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What is s the econom mic contribution of Surf Liffe Saving in Austr ralia 2011 July 2011


Surf Life Saving (SLS S) is Australia’s major wa ater safety f t and d rescue au uthority th it and is one of the larg gest groups of volunteer organisations in the country. country

Oveer 28% of members, or more m than 43,000 peo ople are active pattrolling p g surff lifesavers. f

The total estimatted economic value of o Surf Life Saving’s coastal drowning and injury preveention efforts to Australia is

$3.6 billion.


Preface

Surf Life Saviing is iconic and fundamental to Australian cullture and outdoor lifestyle. Every year, thousands of volunteer surf lifesavers patrol Australian beaches, guiding the public to swim ‘between the red r and yellow flags’. Volunteers alsso help individuals in need, including offering ff i a h help lping i hand h d iin th the water t or b by simply i l dressing a minor injury. n commissioned by Surf Life Saving PwC has been Australia (SLS SA) to estimate the economic value of Surf Life Saving to the Australian community. SLSA is Austrralia’s major water safety, drowning prevention an p nd rescue authority, y, and is the largest g volunteer organisation of this kind in the country, with core actiivities including: •

Coastal sa afety and lifesaving

Education n and training

Member and a organisational development

Fitness an nd sport

The information, statements, statistics and commentary (together, the ‘IInformation’) contained in this report have been prepared by PwC from material provided by the SLSA, and from other data from sources extern nal to SLSA. PwC may at its absolute discretion, but without being under any obligation to do so, update, amend or supplement this docum ment. This report was completed on 21 February 2011. PwC does not express an opinion as to the accuracy or completeness of the t information provided, the assumptions made by the parties that provided the information or any conclusions reached by those parties. PwC P disclaims any and all liability arising from actions taken in response to this report. PwC disclaims any and all liability for any invesstment or strategic decisions made as a consequence of information contained in this report. PwC, its employees and any persons associated d with the preparation of the enclosed documents are in no way responsible for any errors or omissions in the enclosed document resultiing from any inaccuracy, mis-description or incompleteness of the information provided or from assumptions made or opinions reached by y the parties that provided Information.


Contents

01 Executive summary

02 Characteristics of Surf Life Saving in Australia

Executive sum mmary

5

Background

7

Characteristiics of Surf Life Saving in Australia

8

2.1 Members of o the Surf Life Saving community 2.2 Volunteer surf lifesavers 2.3 Surf Life Saving rescues and preventative actions 2.4 Profile of a typical volunteer 2.5 Participatiion in surf sports competitions

Value off Surff Life f Saving g

03 Value of Surf Life Saving

3.1 Methodolo ogy to value surf lifesaver volunteering 3.2 Input-baseed approach 3.3 3 3 Output-ba p ased approach pp 3.4 Flow-on wid der economic impacts 3.5 Conclusion

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1. Executive summ mary Surf Life Saving Australia With a long history and tradition, the surf lifesaver has a unique role in Australia’s culture: to save lives and prevent injuries for people who visit our beaches. beaches Many Australians choose to be part of this culture an nd so Surf Life Saving (SLS) is one of the largest volunteer organisations in the country. More than 153,000 members spread across over 300 clubs make SLS Australia’s major water safety and rescue authority. Between 2002/03 and 2009/10 the growth in membership outstripped the increase in patrolling members, with membership growing at approximately 6% per annum from 106,000 to over 153,000 (Figure 1). During the same period, patrolling members increased by 5% per annum.

Figure 1: Growth in membership and volunteers fro om 2002/03 to 2009/10 patrolling members

total membership

180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80 000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0

Source: SLS Annual Reports, Reports Note that from 2005-06, 2005 06 the under 7 ‘Nipper Nipper agee group was included in total membership calculations.

These surf lifesavers (and SLS’s lifeguards) completed almost 12,000 rescues in 2009/10 (Table 1), and through preventative actions avoided a further 6,000 0 rescues across Australia. Further,, volunteer surf lifesavers contribute on a personal level, through volunteer hours to ensure tha at the extent of these rescues can be completed: • Members aged 16-49 contribute comparably more a volunteer hours per individual than those aged 50 and above • During the season, over 70% of members volunteerr more than 3 hours per week, with almost a quarter of members donating in excess of ten hours per week • Half of volunteers patrol between 3 and 10 hours per week during the season

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Table 1: Total number of rescues by surf lifesavers and SLS lifeguards in Australia, 2009/10 Jurisdiction NSW NT QLD SA

Number of rescues 5,697 300 3,736 272

TAS

99

VIC

758

WA

1,050

TOTAL RESCUES

11,912

Valuing volunteer surf lifesavers in Australia Volunteering delivers a number of benefits for individuals including personal satisfaction, helping others and the feeling of fulfilment from doing something worthwhile for the community. In addition to these personal benefits, volunteering provides id positive i i aspects to society i and d the h llocall community. Specifically relating to Surf Life Saving, there are non-quantifiable benefits from creating a more cohesive community to quantifiable economic benefits including improving beach safety, awareness and the prevention of drowning. Given the obvious contribution of members and the services volunteer surf lifesavers provide to the public, it is necessary to quantify f the economic benefit of Surf Life Saving in Australia. There are two methods to measuring the activities of SLSA surf lifesavers and lifeguards: • Input approach – focuses on the time that surf lifesavers provide as volunteers and the resources used by surf lifesavers and their clubs • Output approach – this approach focuses on the benefits of the Surf Life Saving services as measured by the likely cost to the public if the service was no longer provided The flow-on economic impacts to the wider Australian community are measured separately using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model (Section 3.4).


Input approach

Estimated value of Surf Life Saving in Australia

The sum of the value of patrol hours, personal expenses incurred as a result of volunteer activities and the expenditure di off Surf S f Lif Life S Saving i b bodies di d determine i the he total value using the input approach. In total, the estimated input value of Surf Life Saving is equal to $163.6 million in 2009/10.

The output approach is the preferred method of capturing the full range of impacts from Surf Life Saving as it i accounts ffor iindividual di id l b benefits fi and d cost savings. i When combined with the economic flow-on effects, the total value of Surf Life Saving to Australia is $3.6 billion per year.

Table 2: Total input approach value ($million) Jurisdiction

Table 3: Total value of Surf Life Saving ($million)

Total input p va alue

Jurisdiction

20 010 NSW

6 60.1 1.1

NT QLD

4 44.5

Total value 2010

ACT NSW

4 1,694

NT

90

SA

6.3

QLD

TAS

2.1

SA

86

VIC

1 18.9

TAS

29

WA

11.4

VIC

235

SLSA

1 19.2

WA

282

Total

16 63.6

However, the input approach only captures a small aspect off the h economic i effects ff and, d b by ffocusing i on costs, understates the true value of Surf Life Saving’s servicces. Output approach Volunteer surf lifesaving services in Australia providee the greatest value in avoiding costs associated with drowning deaths, and overall the total value of lives saved and assisted, using the output method, was mo ore than $3.4 billion in 2009/10. The estimated value of Surf Life Saving in preventing:

Total

1,146

3,566

Comparing the output value with the input value provides a cost-benefit ratio (for every dollar spent on Surf Life Saving, what is the value of the lives saved and the injuries avoided): • Assuming that volunteer surf lifesavers are paid a salary (and included as a cost), the cost-benefit ratio is 21.7 to 1 • Assuming salaries are not paid, the cost-benefit ratio is 29.3 29 3 to 1 Under either scenario, the benefits of Surf Life Saving far outweigh the costs, further demonstrating SLSA’s unique and significant value to the Australian community and economy.

