-makers [1.1.2]

• A key issues paper, jointly developed with Government on public expenditure cut impacts on the labour market, is influencing ongoing economic restructuring process discussions • Resolutions were prepared on public investment and reforms to the banking sector and State-owned enterprises for consideration by the National Assembly on economic restructuring and SEDP implementation • A Viet Nam Investment Monitoring and Management Platform was developed and is now operational • A ethnic minority policy review, conducted and discussed with national stakeholders, provided policy options and recommendations to formulate a Policy Framework 2012-2020 to streamline and mainstream ethnic minority policies into national strategies and policies • An annual, high level Ethnic Minority Policy Forum established to debate ‘sensitive’ ethnic minority issues between Government bodies, civil society and the international community.

Government employed a multidimensional approach to poverty reduction analysis and planning [1.1.3]

• Policy options and action plans available to support poverty reduction and ethnic minority development at national and local levels • Policy research, discussions and consultations conducted by four ministries to establish an ethnic minority statistical indicator system • Recommendations prepared for ongoing revision of the Land Law to recognize land titles, customary land use and management practices especially for forest land and re-allocate unproductive State farms and forest enterprise land for community use • Greater commitment expressed by policy-makers to multidimensional poverty measurements during the National Assembly Social Affairs Commission’s “explanatory” session in December, 2012.

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• Viet Nam’s Employment Strategy developed and finalized for approval, in parallel with the ratification of the ILO Convention on Employment Policy • National SME Development Plan drafted with input from private sector consultations • Policy proposal on “Development of the industrial clusters, industrial zones in connection with the supporting industries” prepared for submission to Prime Minister • National Registration Data Centre developed and national capacity on national business registration system operations enhanced.

National vocational training policies and programmes that respond to current market demands [1.2.2]

• Master trainer network for promoting ‘entrepreneurship’ established and training methodology and tools integrated into the Technical and Vocational Education and Training system.

Targeted micro and small businesses more competitive with greater market shares [1.2.3]

• 4,500 households and 50 SMEs, with a significant number of women represented, supported to produce traditional handicrafts in better integrated, pro-poor and environmentally sustainable “green” value chains and linked to more profitable markets • Enterprises’ capacity enhanced to comply with TBT/SPS, food traceability and ISO26,000 standards • World Heritage sites in central Viet Nam, comprising Hoi An old town, Hue city, Quang Binh and Quang Nam provinces, promoted for tourism and market access • An action plan to promote local production of essential generic drugs prepared by the Ministry of Health (MOH).

Migrant workers benefit from stronger employment policies that prevent discrimination and exploitation [1.2.4]

• Migrant Resource Centres established in Ha Noi and five provinces to offer reliable information about safe migration options and destination country profiles • A standard pre-departure orientation curriculum developed and shared with labour export agencies • 160 key Government staff and 140 participants from licensed recruitment companies received updated knowledge and skills about international migration laws and the human rights of migrants, with an emphasis on the gender dimensions of migration and how to better support women migrant workers • Policy dialogue conducted on the protection of women migrant workers identified gaps in current regulations and policies. It led to Department of Overseas Labour (DOLAB) recommendations to make regulations and policies conform with the Law on Gender Equality.

Key Results

Enterprise development policies developed with focus on micro and small enterprises and decent job creation [1.2.1]

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© UNESCO Viet Nam Photo Contest\2011\Huynh Ha

Mainstreaming ethnic minorities into poverty reduction efforts

Stories

In 2012 the UN helped establish an annual, high level Ethnic Minority Policy Forum, led by the Committee for Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA). This opened-up ‘sensitive’ ethnic minority issues for wider debate and discussion between Government bodies, civil society and the international community. Two policy fora took place in 2012: “Ethnic minority human resource development” and “Land management and use in ethnic minority areas”.

The technical support of the UN to conduct policy research and organize high level policy dialogue contributed significantly to improve the understanding of ethnic minority issues. It helped CEMA staff to understand the necessity of evidence-based and participatory research methods in policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Mr. Trinh Cong Khanh, Director of Ethnic Minority Policy Department, CEMA

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Findings and policy recommendations from 15 policy research initiatives were used to provoke debate, seek common ground and a shared vision going forward. The policy dialogue directly contributed to Resolution 80 on sustainable poverty reduction in ethnic minority areas with a greater focus on bi-lingual education, enrolment of ethnic minorities in secondary and tertiary education. Several concrete recommendations were made for ongoing revision to the Land Law to recognize


customary land titles, land use and management practices especially for forest land, re-allocate unproductive State farm and forest enterprise land for community use and broaden the definition of “spiritual” land. Importantly, these efforts have enabled the National Assembly’s Ethnic Council and the CEMA to have a stronger, more persuasive voice in ethnic minority legal and policy issues.

The success of this ongoing policy dialogue highlights the UN’s pivotal role in bringing together high-level representatives of National Assembly committees, Government agencies, ethnic minority groups, international development partners, UN agencies, research institutes and NGOs in open policy dialogues. In 2013, the Ethnic Minority Policy Forum will continue to be a primary vehicle for people-centred policy innovation and advocacy. FAO, IFAD, ILO, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF

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Š UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Stories

Delivering increased employment and income MDG Achievement Fund support created fresh momentum for the Joint Programme on Green Production and Trade to increase employment opportunities and income for the rural poor. By combining the complementary expertise of five UN agencies, this Joint Programme brought together core competence on market development, trade, SME promotion, cleaner production, empowerment of grassroots producers and smallholder farmer development. This expertise delivered direct improvements to five value chains encompassing bamboo and rattan, handmade paper, lacquerware, seri-culture and sea-grass. The MDG Achievement Fund also provided a sound mechanism for two non-resident agencies to work together with other resident agencies within the framework of a joint programme.

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Making the market work for the poor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a case study By introducing a new variety of mulberry seedling to some 75 households in Hoa Tien village in north-central Nghe An Province, the increased yield made it possible for women weavers from Hoa Tien Textile Cooperative to locally source at least 40 per cent of the required silk yarn. At the same time, to ensure the dyeing of silk yarn results in consistent and colorfast fabric, the programme also provided the cooperative with a professional dyeing machine that has increased production by up to 10-fold, from 0.5-3-5 kilograms in 30 minute cycles. Provincial staďŹ&#x20AC; from the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Provincial Cooperative Alliance, the


per cooperative member having increased by 125-167 per cent from VND600,000 in 2009 to VND1 million in 2012. This tangible progress illustrates how the programme has improved quality of life, reduced poverty and increased local economic development. FAO, ILO, ITC, UNIDO, UNCTAD

Stories

Department of Labour, Invalids and Social AďŹ&#x20AC;airs and the provincial Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Union were also empowered through training on key topics such as strengthening business development services, business group formation, occupational safety and health, gender and entrepreneurship development and gender equality. Following a trainer of trainers workshop, cooperative members were trained to successfully expand their product range from traditional scarves to include products such as table runners, pillowcases and small furniture items. They also participated in domestic trade fairs that not only resulted in direct sales, but also direct contact with buyers, including Ha Noi-based shops and exporters. Meanwhile, the management of the cooperative has improved with the average monthly income

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Planning and decision-making that uses evidence The VSDS is designed to dramatically improve the quality and availability of data to allow the Government to make robust evidence-based policies and plans. To support Government in making more informed decisions, in 2012 the UN provided a package of comprehensive and coordinated support for the VSDS’ implementation, which delivered tangible improvements in strategy implementation. A number of revisions to the 2003 Statistics Law were put forward to strengthen the

independence of the General Statistics Office (GSO) and improve national access to statistical databases and publications and their usability. A new Dissemination Policy for national information was drafted, providing a streamlined mechanism for sharing and using statistical data among data users and providers. The Government of Viet Nam agreed and planned, with UN support, to conduct the first ever InterCensus Population Survey in Viet Nam in 2014, which is expected to provide more accurate data for policy-makers to integrate

Stories

Evidence to Drive Investment in Children and Women’s Issues A Situation Analysis of Children and Women’s rights was a crucial piece of research to support evidence-based planning and decision-making. With UN support, three provinces conducted situation analysis exercises - An Giang, Dien Bien and Ninh Thuan. This work consolidated statistical information about the lives of children and women with a focus on disparities, identified factors that impede the advancement of their rights and led to concrete recommendations to improve the mobilisation and allocation of resources in provincial plans. The UN’s spotlighting of information about the situation of children and women is generating interest among Government partners and international donors to increase investment in targeted areas.

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population variables into socio-economic planning, as well as to monitor the progress of sectoral and national programmes. The UN also brought the importance of statistics in socio-economic development planning and implementation to the public’s attention with a UN-GSO policy dialogue aired on the flagship national television channel VTV1 drawing a large audience. The National Business Registration System (NBRS) was also established with technical assistance from the UN and provides accurate and reliable data on the state of enterprises in Viet Nam. To underline its importance, the Ministry of Planning and Investment now uses it as a source of official data, while the Government also

draws on the data to assess the state of the economy and to shape policy proposals and decisions. Coordinated efforts will continue in 2013 through the Data Development Working Group as well as the GSO’s partnership forum to enable the weighing of alternative policy options by Government with quality data and evidence. FAO, ILO, ITC, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHABITAT, UNICEF, UNIDO, UN Women

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Ensuring the safety of economic migrants, especially women

Stories

Each year, around 80,000 migrants leave Viet Nam for overseas jobs, one-third of whom are women. Economic migrants are often unfamiliar with the laws and protection available in their host country and run a high risk of exploitation and abuse at the hands of illegal brokers and fraudulent employers. To minimize these risks, the UN in Viet Nam is working with the Government to make effective changes to ensure economic migrants are well-informed, use credible channels for seeking overseas employment and have their rights and dignity protected. Changes include more robust employment policies, improved regulation of recruiting agencies, training and awareness raising for prospective migrants highlighting potential dangers and guidance on how to seek information and help. In partnership with the UN, the DOLAB established Migrant Resource Centres in the capital Ha Noi and five provinces to provide reliable information about safe migration options. The centres offer individual and legal counselling, information packages on destination countries, a hotline service and website. Outreach activities have led to the

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establishment of a labour migration support network. Awareness raising efforts, in turn, have led to improved recruiting practices. These include the development and use of a standard pre-departure orientation curriculum by the resource centres and recruitment countries. More than 300 key staff from Government and licensed recruitment companies today have greater knowledge and skills to address international migration law and the human rights of migrants, with emphasis on the special risks faced by women. On the policy front, dialogue on the protection of women migrant workers identified gaps in current regulations and policies, which prompted the DOLAB to recommend they conform with the national Law on Gender Equality. The UN also supported the training of law enforcement and border control officers in the interdiction of illegal migration and in providing support to migrants. ILO, IOM, UNODC, UN Women


Inclusive labour market and greater protection of workers Sustaining Viet Nam’s economic growth and reducing poverty require a more inclusive labour market and greater opportunities for decent employment. Viet Nam’s deepening integration into regional and global markets along with increased international competition have exposed domestic labour practices to ever-greater scrutiny by governments and consumers, with calls for improved standards. However, many enterprises are outside the purview of Labour Law and beyond the reach of labour regulations.

• Regulations to restrict the practice of “labour sub-leasing” and ensure that Labour Code protection was applied • Introduction of a National Wage Council to enable minimum wage fixing with the participation of workers’ and employers’ organizations • Specific provisions for collective bargaining between workers and employers and a dialogue and mediation mechanism in the workplace to promote proactive cooperation between management and workers to reduce the risk of strikes • Inclusion, for the first time, of domestic work and new regulations to protect domestic workers and establish minimum employer responsibilities • The extension of maternity leave from four to six months. (Continued on page 44)

Stories

The comprehensive reform of the Labour Code in 2012 was an opportunity for the DaO effort to forge consensus on key issues and make significant positive changes to the labour market and work place conditions. During the past three years, the UN systematically engaged Government, workers and employers to offer policy advice and undertake intensive advocacy, culminating in 2012’s adoption of the new Labour Code.

Tangible changes to the Labour Code that resulted from this DaO approach included:

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(Continued from page 43)

Building on the success of Labour Code reform, the UN also assisted the Government to develop a draft National Employment Strategy to 2020 and related regulations, along with a Master Plan for Labour Market Development and a labour market information system. The draft Employment Strategy enshrines nondiscrimination as a key principle and is the first ever Government policy to recognize groups of workers, mainly women, who work in the informal economy. It explicitly addresses the sensitive issue of sexual harassment in the workplace and recognizes domestic work as a job requiring better protection. Going forward, the UN will support the Government to make further amendments that recognize the rights of informal sector workers in the Employment Law, Social Insurance Law and the Law on Vocational Training. These strategies represent a step change in the way institutions in Viet Nam can create opportunities for decent work and enable women and other vulnerable informal sector worker groups to gain access to vocational training and higher incomes. ILO, IOM, UN Women

Meeting Human Rights Obligations: ILO Convention on Employment Policy and the Rights of Children

Stories

The substantial achievements in 2012 to strengthen the labour market were guided by the ILO Convention on Employment Policy (No.122), which the Government ratified in 2012. This commits the Government to formulate and implement policy that promotes decent, inclusive and sustainable employment in Viet Nam. The UN established a coalition of stakeholders to advocate for a major change in the Labour Code to extend maternity leave from four to six months. Efforts were built on the past four yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Oliver de Shutter. At the Global Breastfeeding Conference in India in December 2012, Viet Nam was presented as a success story. The new Labour Code comes into effect on May 1, 2013.

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Š UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

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Addressing climate change, strengthening environmental management and managing disaster risks [Outcomes 1.3, 1.4]

Climate change has emerged as a major challenge for Viet Nam. Natural disasters and other climatic stresses are increasing, while Viet Nam faces a rapid increase in energy demand, GHG emissions and associated pollution and costs. Adapting to climate change and reducing disaster risks are national priorities and relate to Viet Nam’s international commitments: the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) on building resilience to disasters.

Outcomes

In 2012, Viet Nam demonstrated its commitment towards a ‘low carbon’ economy by adopting the Green Growth Strategy 2011-2020. It sets targets to reduce the intensity of GHG emissions by 8 to 10 per cent from levels in 2010 and reduce energy consumption per unit of GDP by 1 to 1.5 per cent a year. The strategy is connected to ongoing economic restructuring efforts through efficient use of resources and energy, and greater efforts to regulate highly polluting industries.

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Through the One Plan 2012-2016, the UN provides policy advice and technical assistance to: • Design and implement evidencebased climate change adaptation and mitigation policies • Formulate and implement ‘green growth’ policies and mechanisms to promote biodiversity • Gain access to global climate change funding opportunities • Find new ways to promote energy efficient, greener production • Strengthen capacity in terms of disaster preparedness, particularly at community level • Design and pilot new ways to tackle hazardous chemicals and treat contaminated soil and water.


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Results in 2012

Key Results

The following major outputs were achieved in 2012. Climate proofing of national policies, plans and programmes [1.3.1]

• Preparatory research and field work to prepare policy options that address migration, resettlement and climate change, with a focus on the Mekong Delta region • City leaders and urban planners in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City analysed policy framework gaps in climate change adaptation and identified measures to improve adaptation.

Vulnerable and disadvantaged groups can better withstand disasters [1.3.2]

• Draft Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Law prepared and submitted to National Assembly. It explicitly addresses rights of different vulnerable groups in managing disaster risks • Community-based DRM initiated in all 63 provinces, including training of 602 local trainers and identification of 6,000 of the most vulnerable communes based on the Integrated Risk Index. The Government has prioritized investment to build community resilience in the 20 mostaffected provinces • Women’s participation in decision-making bodies for DRM enhanced in Binh Dinh Province, where more than 80 per cent of communes and districts’ Committees for Flood and Storm Control include Women’s Union representatives • New guidelines for emergency nutrition assessment and interventions, and education needs assessment in disaster situations prepared for the National Target Programme on Disaster Risk Management • A new Centre for Research and Training on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction established.

Effective national platform and mechanisms to reduce emissions from deforestation and sustainably manage forests [1.3.3]

• Adoption of the National REDD+ Action Programme, which helps direct and coordinate all international support to REDD+ in Viet Nam under a single framework • US$30 million committed for the UN-REDD Viet Nam Phase II Programme, starting in 2013, making this the first nationally-owned REDD+ programme.

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• National Green Growth Strategy developed with participatory approach and approved by the Prime Minister in 2012 • Support for setting of GHG emission targets provided by three studies on the Development of a MACC (Marginal Abatement Cost Curve) for GHG reductions in the agriculture, energy and forestry sectors • Proposal for fossil fuel fiscal policy reform prepared and discussed • Technical inputs and support to prepare two national reports for Rio+20 and Viet Nam’s active participation at the Rio+20 global conference, June 2012 • Technical support for production of updated climate change and sea level rise scenarios with detailed information for provinces.

Policies and tools for green economic development and natural resources management [1.4.1]

• National policy and capacity for industrial energy management enhanced through training of professionals in energy efficiency management and pilot adoption of ISO 50001 energy management standards by select industries • National curriculum for pesticide management developed with rapid environmental assessment tool • Overlapping forest certification standards reviewed and new national standards drafted • Green Industry Action Plan for eco-city development in Hoi An developed involving tourism and handicraft industries, along with energy and environmental services • Green industry policy framework drafted based on the three pilots in craft villages, Hoi An and the steel sector.

