KAMILE NECIUNAITE N0271022 NEGOTIATED PROJECT STAGE 2 IMPLEMENTATION FASH30071 TUTOR: SARAH LEWINGTON ZARA BRAND EXTENSION INTO MAKE-UP
PRIMARY RESEARCH 7 ‘WHAT’S IN YOUR BAG TODAY? 7 CONSUMER DIARY 8 INTERVIEW WITH THE STAFF FROM ZARA 9 VISITS INTRODUCTION 9 SECONDARY RESEARCH 4 9
TOPSHOP 11 MAX FACTOR 14 CHANEL 16 BOBBI BROWN 18 TOPSHOP & ZARA COMPARISON USING SWOT ANALYSIS 19
BUYING BEHAVIOUR 22 DECISION JOURNEY 24 CONSUMER PROFILE 26
T A R G E T CONSUMER
43/48 EXECUTIONS INSTORE 43 PACKAGING 45
29/42 27/28 THE BIG IDEA
PRODUCT 29 PLACE 30 PRICE 33 PROMOTION 34
CONCLUSION 49/50 REFERENCES 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY 52 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 54 APPENDIX 1 56 APPENDIX 2 62 APPENDIX 3 65 CONSENT FORMS DECLARATION TUTORIAL RECORD SHEETS
INTRODUCTION Therefore, Zara brand
Product creation is the fuel
The aim of the report is to
that feeds todayâ€™s growth
extension into make-up is
introduce a valuable new
and competitiveness. The
a very exciting step for the
product: the big idea of Zara
very basis of the enterprise
company as it is a great
make-up and the big creative
depends on placing a
opportunity to attract even
idea - a composite of several
continuing stream of
factors: the features, quality,
successful new products
female consumers that will
design and product styling
into the new marketplace
spend more on trendy make-
up that stands out from everything what is available in the beauty market.
After UK market studies that were more focused on brands’ extensions and, economical and social factors in the research stage, further studies are based on potential and existing competitors in the implementation stage which helps to get a deeper understanding where is the gap in the market for Zara product - most of the clothing brands within make-up products are higher end fashion designer brands (Chanel, Dior, Tom Ford, Burberry etc.). Only a few middle market retailers (Topshop) have a creative and innovative professional make–up lines. Furthermore, competitors’ case studies provided with the ability to evaluate competitive advantage - differentiation – to offer make-up product that is different to those offered by competitors, which Zara can achieve with creative and innovative product. However, the challenge here is to make it desirable to the target market and unique to Zara brand. The capacity to produce in almost infinite quantities and varieties has shifted the balance of power and influence from the producer to the consumer – “the consumer is in the driver’s seat” (ibid). Therefore, most of the primary research for the big idea was focused on analyzing potential consumers and their behavior when buying beauty products. The report provides with the potential consumers’ touch points (when Zara could interact with the consumer most) and their decision journey when making a purchase, in order to take action towards reaching target consumer and meet the market requirements that relate to customers’ needs and desired benefits. Finally, the implementation stage gives a chance to start the new product development process. A new product delivery strategy involves vital strategic elements: product concept, product positioning, value offering, product design, market channels, and promotion. The report suggest a marketing mix for the new range: the idea of the make-up products: the core products (the benefit), the actual products (packaging and design); promotion (product adoption process –awareness, interest, evaluation, trial and adoption), place (store environment and service; online presence) and predicted price. As a result, all these components can be evaluated performance measures.
METHODOLOGY The purpose of my
Also, it was essential to
Finally, the research
research was to analyze
focus further detail on
helped to get the insight
potential Zara make-up consumers in order to
make-up industry in the about Zara brand in order UK, more specifically -
to understand Zaraâ€™s
understand their touch core competitors: clothing unique selling point on the points in their buying decision journey .
brands that sell make-
up as well as clothing, need in the market for the established make-up brands on the high street, and professional or designer make-up brands.
high street and find the new product range.
PRIMARY RESEARCH Photos ‘What’s in Your Bag?’ The photos were taken of what females usually have in their handbags everyday. There were 10 participants that were 20 – 24 years old. Whilst addressing a relatively broad sample, there was bias in that the participants all had social media presence, had some form of connection myself, and were younger demographic as they are target audience for the new Zara products. This method provided insight about not only what make-up younger female consumer usually has in her bag daily, but also what devices she uses or what magazines, papers she reads.