• drowning deaths is $2.2 billion • permanent incapacitations is $1.2 billion, and • minor injuries and first aid treatments is $90,000 In addition, the flow-on effects from avoided loss of productivity due to Surf Life Saving services on otherr sectors of the economy need to be considered in ordeer to understand the full value of Surf Life Saving in Austrralia. Using a CGE model, the flow-on impacts are in the orrder of $154 million per year to the Australian economy.

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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Background We worked with Surf Life Saving Australia (SLSA) an nd its state and territory SLS bodies to estimate the inpu ut, output and indirect economic contributions of surf lifesaving g to o Australia.

For the purposes of understanding the involvement of volunteers, a survey of Surf Life Saving members was conducted in conjunction with this project and provided additional dd o information o o o on:

In order to accurately value surf lifesaving in the community, we have utilised published SLS statisticss and also gathered information directly from surf life saving club members.

• actual hours volunteered

Methodology

• any other employment commitments that may be affected by volunteering

This evaluation was undertaken in four steps as agreeed in June 2010:

• hours that volunteers would like to volunteer (to assess whether volunteers would prefer more or less volunteering commitments)

• the cost of volunteering, volunteering and

1.

collect relevant data from SLSA and its state and d territory Surf Life Saving organisations

• the hours of physical activity undertaken as a result of surf lifesaving

2.

t undertake a survey of surf lifesavers. Results of the comprehensive survey of Surf Life Saving memb bers have been used as part of the output approach including the number of volunteer hours of a a individuals and the personal expenses accrued as result of volunteering

Results from this survey are used to complement published data by surf life saving entities. Data may be representative of survey respondents and of that provided by SLSA.

3.

undertake economic analysis, using input and output based approaches, as well as considering the wider flow-on economic impacts

4.

provide SLSA with a report and state-based fact sheets that contain key findings of our evaluation n

In the first phase of the evaluation, data was collected d to use as a ffoundation d ti ffor our assessment: t • surf lifesaver and lifeguard activities, including the number of rescues, first aid treatments and preventative actions • number of volunteers and patrol hours • total expenditure of surf life saving clubs, and • number of drowning deaths, permanent incapacitations, and preventative actions

Analysis The data collected from both SLS and volunteer surf lifesavers was used to estimate the economic value of SLS using input and output approaches, each of which is discussed in detail in this report. The comprehensive survey of Surf Life Saving members attracted almost 5,000 responses, enough to calculate statistically significant results. The flow-on impacts of SLS to the wider Australian economy were also estimated. These wider impacts are additional to the input and output evaluations mentioned above. Reporting Our findings have been presented to SLSA in the following report and state and territory summary factsheets. The Australia-wide report presents the results on a national level while the summaries highlight the importance of SLS services to each jurisdiction. This 2011 report differs from previous reports in that it focuses on the economic impacts of SLS activities. Additional research on the social value of SLS is being conducted separately.

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2. Characteristics s of Surf Live Saving in Austtralia Surf Life Saving Australia (SLSA) is Australia’s majorr water safety and rescue authority and is one of the largest volunteer organisations in the country, with over o 150,000 members. Surf Life Saving exists to save lives,

develop practices in education, prevention and rescue, and ultimately to meet the target of ‘zero preventable deaths and injuries on Australia’s beaches’ as the benchmark for drowning preventio on and aquatic rescue both in Australia and around th he world 1 world.

Surf Life Saving is a federated and geographically dispersed body with several organisational layers. It incorporates 306 local surf life saving clubs, seven state and territory centres and 17 regional branches in NSW and Queensland (Figure 2).

Across Australia, the greatest number of Surf Life Saving clubs are based in NSW, Queensland and Victoria, reflecting the large number of beaches and relative proximity of a high proportion of the population to the coast.

Figure 2: Organisational structure of SLS in Australlia

N National Body Surf Life Sa aving Australia (SLSA)

Surf Life Saving New South Wales (SLSNSW)

Surf Life Saving Queensland (SLSQ)

Regional Branches (11)

Regional Branches (6)

129 Clubs

59 Clubs

Life Saving Victoria (LSV)

Surf Life Saving S Western Australia (SLSWA)

Surf Life Saving South Australia (SLSSA)

Surf Life Saving Tasmania (SLST)

Surf Life Saving Northern Territory (SLSNT)

57 Clubs

28 Clubs

18 Clubs

11 Clubs

4 Clubs

Over 150,000 1 members

SLS endeavours to provide a safe beach and aquatic environment throughout Australia, while encouragin ng the development of personal and leadership skills of its members. As an indication of SLS’s commitment to ensure the safety of Australians and international tourists, they recently announced an initiative to featture beach safety videos on flights arriving in Australia. Th his serves as a mechanism to improve the water safety awareness of international tourists2.

Aspects fundamental to the organisation’s activities include: • lifesaving and improving community water safety • coordinating surf club operations, competitions and events • education and training of members and the general public about aspects including water safety knowledge, survival skills, first aid and personal safety (e.g. sun safety), and • organisational development, including leadership and personal development through encouraging volunteers3. Individuals of all ages can become members, and are encouraged d to undertake d k training i i iin aquatic i rescue, first aid and other related skill sets.

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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Figure 3: Percentage membership by age (not including those under 15 years)

2.1 Members of the Surf Life Saving community

10%

9% 10%

SLS draws individuals from all demographics and agee groups. Members range in age from five to over 80 yeears. In 2009-10 there were over 153,000 members, includ ding junior members (Nippers).4

19%

Excluding junior members, of which there are almostt 50,000 in Australia, those aged 40-49 years comprise the largest member group group, with people 30 years and older representing more than 80% of all members (Figure 3). This profile is reflected in all individual sttate membership characteristics. Male members comprisee 57% of all members or 85,000 members overall.5

16%

36%

SLS offers several membership types, ranging from ‘Nippers’ to ‘Active’, which encompass all age groups. Table 4 describes general membership types.

15-19 years (9%) 20-29 years (10%) 30-39 years (16%) 40-49 years (36%) 50-59 years (19%) 60+ years (10%)

Table 4: General membership descriptions6

4. 5. 5 6.