Improved management of protected areas and biodiversity conservation [1.4.2]

• A new national strategy and action plan drafted for biodiversity conservation in Viet Nam.

Sound management of hazardous chemicals and persistent organic pollutants [1.4.3]

• Guideline developed for management of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) contaminated sites • A comprehensive test of new Mechano-Chemical Destruction (MCD) technology to treat dioxincontaminated soils in Bien Hoa airbase completed • Environmental standards issued for environmental remediation of dioxin and pesticides at contaminated sites.

Key Results

A national climate change strategy that is operational [1.3.4]

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Harnessing women’s resilience to reduce risk and consequences of disasters In 2012, the UN helped Viet Nam take an important step forward in tackling gender stereotypes, by recognizing the important roles women and girls play in disaster risk management and climate change adaptation.

Stories

Many of the principal institutions involved in disaster risk management in Viet Nam are still largely male dominated. As a result, disaster preparedness and responses are largely seen as ‘men’s work’ with women significantly under-represented in decisionmaking structures related to disaster risk management at all levels. In addition, women’s roles are often limited to gender stereotyped tasks such as distributing food or giving first aid. The UN, by working closely with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development’s (MARD) Central Committee for Flood and Storm Control, the Disaster Management Working Group and the Women’s Union,

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supported a number of targeted advocacy events in 2012. Strong messages called on women and girls to participate more formally in DRM decision-making processes, including a call for the Women’s Union to be official members of the Committees for Flood and Storm Control at central and local levels. As a result, in Binh Dinh Province more than 80 per cent of communes and districts have Committees for Flood and Storm Control with Women’s Union representatives. These activities were closely linked to the ongoing revision of the Disaster Risk Management Law, with the UN supporting efforts to mainstream gender equality inclusive of vulnerable groups. UNDP, UN Women


© UNDP Viet Nam\2010\Vu Tan Phuong

Getting ready for REDD+ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) is a global initiative designed to pay groups or countries for protecting their forests and reducing emissions of GHG pollutants, especially CO₂. It has the potential to protect Viet Nam’s forests as carbon reservoirs, while maximizing their potential for slowing down and reducing the impacts of climate change. In 2012, two key studies were completed that now provide the basis for developing emission factors for the eight key foresteco zones in Viet Nam. This is a vital step in building capacity in Viet Nam for the monitoring, reporting and verification of GHG emissions from land use and the forestry sector, and helping to improve the country’s “REDD+-readiness”.

The joint UN-REDD Programme also helped develop the “National REDD+ Action Programme”, approved by the Prime Minister at the end of 2012. This is the Government’s REDD+ policy which provides REDD+ stakeholders with a blueprint for REDD+ preparation and implementation. Building on the success of the UN-REDD Programme (2009-2012), the UN and the Government formulated a nationally owned “UN-REDD Viet Nam Phase II Programme” and secured US$30 million in funding for implementation to start in 2013. This second phase aims to help Viet Nam undertake transformational changes in the forestry sector and build Viet Nam’s capacities to fully deploy REDD+ from 2015, benefiting from future results-based payments for REDD+. FAO, UNDP, UNEP

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

‘Greening’ growth in Viet Nam

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Building on the national Climate Change Strategy, approved in late 2011, the Viet Nam Green Growth Strategy was adopted in 2012. This Green Growth Strategy includes GHG emission targets based on UN-supported studies on abatement costs for the agriculture, energy and forestry sectors, and a pilot to explore ways to ‘green’ the metallurgy and steel sector. The strategy’s approval followed months of intensive policy dialogue with the public, businesses, civil society groups and the international community. The Green Growth Strategy aims to reduce the intensity of GHG emissions and promote the use of clean and renewable energy, make industrial production greener and provide incentives for businesses to adopt green energy policies and technology.

FAO, IFAD, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UN-HABITAT, UNICEF, UNIDO, WHO, UN Women

Viet Nam recognizes that a green growth approach is essential in the next decade for sustainable development. We see the issuance of the Green Growth Strategy as the beginning of a tough process towards having a green economy in Viet Nam. - Mr. Nguyen The Phuong, Vice Minister Ministry of Planning and Investment

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The Green Growth Strategy is also geared to reform fiscal policies related to fossil fuels, as Viet Nam’s GHG emissions from energy consumption are increasing rapidly. Efforts to reduce such emissions are impeded by indirect subsidies on coal, other fossil fuels for electricity production and on petroleum products for transport estimated to have totalled more than US$4 billion in 2011, or more than 3 per cent of GDP. The UN and its national and international research partners demonstrated that the phase out of these subsidies would lead to a reduction in emissions as well as higher GDP growth.


Keeping Global Environmental Commitments Joint UN and Government efforts in 2012 made a significant contribution towards meeting commitments under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Viet Nam ratified in 2002. These pioneering efforts have paved the way for the involvement of other international donors in dioxin abatement, including the United States, the Czech Republic and New Zealand.

Overcoming a toxic legacy Dioxins are toxic. They belong to the ‘dirty dozen’ group of dangerous chemicals called persistent organic pollutants, listed under the Stockholm Convention. They are responsible for a host of human reproductive health problems, immune system failures and cancers. In Viet Nam, herbicides that contained small amounts of dioxin were stored and handled during the War of 1961-1971, and have left a toxic legacy that remains today. Some 40 years since conflict, dioxin levels in the soil at three ‘hotspots’, the former Bien Hoa, Da Nang and Phu Cat airbases, are still hundreds of times higher than levels deemed safe. These ‘hotspots’ are contaminated soil and lake sediments. Dioxin enters into the food chain, for example through fish and snails, posing a direct threat to the health

of surrounding communities. With UN support, in 2012 local authorities safely removed more than 7,500 tons of dioxincontaminated soil from the Phu Cat area to a controlled landfill site, meeting national and international standards. This resulted in the removal of Phu Cat airbase from the list of three dioxin hotspots in Viet Nam and returned a safe environment to more than 70,000 people living in surrounding communities. UN support also led to the testing and demonstration of a new technique to remove dioxins from soil without the high cost and disruption of major earth disposal. This new technology holds promise for more rapid and less disruptive clean-up efforts that will continue in Bien Hoa and Da Nang from 2013 onwards. UNDP

- Assoc. Prof. Le Ke Son, Director General of the Viet Nam Environment Administration and General Director of Office 33 of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, speaking about the decontamination efforts at Phu Cat airbase.

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Dioxin is no longer leaking from the site and the dioxin will not impact on the environment and people living in the surrounding area.

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Focus Area 2

Focus Area 2

Š UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Access to quality essential services and social protection

Significant disparities persist across socioeconomic groups that prevent some citizens, particularly those from ethnic minority groups, people with disabilities, families in remote rural areas and those living in poverty, from enjoying quality essential education and health services. Building a more progressive and inclusive social protection system is identified as a priority in the Socio-Economic Development Strategy and Plan. In order to address persistent forms of poverty and emerging forms of vulnerability and inequality, the UN is supporting the Government to adopt a universal approach to social protection in place of the current complex and ineďŹ&#x192;cient system of social protection programmes. This will allow Viet Nam to become more agile in responding

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to rapid socio-economic and demographic changes. With more than one-third of Viet Namâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population under 19 years of age, urgent action is needed to reach and improve education and health outcomes for all children and adolescents. Particular attention must be paid to those most at risk of being left behind, including boys and girls in persistent poverty, and those from ethnic minority groups. Education and health services need to rapidly modernize and evolve to meet changing needs and expectations, and ensure equitable access and quality services for all citizens. Greater attention is needed to increase the proportion of public investment in health and social services,


© UNAIDS Viet Nam\2009\Justin Mott

At a national, aggregate level, Viet Nam is on track to achieve most of the MDGs related to primary education, gender equality, child and maternal mortality and HIV. However, some members of society are being left behind, particularly ethnic minorities, migrants and the poor. Challenges and limitations in social service delivery, accountability, oversight and efficient public investment have undermined equitable access to services for all Vietnamese people, exacerbating existing inequalities and disparities.

Expected outcomes of the One Plan include: • Effective management of a comprehensive national health system that delivers higher quality care for all members of society • More effective and relevant teaching curricula, learning methods and vocational training, with vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to better access to preprimary, primary, secondary and continuing education • Development and implementation of laws, policies and national programmes that promote gender equality and women’s empowerment, and create a sustainable response to HIV, reducing stigma and discrimination.

Focus Area 2

address high user fees, and ensure efficient and effective use of limited social policy financing. While Viet Nam has made strong progress towards ensuring universal access to HIV prevention knowledge, treatment, care and support, significant disparities remain, especially at sub-national levels and in rural and remote areas. Gender inequality is persistent, in the labour market where women are largely concentrated in the unregulated informal sector, in decisionmaking where women are less represented particularly at a local level and in the household, where unequal gender relations and norms are reinforced by a strong preference for male children and domestic violence.

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A more effective social protection system [Outcome 2.1] In 2012, efforts to protect the most vulnerable citizens of Viet Nam faced serious challenges. GDP growth declined, cooling inflation still hit 7 per cent and little progress in restructuring the banking sector, public investment policies and Stateowned enterprises contributed to dampen economic growth and job creation. The ongoing domestic economic downturn is expanding the informal economy, where labour productivity is low, while income insecurity and instability are high.

Outcomes

National data indicates that vulnerabilities are on the rise. Despite decades of progress, inflation and lower-than-expected growth have combined to stall efforts to reduce poverty. Child poverty rates remain high at 21 per cent and multidimensional measures of child poverty are even higher. Poverty remains concentrated in coastal areas, upland regions including the North East and North West Mountains and parts of the Central Highlands. Poverty is also a predominantly rural phenomenon with 91 per cent of the poor living in rural areas. While aggregate urban poverty rates are lower, urban residents, especially women working in the informal sector, struggle to cope with rising living costs of living, and have few social protection or employment benefits. Government spending on social protection currently accounts for less than a third of all social spending and less than 10 per cent of total Government spending. National financing policies are insufficient to mobilize the necessary funds for very ambitious social protection objectives and targets. In addition to budget constraints, there are institutional bottlenecks that prevent more effective delivery of social assistance, including: • Silos in policy design, management and implementation which have created

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• • •

fragmented and overlapping schemes and policies which apply different approaches Problems of exclusion and low coverage High transaction and administrative costs, particularly at local levels Few champions and limited vision and strategy to reform social assistance policies, and coordinate different national players Limited consultative mechanisms to develop and review social assistance processes.

The year 2012 was a critical time for achieving a national consensus on the need to strengthen and consolidate the national social protection system: • The new Party Resolution 15 represents a major opportunity to engage with partners and position new evidence and policy options before Government to improve the effectiveness of social protection spending, especially at a subnational level • Resolution 80, on Sustainable Poverty Reduction during 2011-2020, recognized the need to better coordinate and institutionalize multidimensional approaches to measure and address poverty and vulnerability. Working within national frameworks and in close partnership with national stakeholders, the UN’s support in 2012 focused on efforts to reduce duplication and fragmentation in social protection policy, and advocate for greater protection for ethnic minorities, informal sector workers, children and older persons. A modern social protection system is essential for Viet Nam to withstand future economic and climate-related shocks.


Š UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

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Results in 2012

The following major outputs were achieved in 2012. Data and evidence for policymakers [2.1.1] Eight major studies and research reports prepared with UN support

Targeted policy advice and technical support for social protection systems [2.1.2]

Key Results

Six strategy policy, planning and guideline processes supported

• Completed actuarial valuation of the State pension fund, providing disaggregated data to drive reform of the Social Insurance Law • National survey on child labour and assessment of child labour in three economic sectors: ceramics, fisheries and garments • Evidence and intervention package on care for older persons made available • Study on multidimensional poverty among ethnic minority children finished, providing findings to assist CEMA advocacy efforts • Ex-ante gender analysis of the proposed cash transfer programme conducted to inform programme design • Launch and first draft study on children’s vulnerability to climate change • Findings of studies on commercial sexual exploitation and child abandonment made available • Social assistance policy mapping report contributed to Resolution 15 and its action plan to consolidate social assistance policies and programmes. • Drafting process for Resolution 15 supported to consolidate social assistance schemes and incorporate provisions for gender equality and multidimensional child poverty policies • Rapid impact monitoring methodology developed and proposed to improve understanding of social impacts on vulnerable groups • Draft initiative on care for older persons proposed under the framework of the National Programme of Action on Older Persons 2012-2020 and coordination mechanism at provincial level to care for older persons established • Recommendations and inputs provided for amendment of the Law on Protection, Care and Education of Children • National projects on Reintegration Support for Victims of Human Trafficking and Prevention of Human Trafficking prepared for approval • Recommendations and inputs provided to amendment of the Penal Code.

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• Policy alternatives to balance the State pension fund • Alternative policy options for expanding universal insurance coverage and benefits prepared and reviewed • Options for the integration of gender dimensions into social protection policies discussed with key stakeholders • Completed design of a social assistance cash transfer programme for poor families with children and options identified for its integration with existing social assistance policies.

Stronger human resource capacities to deliver social protection services [2.1.4]

• A seven module training programme for social welfare managers developed and national trainers have been trained • 160 managers have been trained and are now able to contribute to improvements in the quality of social services delivery • A training programme for frontline, communelevel social workers developed, with 25,000 social workers targeted for training • 22 other short-term training modules developed on specialized subjects to support work with vulnerable groups of people such as abused children, people with disabilities, people living with HIV, victims of domestic violence and people with mental illnesses. The materials will be used by 40 universities, colleges and local government departments • A national two-year vocational training social work curriculum for universities and vocational training schools developed. This is the first professional curriculum to be used as the framework for tertiary education.

UN support is contributing to the national goal to train 60,000 in-service and pre-service social protection workers by 2020

Key Results

Alternative legal, policy, targeting and financing options provided [2.1.3]

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© UNICEF Viet Nam\2013\Truong Viet Hung

Making social assistance decrees more inclusive

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As a result of a 2007 social assistance decree, a monthly cash benefit is available to particularly vulnerable groups, such as orphans aged 15 and below without a primary care giver, abandoned children, people with severe disabilities, children living with HIV/AIDS, people aged 80 and above without a pension and people living in social protection centres during natural disasters. This decree marked an important milestone in Government support for the vulnerable and disadvantaged. However, the minimum level of assistance coverage meets the equivalent of just 36 per cent of those below the poverty line in rural areas and fails to cover basic needs. Moreover, the decree excluded certain groups such as poor people with certain severe health problems, children living in extreme poverty and orphans aged above 15. To bridge these gaps, targeted UN advocacy in 2012 succeeded in the development of a new decree that includes these excluded vulnerable groups. Currently awaiting approval by the Prime Minister, the new decree will increase the minimum monthly

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cash support to benificiaries by 150 per cent and expand coverage to children in foster care. The year 2012 offered the UN a strategic opportunity to help the Government meet its commitments under the Convention on Economic Social and Cultural Rights to provide these disadvantaged groups with an adequate standard of living. UN cooperation with the Government involved: • Assessment, in selected provinces, of the implementation of previous decrees • Preparation of policy discussion papers and costing exercises to expand social assistance to new groups • Consultations on draft decrees with stakeholders such as the Ministry of Finance (MOF), the National Assembly and the provincial Departments of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs. Once approved, the new decree will provide increased benefits to a total of 2.5 million people and provide opportunities for them to break the cycle of poverty. UNAIDS, UNICEF


© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Providing evidence and advice to drive social insurance reform Under the Government’s policy agenda for 2013-2014, the Social Insurance Law, which regulates pension, maternity, sickness and work injury schemes, as well as the Unemployment Insurance Scheme will be reviewed and strengthened. Making unemployment insurance more inclusive and effective is an important entry point for UN policy advice. Analysis by international and regional experts provided new, innovative options for eligibility and benefits calculation and payment, coverage and contribution collection, inspection and quality control and the regulation of voluntary job leavers and lump sum provisions.

In 2012, the UN gathered data and evidence to offer different scenarios and played a major convening role to help Government stakeholders reach consensus on Social Insurance Law reform. The UN is supporting another round of consultations and a draft reform paper is expected in 2013. Moreover, the Government has requested the UN train officials on actuarial valuation techniques and modeling. While it is too early to judge the impact of these contributions, the UN offered high quality, impartial expertise and provided clear alternative policy fixes for decisionmakers. ILO

Stories

Pension reform and sustainability are major drivers for reform of the Social Insurance Law. However, financial projections need urgent updating to reflect rapid

demographic changes, while previous actuarial valuations had insufficient ‘buy-in’ from all stakeholders.

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© UN Viet Nam\2013\Colorista\Hoang Hiep

Increasing policy-makers’ commitment to older persons Population ageing is one of the most significant demographic trends of the 21st century as the ratio of people aged 60 years and above is projected to increase globally from one-in-nine to one-in-five by 2050. Viet Nam’s population is already ageing rapidly a trend that is a looming challenge9. In fact, the time for Viet Nam to transit from an ‘ageing’ to an ‘aged’ population structure

Stories

9 Data from the Viet Nam Population Change Survey in 2011 showed that the number of older persons in Viet Nam’s population had risen more rapidly than any other population group. As such, the ageing index is also rising swiftly, while the potential support ratio is decreasing significantly.

