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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are important downstream targets of activated growth factor receptors (such as EGFR and PDGFR) involved in mediating the intracellular response to extracellular stimuli. In mammals, three primary MAPKs exist including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK (Anderson, 2006). MAPKs are activated in response to extracellular stresses including UV radiation, osmotic shock, heat shock and lipopolysaccharides, in addition to activation by endogenous factors including growth cytokines, autacoids and neurotransmitters (Muthusamy and Piva, 2010). MAPK signaling regulates a wide range of intracellular activity, including gene expression, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, cell survival and apoptosis (Sompallae et al., 2008). We previously reported that heat stress significantly injured the pig small intestine epithelial tissue, and this tissue was rapidly repaired within a few days. Based on our gene expression analysis, we suggest that heat stress-induced alterations in MAPK signaling may regulate the repair and regeneration of the damaged intestinal epithelium by encouraging crypt cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, the present study investigated the effect of heat stress on morphology and gene expression in the porcine small intestine. Heat stress was found to cause significant morphological damage to the epithelium of the pig small intestine. Gene expression profiling analysis revealed 203 genes to be differentially expressed in response to heat stress. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed genes provides significant insight into the potential mechanisms underlying heat stress-induced damage as well as repair/regeneration in porcine small intestines. Acknowledgments We are thankful for the help from the members of CAU-BUA TCVM teaching and research team. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30771566), the Beijing Education Committee Programs of Academic Innovation Team, Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 6082007) and the National Eleventh Five-Year Scientific and Technological Support Plan (No. 2008BADB4B01, 2008BADB4B07). References Anderson, D.H., 2006. Role of lipids in the MAPK signaling pathway. Prog. Lipid Res. 45, 102–119. Cario, E., Gerken, G., Podolsky, D.K., 2002. "For whom the bell tolls!" — innate defense mechanisms and survival strategies of the intestinal epithelium against lumenal pathogens. Z. Gastroenterol. 40, 983–990. Elez, D., Vidovic, S., Matic, G., 2000. The influence of hyperthermic stress on the redox state of glucocorticoid receptor. Stress 3, 247–255. Gisolfi, C.V., 2000. Is the GI system built for exercise? News Physiol. Sci. 15, 114–119. Hahn, J.S., Hu, Z., Thiele, D.J., Iyer, V.R., 2004. Genome-wide analysis of the biology of stress responses through heat shock transcription factor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 5249–5256. Hall, D.M., Buettner, G.R., Oberley, L.W., Xu, L., Matthes, R.D., Gisolfi, C.V., 2001. Mechanisms of circulatory and intestinal barrier dysfunction during whole body hyperthermia. Am. J. Physiol. 280, H509–H521.

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Please cite this article as: Yu, J., et al., Effect of heat stress on the porcine small intestine: A morphological and gene expression study, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A (2010), doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.01.008

Effect of heat stress on the porcine small intestine A morphological and gene  
Effect of heat stress on the porcine small intestine A morphological and gene  

Keywords: Heat stress Morphology Gene expression Electron microscope Microarray Small intestine Pig Article history: Received 26 November 20...