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Membership type

Age requirements

Aim / Description

Junior (Nippers)

5 to 13 years

Educate young children about surf safety and awareness

Cadets

13 to 15 years

Encourage members to gain Surf Rescue Certificate (SRC)

Active

15 + years

Opportunity to gain qualifications and skills including the Bronze Medallion, Advanced Resuscitation and other specialist qualifications. Those aged over 18 are classified as ‘Senior Active’

Award

No requirement

Members with a SLSA qualification

Associate

15 + years

Members with no patrol or qualification requirements

Long service

No requirement

Long Service Membership may be granted to members who have completed 10 years active service or to members who have completed 8 years active service plus 4 years of reserve active service.

Life Member

No requirement

Life membership may be granted by a club, branch, states and SLSA to members who have rendered distinguished, or special service

General

No requirement

General membership may be granted to persons who may or may not hold an SLSA award

Annual Report 2009-10, SLS Annual Report p 2009-10, 9 , SLS The Regulations, Surf Life Saving Australia


A large number (50%) of survey respondents nomina ated that they are classified as ‘Active’, thereby having thee opportunity to hold a Bronze Medallion, fulfil patrol and club obligations and qualify in an annual proficiency test (Figure 4).7

Figure 4: Total membership by membership level of survey respondents

2%

Although exact age requirements vary between trainiing programs, members can build their skills in surf resccue and first aid from age 13.8 Of mature members, 43,00 00 participate in patrolling activities on Australian beaches. Those members interested in becoming surf lifesaverrs can undertake the Bronze Medallion, which comprisees specific elements to ensure individuals are capable off undertaking aquatic rescue. rescue 9 The Bronze medallion is the minimum requirement for an active surf lifesaver. To o obtain this award a person must be over the age of 15 5 and demonstrate proficiency in surf awareness, survival, patrol and rescue procedures, emergency care plus knowledge of anatomy and physiology.10 There are patrolling positions available for men and women who would like to be involved in the Surf Lifee Saving Sav g co community. u ty.11 Thee g growing ow g popu popularity a ty and a d awareness of safety in the surf is highlighted by the growing number of new Bronze Medallions issued in n 2009/10 – over 8,800 were awarded in Australia, an increase of 16% on the previous year. Membership has increased across all categories and reflects the Australian beach culture and high proporrtion of the population that reside in coastal areas. Betweeen 2002-03 and 2009-10, the growth in membership ha as i increased d more than h the h growth h iin patrolling lli membe bers, with membership growing at approximately 6% per annum from 106,000 to over 153,000. During the sam me period, patrolling members have increased by 5% perr annum (Figure 5).

13% 10%

50%

14% 11%

Associate (13%) General (10%) Life Member (14%) Long Service (11%) A ti (50%) Active ( %) Junior/Nipper (2%)

Figure 5: Growth in membership and volunteers from 2002/03 to 2009/10 patrolling members

total membership

180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 , 40,000 20,000 0

Source: SLS Annual Reports, Note that from 2005-06, the under 7 ‘Nipper age group was included in total membership calculations. calculations

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

SLS Awards Structure, Surf Life Saving Administration and resources,, Surff Life f Saving g Australia Can Do Report , Surf Life Saving Annual Report 2009-10 , Surf Life Saving Australia Become a surf lifesaver , Surf Life Saving Australia

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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2.2 Volunteer surf lifesavers Surf lifesavers are men and women who volunteer th heir time to provide aquatic supervision at the most accessible of Australia's coastal environment. Known n throughout the world they are easily recognised by th he famous red and yellow cap, and their bright red and yellow uniforms. The beach patrol is a team of volunteer members rostered onto duty through affiliated community based volunteer Surf Life Saving clubs. The patrol team is coordinated by the Patrol Captain who is responsiblee for the coordination of actions in monitoring the beach and a in times of rescue and emergency care. They focus on n four important aspects that can result in drowning deaths, commonly known as the ‘Drowning Chain’:12 • lack of knowledge, disregard for or misunderstandiing of the hazard • uninformed or unrestricted access to the hazard • inability to cope once in difficulty, and • lack of supervision or surveillance This understanding of why people drown has helped to develop strategies used by SLS to prevent drowning deaths, including providing enhanced supervision, education and information, denial of access , improviing infrastructure, provision of warnings, as well as facilitating the acquisition of survival skills. skills

12. 13 13.

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Surf Life Saving is Australia’s major water safety and rescue authority. It’s core activities include:13 • Community safety – performing an average of around12,000 rescues each year • Health and fitness — providing a range of surf sports opportunities, from local to international, for members, as well as a range of community sporting events • Ed Education ti and d training t i i — providing idi lleadership d hi and personal development for all members as well as community education and training • Australian Coastsafe Services — providing risk management services to local government and other organisations SLS also actively collaborates with other entities to address water safety issues. A partnership with Tourism Australia, industry partners and multi-cultural marketing experts is helping to prevent tourist and migrant drowning deaths in Australia. With funding support from the Australian Government, SLS is reducing the incidence of drowning in Australia through targeting high-incident locations called ‘Blackspots’. SLS is also a key stakeholder in the Australian Water Safety Council.

Preventing Coastal Drowning Deaths in Australia, Surf Life Saving S Australia Whatever it takes takes, Surf Life Saving Australia


2.3 Surf Life Saving rescues and preventative actions

2.4 Profile of a typical volunteer

Surf lifesavers and SLS’s lifeguards in Australia completed 12,000 rescues in 2009/10 (Table 5).

Active surf lifesavers are rostered by their surf club to volunteer their time to patrol beaches.

Table 5: Total number of rescues by surf lifesavers and a SLS lifeguards in Australia, 2009/10

According to a survey of members, those members aged 40-49 years volunteer the largest amount of time to volunteering services, contributing 38% of total monthly volunteering hours, while making up 36% of total membership (Figure 7).

Jurisdiction

Number of rescu ues 5,697 5, 697

NSW

3 300

NT

3,,736

QLD

272

SA TAS

99

VIC

758

WA

1,050

TOTAL RESCUES

11,912

Note that the number of rescues in the NT has increased since 2005 duee to the inclusion of SLS lifeguard patrols at the Darwin Wave Lagoon.

Similarly, those aged from 16 to 49 contribute more to g hours than the p percentage g of that total volunteering group in total membership; individuals in these groups tend to volunteer more hours per person. Conversely, those members of 50 years of age and older volunteer fewer volunteer hours per individual. Given the obvious contribution of members and the services volunteer patrollers provide to the public, it is necessary to quantify the benefit of Surf Life Saving in Australia. Figure 7: Comparison of total membership to weekly volunteer hours (%) 40% 35% 30%

The number Th b off preventative i actions i undertaken d k b by su urff lifesavers is variable and can change with each surf season. Typically, as rescues decrease in any year, thee number of preventative actions increase. In 2009/10 0 656,000 preventative actions were undertaken by volunteer surf lifesavers and SLS lifeguards (Figure 6). Figure g 6: Total number of p preventative actions byy surf lifesavers and SLS lifeguards in Australia, 2009/101

25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 16-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59

350

Metro Non-metro o

300

60+

Percentage of total membership Percentage of volunteer contribution

Thousa ands

250

During 2009/2010 surf lifesavers and lifeguards undertook around 12,000 rescues in Australia.