In the coming years, the number of older persons will continue to increase. Viet Nam needs to have better policies to take care of them. When the National Programme of Action on Older Persons 2012-2020 is approved, they will be the focus of the Government’s programmes and policies. - Mr. Nguyen Trong Dam, Vice Minister, Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs

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will be much shorter than many countries with higher development levels. This reality has tremendous implications for economic growth and social protection schemes. According to data from the Viet Nam Ageing Survey in 2011, 39 per cent of older persons were still working, while rural women have a significantly higher rate of labour force participation than their urban and male counterparts, but the majority are selfemployed in agricultural activities with low and unstable income. Overall, nearly onein-five older persons are living below the poverty line, while female, rural and ethnic minority older people are more vulnerable to poverty than their male, urban and Kinh counterparts.


In 2012, the UN played a leading role in providing technical assistance and financial support to address the impacts of ageing on the social protection system. The UN partnered with Help Age International, the Viet Nam Committee on Ageing, the Viet Nam Association for the Elderly, the Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Union and the Centre for Ageing Support to provide evidence, raise awareness and advocate for stronger policies and national programmes. A national policy workshop â&#x20AC;&#x153;Older Persons in Viet Nam: Opportunities, Challenges and the Way Forwardâ&#x20AC;? was conducted and

contributed to the approval of the National Programme of Action on Older Persons in December, 2012. Concrete Government commitments included increased care for older persons and their integration into the annual socio-economic development plan at all levels, the monthly social allowance for older persons to be increased and expanded as well as new community-based care models for older persons to be piloted. UNFPA

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Partnerships to address child poverty and gender inequalities

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Viet Nam has an array of social protection programmes in place. With the approval of Resolution 15 on social policies for 20122020 and Resolution 80 on Sustainable Poverty Reduction, there is greater momentum to ensure these programmes are better targeted and more effective, while the door is open to introduce innovations in the delivery of social protection services. To date, the social protection agenda has been presented in terms of the categories of vulnerable and disadvantaged social groups, differentiated according to age, health status and relationship to formal labour markets. However, gender inequalities in social protection policy formulation have been overlooked. Addressing gender inequalities requires a more nuanced understanding of how women and men, girls and boys have different experiences of poverty and how they are served by the protection system.

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This is illustrated by the past emphasis on the formal sector, which resulted in many women being left out of the ‘poverty’ picture. Ensuring a gender perspective in the design and implementation of different types of social protection policies and programmes can enhance the effectiveness, efficiency and improve social protection outcomes for women and men. To address this systemic issue, in 2012 the UN together with the Overseas Development Institute, the Institute of Labour Science and the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) worked to identify key changes that could drive a gender-responsive approach to the formulation of social protection strategy and policies. UNICEF, UN Women


© UN Viet Nam\2011\Dominic Blewett

Stronger protection for victims of human trafficking The UN is the Secretariat of the six nation COMMIT-process that addresses human trafficking within the Greater Mekong SubRegion (Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam). At a country level, the UN co-convened the Inter-Mission Working Group on Human Trafficking to provide a platform for information exchanges and discussion of priorities in the fight against human trafficking. In cooperation with partners, the UN acted as co-convener of the Counter Trafficking Network, involving civil society actors and donors.

Meanwhile, the UN supported MOLISA to scale-up a community-based model for integrated return and reintegration of victims in the provinces of Thua Thien-Hue and Tay Ninh, after its successful pilot in Bac Giang Province. This model has given provincial authorities a low-cost alternative to provide a continuum of care for victims of human trafficking in communities. Premised on a self-sustainable model of self-help groups, income-generation interventions and multi-sectoral referral networks, the model not only enhances livelihoods, but also provides for continuous counselling support for victims after their return to the community. In addition, the UN enabled frontline officers to have a greater understanding of human trafficking and to learn practical steps to effectively manage Viet Nam’s borders. IOM, UNICEF, UNODC

Stories

This convening role, at regional and country level, played a key part in the Government’s adoption of the new comprehensive Law on Prevention and Combating of Human Trafficking in January, 2012. The law underscores the Government’s strong commitment to the identification and prosecution of human traffickers and the care and protection of their victims. The UN is providing significant technical and financial support to allow the Government of Viet Nam to operationalize its new antitrafficking law with improved implementing regulations. Behind the scenes, the UN provided input into the drafting of three new decrees to guide the law’s overall implementation at sub-national

levels, improved procedures for victim identification and protection, established victim support units and helped develop a circular on financial support for all activities related to victim identification, repatriation, recovery and reintegration.

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A better functioning health system and care for the vulnerable and disadvantaged [Outcome 2.2]

Outcomes

Three years before the 2015 deadline for MDGs, Viet Nam has already achieved the MDG targets for reducing child mortality and is on track to achieve other healthrelated goals. Viet Nam has also notched up other significant achievements in the prevention of vaccine preventable diseases with vaccination rates of up to 90 per cent and the elimination of polio and neonatal tetanus closer to reality. The incidence of major communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis has declined, while emerging diseases such as avian influenza were better controlled. This progress is in part due to grassroots health networks at the frontline of health services delivery. By 2012, 72 per cent of commune health stations had doctors and 79 per cent provided services under the national health insurance scheme. The development and passing of a ground-breaking Tobacco Control Law was another landmark feature of 2012 as was the National Assembly’s decision to extend paid maternity leave from four to six months and introduce a ban on the advertising of breast milk substitutes for infants and young children, aligned with international best practice. Despite these gains the stark regional disparities, rising inequities among the poor, hospital overloading and emergence of non-communicable diseases as the leading cause of death in Viet Nam remain formidable challenges to overcome. While the achievement of MDGs at a national level is on track, there are remarkable disparities cutting across regions and provinces. In particular:

As Viet Nam increasingly integrates itself into the global economy, policy coherence on trade and health is of growing importance, especially as it negotiates the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) and other important bilateral and foreign trade agreements. The reality is, some provisions will negatively affect the affordability of essential medicines that are critical to prevent diseases and save lives.

• Deaths amongst women during or after childbirth are five times the national

The UN worked closely with the MOH, other ministries, Government agencies and

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average in the 62 poorest districts and five times higher for women who deliver at home rather than in health facilities. There is an urgent unmet need for family planning in more than 10 per cent of married couples and more than 30 per cent of single, sexually active women. Newborn deaths represent a growing proportion of deaths in children less than five years old and children from ethnic minorities are three to four times more likely to die in their first year of life. Regarding nutrition, one-in-three children under the age of five are stunted – a very high rate for a lower middle-income country. Stunting levels are three times higher for children from poor families and more than 50 per cent of children from Ba Na, Gai Rai and H’mong ethnic groups are small for their age compared to 23 per cent of children from the Kinh majority. While Viet Nam is on track to achieve MDG targets for water supply and sanitation, only a third of rural homes have access to a safe water supply and just over half to adequate toilets and sanitation.


Š UN Viet Nam\2007\Doan Bao Chau

Support was also provided to provinces and districts to improve the delivery of health services, especially in under-served areas. The UN provided strong leadership in the Health Partnership Group (HPG) to sustain health policy dialogue and help Viet Nam improve equity and meet its international commitments for the right to health.

Outcomes

partners and provided evidence-based policy advice and technical assistance to support the review and revision of national laws and policies. Two major laws will be revised in 2013, the National Health Insurance Law and the Pharmaceutical Law, which are a vital step in helping to guarantee aďŹ&#x20AC;ordable access to essential medicines for all Vietnamese.

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Results in 2012

The following major outputs were achieved in 2012. Stronger building blocks of the health system [2.2.1]

Key Results

Five policy studies and options papers prepared with UN support

• National health accounts structure drafted • Study on financial burden of health payments for the poor and vulnerable • Assessment of the Pharmaceutical Law by the Drug Administration of Viet Nam (DAV) • Assessment of implementation of Circular 39 on the performance of village health workers • Study on progress of integrated Behaviour Change Communication model to improve maternal, newborn and child health, including nutrition and water sanitation in five provinces.

Five regulatory, strategy, planning and guideline processes supported

• National Roadmap on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health developed • Health Management Information System indicators strengthened for reproductive health, maternal and child health, HIV and gender-based violence • Strengthened package for maternal and newborn health, adapted to different provincial situations • National plan for quality in health care and development of quality indicators for the health sector drafted • A Strategic Framework for Improving Access to Essential Medicines, assessment of the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory changes for quality control monitoring and reporting for the pharmaceutical industry, and a new national network for medicine safety took shape.

Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases [2.2.2]

• Approval of a comprehensive new Tobacco Control Law developed by Government with UN support.

One national law approved with UN support

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• Key decrees and circulars for implementation of the Tobacco Control Law developed • Significant progress in the implementation of smoke-free environments achieved in project areas including Ha Long, Hoi An, Ho Chi Minh City, Hue and Nha Trang • Guideline prepared for early identification and interventions for children with disabilities • Guideline for management of cardiovascular disease risks at primary health care centres • Model on grassroots trauma care developed and implemented in three provinces • Social marketing campaign to prevent drunk driving and to increase use of approved motorcycle helmets developed and implemented nationwide. TV spots reached 72 per cent of the population in Ha Noi and 42 per cent in Ho Chi Minh City.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases [2.2.3]

• Strategies and guidelines developed to address avian influenza • 24 surveillance maps of communicable diseases and their associated factors prepared • Pandemic preparedness plans for four provinces prepared • Guidelines for rabies surveillance, prevention and control revised • Food safety inspection system strengthened in 63 provinces and cities. Four key guidelines and technical manuals produced • Survey conducted to provide assurance about the quality of tuberculosis drugs in Viet Nam.

Six regulatory, strategy, planning and guideline processes supported

Key Results

Six regulatory, strategy, planning and guideline processes supported

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Improved delivery of basic health services [2.2.4] Policies, strategies and frameworks developed and high level policy dialogues supported

Water supply and sanitation [2.2.5]

Key Results

Capacity strengthening for improving water supply and sanitation supported

• Evidence on sexual, reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health and nutrition (SRMNCHN) strengthened through studies, reviews and needs assessments especially in ethnic minority provinces • First national reproductive health conference conducted to consider evidence on major issues during 2005-2012 and identify strategic research direction • A high level national policy dialogue on youth outlined a multi-sectoral response for implementing the Vietnamese Youth Development Strategy (2011-2020) • A high level national policy dialogue on equity led to the development of an accelerated action plan for achieving health MDG targets by 2015 as well as identifying post-2015 health priorities for Viet Nam • A number of policies, guidelines and frameworks on SRMNCHN developed, notably circulars on fertility assistance and birth certificate reporting, and an extension of maternity leave from four to six months (see story about the Labour Code).

• 70 national and provincial officers able to initiate and manage Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) projects • 350 facilitators, field staff have new skills to initiate and manage initiatives for community led total sanitation and HWTS • HWTS introduced in nine communes, to benefit 27,000 people • 68 water supply companies trained to develop water safety plans for rural areas • Model water safety plans developed for seven urban centres to benefit approximately three million residents.

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© UNICEF Viet Nam\2013\Doan Bao Chau

In 2012, the UN supported the Prime Minister’s call for a National Patriotic Sanitation Day that focused on ending the practice of open defecation. This effort garnered significant support from all levels of the Government. Building on this momentum, the UN supported Viet Nam’s first-ever water and sanitation assessment report and database to guide sector investments, a national action plan to improve information and education campaigns, along with training services in remote, underserved areas for community led total sanitation and household water treatment and storage in 102 villages, serving 220,000 people.

Key Results

Efforts to Stop Open Defecation

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© UN Viet Nam\2013\Truong Viet Hung

Grassroots health networks Grassroots health networks have been one of Viet Nam’s key strengths in health care delivery. By 2012, 72 per cent of health commune stations had doctors, 95 per cent had midwives or paediatric and obstetric assistant physicians and around 79 per cent provided medical services covered by health insurance. In addition, 86 per cent of all hamlets in Viet Nam had trained village health workers. The UN supported the strengthening of the grassroots networks in a number of ways with improved training services for more than 2,400 district and

commune health staff serving 1.1 million patients and performing 20,000 surgical and other health procedures annually. Linked to this were efforts to protect breastfeeding rights with the extension of paid maternity leave from four to six months in the Labour Code and a ban on marketing milk formula for infants and young children under 24 months in the Law on Advertising. UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO

Stories

Health insurance coverage Universal health insurance coverage is a central strategy in Government efforts to address rising health coverage disparities. A UN-supported, high level policy dialogue played a key role in the preparation of a new road map for expanding health insurance coverage. Notable shifts in the road map, generated by UN evidence and advice, included an expanded benefit package for

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maternal and child care, such as nutrition counselling, folic acid supplementation, clean delivery kits to help women and newborns avoid infection during home births and therapeutic feeding for acute malnutrition. UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO


Access to essential medicines A 2010 survey10 by the UN and Government revealed that only a quarter of essential medicines were available as lower-priced generic drugs affordable to the poor. Prices of these drugs were still up to five times more than international reference prices, while non-generic ‘innovator’ brands were a staggering 10 to 40 times more than their international reference costs. To address this issue, UN guidance assisted the Government to prepare a strategic framework for

improving access to essential medicines. An assessment of the pharmaceutical industry was completed in 2012 and resulted in tangible changes, including regulatory changes for pharmaceutical industry quality control monitoring and reporting, along with a new national network for medicine safety and pharmaco-vigilance. These initiatives produced almost immediate results, with disadvantaged and vulnerable groups having improved access to essential medicines.

10 Assessment of the National Medicines Policy with Level I and II Survey, WHO, Drug Administration of Viet Nam and the Health Strategy and Policy Institute (HSPI), 2010.

UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO

Evidence for decision-making aligned with international standards and best practice, is being finalized. Once operational, it will help develop health strategies and interventions more solidly based on evidence. One example is the robust nutrition surveillance information system established in 2012 that provides data for boys and girls from all 63 provinces. UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO

Stories

Timely, high quality data is essential for effective policy and decision-making processes. Viet Nam’s health information system is characterized by parallel and duplicative reporting, that diminishes health sector accountability and transparency. The UN, together with the European Commission (EC) and local partners, supported the Government to establish a single national system for health information. A list of health indicators,

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© WHO Viet Nam\2013\Doan Bao Chau

Stories

Tackling smoking-related deaths Globally, tobacco kills up to half of its users with nearly six million deaths each year. It is projected that the annual death toll could rise to more than eight million by 2030. In Viet Nam, nearly one-in-two adult males is a smoker - one of the highest rates in the world11. Early efforts to control tobacco use were fragmented and lacked implementation. However, in 2012 the National Assembly approved a comprehensive new Tobacco Control Law, a product of key UN input. Overcoming many challenges from industry and lobbyists, the new law is compliant with the International Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

control will also be established, paid for by a 1 per cent surcharge on the cost of all cigarettes produced or imported in Viet Nam. These Tobacco Control Law measures are expected to have a significant impact on the control of non-communicable, smokingrelated diseases.

Ground-breaking changes to the sale and consumption of tobacco include pictorial health warnings that occupy half of each packet of cigarettes and a comprehensive ban on smoking in public venues, workplaces and selected outdoor areas. Strict limits on advertising promotion will also come into force along with a ban on sales within 100 metres of kindergartens, schools and hospitals. A fund for tobacco

Robust tobacco control evidence and policy briefs proved persuasive, as did engagement with high-profile media outlets and a coordinated network of tobacco control partners capable of reaching out to important stakeholders, such as Parliament and Communist Party Officials.

11 According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2010, the smoking rate among adult males was 47.4 per cent and 1.4 per cent among adult females.

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The early identification of ‘champions’ from Government and civil society to advocate for the law’s passage was one of many valuable lessons learnt from work to ensure comprehensive anti-smoking measures gained traction during the law-making process.

WHO


© UNAIDS Viet Nam\2013\Nguyen Bich Hue

Renewed focus on equity in health services In November 2012, the UN and MOH organized a national dialogue with 150 stakeholders from the Government, National Assembly, civil society and international aid organizations to engage in Viet Nam’s first ever health equity analysis. The dialogue succeeded in framing health priorities for Viet Nam post-2015, with a greater focus on a reduction in disparity. Specific recommendations were made for three key areas - equity, quality and data use - that will build a foundation for accelerated action on MDG health targets and the post2015 development agenda.

• Identify and prioritize financial and human resources to deliver quality services, especially for marginalized population groups experiencing health inequity • Expand universal and equitable access to quality and affordable health care, including sexual, reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child health and nutrition • Promptly respond to the continuing shift in disease patterns from communicable to non-communicable diseases. UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO

Stories

For example: • Increased access and use of services for sexual and reproductive health, and care and nutrition for mothers and newborns • Improved quality of health information and data, particularly at sub-national levels and amongst vulnerable and marginalized populations • Improved utilization of health information and data in developing, planning and monitoring health care policies and programmes.