FIG. 1, 2,3,4 PHOTOS ‘WHAT’S IN YOUR BAG?’ (APPENDIX 1)
Consumer Diary According to D.C. Edelman consumers want clear brand promise and offerings they value. Therefore, it was very important when they are most open to influence, and how you could interact with them (consumer touch points) (Edelman 2010:64). Consumer one-week diary gave a chance to identify consumer’s top-of-mind consideration set (ads, store displays, social media etc.) also, to investigate the initial consideration set (input from peers, reviews, retailers, brand and its competitors) and finally, when the potential consumer buys a product (point of purchase – packaging, availability, pricing and sales interactions). Moreover, the diary helped to see ‘after purchase’ touch points. For example, “more then 60% of consumers of facial skincare products <…> conduct online research about the products after purchase” (McKinsey in Edelman 2010:67). Therefore, it was useful to see if consumer is pleased with the purchase and start to advocate for it by word of mouth, as the ‘most powerful impetus to buy is someone else advocacy’ (Edelman 2010:65). The diary was given to 23 years old female student as from the research in the stage 1 it was found that the
FIG. 5 OPINION FORMER
potential consumer is from younger demographics. Furthermore, according to the typologies research the consumer that was chosen is a Connector, which means she is “with a truly extraordinary knack <…> for making friends and acquaintances” and has “some combination of curiosity, selfconfidence, sociability, and energy” (Gladwell 2000 :59). This kind of person was very suitable for the research, as she interacts a lot with the social media, her energetic personality does a lot of shopping with many brands and finally her sociability gives an opportunity to see the importance of the word of mouth after making a purchase.
FIG. 6, 7, 8 OPINION FORMER’S INSTOGRAM PHOTOS
FIG. 9,10,11 ZARA STORES IN LONDON, VILNIUS, NOTTINGHAM
VISITS INTERVIEW WITH THE STAFF FROM ZARA To develop an awareness of Zara further, visits were made in Zara stores in Nottingham,
The interview was taken with the sales advisor in Zara
London and Vilnius. This helped to see Zara merchandising
store in Vilnius in order to see a particular point of view
and store environments in different stores also, by looking at
in the different market so this would help to get a broader
some current Zara cosmetic products (fragrances), get the idea, how
understanding about Zara brand - in the UK and internationally.
Zara make-up collection packaging and display might look like. Other
The aim of the questions about Zara brand, its products and fashion
visits to department stores like Boots in Nottingham and London, gave a
trends in the store, was to develop awareness of Zara and try to
chance to see current displays of long established and dominant make-up
get the insight about Zara brand essence to see what is their
brands such as Rimmel, No7 or Max Factor. More inspiration was taken
unique selling point on the high street. Also, the questions
in more luxurious and professional looking brands: Mac, Bobbi Brown
were given in order to see how successful are current
and Chanel stores in Nottingham and London. This, again, helped
cosmetics products and predict how successful
to make a broader view about make-up products’ packaging
would be make-up line in the future.
and display, by looking at its merchandising, general environment and assistance in-store.
FIG.12,13,14,15,16 VISITS TO COMPETITORS
STORES (CHANEL, MAC, TOPSHOP, DEPARTMENT STORES BOOTS
The aim of the secondary research was to understand the theory around marketing strategies deeper in order to develop the big idea successfully. The book “Marketing Concepts and Strategies”
helped to get basic theory based on Consumer Satisfaction model (product, place, promotion, price), more insightful information about the consumers’ behavior, their decision making journey and consumer touch points was given in “Branding in the Digital Age”. “Product Creation” gave useful tips when creating a new product. Following fashion and product based pages on Pinterest and blogs helped to see current trends and the most popular products among younger demographics, which also was useful when analyzing target audience. Also, this helped when looking for inspiration for product creation – product packaging, display and promotion. Magazines like, i-D, Vice and L’officiel provided with the latest fashion, photography and styling trends. Finally, the key competitors’ websites and blogs were analyzed in order to understand their promotional activities when targeting big audiences.
In the competitive high street
H&M has recently
American Apparel also has
However, when doing
fashion market in the UK,
relaunched their make-up
some basic beauty products,
primary research (Appendix
Zara competes with many
collection. The new collection
like lip balms, lip glosses and
1) and talking with the
successful clothing retailers,
offers a wide range of
big colour range nail polishes
potential Zara make-up
such as, for example, H&M,
cosmetic products including
â€“ for those who want to
consumer, Topshop was
Topshop or American
eye shadows, eye liners,
create more youthful and
often mentioned as a one
Apparel. All of them are
powders, foundations, nail
individual but more natural
of the greatest example
mostly orientated to younger
polishes and lip glosses,
American Apparel look.