200 150 100 50 0 NSW

QLD

VIC

SA

WA

TAS

NT

Note that the number of preventable actions in the NT has increased since 2005 due to the inclusion of SLS lifeguard patrols. At the Darwin Wave Lagoon

The majority of volunteer hours were contributed by those aged 40-49.

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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Further, up to 50% of members typically volunteer up p to 3 to 10 hours per week during the season, with a relatively small number (7%) volunteering more than n 20 hours a week (Figure 8).

Figure 8: Percentage of members who volunteer per week, by hours during the season14

6%

7%

9%

28%

20% 30%

Less than 3 hrs (28%) 3 to 5 hrs (30%) 5 to 10 hrs (20%) 10 to 15 hrs (9%) 15 to 20 hrs (6%) More than 20 hrs (7%)

2.5 Participation in surf sports competitions Many surf lifesavers engage in regular competition to maintain their skills and fitness. These competitions, or surf carnivals, are held at club, regional, state, national and international levels. Competitors, as young as five years old through to masters (veterans) competitors can take part, with all competition events developed from core life saving skills and techniques. According to survey results, approximately 82% of all members aged over 16 years actively compete in surf club events around Australia Australia. Over 60% of those individuals participate at the state level with about 5% participating in international competitive level (Figure 9). This includes Ironman and Ironwomen competitions; Australia boasts the title of current World Champions and Adelaide will host the World Life Saving Championships in 2012. Figure 9: Competition level achieved by members actively competing in Surf Life Saving within Australia International Championships National Championships State Championships p p Branch/Regional Championships Interclub Club level 0%

50%

Over 70% of members volunteer more than 3 hours per week during the summer, with almost a quarter off members b d donating ti iin excess off ten hours. Half of volunteers patrol betweeen 3 and 10 hours per weekk during the summer season.

14. Data supplied by SLS member survey

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100%


3. Value of Surf Life L Saving Volunteering g delivers a number off benefits f for individuals, including personal satisfactiion, helping others and the feeling of fulfilment from doing something worthwhile for the community. There are significant benefits for young people volunteering, as there are opportunities for self development alongsidee valuable perceptions of community citizenship 155 citizenship. In addition to these personal benefits, volunteering provides positive aspects to society and the local community. Specifically relating to Surf Life Saving, there are non-quantifiable benefits from creating a more cohesive community to quantifiable economic benefits from improving beach safety, awareness and the prevention of drowning deaths.

The value of Surf Life Saving services arises not only in the benefits to individuals, but also wider economic benefits for all Australians.

3 1 Methodology to value surf 3.1 lifesaver volunteering There are two methods to measuring the unpaid, or voluntary work of surf lifesavers: • Input approach – focuses on the time that surf lifesavers provide as volunteers and the resources used by surf lifesavers and their clubs. clubs The wage forgone by undertaking volunteering activities, can be used to place a value on surf lifesaving volunteering activity16 • Output approach – this approach focuses on the benefits of the Surf Life Saving services as measured by the likely cost to the public if the service was no longer provided The flow on economic impacts to the wider Australian community are measured separately using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, which accounts for the increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment and other economy wide variables as a result Surf Life Saving activities. Results of the comprehensive survey of Surf Life Saving members have been used as part of the output approach including the number of volunteer hours of individuals personal expenses p accrued as a result of and the p volunteering. Furthermore, expenditure by local clubs and state jurisdiction Surf Life Saving entities was provided in order to quantify the expenditure of physical capital.

15. Preliminary Research Finding: Volunteers in Queensland State Gov vernment , Conroy, D 16. 6. Givi Giving g Time i e – Thee eco economic o ic value of volunteering volu tee i g in i Victoria, icto ia, Soup pormas, po as, F a and d Ironmonger, o o ge , D

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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3.2 Input-based approach

Figure 10: Total number of patrol hours, by State, 2009/1020

900

• the value of volunteering time

800

• the amount spent by volunteers on personal expensses relating to surf life saving, and ning • the expenditure by surf life saving clubs and govern bodies in Australia

The value of volunteering time Volunteering time is inherently related to the amoun nt of time an individual can participate in paid work. Therre is an underlying trade-off associated with forgoing the ability to earn a wage. It is reasonable to assume therre is a forgone wage due to the fact that over 87% of memb bers aged over 16 years are employed.17 Hence, it is necesssary to estimate the level of remuneration a paid employeee would receive in a Surf Life Saving paid position. In order to value the time spent volunteering, the gro oss opportunity cost wage rates are used. This is becausee, if the services provided by volunteers were provided instead by paid surf lifesavers, then the costs incurred d by SLS clubs and governing bodies would need to cover gross wage costs including income taxes and other contributions.18 Ironmonger (2008 and 2009) utilises increases in th he Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national accoun nt estimate for ‘average compensation per employee’ to make estimates for volunteer wage rates for the year 2006, equal to $24.09 per hour.19 When indexed to 2010 2 terms this value equals $26.66 per hour. In this studyy, ABS values for the Average Weekly Earnings of an individual in full time work was used, which is equal to $1,256 per week or $33.50 per hour. This value has been b used as part of the input estimation. estimation

Patrol hou urs (thousands)

The value of Surf Life Saving activities in Australia un nder the input approach is calculated as the sum of:

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 NSW Qld

Vic

2003-04

SA

WA

2008-09

Tas

NT

2009-10

In 2009/10, volunteer surf lifesavers patrolled a total of 1.3 million hours on Australian beaches. Volunteer hours represent those where surf lifesavers are on the beach and p providing g water safetyy services. Patrol hours were greatest in NSW and Queensland, with volunteers contributing 630,000 and 330,000 hours, respectively. The total number of hours volunteered by surf lifesavers has declined from over 1.4 million hours in 2003 (Figure 10). It is important to note that this change may not actually represent a decline in patrol hours, but instead is the manifestation of better data collection systems at SLS, which over time, provides a more accurate t estimate ti t off patrol t lh hours.