A fourth group of programme specific recommendations addressed areas with persistent inequities and where progress towards the MDGs is lagging: HIV, reproductive health, maternal health, nutrition, water and sanitation. The following key recommendations will drive UN-supported policy advice and technical support:

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© UN Viet Nam\2007\Jim Holmes

Controlling communicable diseases of humans and animals In 2012, the UN made important contributions to Viet Nam’s efforts to control communicable diseases, especially on the impact and health risks of avian influenza and ensuring the quality of tuberculosis drugs and food safety. Globally, the risks of an avian influenza pandemic are real and require urgent, coordinated responses.

Stories

In 2012, there were 20 outbreaks of avian influenza in north, central and southern provinces of Viet Nam and four cases of animal-to-human transmission12. Supporting Government efforts to monitor disease outbreaks and respond quickly and effectively is essential. Important new services and products include more sensitive surveillance systems, joint public and animal health outbreak responses, better trained diagnosticians and epidemiologists, and information sharing across sectors that benefit public and animal health. These measures provide a multi-sectoral framework that can be applied to new zoonotic infectious diseases, as they emerge. These results will play an important role in helping Viet Nam track 12 From FAO global report 2012.

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and respond to any emergence of the H7N9 strain of avian influenza in the region during 2013. In the area of food safety, two decrees were produced with UN technical advice to implement the Law on Food Safety with an effective food safety inspection system nationwide. In the area of food safety, two decrees were produced with UN technical advice to implement the Law on Food Safety with an effective food safety inspection system nationwide. A series of guidelines and technical manuals were produced for consumption to allow for inspection standards to be met. Guidelines for the inspection of spirits by food and trading establishments along with the inspection of liquid and fermented milk by processing plants and sales outlets were delivered. Meanwhile, manuals on guiding inspections at food production and trade facilities for drinking water, natural mineral water and collective kitchens were rolled out as was an inspection manual for imported foods. Finally, substandard and counterfeit tuberculosis medicines contribute to drug resistance and treatment failure with harmful side-effects and even death


In Viet Nam, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and the Ministry of Health work closely together to deal with human and animal disease prevention and control. With UN support, both ministries have built a ‘One Health’ field epidemiology and laboratory capacity. This is most critical to effectively control diseases such as SARS, avian influenza (H5N1, H1N1 and recent H7N9) and rabies. - Dr. Pham Van Dong, Director General of the Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

caused by incorrect ingredients. To provide quality assurance about tuberculosis drugs in Viet Nam, the UN supported a survey of five main Tuberculosis drugs in six provinces’ public and private distribution channels. Preliminary results showed that the majority of tuberculosis drugs in Viet Nam met minimum international standards. Coordinated training between three

Government ministries enabled more than 450 staff to gain new skills and capacity in surveillance and responses to zoonotic diseases, avian influenza case investigation and responses, rabies prevention and control, meat inspection techniques and management of micro-biological risks. FAO, WHO

Innovations in the Fight against Bird Flu Effective disease surveillance is essential for prevention and response. It demands highly trained epidemiologists to undertake field monitoring and coordinated ‘all-ofgovernment’ responses to assess and communicate risk.

Innovations like these play an important role in helping Viet Nam to track and respond to new threats such as the H7N9 strain of avian influenza emerging in the region in 2013.

Stories

• The UN supports the MOH with the Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP), which provides public health workers with the skills they need to rapidly identify, assess, investigate and respond to disease outbreaks. Since its inception in 2009, FETP fellows have led investigations into outbreaks of avian influenza, cholera, dengue, HIV, pandemic influenza, rabies and viral hepatitis in provinces across Viet Nam. Their work has been presented at international scientific conferences and published in medical journals, enabling Viet Nam to engage at the highest possible technical level. • UN support was integral in Viet Nam becoming only the second country in the world and the first in Asia to launch a new model for joint human and animal health investigations. The four-way linking initiative integrates four information streams, epidemiological and virological information from animal and human health monitoring systems. It enables rapid collaboration between the MOH and MARD to address emerging zoonotic disease threats. This initiative will help Viet Nam better understand national risks from avian influenza viruses, link national data systems and facilitate more rapid risk assessments and risk communication.

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Attention for young people in national laws and policies With 31 per cent of the Vietnamese population aged under 1813, the UN advocated and supported policy dialogue throughout 2012 to more explicitly include young people’s concerns in national development strategies and policies. Moreover, the UN used its expertise in sexual and reproductive health as an entry point to promote a multi-sectoral approach to addressing young people’s issues. To ensure young people’s participation and voice in policy development, several national youth forums were organized during 2012, including one on the role of young people in the implementation of youth strategy and rural youth employment. Vietnamese youth representatives at the Global Youth Forum in Bali, Indonesia 13 Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee (2010). The 2009 Viet Nam Population and Housing Census Expanded Sample Results.

brought the collected concerns and recommendations of young people to the attention of global policy-makers. The forums enabled the formulation of recommendations from young people on the implementation of a national youth development strategy, as well as their ideas on the post-2015 development agenda. Health, including sexual and reproductive health and access to youth-friendly health services, was a central theme. Going forward, youth forums and their recommendations will be positioned to contribute to one-third of One Plan outputs and to nearly all outcomes. They will also influence expected revisions to key laws, including the Law on the Protection, Care, and Education of Children in 2014 and the Youth Law in 2015. ILO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO

Focus on Young People

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The first high level national policy dialogue on young people was held in November, 2012 with UN support. The event prompted substantive discussion among high level leaders of key line ministries on health, education and employment, and the National Assembly on a coordinated multi-sectoral response to implementing the National Youth Development Strategy (2011-2020). Representatives from all provinces actively participated and young people had an opportunity to engage with policy-makers. The event resulted in a clearer agenda for State management of youth affairs in Viet Nam, with recommendations to: • Create a formal mechanism to systematically engage with young people • Establish a multi-sectoral steering committee for more effective implementation and monitoring of the youth strategy.

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Š UN Viet Nam\2013\Truong Viet Hung

- Youth participant at the national policy dialogue held in Ha Noi in November, 2012

Stories

Trust in young people because we know what we want and we can make positive changes for society. Young people are innovative and aware of their roles, so give us a chance to demonstrate our capacity.

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Expanding the quality and reach of the education system [Outcome 2.3] To improve the quality and equity of the national education and training system, fundamental changes are needed. The UN works with Government to deliver results against three national priorities: • Increasing access to education and training, especially in remote, rural areas and for vulnerable, disadvantaged groups • Improving education quality in line with international standards • Enhancing education management. National average completion rates are high, but there are large disparities between different groups and regions. Quality and access to education are still largely defined by ethnicity, disabilities and geography. The differences are magnified by the mismatch in teacher capacities and student needs, which have a direct impact on learning outcomes. Learning outcomes for students from the Kinh majority significantly improved during 2001 to 2007, while ethnic minority students struggled.

Outcomes

In 2012, two important frameworks were approved that will guide the Government and UN efforts in the near term: • The Framework on Building a Learning Society 2012-2020, crafted by a group of 22 different ministries, organizations, media and other stakeholders in close consultation with the UN • The Education Development Strategic Plan 2011-2020 (EDSP), with specific policy directions and targets to improve the quality of education.

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The UN has been instrumental in bringing education equity issues to the attention of policy-makers, influencing the direction of national and provincial education sector plans and highlighting key gaps in policy implementation. Now, the UN is focusing its policy advice and technical assistance on two main challenges for the education system and for educational achievement: equity and quality. For example, the UN successfully advocated for the inclusion of special initiatives for disabled children and children from ethnic minority groups in the EDSP. Despite recent efforts to change teaching methodologies, the lecturebased approach is common throughout the system and restricts child-friendly, interactive learning and the development of problem-based, critical thinking skills that are essential for a more efficient and competitive labour force.


Š UNICEF Viet Nam\2011\Truong Viet Hung

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Results in 2012

The following major outputs were achieved in 2012. Evidence and knowledge to strengthen education laws and policies [2.3.1] Three policy studies and options papers prepared

Key Results

Nearly 2,000 education system stakeholders with greater knowledge for action

• Brief on Mother Tongue-based Bilingual Education, developed with the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET), highlighted positive ethnic minority children learning outcome results • Analysis of language use by primary school students in Lao Cai Province highlighted a large gap between teacher and student language preferences and proficiency • Technical advice paper for the Government to prepare an action plan for the ‘Building a Learning Society’ Strategy. • Roundtable policy discussions during Education for All Global Action Week enabled more than 200 Government officials, teachers, parents and NGO representatives to have increased understanding of the benefits of early childhood education • 100 National Assembly members and Government officials gained better understanding of ethnic minority education barriers and solutions through joint policy monitoring visits by the National Assembly and the MOET • Roles and status of teachers in building a learning society debated and enhanced at a forum for World/Vietnamese Teachers’ Day • The National Education for Sustainable Development Forum enabled 50 policy-makers to have a comprehensive understanding of education for sustainable development (ESD) and assessment of results against the National ESD Action Plan (2010-2014) • 150 policy-makers and education managers reviewed challenges and lessons for implementation of the decree and Law on Persons with Disabilities • 130 national and international academia and policymakers exchanged information and good practices during the Education Renovation Conference • 100 education managers learnt new planning skills related to emergency preparedness, response and recovery at community level • 100 local Government officials and education managers oriented on mother tongue-based bilingual education

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• 70 education managers able to administer Vietnamese placement test to guide assessment of language proficiency and placement • 43 MOET directors and deputy directors identified education policy and curriculum entry points for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and education in emergencies.

More capable education institutions for improved learning outcomes [2.3.2, 2.3.3] Eleven education system tools and approaches introduced or strengthened

Key Results

• Heritage education modules and lesson plans integrated into teaching curriculum • Training-of-trainer package and two pilot workshops conducted with 60 trainers on community-based early childhood education and parenting education • Early learning and developmental standards developed and field-tested with 400 education managers and teachers • Communication for Development package developed and piloted with 70 education managers to guide school-room interventions that reduce discrimination against children with disabilities and children affected by HIV and AIDS • Monitoring system for implementation of policies for disadvantaged children established in six provinces. Six provincial briefs on out-of-school children produced • MOET Planning and Finance departments revised indicators, data collection and reporting systems to produce data in line with International Standard Classification of Education • Circulars to implement inclusive education for children with disabilities produced • MOET Action Plans on natural disaster preparedness revised and strengthened • Guidelines developed to prepare open educational resources for higher education institutions • Media and Information Literacy Curriculum for Teachers model developed for teacher training institutes.

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© UN Viet Nam\2011\Truong Viet Hung

Inclusion in laws and policies

The UN, working in tandem with the National Assembly’s Ethnic Council, was instrumental in incorporating a policy change to support the use of mother tongue-based bilingual education in ethnic minority provinces and districts. This pilot will bring immediate, tangible changes to the way ethnic minority children learn and engage with the formal education system.

• Finalize two circulars that operationalize changes in education for children with disabilities, in line with the decree and Law on Persons with Disabilities. These have enabled children aged up to 14 with disabilities to enter primary school and provided legal status for resource centres, enabling them to receive State funding for operations • Draft a new Law on Disaster Risk Management that will drive changes in the national school curriculum to address climate change and disaster preparedness in teaching and learning. The curriculum will address factors related to food availability, extreme weather events and how communities can respond to disruptions in education services.

The UN also supported the Government to:

ILO, UNESCO, UNICEF

The UN utilized strategic partnerships in 2012 to spotlight equity and quality issues in legal frameworks and policies.

Stories

Specifically, the UN helped finalize the Learning Society Framework, with lessons and good practices from global practice shared. As a result, the approved Education Strategic Plan is now more inclusive.

Improving the quality of education The UN in 2012 targeted important policy and technical issues to advocate for improved and more inclusive education for all learners. A feature of the year was engagement with the Viet Nam Institute of Education Sciences

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to support ongoing policy dialogue with the Communist Party of Viet Nam on education equity and quality, with a special focus on fostering learners’ creativity for the evolving demands of a 21st century. Discussions centred on curriculum reform, the quality of education assessment,


decentralization of education management, the use of information technologies in education and innovative approaches to teaching and learning methods along with teacher training and education. High level forums such as the Consultative Group Conference, the National Youth Conference, the Education for All Global Action Week and lessons from groundbreaking ECD pilots in Vinh Phuc Province were also used as platforms to advocate for a greater focus on quality early childhood care and education. These events increased Government officials, teachers, parents and NGOs’ understanding of early childhood education and underscored the integral roles of parents and primary caregivers in delivering more rewarding education outcomes for children.

To ensure the model sustains a childfriendly approach, the UN is providing evidence and advocating for key changes to introduce bilingual education and support ethnic minority children to improve their Vietnamese language skills. However, institutional change requires awareness and ‘buy-in’ from all actors. The UN’s support of the Government in celebrating National Teachers’ Day recognized teachers’ pivotal roles in shaping children’s lives and the Government’s commitment to the engagement of teachers in decision-making. Going forward, the Government pledged sustained investment for teacher training and incentives to attract and retain teachers, as ongoing education reforms gain traction and teachers are sensitized to expected changes in the classroom. ILO, UNESCO, UNICEF

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One key to unlocking the door to a more fulfilling education experience is a more independent thinking and problem-solving approach to learning enshrined in the Global Partnership for Education-funded ‘New School Model’ – co-developed by the UN as a core member of the Education Sector Group. The model also promotes lifelong learning and its main elements are a student-centred approach, small group learning and collaboration, active and reflective learning methods, student

self-learning along with parent and local community engagement.

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Š UN Viet Nam\2011\Dominic Blewett

New abilities and services for quality, inclusive education Targeted and strategic support was delivered by the UN in 2012 to help the education system meet learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; aspirations. A number of UN-backed capacity building initiatives were undertaken to deliver a more inclusive and responsive education system. This translated into the UN actively backing the education system to change the way it plans and delivers parenting education programmes at community level and to integrate cultural heritage into curricula and continuing education activities.

Stories

To meet the needs of disadvantaged groups, 900 education managers at national and sub-national levels were supported to address the groupsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; special needs and work with teachers to improve school attendance and performance. Specific training included the application of early

ILO, UNESCO, UNICEF

Meeting Human Rights Obligations: Convention on Persons with Disabilities and Convention on the Rights of the Child In 2012, the finalization of two key circulars made education more accessible for disabled children. The promotion of more child-friendly, active teaching and learning approaches also enabled the Government to make tangible progress towards meeting its commitments under the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on Persons with Disabilities ratified by Viet Nam in 1990 and 2007, respectively.

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learning and developmental standards, education planning for the inclusion of children with disabilities along with emergency preparedness, response and recovery in lesson planning. Meanwhile, a review of education planning and budgeting guidelines used a human rights-based approach and led to concrete recommendations to address equity issues in the planning and budgeting process, while a package of core materials was compiled for capacity development of education managers on a rights-based approach to education. Data collection methods and indicators were also revised to bring them in line with the International Standard Classification of Education to provide quality data and further underpin a human rightsbased approach to education.


Š UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Stories

This UNICEF-supported Inclusive Education Centre for children with disabilities in Da Nang is helping to deliver more equitable education outcomes.

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Promoting gender equality and responding to HIV [Outcome 2.4] As a new lower middle-income country, Viet Nam must confront many of the risks and vulnerabilities associated with economic transition and social dislocation. Addressing persistent inequality, in particular gender inequality, stigma and discrimination against people at high risk of HIV infection or living with HIV, is essential for more inclusive growth. Sustained progress on MDG 3 to Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women is critical to support attainment of all the MDGs, while greater investment is needed to achieve MDG 6, where Viet Nam has much ground to make up.

Outcomes

The response to HIV has made great strides in recent years, with the coverage of antiretroviral treatment having increased more than 20-fold since 2005, providing lifesaving treatment for more than 60 per cent of adults and 80 per cent of children living with HIV. However, HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs is still very high and the rate of new infections among men who have sex with men is high and increasing. A rise in reported cases of HIV-positive women, who represented 31 per cent of newly reported cases in 2011, may reflect a slow but steady transmission of HIV to women by men engaging in highly risky behaviours. In 2012 there were substantial new commitments made by the Government

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for gender equality. In support of the National Programme on Gender Equality (2011-2015), an agreement was struck between between the MOF and the MOLISA to allocate new State budget resources to provinces and ministries for the implementation of the programme. Meanwhile, the amended Labour Code now prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace, recognizes domestic work as a job and enables domestic workers in Viet Nam, mostly women, to have greater access to benefits such as paid maternity leave, legal counsel and vocational training. The Viet Nam Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Union has been strengthened by new regulations that ensure its participation at diďŹ&#x20AC;erent administration levels in State management and a new National Family Development Strategy is focused on promoting gender equality, addressing domestic violence and discouraging prenatal sex selection. However, there is still significant work to do. A major study, The Economic Costs of Domestic Violence against Women commissioned by the UN and partners calculated the economic impact of domestic violence against women in Viet Nam, through major impacts on the productivity and earnings of women and their households, amounted to a staggering 3.2 per cent of GDP in 2010.