demographics and most of
all available in carefully
within clothing brand and
them have created bigger or
coordinated colours that are
developed according fashion
smaller ranges of cosmetics
updated each season and are
coordinated with womenâ€™s wear trends. Body care products are also part of the available collection.
of make-up range created
TOPSHOP Topshop launched its first very own make-up range
in a new brand extension move in 2010. The full collection
comes in two parts and, in line with fashion, is refreshed twice a season. The Core Collection consists of beauty essentials, while a capsule Trend Collection contains directional hues. Topshop hope with this collection is both embody “the bold and innovative essence” of the brand and “encapsulate the Topshop spirit”, by formulating
MAKEOVER TOOL’ PAGE AND ‘GET THE LOOK TOPSHOP VIDEOS’
it with a mixture of directional colours and seasonal collections (Turner 2010: online). Topshop make-up promotion includes a partnership with TAAZ.com and the creation of an online Makeover tool. It allows consumers to digitally ‘try on’ a variety of preloaded photos - or upload their own photos to see what product best suits them for the complete Topshop makeover. “We wanted our customers to be able to interact and play with Topshop Make Up online,” explained Head of eCommerce for Topshop, Kate Walmsley. “The quality of the TAAZ.com virtual makeover tool and the ability to customise the experience to reflect the Topshop brand made them the perfect partner. It’s so much fun, it had all the girls at Topshop HQ instantly addicted! <…>. If successful, the brand extension will pay no end of dividends” (ibid). Moreover, Topshop sees the importance of word of mouth and product advocacy when selling makeup products – on their website they interact with most influential fashion and beauty bloggers, like Ruth Crilly (www.amodelrecommends.com), Chloe Butcher (www.ohsochloe.com), Susannah Taylor (www.getthegloss.com), Sasha Wilkins (www.libertylondongirl.com), Zoe Sugg (www.schoee.com) and Teen Vogue editor Eva Chen (www.evachen212. tumblr.com). These key bloggers select their favorite Topshop products and recommend it on their blogs in this way advocating for Topshop products.
FIG.19, 20 TOPSHOP MAKE-UP LOGO; TOPSHOP MAKE-UP PRODUCTS
Topshop make up range. Packaging features matt grey componentry with black patterns,
with grey print, hand drawn illustrations and text. FIG. 23
FIG. 25 Design of
Limited edition Make-Up range. ‘Heavy Duty’ packaging features mirror finishes, triangular boxes, die cut angles, foiling, and scribbled illustrations.
Design FIG. 27
Spring Summer 2011 make up range ‘Sand Storm’. Packaging features a desert scape, setting the scene for nude and bronzed product shades. Cut-away cartons join to become one dramatic mountain range, softened by hand drawn dashes and painted swatches of colour.
FIG. 30 FIG. 29
When entering a new make-up market in the UK, Zara would have to fight it out in a heavily competitive marketplace not only with the high street fashion retailers but also with strong, long established and dominant players such as Rimmel, No7 or for instance, Max Factor, which is one of the leading cosmetic brands for middle class consumer. “The company’s leadership in educating women on the subtleties of fashion make-up is legendary” (Max Factor 2012: online). When the company was founded, the average woman used little if any make-up, as it was not socially acceptable. Over the years, as make-up became popular, Max Factor evolved into the make-up of all women as well as the stars. Max Factor has continued to incorporate technological advances into new products to strengthen and develop the brand image and enhance its reputation for being at the forefront of cosmetic innovations - the first “waterproof” make-up in 1971, the world’s first clear colorless mascara in 1980 or “Lipfinity” lip stick in 2000 (ibid). Max Factor often represents itself as a professional make-up by using TV and print advertising where in fashion shows and films the looks of the models and actors are created by Max factor. Max Factor make-up is available on the UK high street in the department stores such as Boots or Superdrug.
FIG.31 MAX FACTOR PRODUCTS
FIG. 32, 33, 34 MAX FACTOR ADVERTS
FIG. 35, 36 VINTAGE MAX FACTOR ADVERTS
As it was mentioned in the Stage 1, Zara stores environment and merchandising reminds luxurious designer brands. Therefore, designer make-up brands such as Dior, Chanel, more recently Tom Ford or Burberry, or professional make-up brands like Bobbi Brown or Mac would be great examples when looking for the inspiration to create successful make-up line for the clothing brand which would look professional and remind of luxury as this is consistent part of the brand tone of voice. Chanel, for example, has a strong market positioning within the luxury fashion goods sector. Chanel customers are women who want to indentify what Chanel represents which is: “elegance, simplicity, modern and class” (Jia En 2010). Chanel cosmetics are targeted at a younger consumer but they still retain, the ‘classic’ market, which is the launch of Chance perfume. Therefore, Chanel is targeting women between the age 18-39 (ibid). Even though, Chanel is enjoying an established presence in the designer and haute couture sector, which supports the high end pricing of the products and a strong brand image that consumers perceive, Chanel is still trying to be up to date with the technological changes in the fashion and beauty industry by paying much attention to social media and blogs. Chanel has separate website for makeup products – ‘Chanel Make-up Confidencial’ (www.chanel-makeupconfidential.chanel.com) where customers can find make-up tutorials, interviews with the make-up artists and the latest Chanel products.