17. Data supplied by SLS member survey 18. This assumption p assumes that iff volunteer surff lifesavers f did not provide p e services,, then paid p services would be required q at the same times off the week,, including g those times (such as the weekends) that may typically be seen as ‘leisure time’ for volunteeers. . 19. The economic value of volunteering in Queensland, Ironmonger, D and Unpaid U work and the Australian economy, Australian Bureau of Statistics 20. Data supplied by SLS

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The following table displays the value of volunteer su urf lifesaver time in each jurisdiction across Australia. Table 6: Total value of volunteer surf life saving tim me, by State ($million)

Jurisdiction NSW

Value of patrol hou urs 2 21.0

NT

0.3

QLD

1 11.0

SA

2.0

TAS

0.6

VIC

4.7

WA

2.8

TOTAL ($million)

42.4

Amount of personal expenditure related d to Surf Life Saving Individuals incur expenses in addition to forgoing the opportunity to earn income by volunteering. Volunteeers may incur a variety of out-of-pocket expenses. If theyy are not reimbursed they represent a form of in-kind contribution to the organisation. Expenses can includ de, but are not limited to tra travel el costs. costs Hence Hence, it ma may be necessary to account for travel to and from the surf liife saving club for all volunteers and surf lifesavers. Literature on evaluating the economic value of volunteering, including that of Ironmonger (2000), indicates that the value of travel should be set at 12.7 7% of forgone salary.21 The results of the SLS survey suggest that, while costts potentially attributed to travel may make up a significant portion of personal expenses, there may be additiona al costs not accounted for in the 12.7% value used by Ironmonger (2000). Respondents indicated that a personal expenses may be valued at between 13.2% and 15% of forgone salary. m Hence, a value of 13% (a merger of best estimates) may provide a conservative estimate of travel and persona al expenditure costs. Based on the above total patrol ho ours and d the h assumption off 13%, the h cost off travell and d personal expenses can be conservatively estimated att $4.6 million.

Table 7: Value of travel expenses, by State ($million) Jurisdiction

Value of travel expenses

NSW

2.3

NT

0.0

QLD

1.2

SA

0.2

TAS

0.1

VIC

5 0.5

WA

0.3

TOTAL ($million)

4.6

Expenditure by Surf Life Saving clubs and governing bodies To estimate the full value of Surf Life Saving using the i input approach, h the h expenditure di off surff lif life saving i clubs l b and state governing bodies should be captured. Expenditure by surf life saving clubs highlights the economic contribution that the clubs invest into the economy through operations.22 Self-reported data indicates that the total expenditure by Surf Life Saving entities in Australia was more than $116 million in 2009/10. However, it is important to note that the expenditure of clubs is limited by resources, not the needs of the community. Table 8: Total expenditure of surf life saving clubs and governing bodies ($million) Jurisdiction NSW

Total expenditure 36.8

NT QLD

0.8 32.3

SA

4.1

TAS

1.4

VIC

13.7

WA

8.3 3

Surf Life Saving Australia TOTAL ($million)

19.2 116.6

This represents an increase from 2005 expenditure equal to $84.7 million. 21. Measuring volunteering in economic terms , Ironmonger, D. 22. In this report, p , surff clubs and state bodies provided p information f on expen p diture ffor the period p 2009-10. 9 Where data was not available,, an extrapolation p off data was undertaken. Further, it is important to note that there may be some overllap of expenditure across SLS bodies. However, it is expected that this level of ‘double counting’ would have a marginal impact on the overall estimate of the input appro oach.

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

16


Summary of input approach The sum of the value of patrol hours, personal expenses incurred as a result of volunteer activities and the expenditure of Surf Life Saving bodies determine thee t t l value total l using i th the iinputt approach. h IIn ttotal, t l th the valu lue of SLS services is estimated to be $163.6 million, an increase from the 2005 estimate of $28.8 million. This method only captures a small aspect of the economic effects and may underestimate the true vallue of volunteer surf lifesaving.

Table 9: Total input approach value ($million) Jurisdiction

Total input vallue 20 010

NSW

6 60.1 1.1

NT QLD

4 5 44 44.5

SA

6.3

TAS

2.1

VIC

1 18.9

WA

1 11.4

SLSA

1 19.2

Total ($million)

Using the input approach, the estimated value of Surf Life Saving services in Australia is approximately

$164 million.

163 3.6

3.3 Output-based approach Measuring the value of SLS activities using an outputbased approach is based upon the value of lives saved and d avoided id d injuries i j i as a result lt off SLS surff lif lifesaver and d lifeguard activities. Conceptually superior to the input approach, the output approach is usually difficult to apply as it requires data that is not usually available.23 However, in this case data has been drawn from SLS, through the survey of surf lifesavers, and through known literature to undertake an estimate of the economic impact of Surf Life Saving on this basis. Surf Life Saving activities can be classified as a combination of rescues and preventative activities. The value of lives saved as a result of Surf Life Saving activities can be calculated using the number of: • rescues undertaken by SLS volunteer surf lifesavers and lifeguards, and • preventative actions, if not undertaken by volunteer surf lifesavers, would have resulted in the need for a rescue Preventative actions are typically in the form of warnings to swimmers and other beach users to avoid areas of hazard that might result in distress or drowning. These actions are essential and often under-recorded, without which the number of rescues may be much higher. Hence, the value of volunteer surf lifesavers extends beyond the reactive service of rescuing someone in need, need to that of active prevention.24 In order to determine the contribution of preventative actions to the overall value of Surf Life Saving services, it is necessary to identify the number of rescues that would occur if preventative actions were not performed. This would occur if SLS services were no longer available. Due to the broad nature of preventative actions and variations in reporting p g between surf life saving g clubs,, it is estimated that 1% of preventative actions would result in a rescue if Surf Life Saving were not available. These total (adjusted) rescue figures are comprised of four major activities that would occur if volunteer Surf Life Saving services were not available at Australian beaches: • drowning deaths • permanent incapacitating injury, including a spinal injury or serious injury resulting in a coma • minor injury resulting in the need for first aid treatment, and • no injury or medical treatment required

23. Measuring the value of unpaid household, caring and voluntary work of ollder Australians, De Vaus, D. Gray, M., Stanton, D 24. 4 Encyclopedia y p off coastal science,, Schwartz,, M.

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Surf life saving clubs and SLS operational support an nd lifeguard services around Australia report the numbeer of preventative actions, rescues and other aspects relatiing to ob beach safetyy ((Table b 10). 0) The information includes actions undertaken by volunteer surf lifesavers and SLS services, and does not n include local government lifeguard or other marine rescue services. Thus, the figure of 18,500 representss a conservative quantification of total rescues and hence under represent the potential value of the Surf Life Saving activity in Australia.25

Table 10: Total (adjusted) number of rescues by SL LS in Australia, 2009/10 (including 1% of preventative actions)

Jurisdiction

Number of rescu ues (adjustted)

NSW

8,859 8, 8

NT

487

QLD

6,338

SA

406

TAS

118

VIC

1,,128

WA

1 1,171

TOTAL RESCUES

18,5 507

In the absence of Surf Life Saving activities:26 • 5% of total rescues would have resulted in a drowniing death • 3% of rescues would have resulted in permanent incapacitation

To calculate the economic value of Surf Life Saving services, it is necessary to understand what would occur if the service was no longer provided. The value of lives saved and injuries avoided through Surf Life Saving can be allocated to three main classifications, including avoided drowning deaths, permanent incapacitations and minor injuries. It is expected that in the absence of Surf Life Saving services during 2009/10, there would be: • 596 additional drowning deaths (excluding rescues that results from a preventative action) permanent incapacitations p ((including g • 555 additional p rescues that result from a preventative action)27, and • 2,591 additional minor injuries or first aid treatments

Drowning deaths Volunteer surf lifesavers play a key role in preventing unnecessary drowning in patrolled areas and help to reduce the risk of fatality on Australian beaches. The value of a statistical life is often used to estimate the benefits of reducing the risk of death. As noted by Abelson (2008), the value of a statistical life is most appropriately measured by estimating how much society is willing to pay to reduce the risk of death. Methods to measure willingness to pay can vary, and include:28 • direct measurement through a survey designed to uncover what h t people l would ld pay tto save or prolong l lif life • observing how much consumers pay for products that reduce risk of death or injury

• 14% of total rescues would have resulted in a minorr injury needing first aid treatment; and

• indirectly observing how much workers are willing to pay (through reduced wages) for an improvement in workplace safety

• 78% of total rescues would have resulted in no injury or rescue

Value of a statistical life

These values were identified in a survey undertaken in i 2005 of surf lifesaving experts.