Outcomes

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Š UN Viet Nam\2011\Shutterstock\12076543 \Muellek Josef


Results in 2012

Key Results

The following major outputs were achieved in 2012. Stronger legal and policy frameworks for HIV responses [2.4.1]

• Enhanced understanding among legislators and policymakers about the violence, exploitation and other harms faced by sex workers, and high quality policy discussions and advice on a law to end their detention in ‘05 centres’ • Methadone maintenance treatment scaled-up as a part of a policy shift towards community-based, evidenceinformed drug treatment models • A major options paper prepared to inform efforts to sustain financing of the national HIV programme as donor funding reduces • Policy frameworks developed to integrate reproductive health and HIV services, including the integration of routine maternal health services to prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child • The continuum of better integrated HIV services decentralized to commune level within Viet Nam’s pilot of the global Treatment 2.0 initiative.

Greater participation of people living with HIV in decisions affecting their lives [2.4.2]

• Major education and awareness campaigns to help dispel stigma and discrimination against people with HIV, ‘at-risk’ groups and to connect them to legal aid services • Viet Nam Union of Science and Technology Association engaged in policy discussions and priority setting within the National Committee for HIV, Drugs and Prostitution Control.

Legal and policy changes that strengthen action against gender discrimination and violence [2.4.3]

• Senior managers at national and provincial level reviewed implementation of the Gender Equality Law to identity gender gaps in national policies and programmes • Gender gaps identified and recommendations made to strengthen the draft Civil Registration, Urban Planning, Reconciliation at Grassroots Level laws • Three NGO networks strengthened coordination and advocacy efforts for gender equality • National training package developed to address sexratio-at-birth issues and piloted with Provincial People’s Committees in Hai Duong Province • Five major studies conducted on gender discrimination and gender-based violence and positioned to influence legal amendments and policy preparation

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â&#x20AC;˘ A joint Government and UN communications campaign developed to increase male involvement in preventing violence against women, joint training and advocacy package updated and NGO led local level training and awareness activities to prevent gender-based violence in migrant communities.

Coordination to respond to gender discrimination and gender-based violence [2.4.4]

â&#x20AC;˘ EďŹ&#x20AC;ective coordination and prioritization of technical and financial support achieved through participation in the Gender Action Partnership with more than 100 regular members, including the Government, World Bank, donor agencies such as AusAid and DFID, along with local and international NGOs.

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© UN Viet Nam\2011\Dominic Blewet

Advanced ideas and thinking were brought into the law with great help from the UN. Legislators now better understand the values and standards of the international conventions to which Viet Nam is a signatory. The UN provided access to international good practice and innovations. When you see good practice with your own eyes and learn from it first-hand, you are more likely to change your perception. - Hoang The Lien, Vice Minister, Ministry of Justice, speaking about the Law on Handling of Administrative Violations

Ending the detention of sex workers and improving due process for drug users

Stories

Ending the detention of sex workers and improving due process for drug users The detention of sex workers and people who use illegal drugs under Viet Nam’s administrative law has been a major human rights issue and a barrier to effective HIV prevention and treatment services. In late 2012, more than 37,000 drug users and sex workers were being detained for long periods through administrative justice processes that do not meet international standards. The drug dependence treatment and alternative livelihoods approaches then employed in the ‘05’ and ‘06’ administrative detention centres were also widely considered to be ineffective. In March 2012, the UN globally released a policy statement that called for the closure of compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centres. The UN in Viet Nam convened a wide range of stakeholders at events that raised awareness and provided new insights and knowledge about international best practices in the treatment and rehabilitation of drug users, as well as in addressing the link between HIV and AIDs and sex work. After the law’s passage, the Prime Minister requested key Government ministries to develop decrees

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to ensure its implementation. By early 2013, 862 sex workers had been released and all ‘05 centres’ were closed. UN-supported policy expertise, legal advice and dialogue were instrumental in the successful passing of the new law. The UN closely monitored the drafting, synthesised information about the options under consideration and provided international expert advice, including input from the UN’s special Rapporteur on the Right to Health. The UN also mobilized the participation of sex workers and people who use illegal drugs to provide input at different stages of the drafting process. The new law succeeds in addressing a range of issues, such as provisions to ensure that people who use illegal drugs being sent to ‘06 compulsory detention centres’ will be entitled to see the case against them, to have legal representation and to have a hearing within a district court. The law also introduces juvenile justice reforms, with the best interests of the child of paramount consideration. This reflects a larger change amongst national institutions in a shift towards approaches that meet international human rights standards.


In terms of convening and sharing global best practice, in April 2012 a study visit to Australia by 13 high-ranking Government leaders, led by Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc, was initiated by the UN with the support of the Vietnamese and Australian governments. The delegation met with Australian Government officials and experts in the HIV and drugs fields who outlined how Australia had moved away from a ‘penalty approach’ to one based on regulated community-based services for drug users. The Australian community-based models were of great interest to the delegation as Viet Nam’s National Assembly was working to move away from compulsory detention and expand access to methadone, needles and syringes, as well as other health and social services for drug users. In addition, the UN supported Viet Nam’s participation in the second Regional Consultations on Compulsory

Centres for Drug Users, held in Malaysia in October, 2012. Discussions focused on multisectoral support to affected populations and engagement of civil society in the delivery of voluntary, community-based drug treatment, HIV and harm reduction services. In 2013, the UN will continue its coordinated and intensive support for Viet Nam’s efforts to review, develop and implement a range of laws and policies in the prevention and treatment of HIV, such as laws on Health Insurance and the Law on HIV/ AIDS Prevention and Control, as well as amendments to the National Constitution. These represent critical opportunities to help the nation’s institutions improve the lives of people living with, affected by and at risk of HIV. UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, WHO

Meeting Human Rights Obligations Ending the administrative detention of sex workers is a major step towards meeting Viet Nam’s international human rights obligations:

UNESCAP Resolution 66/10, 2010.

Stories

• Article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ratified by Viet Nam in 1982, guarantees every person the right to a fair trial by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal. • A regional call for action following the Political Declaration on HIV and AIDs requested states to identify and remove legal barriers to universal access and to promote dialogue between health and other sectors, including justice, law and order and drug control.

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© Simon Drought

Integration of the HIV response Adequate funding of Viet Nam’s national HIV response is an ongoing challenge, expected to only become more acute as international donors respond to Viet Nam’s rapid socio-economic progress and shift funds elsewhere. As a result, there is an urgent need to move away from standalone HIV projects to a more efficient, nationallyowned and sustainable response integrated in the public health system.

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With lower middle-income country status achieved in 2010, the level of international funding available to Viet Nam is expected to decline sharply. To help Viet Nam stay ahead of the curve, the UN continues to help the Government to mainstream HIV and AIDs interventions, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission, into the national healthcare system. Following intensive dialogue with Government and partners a directive was signed by a Deputy Prime Minister in 2012 that will see all mothers able to access HIV counselling and testing as part of their routine reproductive, maternal and antenatal care services with trained midwives. This will result in greater efficiencies in service provision, reducing the cost burden to the Government that results from separate, overlapping programmes. More importantly, it will also contribute to a more holistic approach and care. Throughout pregnancy, childbirth and post-natal care, a midwife is in the best position to meet with women and to speak openly and confidentially about HIV. This

Overall, success was achieved by developing a strong evidence base. Since the introduction in 2008 of the UN regional guideline “the Asia-Pacific Operational Framework for linking HIV/STIs services with Reproductive, Adolescent, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health services”, considerable evidence has been generated through UNsupported pilots in high HIV prevalence areas of Dien Bien and Quang Ninh provinces. A needs assessment was conducted to tailor piloted models to address local needs, including human resources and infrastructure capacity. This work will continue into 2013. In 2012, the UN also worked closely with Government and partners to develop guidelines that will make it possible to operationalize the new Government Directive that will see all mothers able to access HIV counselling and testing as part of their routine reproductive, maternal and antenatal care services with trained midwives in all 63 provinces. The integration of HIV services into mainstream public health care represents a major shift away from the current network of separate healthcare projects. Ongoing UN advocacy, technical assistance and support will be vital as this strategic shift in national health care provision moves forward. ILO, IOM, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNODC, UNV, UN Women, WHO (See HIV Donor Funding Projection 2013-2019, Annex 1, page 135)

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will help address stigma and be one of the easiest ways to initiate care and treatment for women living with HIV.


© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

The Gender Equality Law: Reviewing progress and renewing commitments In 2012, the UN backed various advocacy events to review national progress and renew commitment at the highest level for gender equality. In December 2012, the UN supported a conference with 140 senior Government managers and representatives of the Women’s Union, academic institutions and local NGOs to review progress and constraints in the implementation of the 2007 Gender Equality Law. The conference resulted in greater awareness and commitment to address missing sexdisaggregated data in labour and education statistics, the lack of a multi-sector monitoring and coordination mechanism, fragmented implementation responsibilities between

different ministries, insufficient allocation of staff time and budget at provincial level and low awareness and commitment amongst some political leaders. It also highlighted a critical institutional gap: the lack of a comprehensive law to address all types of domestic violence. Following the conference, the UN worked with the Government to develop a road map to strengthen Government staff capacity, build coordination mechanisms and promote men’s engagement in gender equality initiatives.

ILO, IOM, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNODC, UNV, UN Women, WHO

On behalf of NGOs, I would like to thank the UN and Government. We felt we were equal partners in this process and our biggest wish is to continue our efforts for social progress. We now have many friends to join hands with in gender equality - now we don’t just speak of technical issues, we have solidarity.

In 1945 Ho Chi Minh declared men and women equal. But, we need to go beyond the generic and see gender equality in practice. We also need to encourage a more active role for women in politics and to hear their voices in policy and decisionmaking. This is a number one issue. - Mr. Nguyen Thanh Hoa, Vice Minister, MOLISA

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- Ms. Nguyen Van Anh, Director, Centre for Studies and Applied Sciences in Gender, Family, Women and Adolescents

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Changing Laws – Changing Lives In 2012, the UN stood shoulder-to-shoulder with the Parliamentary Committee on Social Affairs and its Women’s Caucus to propose strong amendments to the Civil Status, Employment and Grassroots Reconciliation laws.

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The UN backed independent reviews of the laws by international and national gender experts using human rights standards as well as the national legal framework. Proposed changes are now with the drafting bodies and will strongly influence the quality of people’s lives in the shape of greater legal protection and the opportunity to enjoy employment free from discrimination. As a direct result of the recommendations, the Law on Employment is set to encompass informal sector workers, many of whom are women in low income and insecure jobs. Proposed changes also include establishment of a national employment fund, greater support for small- and medium-sized enterprises, access to vocational training schemes and employment insurance. The Law on Civil Status regulates birth, marriage and death registration and procedures. However, women are often at a disadvantage in their application due to the

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widespread use of customary laws that are discriminatory. For example, the law does not recognize women and men who live together, but are unmarried. In the case of separation or death of a partner, this could result in the use of customary laws to divide land and property to the detriment of women. Importantly, the law raises the issue of sex re-determination, but does not yet permit transgendered persons to change their civil status. The Law on Grassroots Reconciliation is a community-based form of alternative dispute resolution, but influenced by the power imbalance between men and women at family and community levels. In cases of domestic violence, women are often persuaded to resolve the issue within the ‘family’ rather than report the abuse to police and use the formal court system. A key proposal developed with the UN help will ensure that formal laws prevail in any situation where there is conflict with customary solutions. Tangible, positive changes to laws are now emerging with a UN footprint, while National Assembly members and drafting agencies have increased their understanding of Viet Nam’s international commitments to gender equality.


In step with these legislative moves, greater public attention was directed to the imbalance in Viet Nam’s skewed sex ratio at birth. In November 2012, Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan led a national workshop to address malefavoured sex selection, with leaders from all 63 provinces and representatives from the National Assembly, the Communist Party and civil society. UN-driven advocacy efforts with legislators and policy-makers at national and provincial levels with national partners, especially the National Assembly’s Parliamentary Committee for Social Affairs and the General Office for Population and Family Planning, succeeded in building

support for National Assembly Resolution 40 on the issue. Without UN intervention, Viet Nam would have failed to have a comprehensive analysis of the root causes of sex selection and updated information on regional and international trends and practices. Deputy Prime Minister Nhan and the Chair of the Parliamentary Committee have stressed the issue’s importance and requested a strong commitment from the political system for action. ILO, IOM, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNODC, UNV, UN Women, WHO

Changing mindsets is a key solution to the sex ratio at birth imbalance and bringing the rate down will require more effort and participation from the political system. - Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan at the national workshop on addressing the sex ratio at birth imbalance, November 2012

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

A new Labour Code that protects women The new Labour Code, adopted in June 2012, for the first time recognized domestic work as a job and contained six specific provisions covering this type of work. UN-backed research into the Labour Code gathered evidence about the vulnerabilities of workers and revealed that 46 per cent of households in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City hired domestic workers, more than twice of pre-2000 percentage. More than 90 per cent of domestic workers are women, many of whom are migrant workers from rural areas.

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This policy breakthrough will help protect these women who are especially vulnerable to discrimination, exploitation and abuse, including sexual harassment. Under the code, domestic workers are entitled to a written employment contract, fair wages,

ILO, IOM, UNAIDS, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNODC, UNV, UN Women, WHO

Recognizing domestic work and protecting the vulnerable women who mostly fill these positions is a significant milestone in meeting Viet Nam’s international human rights obligations: • Article 11 of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) requires states to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of employment and to ensure, on a basis of equality between men and women, the same rights. The new Labour Code helps to ensure domestic workers: • Have rights to equal remuneration, including benefits, and to equal treatment in respect of work of equal value, as well as equality of treatment • Have the right to protection of health and to safety in working conditions.

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time for rest, suitable accommodation along with health and social insurance. Following the code’s adoption, the UN followed through in its support during the drafting of Government guidance for implementation of new provisions for domestic workers. It clearly defines the rights and responsibilities of employers and domestic workers, including guidance on how to settle problems or conflicts. The guidance is also expected to provide rules and regulations for employment agencies providing job introduction and matching services to domestic workers and employers.


© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Ending violence against women The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women in 2012 served as a backdrop for a high level policy dialogue about how to achieve more effective coordination between Government sectors to address domestic violence. The UNbacked dialogue attracted more than 100 participants, including policy-makers, national experts and representatives from the National Assembly, the Women’s and Youth Unions, the Fatherland Front, donors, research institutes and media. Persuasive evidence from the UN study “The Economic Costs of Domestic Violence against Women in Viet Nam”14 was presented and showed that violence had significant impacts on women’s productivity and earnings. The study revealed that out-of-pocket expenditure, lost earnings from paid work and the value of missed household work due to domestic violence against women together represented a loss of 1.4 per cent

in GDP in 2010. Household earnings also declined by 35 per cent with any lifetime experience of violence, amounting to 1.8 per cent of GDP per year. For the economy as a whole, domestic violence against women committed by intimate partners represented a staggering loss of 3.2 per cent of GDP in 201015.

14 The Economic Costs of Domestic Violence against Women in Viet Nam, Dr. Nata Duvvury, Patricia Carney, Dr. Nguyen Huu Minh, UN Women 2012.

15 See: http://www.un.org.vn/en/publications/doc_ details/339-estimating-the-costs-of-domestic-violenceagainst-women-in-viet-nam.html

Addressing the dialogue, Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism Vice Minister Huynh Vinh Ai stressed that Viet Nam needed to uphold its commitment to the CEDAW and that violence against women was a violation of human dignity. This successful event was the first step in efforts by the UN and other partners to work with the Government to establish a coordination mechanism to guide a coherent national response to domestic violence against women. UNFPA, UNODC, UNV, UN Women

Making a Difference

Studies: • “Economic costs of Domestic Violence against Women in Viet Nam” • “Qualitative research study on masculinities and GBV in Viet Nam” • “Legislation on sexual harassment in the workplace in Viet Nam” • “Sex work and Mobility” • “Retirement Age and Gender” • “Land Issues, Gender and Remittances”.

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The One Plan enabled the Government, civil society and research partners to carryout major studies on gender equality and gender-based violence. These provide a substantial base of evidence to advocate for important legal and policy changes:

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Focus Area 3

Focus Area 3

© UN Viet Nam\2013

Enhanced governance and participation

With lower middle-income status comes greater complexity. Viet Nam is a country in transition, engaged in an ongoing process of institutional reform. The SocioEconomic Development Strategy 20112020 acknowledges the importance of governance reform. Sophisticated, modern institutions are needed to respond to and manage the complex challenges the country will face during the next five to 10 years. Continued reform and modernization of policy development processes, more effective national and sub-national institutions, enhanced parliamentary development and oversight, a more determined and informed fight against corruption and greater participation by all stakeholders and citizens in policy-making, planning and monitoring of performance at all levels are required if Viet Nam is to manage and respond to these challenges effectively.