25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

The previous attempt to value volunteer Surf Life Saving services in Australia followed the estimates used by the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) and the NSW Injury Risk Management Research Centre (IRMRC).29 Using the human capital approach, AIC values a life in 2004 terms at $1.7 million or $2.12 million in 2010 terms.

National Coastal Safety Report , SLS Valuing g an Icon: The Economic and Social Contribution off Surff Life f Savin ng g in Australia , Allen Consulting g Group, p, Monetary Value for Lives Saved: Issues and Controversies , Abelson P. Valuing an Icon: The Economic and Social Contribution of Surf Life Savin ng in Australia ,Allen Consulting Group, It has been assumed that rescues from a preventative action would have an impact of permanent incapacitations, but would be less likely to impact significantly on the number of drowning deaths.

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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The value of a statistical life has been n estimated by the Victorian Competition and Efficiency Commission to be equal to o $3.7 million and has been used as part of the estimation of the value of Surff Life Saving services.

However, there has been significant research into valuing a statistical life, which has led to a review of the t appropriate value.

Hence, the cost, per incident per year of spinal cord and traumatic brain injuries (as a proxy for permanent incapacitation) is $2.1 million.

A literature review was conducted of international an nd Australian values for a statistical life. Although values gher vary from $3.2-$15 million, they are significantly hig than those used in the past. past

Minor injuries and first aid treatment

The Victorian Competition and Efficiency Commissio on (VCEC) has proposed a value using the willingness to o pay method, which is suggested as the appropriate way to o estimate the value of reductions in the risk of physica al harm. Based on international and Australian research ha credible estimate of the value of statistical life is $3.5 5 million.30 This value is used widely in Australia and is cited byy the Commonwealth Department p of Finance and a Deregulation (Office of Best Practice Regulation) as the t appropriate method and value to estimate a reduction n in the risk of physical harm. A similar method has also been b used by the Australian Transport Council to estimatee the economic impact of road crash deaths.

Volunteer V l t surff lif lifesavers and d SLS lif lifeguards d are able bl tto address minor injuries and administer first aid, thereby reducing hospital and clinic visits and associated treatments. The Department of Health and Ageing lists current rates for consultations as equal to $34.5032, which can represent the avoided healthcare costs resulting from the first aid services undertaken by SLS personnel.

ms, The VCEC value of $3.7 million, indexed to 2010 term has been adopted in this report.

Permanent Incapacitation Recently, a non-financial approach to valuing human n life has been developed, where loss of wellbeing and premature mortality – called ‘burden of disease and injury’ – are measured using a willingness to pay metthod based on a similar methodology to the VCEC value off a statistical life. In order to calculate the willingness to o pay or to avoid, pay, avoid permanent disability, disability the following w were considered :31 1.

The value of a statistical life year, equated to $151,000

2.

Burden of disease for spinal cord and traumatic brain injuries, which presents a portion of the to otal value of statistical life year

3 3.

A total of 2 2,766 766 incidents of spinal cord and traumatic brain injuries in 2008

4.

d The total burden of disease from spinal cord and traumatic brain injuries, equal to $5.7 billion in 2008

30. Best Practice Regulation Guidance Note: Value of statistical life, Victoria an Competition and Efficiency Council 31. The cost off traumatic SCI and TBI in Australia,, Access Economics 3 32. Medicare Benefits Schedule Book, Category 1, Department of Health and d Ageing

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Surf Life Saving in NSW and Queensland comprise the majority of the entire value of Surf Life Saving in Australia; NSW alone contributes 48% of the value of lives saved. d O Overall,, the increase in value of o Surf S Life Saving activities across Australia may be attributed to four factors:

Results of Output Approach The number of drowning deaths, permanent incapacitations and minor injuries are multiplied by their respective monetary values. In total these proviide a value for the economic contribution of Surf Life Savin ng in Australia. A summary of values by State is included in n Table 11. ng Using the rescue numbers from 2010, Surf Life Savin services in Australia provide the greatest value in avoiding costs associated with drowning deaths, and overall the total value of lives saved and assisted, usin ng the output method, method is estimated at $3 $3.4 4 billion billion. The estimated value of Surf Life Saving in preventing: •

drowning deaths is $2.2 billion

permanent incapacitations is $1.2 billion

0 minor injuries and first aid treatments is $90,000

In this study, a statistical life was valued at $3.7 milliion (in 2010 terms) compared to $2.1 million used in thee 2005 valuation l i (i (in 2010 terms). ) Wh When the h totall numb b ber of rescues used in the 2005 estimate of the economicc impact of Surf Life Saving are applied to the value of a statistical life utilised by VCEC, the value of SLS in 20 005 would be $2.5 billion.

1.

The improved monitoring and recording of lifesaving activities and preventative actions by life saving clubs and services

2.

An increase in the total number of rescues across all states, particularly Victoria, WA, Tasmania and NT, with NT increasing from less than 20 to more than 400 rescues during the period (see Table 10 for 2010 rescues)

3.

A higher number of preventative actions, reflecting the activities of Surf Life Saving’s pre-emptive role in promoting safety

4.

An improved estimate of the statistical value of a life, which has seen an increase in this value from $2 1 million to $3.7 $2.1 $3 7 million per life in real terms

Table 11: Estimated value of lives saved and assisted using the output approach ($million) Metro opolitan

Non-Metropolitan

Total

2010

2010

2010

1,072

561

0.04

56

31

0.00

703

401

0.03

SA

51

26

0.00

TAS

19

7

0.00

VIC

143

71

0.01

WA

198

74

0.01

2,241

1,172

0.09

NSW NT QLD

TOTAL

Note that the values for each State and Territory will not add to the tota al due to rounding.

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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The total value of SLS services in Australia can also be b broken down on a metropolitan and non-metropolita an basis by state and territory. The metropolitan areas of o Australia include: d • Sydney, Wollongong and Newcastle in NSW • Melbourne and Geelong in Victoria • Perth in Western Australia, and • Brisbane and the Gold Coast in Queensland. d The breakdown of benefits between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in Australia is highlighted in n Table 12 below. b SLS services in metropolitan areas are estimated to be valued at over $1.6 billion.

The proportion of value contributed in metropolitan areas has increased from 43% of total value of lives saved in 2005 to over 47% in 2010. Although Al h h overall, ll the h value l off SLS services i iin NSW iis greatest, the distribution of benefits between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas varies. Their services are estimated to be valued more highly ($768 million) in Queensland non-metropolitan areas than those in NSW non-metropolitan areas ($694 million). This could be due to a large number of patrolled beaches in NSW located close to more highly populated areas. It is clear that the value of SLS services in Australia is significant, not only in avoided injury and deaths of beach goers, but also in encouraging members to become active in the community.

Table 12: Estimated value of lives saved and assisteed using the output approach - distribution of benefits between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in Australlia ($million)

Drowning

Permanent Incapacitation

Minor First Aid

Total

2010

2010

2010

2010

939

694

1,633

86

1

87

336

768

1,104

SA

32

45

77

SA

TAS

10

16

26

TAS

VIC

8

206

214

VIC

WA

196

76

272

WA

1,608

1,805

3,412

NSW NT QLD

TOTAL

NSW NT QLD

TOTAL

Note that the values for each State and Territory will not add to the tota al due to rounding.

Usin ng the output approach, Surf Life Saving serviices have an estimated economic value of over

$3..4 billion to Australia. Just over 47% of lives saved and asssisted occurred in metropolitan areas, whicch delivered an estimated economic value of $1.6 6

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billion.


3.4 Flow-on wider economicc impacts

Table 13: Benefits to Australia from macroeconomic aggregates ($million)

The non-market benefits (shown in the input and outtput methods) used to calculate the value of Surf Life Saviing volunteers in Australia do not fully quantify the mark ket effects of volunteer activities. These market effects ha ave flow-on impacts for the overall Australian economy. Hence, an additional mechanism must be used to quantify these market values. The economy-wide net benefits flowing from SLS’s oss activities affect key economic aggregates, such as Gro Domestic Product (GDP) (GDP). As volunteer activities help p to save lives and avoid injury, the effects on the econom my range from:

Benefit Expenditure on Consumption Investment

47

Government

37

Inventories

0

E po ts Exports

-11

Imports

33

GDP

• Additional labour supply,

114

154

Income from

• Increased consumption, and • Increased industry activity All of these impacts have the flow-on effects of increasing Australia’s competitiveness compared to the t rest of the world.

Capital

67

Labour

69

Other h ffactors Tax from all sources

Modelling flow on impacts of Surf Life Saving g services A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model wass used to quantify the flow-on impacts of Surf Life Saviing activities in Australia. PwC used the Monash MultiRegional Forecasting (MMRF) model for this task33. CGE modelling is used to estimate the direct and indirect economic net benefits flowing from SLS’s activities. k of The economy-wide benefits associated with the work SLS was examined through two key impacts: • Lives saved: lives saved directly contribute to the Australian economy by continuing to work. The inp put for this component was based on PwC estimates of the number of lives saved that are directlyy attributable to Surf Life Saving d, • Serious injury prevented: in addition to lives saved Surf Life Saving also helps prevent serious injuries,, and the costs associated with long-run disability. This manifests in the model as an increase in the workfo orce participation rate and a decreased cost to governmeent in terms of disability support The modelling evaluates the long long-run run benefits of the additional labour supply.

3 14

The lives saved (and disability-free individuals) contribute significantly to the Australian economy, with increases in aggregate output nationally, as well as the output p for each State and Territoryy individually. y This translates to approximately 2,000 jobs in the economy, as industries expand to accommodate the additional labour. The expansion in the labour force increases real gross domestic product by approximately $154 million per annum (Table 13). A large proportion of the economywide benefit is driven by increases in consumption; part of this comes from the direct consumption of those people l saved d by b SLS and d partt iis d driven i b by th the additional dditi l income generated in other areas of the economy from their labour. The increase in industry activity also attracts an estimated additional $67 million of capital to Australia.

The flow-on avoided loss of productivity impact to the broader economy from Surf Life Saving services is estimated at $154

million. 33.

The Monash Multi-Regional Forecasting (MMRF) model is one of Austra alia’s most widely used CGE models. Developed by the Centre of Policy Studies at Monash University, y, MMRF is a model off the Australian economy. y It has a detailed d database based on Australian Bureau off Statistics Input–Output p p tables,, expanded p from f The Enormous Regional Model database

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

22


The additional labour supply in Australia increases Australia’s competitiveness compared to the rest of th he world. As a first round impact, this increases exports. However, o , the increase in aggregate gg g do domestic consumption and government absorption — which increases the domestic price level — more than offsetts this increase in competitiveness. This causes a net reduction in Australia’s exports by $11 million. his is Real imports to Australia increase by $33 million. Th driven by the increase in household income (which drives consumption), and the movement in the termss of trade. The increase in the terms of trade is brought ab bout b the by h net iincrease iin aggregate d demand, d nationally, i ll which increases the domestic price level. This inflatio on causes an increase in the price of our exports. All states and territories benefit from the activities off SLS. The distribution of the benefits is in proportion to the number of lives saved in each jurisdiction, and th he overall distribution of the population. Overall, volunteer surf lifesavers contribute to an additional $154 million to the Australian economy (T Table 14).34 The breakdown of impacts at state level indicattes that approximately 40% of flow-on effects benefit NS SW (Figure 11). Although the ACT does not have dedicateed surf lifesavers, benefits accrue to the Territory since residents of the ACT regularly travel to beaches in NS SW and Victoria. Therefore, volunteers who save lives in NSW and Victoria also contribute to economic growtth in the ACT. It is important to note that this estimated value of flo owon impacts from SLS services does not include preventative health benefits, which cannot be accura ately quantified using this CGE model.

Table 14: Flow-on economic effects to states of Surf Life Saving volunteer activities ($ million) Value ACT

4

NSW

61

NT

3

SA

9

TAS

3

VIC

42

QLD

21

WA

10

TOTAL

154

Note that the values for each State and Territory will not add to the total due to rounding.

Figure 11: Distribution of flow-on wider economic benefits, by jurisdiction

WA

6%

Tas

NT

2%

2%

ACT C

3%

SA

NSW

6%

40%

Qld

14%

40% and 27% of flow-on economic effects for avoided productivity losses can be attributed to NSW and Victoria, respectively.

Vic

27%

34. The CGE analysis does not include any improvement in the productivity of SLS S volunteers as a result of their work for SLS. If this effect were included, it would only have a small impact p on the aggregate, gg g , economy-wide y results. CGE modelling g is only y co oncerned with net improvements p in p productivity y at the margin g (i.e. ( improvements p that would not have been present were it not for the existence of SLS). Given that volunteers for SLS are likely to be fit and active people regardless of their life saving activities, the impact of volunteering on their labour productivity elsewhere in the economy would w be expected to be minimal.