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The SEDS states the need to “enhance capacity and establish mechanisms for the people to exercise their rights”. Emphasis is being placed on strengthened participation by all citizens to ensure more effective, accountable and transparent governance, so all Vietnamese people have a voice in the decisions which affect them and are able to fully realise their capabilities. A more supportive regulatory environment is required to drive greater engagement of PSPMOs in decision-making processes, service delivery and policy dialogue. Rule of law needs to be strengthened so all people, institutions and entities are accountable to laws that are equally enforced and independently adjudicated. Access to justice for all citizens, in particular the most vulnerable and disadvantaged who rely on the law or protection together with increased engagement by Government in human rights treaty implementation, will


contribute towards further strengthening the rule of law. Mechanisms for people to give opinions, feedback and oversee the work of the Party and the State, in particular socio-economic policies and plans together with regulations on providing information and the accountability of State agencies to the people, need to be strengthened. Multi-sectoral responses are needed to ensure a more effective and accountable Government and address factors that impede people’s access to justice and protection of their rights. To meet these needs, the UN is creating opportunities for wider participation in decision-making about policy priorities and spending.

Expected outcomes include: • Elected bodies capable of preparing laws and tracking the performance of State agencies to address the pressing concerns of women, ethnic minorities and other vulnerable and disadvantaged groups • Judicial reforms and stronger frameworks to support implementation of international conventions ratified by Viet Nam • Reduce disparities in access to services with measures to enhance accountability, transparency and anti-corruption efforts amongst State agencies at national and sub-national levels • More effective and sustained participation by civil society, including PSPMOs.

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More accountable and effective government [Outcomes 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4] In Viet Nam public pressure is growing for more transparent and responsive systems for lawmaking, public administration and justice. UN-backed efforts in 2012 were successful in achieving positive changes to the ways laws are written, the ways citizens are engaged, especially vulnerable and disadvantaged groups such as ethnic women and children in conflict with the law, and the ways that Government is measuring progress.

Outcomes

UN efforts responded to several important shifts in Government and public opinion in 2012. Public pressure, due to the ongoing global and domestic economic downturn, resulted in an increasingly vocal National Assembly and greater calls for Government to improve its performance and take tangible steps to address corruption. There was a notable step by the Government toward paying greater attention to citizen’s opinions in assessing governance, public sector performance and service delivery, as seen in the adoption by the Prime Minister of efforts for “accelerating the reform of the civil service system”. At a central level, the Ministry of Home Affairs piloted an innovative PAR Index, which for the first time included the voice of citizens to promote resultsbased monitoring and evaluation of

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public administration performance. The UN directed technical and financial support to this pilot in three ministries and six provinces. Another effective and independent tool to measure governance and public sector performance is the Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI), a joint UN-national partner consortium initiative rolled out across the country in 2012. Results from the 2012 PAPI in all 63 provinces showed that, despite recent gains [see MDG 8], bribes were still a major hurdle to finding decent work, receiving medical care and getting land use rights certificates. Bribes create an ‘unfair playing field’ for citizens, especially the poor and the disadvantaged. On human rights and efforts by Viet Nam to meet its international commitments, the Government prepared three State reports on the CEDAW, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and made tangible progress to incorporate human rights standards into new laws and policies and into implementation efforts.


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Results in 2012

Key Results

The following major outputs were achieved in 2012. More responsive elected bodies [3.1]

• Policy advocacy package developed to address skewed sex ratio at birth in favour of males for use by elected officials in policy-making and budget discussions • Tool for overseeing children’s right to play approved and in use by National Assembly members and Provincial People’s Councils • Two guidelines developed and used by elected officials to interact and consult with citizens, encompassing minimum standards for child participation and public consultations with ethnic minorities.

Legal and justice system reforms [3.2]

• Action plan to implement the Law on the Handling of Administrative Violations developed to ensure coordination across line ministries and responsible justice institutions • Sub-law and five circulars drafted for implementation of the Law on Persons with Disabilities and National Project on Support for Persons with Disabilities • Key recommendation to ensure joint land use rights for marital property included in drafts of new Land Law • Reviews, high level policy dialogue and recommendations prepared to address compliance of domestic laws with human rights conventions: CEDAW, CESCR, CRC and ICCPR • New National Target Programme on Drug Prevention and Suppression and the National Target Programme on Crime Prevention and Suppression for 2012-2015 approved by the Government • Model law on combating smuggling of migrants developed with Ministry of Justice (MOJ) • Establishment of a special court for children included in the agenda of the Steering Committee for Judicial Reform • Support to develop implementing decrees for enforcement of newly revised Labour Code • Border liaison offices established to promote cooperation between border control authorities • Justice index monitoring mechanisms implemented in 21 provinces to provide baselines on access to justice, especially for the vulnerable and disadvantaged • Package of training and advocacy materials on domestic violence prevention developed and included in curricula of Police Academy and Court College • National programmes developed for increased support for children in contact with the law, including reintegration, victim support and child friendly legal aid services.

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Better performing public sector institutions [3.3]

• PAPI established and operational • Self-assessment report on progress against corruption prepared by Government • Professional standards for public officials at commune levels reviewed and finalized • Proposal drafted on new salary mechanism for civil servants • Toolkits and associated manuals and training packages on social audits finalized and disseminated. • International peer review report prepared under the framework of the UN Convention against Corruption • Law enforcement and prosecution authorities more capable to investigate and prosecute corruption and money laundering cases, as well as in cross border cooperation on these issues.

Effective participation by citizens in decision-making, especially vulnerable and disadvantaged groups [3.4]

• Major awareness raising campaign “ACT against Corruption Today” conducted in universities across the country and on-line with the Facebook campaign: “Live true – be honest” • Consultation mechanism with NGOs established for the upcoming constitutional amendments.

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© UN Viet Nam\2006

New commitment and tools for effective law-making

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The economic downturn in 2011-2012 pushed the public to demand a more coherent response from the Government. With UN support, the National Assembly’s Committee on Law crafted options to strengthen law-making and oversight procedures. These were agreed with the passage of a resolution to reform and enhance the quality and effectiveness of National Assembly activities. Important changes include the formalization of a question period during National Assembly plenary sessions, a shift from verbal to written contributions for the appraisal of draft bills and introduction of a ‘vote of confidence’ for appointed positions on the National Assembly and People’s Provincial Councils. As a follow-up, the UN helped develop guidelines and manuals for public consultation and legislative oversight procedures. These included guidelines on public consultations for the Ethnic Council and Committees of the National Assembly, and a manual on public consultations for Provincial People’s Councils and guidelines to institutionalize public consultations by Provincial People’s Councils.

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The National Assembly’s new responsiveness was demonstrated by amendments made to the Law on Advertising, that included a ban on the advertising of breast milk substitutes, feeding bottles and teats for children aged from six to 24 months. This protects breastfeeding infants and helps their mothers make a choice about feeding, free from commercial influence. This success story illustrates the UN’s ability and effectiveness in convening a broad range of stakeholders including legislators, companies, Government ministries and the public to communicate the evidence and create consensus for change. The amended law also brought Viet Nam closer to international standards of self-regulation and the formulation of standards with input from advertisers. In 2013, the UN will support efforts to enforce the amended law. UNDP, UNICEF


Š UN Viet Nam\2013

Consultation with Citizens, especially Vulnerable and Disadvantaged Groups

UNDP, UNICEF, UN Women

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After initial support in 2011 to review the implementation of the 1992 Constitution, the UN helped give Vietnamese society an unprecedented say in its future with the ongoing amendment process to the Constitution throughout 2012. The UN supported the debate on constitutional provisions regarding the role of State authorities, constitutional protection and fundamental rights of citizens. A key result has been the National Assemblyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s adoption of a resolution on Constitution public consultations following UN policy advice and advocacy. The resolution extended the consultation period and encouraged stronger media engagement in the consultation process, among other provisions.

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© UN Viet Nam\2013\Truong Viet Hung

Human rights advocacy In 2012, meticulous preparation by the UN and ongoing advocacy led to important changes in the way the Government understands and grapples with the complex human rights dimensions of development problems.

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The year featured a number of UN-driven achievements, in particular the Law on the Handling of Administrative Violations approved by the National Assembly in May. It ended the compulsory detention of sex workers and introduced a ‘due process’ principle of judicial review by courts in cases of children in conflict with the law and for people detained for drug offences. Meanwhile, a draft sub-law and related decrees and administrative circulars offered stronger protection for victims of human trafficking, especially women and children, and support for re-integration with their families and communities. In relation to child adoption, the UN helped identify major barriers to implementation of the Hague Convention following its ratification by the Government. Five circulars were also supported and later approved by Government for implementation of the Law on Persons with Disabilities. Intensive policy dialogue led to Government recommendations on how to address compliance between domestic laws and international human rights standards for women within CEDAW, while similar active engagement with Government on penal procedures and provisions related to children led to recommendations and proposed revisions to Penal Code

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amendments in 2013. A nationwide survey on court administration also highlighted ways to increase the independence of judges and ensure people’s fair access to the justice system and generated policy dialogue in November about judicial independence. In its advocacy for the inclusion of human rights standards in national laws and policies, the UN is focused on protecting vulnerable and disadvantaged groups and ensuring that their voices are heard and their rights and specific concerns reflected in new policies and laws. This translated into the UN partnering the Supreme People’s Court to advocate for a special court for children to better protect their rights. This was included in the agenda of the steering Committee for Judicial Reform in early 2012. The UN also engaged on a broad front to support the drafting of a new National Target Programme on Drug Prevention and Suppression and the National Target Programme on Crime Prevention and Suppression during 2012-2015, as well as the development of sub-laws to support the implementation of the Law on Prevention and Combating of Human Trafficking. ILO, IOM, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNICEF, UNODC, UN Women


© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Accountable public services Building on its commitment to the UN Convention against Corruption, the Government drew on UN expertise in 2012 to finalize the “National Self-Assessment Report on UNCAC Implementation”. The report identified specific gaps and recommendations to improve performance and reduce opportunities for corruption. The UN sought to step-up its advisory role and re-energize interest in public administration reform and anti-corruption efforts by collecting and sharing feedback from citizens about the performance of public services. The Government moved in step with the UN to initiate an innovative and comprehensive monitoring and evaluation mechanism on the status of corruption and efforts to combat it head on. Closing accountability and transparency gaps and creating stronger monitoring tools also became key UN tasks. As a result, for the first time citizens could voice their impressions of governance and public service performance and be heard by decision-takers.

The UN was also on hand to pinpoint best practices in anti-corruption laws from other countries16 and assist reviews of key anti-corruption legislation in Viet Nam, including the ‘whistle blower’ law17 and the amended Law on Prevention of Corruption18. Meanwhile, the UN continued its awareness raising campaign “ACT against Corruption Today” through a series of innovative talk shows: “Live true – Think different – Act more” in universities across the country and online with the Facebook campaign: Live true – be honest”. These results are helping Government officials to improve the delivery of services and address mismanagement and corruption. UNDP, UNODC

16 See: International comparative analysis of anticorruption legislation: Lessons on sanctioning and enforcement mechanisms for Viet Nam @ http://www. undp.org.vn/detail/publications/publication-details/?con tentId=4609&languageId=1 17 Law on Denunciation 18 Law on Prevention and Combating of Corruption

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The self-assessment also identified serious gaps in law enforcement and criminal justice areas. The UN provided training for police, prosecutors and judges in the investigation, prosecution and adjudication of corruption and money laundering cases and helped design an investigative strategy for fraud investigations. Whilst tangible outcomes have yet to be seen, the number of cash seizures or breaches of currency control regulations at Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City airports have risen. Anti-

corruption police and prosecutors working on anti-corruption cases have also initiated a policy of closer cooperation during earlier stages of investigations.

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Land and justice for women Equality between women and men is in theory guaranteed in Viet Nam’s Constitution and is recognized in laws and regulations which relate to property rights, family and marriage matters, including the Civil Code, the Land Law, and the Law on Family and Marriage.

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The reality, however, a much different as discrimination, poverty, weak law enforcement and inaccessible legal assistance prevent many women from enjoying their rights. In 2012, a major UNcommissioned study across the full range of socio-economic and ethnic groups in urban and rural areas, found that women do not have equal access to land. The main obstacles are inconsistencies in laws and their application, patrilineal kinship practices, little access to legal advice, ‘sentiment-grounded’ conciliation practices and entrenched discrimination. Women are particularly vulnerable to exclusion from land following divorce or the death of their husbands. In the wake of the report, which grabbed the attention of senior Government officials and the media, the UN followed up by conducting dialogues with multiple stakeholders from Government, the Women’s Union and NGOs to identify legal changes and new mechanisms to help

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women maintain their land rights. Sensible outreach programmes to raise awareness at family levels, a new mechanism for grassroots conciliation based on law rather than extended family cohesion, more accessible legal services for poor and ethnic women and greater legal coherence and training for enforcement officials were identified. The UN is working to keep a number of key proposals at the forefront of the Land Law revision agenda. The measures include joint land use rights for marital property, all stakeholders to have equal access to information about land management and land use, and that land use rights certificates be issued, fully recognized and enforced in line with the Constitution, Civil Code and other related laws. In 2013, the UN will position this new evidence and mobilize stakeholders from across society to achieve justice for women. FAO, ILO, IOM, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNODC, UN Women


© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Equitable Treatment of all Land Users The UN and other development partners jointly advocated for land policy reforms that are essential for more inclusive growth and human development in Viet Nam. The recommendations on the revision of the 2003 Land Law represent a consensus based on recent international experiences, research and studies conducted by international development partners in collaboration with Vietnamese institutions focusing on how to ensure: • Land recovery and compensation are in line with international standards, fair and equitable principles • Protection of farmers’ land use rights • Issuance of land use rights certificates to all land users • Recognition of customary land use and management practices of local ethnic minority communities in land allocation, planning and policies • Transparent and participatory land governance be improved • Gender equality and more effective provision of joint titles for marital property • Land Law consistency and transparency.

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© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

Public service reform and anti-corruption: data for action

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The UN supported the design, piloting and implementation of the PAPI, an annual policy monitoring tool that covers all 63 provinces in the country. PAPI’s impact can be measured against the fact that three of eight target provinces have taken up action plans to address the issues identified by their citizens and a dozen other provinces have discussed the findings and are looking for ways to address the identified shortcomings. PAPI looks at six different aspects: accountability, corruption in the public sector, participation, public administrative procedures, public service quality and transparency. On average, Vietnamese citizens’ experienced better services in 2012 compared to 2011. In 36 provinces, four out of six aspects saw improvement of 5 to 15 per cent compared with 2011. The four were accountability, control of corruption, public service delivery and transparency. But, the findings suggested that citizens continued to demand more accountability, better control of corruption and better quality administrative and public services. Corruption and bribery remained constant problems across several sectors. Citizens largely agreed with statements that bribes were required to get a job in the public sector (up to 44 per cent in 2012 from 29

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per cent in 2011), receive medical care (up to 42 from 31 per cent in 2011), and get a land use rights certificate (up to 32 per cent in 2012 from 21 per cent in 2011). • The PAPI results in 2012 also showed that a significant amount of corruption went unreported, either because denunciations were too costly or citizens did not trust procedures. Bribes are evidence of an ‘unfair playing field’ for citizens with different household economic conditions, especially the poor and the disadvantaged in access to public services. See: www.papi.vn • To complement these efforts, the UN supported Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys in Dien Bien Province and Ho Chi Minh City. They were used to assess the effectiveness of cash transfer programmes to support poor, ethnic minority students to stay in school and offered these students a say in how the programmes are run. The surveys highlighted overly complex application and reporting procedures, significant delays in cash disbursements to households, as well as requests for ‘informal’ commissions by officials. UNDP, UNICEF


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Chapter 3

One Plan Budget T

Closing this gap will depend on the UN’s ability to secure resources and contributions through global, regional and country level resource mobilization efforts. In 2012, the estimated funding raised by the UN agencies outside the One Plan Fund was approximately US$63 million, reducing the funding gap for the non-OPF source to US$108 million. This can be considered a satisfactory result considering the reduced availability of ODA funding following the

These trends and the ongoing global economic and financial turmoil pose a risk for the successful funding and implementation of the One Plan. The UNCT is actively seeking ways to address the funding gap with a Joint Resource Mobilization Strategy. However, it is expected that the gap will not be entirely filled. Specific adjustments and a reprioritization of UN support may be necessary. This will be reviewed and discussed by the UNCT together with Government and donors during tripartite annual review meetings in 2013 and 2014.

Chapter 3

here are three types of funding for the One Plan 2012-2016. Regular Resources are funds confirmed by annual/biannual pledging or assessed contributions from member countries. Other Resources are confirmed, but earmarked non‐core/extra budgetary resources and Resources to be Mobilized are funds that UN agencies anticipate will be raised during the One Plan programming cycle, either through the OPF, or in addition to the OPF. As such, the resources to be mobilized represent the current funding gap for the One Plan 20122016.

global financial crises and Viet Nam’s new lower middle-income country status. It is, however, noted with concern that approximately half of this funding was secured for a single project, the UN-REDD programme (see Chapter 2 for details). Traditionally, funding partners tend to provide the majority of funding they intend to provide to UN agencies in the beginning of a programming cycle, to allow sufficient time for implementation. This, combined with the significant funding gap currently within the One Plan Fund (see next section on OPF), leads to concern that it will be a challenge to close the resource gap for One Plan 2012-2016.