23

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3.5 Conclusion Surf Life Saving, involving both volunteer surf lifesavvers and SLS lifeguards, is a cultural icon of Australia. It is important to quantify the true value of these servicess in avoiding drowning deaths and preventing injury. SLSA is Australia’s major water safety and rescue authority and is one of the largest volunteer organisations in the country, with over 150,000 S members. In 2009/10, volunteer surf lifesavers and SLS lifeguards carried out approximately 12,000 rescues and a without the preventative actions of surf lifesavers, lifesavers it iis estimated that over 18,000 rescues would have been needed on Australian beaches during the year.

The total estimated economic value of Surf Life Saving’s coastal drowning g and injury j y prevention efforts to Australia is $3.6

billion in 2009/10.

The output model is the preferred method of determining the value of volunteer activities as it accounts for social willingness to pay and the cost savings from avoided deaths and injuries. However, in order to include wider economic or community i benefits, b fi iit iis necessary to iinclude l d these h flow-on impacts in the overall value of these services. Thus, the value of Surf Life Saving’s coastal drowning g and injury prevention efforts to Australia is approximately $3.6 billion per year. Comparing the output value with the input value n provides a cost-benefit ratio (for every dollar spent on Surf Life Saving, what is the value of the lives saved and a the injuries avoided): • Assuming that volunteer surf lifesavers are paid a salary (and included as a cost), the cost-benefit ratiio is 21.7 to 1. This means that for benefits to equal costss, the benefits of Surf Life Saving would have to decreease by 95%, which would result in the prevention of 560 less drowning deaths in 2009/10, and • Assuming salaries are not paid, the cost-benefit ratio is 29 3 to 11, which means that the benefits of Surf Lifee 29.3 Saving would have to decrease by 97%. This would result in the prevention of 578 drowning deaths in 2009/10 g far Under either scenario, the benefits of Surf Life Saving outweigh the costs, further proving its unique and significant value to the Australian community and economy.

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

24


Key terms

25

PwC

Blackspot

An area with a high concentration of coastal/ocean incidents and a high probabilitty/risk of ongoing reoccurrence.

CGE

Computable Geeneral Equilibrium model

Drowning

The process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/im mmersion in liquid.

Drowning death

A fatality arisin ng from the process of respiratory impairment as a result of submersion//immersion in liquid. liquid

Lifeguard

Typically a paid d employee at a beach or other aquatic environment whose job it is to t rescue people in danger of drowning or prevent them getting into a dangerous d situation.

Prevention

Where interven ntion by a lifesaving resource averts a person/s from getting into a potentially p life threatening situation.

Rescue

Where interven ntion byy a lifesaving g resource removes a p person/s / from a life threatening g or potentially life threatening situation.

SLS

Surf Life Saving

SLSA

Surf Life Saving Australia

Surf lifesaving

Referring to the activity of saving lives – ‘lifesaving’ should always be one word when n used in the verb form. ‘Life’ and ‘saving’ should be two separate wordss when referring to a club, organisation, event or registered busiiness name, (eg: Surf Life Saving Australia, Australian Surf Life Saving Championships).

Surf Life Saving

Refers to the orrganisation, including: SLS, state centres, branches, support servicees and clubs. Always in capital letters.

Surf life saving clubs

Collective term m for all, or a small group of Surf Life Saving affiliated clubs. Not ‘surff lifesaving clubs’.

Surf lifesaver

Typically a volu unteer at a beach or other aquatic environment whose role it is to resccue people in danger of drowning or prevent them getting into a dangerous d situation. This should only be capitalised when referring g to a specific surf lifesaver.


Bibliography 2009 and 2010 National Coastal Safety Reports, Surf Life Saving Administration and resources, Surf Life Saving, available at a http://www.slsa.com.au/default.aspx?s=adminresources&iid=8 20 ‘Airlines to screen beach safety tips’, Ellie Harvey, Sydney Morning Herald, 2010 Annual Report 2009-10, Surf Life Saving Become a surf lifesaver, Surf Life Saving, available at http://www.SLS.asn.au/default.aspx?s=_becomeasurflifesa aver Best Practice Regulation Guidance Note: Value of statistica al life, Victorian Competition and Efficiency Council, availablee at http://www.finance.gov.au/obpr/docs/ValuingStatisticalLiife.p df

Preliminary Research Finding: Volunteers in Queensland State Government, Working Paper No CPNS 4, Conroy, D ., Centre for Philanthropy and Non Profit Studies, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, 2002 Preventing Coastal Drowning Deaths in Australia Surf Life Saving Australia, available at: http://www.slsa.com.au/site/_content/resource/00003568docsource.pdf SLS Awards Structure, Surf Life Saving, 2009, available at http://www.SLS.com.au/site/_content/resource/00003123h docsource.pdf Surf Life Saving: The life of the beach, Surf Life Saving, available at http://public.lifesaving.com.au/pdfs/factSheets/SLSFactSheet. pdf

Can Do Report, Surf Life Saving, published by Banjo Ad Advertising, i i 2010

Surf Life Saving Annual Reports, available at http://www.SLS.com.au/default.aspx?s=_adminresources&id= 36. 6

Counting the costs of crime in Australia, Australian Institute of Criminology, Mayhew, P., Canberra, 2003

The cost of traumatic SCI and TBI in Australia, Access Economics, 2008

Encyclopaedia of coastal science, Schwartz, M.

The economic value of volunteering in Queensland, Updated report, Ironmonger, D., commissioned by the Department of Communities, Queensland Government, 2008

Giving Time – The economic value of volunteering in Victo oria, Department of Human Services, Soupormas, F., Ironmonger, D., 2002 Measuring the value of unpaid household, caring and voluntary work of older Australians, research paper No 34 4, De Vaus, D., Gray, M., Stanton, D., Australian Institute of Family Studies 2003

Unpaid work and the Australian economy Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, 2000, Cat No. 4240.0 Valuing an Icon: The Economic and Social Contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia, report to Surf Life Saving Australia, Allen Consulting Group, 2005

Measuring volunteering in economic terms, Volunteers and volunteering, Ironmonger, D. 2000 Medicare Benefits Schedule Book, Category 1, Department of H lth and Health dA Ageing, i C Canberra, b 2010 Monetary Value for Lives Saved: Issues and Controversiess Working papers in cost-benefit analysis, Abelson P., Office of Best Practice Regulation., Canberra. available at http://www.finance.gov.au/obpr/cost-benefit-analysis.htm ml

The Regulations, Surf Life Saving, available at htt // http://www.surflifesaving.com.au/membershipflif i / b hi information/w1/i1004935/

Wh t Whatever it Takes, T k Surf S f Lif Life Saving S i Australia, A t li 2009

National Road Safety Strategy 2011-2020, Discussion Pap per Australian Transport Council, 2010

What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia

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Cert no. SCS-COC-001360


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What is the Economic Contribution of Surf Life Saving  

A report from PriceWaterhouse Coopers analysing the economic contribution of the Surf Life Saving movement to the Australian community.

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