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Table 1: One Plan 2012-2016 Resource Requirements One Plan Outcomes and Focus Areas

Regular Resources (Secured)

Indicative Budget (US$) Resources to be Mobilized Other Resources One Plan Non-One (Secured) Fund Plan Fund

Outcome 1.1.

18,055,000

2,520,000

20,504,105

17,050,935

58,130,040

Outcome 1.2.

1,892,500

10,696,000

8,970,000

16,197,500

37,756,000

Outcome 1.3.

5,897,500

7,660,000

13,234,405

29,973,095

56,765,000

Outcome 1.4.

3,766,000

20,860,000

8,975,559

11,764,441

45,366,000

Focus Area 1

29,611,000

41,736,000

74,985,971

198,017,040

7,962,500

3,300,000

11,152,854

14,249,646

36,665,000

Outcome 2.2.

22,621,000

12,856,700

29,760,500

39,853,500

105,091,700

Outcome 2.3.

3,400,000

2,000,000

5,761,520

7,360,480

18,522,000

Outcome 2.4.

9,780,000

692,000

9,521,100

6,598,900

26,592,000

43,763,500

18,848,700

56,195,974

68,062,526

186,870,700

Outcome 3.1.

3,480,000

650,000

2,410,426

2,164,574

8,705,000

Outcome 3.2.

12,445,000

3,260,000

11,770,522

13,009,478

40,485,000

Outcome 3.3.

17,680,000

1,350,000

9,035,649

7,649,381

35,715,030

Outcome 3.4.

570,000

110,000

4,290,661

5,469,339

10,440,000

Focus Area 3

34,175,000

5,370,000

27,507,258

28,292,772

95,345,030

Total One Plan

107,549,500

65,954,700

135,387,301

171,341,269

480,232,770

One Plan Fund

Chapter 3

51,684,069

Outcome 2.1.

Focus Area 2

The One Plan Fund was established in 2007 to support more coherent mobilization, allocation and disbursement of resources to the One Plan under the direction of the Resident Coordinator. The OPF is the vehicle for donors to pool resources and promote joint programming and since 2008 has been instrumental for the UN system agencies to achieve significant development results. As such, it represents an important step towards a more predictable and effective funding of the DaO initiative at country level. The strategic importance of country-level funding for the DaO initiative through the One Fund modality was recognized at the Ha Noi Conference in June 2010, which noted that the One Fund is the “bedrock

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Total

for achieving relevance, coherence and a more strategic focus of the UN system at the country level”. As can be seen from Table 1 above, it is expected that the funds to be mobilized through the OPF amount to approximately 30 per cent (US$135 million) of the total budget required to implement the One Plan 2012-2016. Table 2 below summarizes the contributions by donors to the One Plan Funds since 2007. As of December 31, 2012 the total amount of funding transferred from donors to the One Plan Fund was US$13,050,886. i.e. One Plan Fund II (2012-2016). This includes contributions from six donors, the Expanded DaO Funding Window and interest accrued from previous contributions.


Table 2: Donor Contributions to One Plan Funds as of December 31, 2012 (US$) No

Donors

One Plan Fund I (2007-2008)

One Plan Fund II (2008-2011)

One Plan Fund II (2012-2016)

Total

Department for International Development

5,125,500

6,769,684

1,588,878

13,484,062

2

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

1,680,000

581,906

2,003,309

4,265,215

3

Irish Aid

1,000,000

5,658,510

1,492,490

8,151,000

4

Government of New Zealand

2,000,000

3,095,019

3,940

5,098,959

5

Expanded DaO Funding Window

18,129,000

2,225,000

20,354,000

6

Government of France

1,000,000

13,040

1,970

1,015,010

7

Government of Norway

6,407,909

5,290,419

3,619,313

15,317,641

8

Australian Agency for International Development

3,679,000

-

3,679,000

9

Swedish International Development Cooperation

1,269,500

-

1,269,500

10

Canadian International Development Agency

2,023,882

1,577,394

3,987

3,605,263

11

Government of Spain

4,000,000

8,052,158

7,879

12,060,037

12

Government of Finland

5,175,585

-

5,175,585

13

Government of the Netherlands

2,500,000

4,116,199

4,925

6,621,124

Chapter 3

1

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Table 2: Donor Contributions to One Plan Funds as of December 31, 2012 (US$) (cont.) One Plan Fund I (2007-2008)

One Plan Fund II (2008-2011)

One Plan Fund II (2012-2016)

No

Donors

14

Government of Luxembourg

5,176,500

1,067,499

810,197

7,054,196

15

Government of Belgium

-

1,289,000

1,289,000

30,913,791

64,474,911

13,050,886

108,439,588

Total

Total

All financial information related to the OPF is also available in various tables at the MPTF Office GATEWAY (http://mptf.undp.org).

Chapter 3

Funds are being allocated from the One Plan Fund to the UN agencies, following the assessment of UN agency proposals, by an independent review panel. This periodic assessment is guided by an agreed set of criteria which seeks to promote UN joint programming, as well as prioritization of activities where immediate and sustained impacts can be achieved. Due to the fact that some transfers of contributions from donors to the OPF II (2012-2016) were only made in late 2012, it was not possible to transfer all donor contributions of US$13,050,886 within the calendar year 2012. In 2012, two rounds of OPF allocations were completed (in June and October) with US$5,233,221 transferred to participating UN agencies for programmes and projects. In addition, US$1,310,319 was allocated from OPF II 2008-2011 in 2012. Some US$1,662,117 was transferred from the third tranche of Expanded DaO Funding Window to support the management of the OPF and overall DaO implementation. The balancing amount has been only transferred at a new allocation round in March 2013. Annex II of this report provides details of the overall One Plan expenditure in 2012 per One Plan Outcomes (See Table 3 and Table 4 for 2012 expenditure of programmes and projects receiving money from One Plan

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Fund II 2008-2011, and from One Plan Fund II 2012-2016, respectively. Table 5 shows total expenditure for 2012 for both OPFs on an agency basis). UN Agencies still use different financial systems and different financial calendars making it difficult to make a comprehensive and coherent analysis of the overall 2012 expenditures. Harmonization initiatives on financial systems and financial calendar years are currently being considered and discussed at headquarters level. In 2012, the UNCT agreed to extend the expenditure timeframe for allocations from OPF from one to two years. This change will ensure that agencies can make longer term and more sustainable planning and will facilitate for even more accurate reporting on expenditure from OPF. However, a number of issues linked with the OPF are of concern to the UNCT. Firstly, frequent dialogue and engagement with donors in Viet Nam suggests that only US$50 million can be expected to be raised during 2012-2016. This is less than 40 per cent of the required budget. Secondly, the future of the global funding mechanisms such as the Expanded DaO Funding Window that provided a significant source of funding for DaO countries during the pilot phase have been discontinued and currently not


Figure 1: One Plan Expenditure by Funding Source 2008-2012 70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

Regular Resources Other Resources

30.00%

One Plan Fund

20.00%

10.00%

0.00% 2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

well as taking the DaO initiative forward. Reduced and increasingly earmarked funding is limiting the UN’s ability to make strategic decisions as to where OPF should be allocated to have the greatest development impact. With fewer resources available, it is also likely to lead to renewed competition between UN agencies for scarce donor resources, thereby reducing the UN’s capacity to provide strategic, focused support.

Fourthly, in addition to having less funds available, a number of donors have moved towards soft earmarking for specific outputs and outcomes in the One Plan 2012-2016. Where almost all funding provided to the previous OPF was allocated un-earmarked, more than 50 per cent of funds provided by donors for One Plan 2012-2016 are provided as soft-earmarked contributions. A number of donors are now also moving away from using the OPF as the only mechanism for providing financial support to the UN in Viet Nam and are providing direct bilateral funding to individual agencies. Inevitably these factors are creating challenges for the UN in Viet Nam in implementing the One Plan 2012-2016, as

Annex II of this report provides the details of the overall One Plan expenditure in 2012 per One Plan Outcomes and on an agency basis. UN agencies still use different financial systems and different financial calendars making it difficult to make an comprehensive and coherent analysis of the overall 2012 expenditures. Harmonization initiatives on financial systems and financial calendar years are currently being considered and discussed at headquarters level.

Chapter 3

been replaced. Thirdly, as can be seen from Figure 1, where the significance of the One Plan Fund increased in relative importance as a funding source during 2008 to 2010 (from 17 per cent in 2008, to 25 per cent in 2009 and 34 per cent in 2010), that situation is now reversing. This presents a major challenge for the DaO in Viet Nam overall with the UNCT less able to make strategic allocation of funds according to DaO principles.

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Chapter 4

Lessons Learned and the Way Forward T

he year 2012 was a time for reflection on the past five years of piloting the Delivering as One approach, and globally several reviews were conducted in preparation for the QCPR. As one of the eight DaO pilot countries, Viet Nam actively participated in the global independent evaluation of DaO and contributed substantively to the global understanding of the value of the DaO initiative.

Chapter 4

At the same time, the UN in Viet Nam took the opportunity to reflect and consolidate its own experiences which informed the transition to the 2nd generation of DaO, marked by the joint signing of the One Plan 2012-2016 and adoption of the RBM approach. Experience from Joint Programmes in the 1st generation of DaO, such as those funded by the Millennium Development Fund on Green Production and Trade, and on Gender which closed in 2012, will help shape the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s focus on enhancing Joint Programming, as well as Joint Programmes.

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The first year of implementation indicates that the up-streaming thrust of the One Plan 2012-2016 is relevant in meeting the new demands of a lower middle-income Viet Nam for policy reforms, but at the same time in light of the global financial crises and declining ODA in Viet Nam, the ability to fully implement the One Plan 2012-2016 could be challenging.

Chapter 4

A key lesson learned has been in order to continue to maximize its relevance, the UN system should continue to play to its strengths and comparative advantages. Examples of where the UN has demonstrated this in 2012 include: • Unique convening power: The strategy behind the One Plan 2012-2016 is founded on the UN’s unique ability to convene different stakeholders on current and emerging issues for dialogue. By using the comparative advantage of its normative mandate and neutrality, constructive spaces were created for stakeholders to gather, share information and ideas, and effectively work together for change. The UN’s work on Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change, Constitutional Reform and Gender were substantive examples of this in 2012. • Cross-cutting policy advice and advocacy: The UN has been able to harness the complementarily of various UN agency mandates to bring together partners across multiple sectors to support the policy debate on a range of issues. Examples of this in 2012 include reform of the Labour Code,

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changes to the Law on the Handling of Administrative Violations, revisions to the Land Law and the Constitution amendment process which will continue into 2013. • Brokering global experience sharing: One of the UN system’s major assets is its ability to provide Viet Nam with the highest quality technical advice, sharing examples of good practice from across the globe. For example, in 2012 the UN facilitated an exchange of policy ideas between Bangladesh and Viet Nam on green economy development and disaster risk reduction. The UN also made it possible for a Government of Viet Nam delegation to study the juvenile justice system and family law in South Africa. This resulted in an ongoing overhaul of Viet Nam’s juvenile justice legislation, which played a key role in altering the perception and policy direction of the juvenile justice system in Viet Nam. Gender is a key priority, both as a standalone issue and as a cross-cutting priority to be mainstreamed throughout all programme areas in the One Plan 20122016. In the coming year the UN System will look into ways to capture the results so far achieved in gender mainstreaming. While every effort has been made to ensure that DaO coordination processes are as agile and efficient as possible, 2012 showed they were not cost neutral. For example, increasing the focus on results has also increased the need for technical support and guidance for the JPGs, while


© UN Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery

it has become clear that dedicated crosscutting support is needed for RBM in the same way that cross-cutting support for communications is successfully provided by the co-located One Communications Team. Strengthening of the M&E Working Group is already underway and early in 2014 the co-location of a One RBM team will become possible as part of the functional clustering approach to be adopted in the GOUNH. It has also become apparent that, after funding shortfalls resulted in a scaling back of support to the Resident Coordinator’s Office (RCO) in the past year, DaO’s full potential can only be reached with a sufficient level of RCO staffing. Additional investment is required to ensure continued smooth coordination, critical technical support to the UNCT and JPGs going forward.

Moving forward in 2013, the UN in Viet Nam will focus on the following five priorities: • In 2013 and beyond, it is vital that the UN in Viet Nam learns from and builds on the full range of lessons learned, including the need for ongoing reflection, in playing to the UN’s strengths in terms of maximizing the complimentarity of UN mandates and ability to work across sectors, as well as the need to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of coordination. The DaO Steering Committee, One Plan Steering Committee and Focus Area Coordination Group meetings in 2013 will provide an important opportunity to review and agree on a series of benchmarks to assess DaO results going forward. At the same time there will be a need to revisit the relevance of One Plan outputs and indicators to ensure their measurability, as well as reviewing the availability of resources to ensure full implementation and delivery of the One Plan 2012-2016 and revisit One Plan priorities if required. • As ODA for Viet Nam continues to decline, it is even more critical to close the funding gap for the One Plan 20122016 outlined in Chapter 3. The UNCT is finalizing a resource mobilization strategy, which includes agreeing on priorities and reaching out to nontraditional donors, including the private sector. The continued dialogue with the informal One UN Donor Group will remain critical in this context –

Chapter 4

As 2012 was the first year of implementation of One Plan 2012-2016, with the exception of a small number of programmes and projects rolling over from One Plan 2006-2011, the Government and the UN invested significant time and resources in developing and approving detailed project outlines to guide the implementation of new programme and projects. Despite considerable efforts from both sides to agree on a process that would ensure quick approval and implementation, delays were still experienced in 2012. However, it is anticipated that the new Decree 38 on ODA Management and Utilization will speed up approval processes for the remainder of One Plan 2012-2016.

Moving forward

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not only for mobilizing resources, but in information sharing and more strategically working together on key issues for Viet Nam.

Chapter 4

• The tripartite partnership between Government, UN and donors has been vital for the success of DaO in Viet Nam and will be further strengthened in 2013 with the establishment of tripartite governance mechanisms for the 2nd generation of DaO. The UN is also increasing partnerships more broadly across the country at all levels of government, civil society organizations (CSOs), with youth and the private sector. For example, new partnerships with CSO and youth have been especially important in increasing engagement, understanding and visibility of key issues, and helping move the UN’s work forward on disability and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) issues. • To reach DaO’s full potential, there is a need to invest in strengthening DaO during 2013. Finalization of the SOPs in 2013 will lead to the development of a Results Matrix with full benchmarking for pillars of DaO process. This will help to promote the One results culture even further. An increase in cross-cutting technical and coordination capacity will be needed to further improve delivery

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of results. At the same time, the UN will also work to improve the quality of reporting on output achievements and better describing the UN’s contribution towards the achievement of One Plan Outcomes, both major priorities in the coming year. The year 2013 will see construction and planning for the move into the Green One UN House early in 2014, enabling further harmonization of business practices and roll-out of a new cross-cutting platform for ICT and knowledge management. • To underline the impact and relevance of the UN’s continuing work in Viet Nam, increased investment will be channeled into communications and targeted messaging. As the UN’s work continues to move upstream there is an increasing need to increase awareness and understanding of the UN’s work at all levels, particularly its relevance to citizens across Viet Nam and how they can have a voice in shaping the UN’s work. This ties-in closely with increased community engagement and consultation through partnership, civil society and social networking.


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Annex 1

Progress towards Outcomes F

or each One Plan Outcome, the following tables provide a summary of the most recent data available. Some indicators require data from surveys that are episodic and may not be available for 2012.

Annex 1

The One Plan Database: For more information, please go to: http://www.dimonitoring.org/v3/vietnam [User ID: OPDuser / Password: OPD2012]

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People-centred economic growth and decent work [Outcomes 1.1, 1.2] Outcome Indicators

Baseline

2016 Target

2012 Actual

1. Gap between average monthly income per capita of the richest quintile and poorest quintile

» 8.9% [2008] GSO, VHLSS

» NA*

» 9.2% (2010) New data in 2014

2. Viet Nam's position in the Global Competitiveness Index

» Ranked 59th out of 139 countries WEF-Global competitiveness report 2011

» NA

» Ranked 75th out of 144 countries

3. Share of vulnerable employment 15 years and above in the labour force

» 61.5%, 54.4% (males), 69.1% (females) [2009] Labour Force Survey, GSO

» NA

» 62.5, 56.3% (males), 69.2% (females)

4. Percentage of the labour force with professional/ vocational training

» 17.6% [2009] Female: 14.3, Male: 20.7 Urban: 32.5, Rural: 11.7

» NA

» 16.8% Female: 14.7, Male: 18.8 Urban: 31.7, Rural: 10.3

5. Underemployment rate of employed population 15 years and above

» 5.2% [2009] Female: 4.8, Male: 5.6 Urban: 3.1, Rural: 6.0 GSO, VHLSS

» NA

» 2.6% Female: 2.4, Male: 2.8 Urban: 1.5, Rural: 3.06

Annex 1

* National targets are pending Government deliberation.

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Addressing climate change, strengthening environmental management and managing disaster risks [Outcomes 1.3, 1.4] Outcome Indicators

Baseline

2016 Target

2012 Actual

1. CO2 emissions: Total, Per capita and Per $1 GDP (PPP )

» 113.1 million CO2e/year (2010) » 1.4 MT CO2e/capita (2010) » 0.5732 kg/US$ (PPP ) (2008)

» Stabilize GHGs at current levels

» New data in 2014

2.Percentage of GDP loss due to weatherrelated disasters

» 1% of GDP (CCFSC, 1989-2008) or » VND91 trillion (US$6.4 billion)

» 0.8% of GDP

» New data in 2014

3. Proportion of land area covered by forest

» 39% (2010)

» Under review

» 31% [2011]

4. Percentage of industrial waste water treated

» 30%

» 60%

» New data in 2013

A more effective social protection system [Outcome 2.1] Baseline

2016 Target

2012 Actual

Number of beneficiaries receiving benefits from social assistance (disaggregated by sex of beneficiaries, ethnicity, migratory status, urban/rural)

» 2 million (MOLISA, 2010)

» 25 million

» 2.2 million (MOLISA)

Share of workers covered by social insurance (disaggregated by sex, urban/rural, sector industry, migratory status and occupational level.

» 18% (Labour Force Survey, 2011)

» 95%

» 19.6% (GSO)

Notes: (1) According to GSO: The labour force in 2011 was 52.53 million workers and 53.1 million workers in September, 2012.

Annex 1

Outcome Indicators

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A better functioning health system and care for the vulnerable and disadvantaged [Outcome 2.2] Outcome Indicators

Baseline

2016 Target

2012 Actual

Proportion of total health expenditure from out-of-pocket payments

» 52% (2010)

» 45%

» Pending

Proportion of children aged under 1 who are fully immunized

» 90% (2011)

» 95%

» 95% (2)

Proportion of deliveries attended by trained health personnel

» 94% (2009)

» 96%

» 98% (3)

Percentage of rural households with access to hygienic latrines

» 55% (2010)

» 65%

» 56% (4)

Notes: (1) No new data since 2010 (2) Source: Summary Report on Health Services in 2012, Tasks Measures and Performance in 2013, MOH, January 24, 2013 (3) Marked disparities exist. Source of data is MCH 2012 report

Annex 1

(4) Source: RWSS NTP 2012 Annual Reporting.

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Expanding the quality and reach of the education system [Outcome 2.3] Outcome Indicators 1. Pre-primary net attendance ratio (disaggregated by wealth index quintile, sex, ethnicity, urban/rural, by provinces )

Baseline » » » » » » »

2016 Target

National: 72 Poorest: 59, Richest: 91 Male: 71, Female: 73 Urban: 76, Rural: 71 Kinh: 73, Non-Kinh: 68 Central Highlands: 58 Mekong River Delta: 47 [MICS 2011]

» Pending Government agreement

2012 Actual » New data in 2015

» For universal coverage at least 30% of kindergartenage children and 80% of preschool-age children must be attending

2. Performance of students in Grade 5 assessments in mathematics and Vietnamese (disaggregated by sex, ethnicity, locality)

» Under development by MOET

» Pending

» Pending

3. Primary school completion rates (by sex, ethnicity, urban/rural, region)

» » » » » »

» Pending

» Pending

» Pending

» Pending

National: 99.6 Male: 99.6, Female: 99.5 Urban: 100, Rural: 96.5 Kinh: 100, Non-Kinh: 80 Central Highlands: 92 Mekong River Delta: 81 [MICS 2011]

4. Percentage of household expenditure spent on education and training (past 12 months, disaggregated by boy/girl child)

» Male: VND3,025,000 » Female: VND3,032,000 [VHLSS 2010]

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Promoting Gender Equality and Responding to HIV [Outcome 2.4] Outcome Indicators

Baseline

2012 Actual

Sex ratio at birth

» Baseline (2010): 111/100 (Population and Housing Census 2009)

» 113/100 (NSGE Target)

» 112/100 (Population Change Survey, 2012 GSO)

Proportion of reported cases of domestic violence that receive services and support

» No data. Pending national survey or replace with prevalence rate of domestic violence against women

» 80% (NSGE target)

» Pending

HIV prevalence among high risk groups

» 3% [Female sex workers, 2011] » 13.4% [Men who inject drugs, 2011] » 16.7% [Men who have sex with men, 2009]

» Pending*

» 2.7% » 11.6% » Pending

Accepting attitudes in general population towards people living with HIV

» 30% [MICS, 2011]

» 80%

» New data in 2015

No New laws and policies that sustain the HIV response and address stigma and discrimination

» 0

» 4

» 1[Law abolishing the detention of sex workers]

Increase in regular Government budget for the HIV response (%).

» 2010: US$21,431,087

» Pending*

» Pending

Annex 1

* Definition of targets are pending agreement with Government

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2016 Target


More accountable and effective government [Outcomes 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4] Outcome Indicators

Baseline

2016 Target

2012 Actual

3.1 Number of new or improved mechanisms and processes for citizens and organizations to comment on and influence policies and legislation

» 0

» 3

» 2  Public Administration Reform (PAR) index  PAPI

3.2 Percentage of people satisfied with the performance of legal and judicial personnel

» 44.7% Access to Justice survey, UNDP (2010)

» 60%

» New data mid-2013

3.2 Proportion of UPR recommendations related to international conventions incorporated in the national legal framework

» 0 of 93 (UPR, 2009)

» 93

» New data mid-2013

» 114,651 (MOJ Annual Report 2010 )

» 171,977

» 117,344

» 2013

» NA

» New target and data mid2013

3.2.2 Number of citizens receiving free legal assistance, particularly the most vulnerable and disadvantaged groups 3.4 Percentage of citizens who say the quality of public social services and public administration services has improved

» NA

» National Self-Assessment Report on UNCAC Implementation identifies specific gaps and recommendations to improve performance

Annex 1

3.4 Extent to which the provisions of the UN Convention Against Corruption are nationalized into the national laws

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More accountable and effective government [Outcomes 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4] (cont.) Outcome Indicators

Baseline » 0

Percentage of provinces rated as good performers (7.5/10) in engaging citizens in the development, implementation and monitoring of public services.

» 20% (6/30) 7.5/10 marks of the PAPI.

Annex 1

Number new and/or revised laws that included a formal consultation process with PSPMOs (NGOs)

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2016 Target » 20

2012 Actual » 5  Law on the Handling of Administrative Violations  Law on Advertising  National Plan of Action on Prevention and Combating Human Trafficking Crime 20112015  Laws on civil registration, civil code and family and marriage strengthened to protect rights of LGBT  Resolution to reform and enhance the quality and effectiveness of National Assembly activities. » 36 provinces saw overall improvement in governance and public administration, with PAPI the score rising from 5 to 15%.


HIV Donor Funding Projection 2013-2019 (From page 94) US$ Million 140 GFATM

120

DFID+WB PEPFAR

100

AusAID Other internationals (ADB, UN, other bilaterals, Foundations)

80

Total international

60

NTP

40

20

Year 2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

0

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Annex 2

One Plan Expenditure in 2012 T

A handful of projects initiated under the One Plan 2006-2011 and partly funded by OPF II 2008-2011 were implemented in 2012 and their expenditure levels are reflected in Table 3. The 2012 total expenditure per outcome and per UN agencies are summarized in Tables 4 and 5.

Annex 2

he financial data presented in the tables in this section were submitted by UN agencies at country level. However, the financial data related to the One Plan Fund II 2008-2011 and One Plan Fund II 20122016 has been consolidated by the MultiPartner Trust Fund Office (MPTF Office), the administrative agent of the OPFs, on the basis of reports submitted by participating UN organizations’ headquarters through the MPTF Office’s UNEX Financial Reporting Portal. Where there is a discrepancy between OPF expenditure reported by headquarters and that reported by country offices, the data submitted by headquarters will be used. Where such discrepancies require corrective action by UN headquarters or country offices, these will be made in 2013 and reflected on the MPTF Office GATEWAY in 2013 OPF expenditures. All financial information related to the OPF is also available in tables on the gateway (http://mptf.undp.org).

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Since the DaO initiative was launched in 2007, three One Plan Funds have been established: • One Plan Fund I 2007-2008 (operationally closed) • One Plan Fund II 2008-2011 (all activities under this OPF were completed in 2012. Actions to operationally and financially close projects are underway) • One Plan Fund II 2012-2016 (current One Plan 2012-2016).

Table 3: 2012 Expenditure of projects under One Plan 2006-2011 by Outcome (US$)

Annex 2

Outcomes

Expenditure from Regular Resources (Core) in 2012

Expenditure from OPF Resources in 2012

Total Expenditure in 2012

Outcome 1 - Equitable and Inclusive Social and Economic Policies, Plans and Laws

1,385,750

405,934

7,560,972

9,352,656

Outcome 2 - Quality Social and Protection Services

3,583,049

5,863,782

2,111,786

11,558,616

Outcome 3 Environmental Protection and the Rational Management of Natural Resources

-

-

566,334

566,334

Outcome 4 - Accountable, Transparent and Participatory Governance

1,784,679

577,841

3,206,773

5,544,778

515,362

140,930

3,388,721

4,069,528

7,268,840

6,988,486

16,834,586

31,091,912

Outcome 5 - Reduced Vulnerability to Natural Disasters, Communicable Diseases and Other Emergencies Total

Source: One Plan Participating UN Organizations at country level in Viet Nam

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Expenditure from Other Resources in 2012 (non-OPF)


Table 4: 2012 Expenditure of projects under One Plan 2012-2016 by Outcome (US$)

Outcomes

Expenditure from Regular Resources (Core) in 2012

Expenditure from Other Resources in 2012 (non-OPF)

Expenditure from OPF Resources in 2012

Total Expenditure in 2012

Focus Area 1: Inclusive, Equitable and Sustainable Growth Outcome 1.1 - Evidence-based Development Policies in a LMIC Viet Nam Outcome 1.2 - Opportunities for Decent Work Outcome 1.3 - Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management Outcome 1.4 - Natural Resources and Environmental Management Total Focus Area 1

1,316,470

1,675,590

-  

358,149

7,956,743

1,770

8,316,672

1,503,367

2,482,654

330,123

4,316,153

22,025

4,863,149

3,200,011

16,978,136

-   331,892

2,992,059

4,885,175 20,510,060

Focus Area 2: Access to Quality Essential Social Services and Social Protection Outcome 2.1 - Social Protection Outcome 2.2 – Health Outcome 2.3 – Education and Training Outcome 2.4 - Gender Equality and HIV Total Focus Area 2

482,336

1,469,726

53,461

2,005,533

2,314,650

7,117,558

92,266

9,524,475

10,708

40,000

4,504

55,212

1,093,238

1,878,235

629,327

3,600,810

3,900,932

10,505,519

779,558

15,186,029

Focus Area 3: Enhancing Governance and Participation Outcome 3.1 - Elected Bodies and the Legislative Process

1,395,546

69,408

Outcome 3.2 - Legal and Judicial Reform and Access to Justice

405,333

1,350,540

93,968

1,849,841

2,267,962

1,012,681

446,836

3,727,479

536,285

30,409

257,231

823,925

4,605,126

2,463,038

798,035

7,866,198

11,706,069

29,946,693

1,909,485

43,562,287

Outcome 3.4 - Political, Social, Professional and Mass Organisations Total Focus Area 3 TOTAL

1,464,954

Source: One Plan Participating UN Organizations at country level in Viet Nam

Annex 2

Outcome 3.3 - Public Administrative Reform

-  

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Table 5: 2012 Expenditure by UN Agency and Funding Source (US$) UN Agency

FAO

Expenditure from OPF Resources in 2012

Expenditure from Regular Resources (Core) in 2012

Expenditure from Other Resources in 2012 (non-OPF)

315,785

5,552,194

1,105,351

6,973,330

360,000

-

360,000

IFAD

Total Expenditure in 2012

ILO

557,531

4,007,715

1,269,884

5,835,130

IOM

108,813

799,248

1,770

909,830

-

360,450

-

360,450

667,713

395,793

283,769

1,347,315

21,987

491,280

354,111

867,378

8,911,792

6,432,389

10,348,300

25,692,481

UNEP

22,000

247,500

-

269,500

UNESCO

62,819

672,207

376,029

1,111,055

2,133,430

-

1,871

2,135,301

555,319

111,910

351,470

1,018,699

UNICEF

3,552,578

4,316,297

1,600,467

9,469,342

UNIDO

11,972

4,137,976

597,568

4,747,516

UNODC

68,713

1,378,401

793,115

2,240,229

UNV

97,747

289,357

-

387,104

WHO5

1,886,709

7,382,463

1,660,366

10,929,539

Total

18,974,908

36,935,179

18,744,070

74,654,199

ITC UN Women1 UNAIDS2 UNDP3

UNFPA4 UN-Habitat

Source: One Plan Participating UN Organizations at country level in Viet Nam and MPTF Office GATEWAY for OPF expenditure

Annex 2

Note: Records at the country office of OPF expenditure for UN Women show US$326,308 due to mapping issues. The corrections will be made in 2013.

1

The OPF expenditure of UNAIDS, UNFPA, and WHO was reported as per the official financial statements by participating organizations’ headquarters and will be reconciled with the expenditure as reported by country offices. 2,4,5

The actual programme related expenditure of OPF for UNDP in 2012 is US$1,837,753. The different amount of US$8,510,547 is due to adjustments made in OPF expenditure to correct previous years mapping-related issues between One Plan Fund I and OPF II (2008-2011).

3

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Administrative Agent Functions The One Plan Fund (OPF) II is administered by the UNDP Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office (MPTF Office) in New York. Established in 2006, the MPTF Office is the fund administrator for the UN system when UNDP is selected to administer donor funds intended for multi-agency operations established in the context of humanitarian, transition, reconstruction and development programmes. The pass-through fund-management mechanism used for transfer of funds enhances UN transparency and accountability, a direct application of the Aid Effectiveness Agenda and UN reform initiative DaO and is consistent with the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action, including national ownership and alignment with national priorities, harmonization and coordination, effective and inclusive partnerships, and achieving development results and accounting for them.

Transparency and Accountability A major vehicle for public transparency of operations under the OPF I and II during

The MPTF Office GATEWAY was launched in 2010 and is a knowledge platform providing real-time data from the MPTF Office accounting system (Atlas) on financial information on donor contributions, programme budgets and transfers to participating organizations. Currently, participating organizations’ annual expenditure figures are also posted on the MPTF Office GATEWAY and the MPTF Office is working with participating organizations to enable periodic posting (quarterly or bi-annually). It is designed to provide transparent, accountable fund-management services to the United Nations system to enhance its coherence, effectiveness and efficiency. Each Multi-Partner Trust Fund and Joint Programme (JP) administered by the MPTF Office has its own website on the MPTF Office GATEWAY with extensive narrative and financial information on the MPTF/ JP, including on its strategic framework, governance arrangements, eligibility and allocation criteria. Annual financial and narrative progress reports and quarterly/ semi-annual updates on the results being achieved are also available. In addition, each programme has a Factsheet with specific facts, figures and updates on that programme. The MPTF Office GATEWAY provides easy access to more than 9,600 reports and documents on MPTFs/JPs and individual programmes, with tools and tables displaying related financial data. By enabling users in the field with easy access to upload progress reports and related documents, it also facilitates knowledgesharing and management among UN agencies. The MPTF Office GATEWAY is already being recognized as a ‘standard setter’ by peers and partners.

Annex 2

The MPTF Office uses this arrangement to enable partnerships between donors, governments and UN organizations. As per the memorandum of understanding concluded between participating UN organizations and the administrative agent, as well as the Standard Administrative Arrangement concluded between donors and the administrative agent, the responsibilities of the administrative agent include the receipt, administration and management of contributions from the donors, disbursement of such funds to participating UN organizations in accordance with the approved programmatic documents, and provisions of consolidated reports, based on the reports submitted by participating UN organizations.

the reporting period was the MPTF Office GATEWAY (http://mptf.undp.org).

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UNITED NATIONS

VIET NAM

THE UN MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

UNITED NATIONS VIET NAM Add: No. 25 - 29, Phan Boi Chau, Hoan Kiem, Ha Noi Tel: +84 4 39421495 | Fax: +84 4 3942 2267 Email: info@un.org.vn | Web: http://vn.one.un.org/ Follow us: • www.facebook.com/uninvietnam • www.youtube.com/unvietnam

The Mission of the United Nations in Viet Nam The United Nations, in partnership with the Government and people of Viet Nam, works to ensure that all Vietnamese people enjoy an increasingly healthy and prosperous life with greater human dignity and expanded choices. Collectively and through its individual agencies, the United Nations cares and creates opportunities for the poor and most vulnerable, and for youth, to whom the future belongs. In accordance with the United Nations Charter and Millennium Declaration, the United Nations advances the principles of equality and social justice, while providing impartial advice, technical expertise, access to global knowledge and local experience to meet Viet Nam’s development challenges.

The UN Country Team in Viet Nam

UN in Viet Nam Annual Results Report 2012  

In this report we highlight the progress made by the UN in Viet Nam in 2012. In Chapter 1 we describe overall progress in Delivering as One....

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