FIG. 37,38,39,40 CHANEL MAKE-UP STORE
FIG.41 CHANEL ‘MAKEUP CONFIDENCIAL’ WEBSITE
FIG.42 CHANEL MAKE-UP ADVERTS
FIG.43 CHANEL MAKE-UP PRODUCTS
brand such as Bobbi Brown Cosmetics could be another great example when using established makeup artist name and a different attitude towards women’s look - make-up products can stand out as an aspiration for many women in order to create desirable look. The big idea of Bobbi Brown cosmetics was found when make-up artist Bobbi Brown with access “to everything in the market, found nearly all products looked too artificial, making it impossible to create a gorgeous, no-makeup look” (Bobbibrowncosmetics 2012: online). In addition to running her company, Bobbi continues “to pursue her craft” by creating the runway looks for New York Fashion Week. A permanent fixture backstage, she works with the industry’s best designers (Rachel Roy, J. Mendel, Erin Fetherston, Tory Burch and Cynthia Rowley). Bobbi often does how-to segments on ‘The Today Show ‘and ‘The Oprah Winfrey Show’, and her advice can be found in syndicated columns and advice features for magazines and websites around the globe. (ibid). Therefore, despite good make-up quality, it is important to build connections and associations to the brand, such as in this case, established makeup artist name. For this reason, the collaboration with the make-up artist would be very beneficial for Zara make-up line.
FIG.45 LOOKS BY BOBBI BROWN
FIG.44 BOBBI BROWN MAKE-UP PRODUCTS
To sum up, in order to find what will differentiate the new Zara make-up range it is essential an in-depth understanding of Zara potential competitive arena. Potential Zara competitors differentiate themselves in their own ways: brands that have history and reputation around beauty industry, such as Maxfactor, which built the loyalty and trust of their consumers long time ago by interacting with them with cosmetic innovations and technological advances; brands that uses established designer name or make-up artist have the ability to sell products in a luxury sector with the higher end pricing. However, new make-up lines, such as Topshop make-up does not have established name or long brand history, therefore they have to be more innovative, interactive and fun for their consumers with their promotional strategies in order to gain the advantage in the competitive beauty market, which makes Topshop one of the closest Zara competitor. Therefore, it is essential to look at the Topshop’s strengths and opportunities as it might cause some threats for Zara and in contrast what Topshop weaknesses could be used to gain an advantage in the market.
FIG.46 TOPSHOP INSTORE
TOPSHOP AND ZARA COMPARISON BY USING SWOT ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS Topshop suggests hit-the-trend styles, however Zara represents itself as the retailer which “is focused its attention on understanding the fashion items that its customers wanted and then delivering them, rather than on promoting predicted season’s trends via fashion shows and similar channels of influence, which the fashion industry traditionally used.” (Bussiness Word 2011: online) Topshop suggests numerous choices of colours and products in their make-up line which means Zara need to be more selective and focus by choosing the key products that would be in the make-up line presented in the latest fashion trends. Topshop combines media culture and celebrities to produce products therefore it is essential for Zara improve their online marketing strategy. Topshop offers student discounts, which Zara cannot offer yet, while special offers and student discounts are essential part when targeting younger demographics.
FIG.47 TOPSHOP MAKEUP DISPLAY
Topshop store presentation (tidiness and organization) seems to become difficult to maintain because of numerous lines of products they got to offer (as well as clothing and make-up – they have shoes, jewelry, underwear, sleepwear etc.) where Zara also has most of it (except underwear) however having all this not in such massive lines and being more selective and organized. Topshop
exclusivity and uniqueness in their
FIG.48 ZARA INSTORE
OPPORTUNITIES Topshop has an opportunity to target young consumers â€“ very fashion- conscious group that will spend more on trendy make-up, therefore Zara need to be more focus on their TRF collection (which is more
orientated to younger Zara consumer) when launching a make-up line. This could be done by launching it in the area in the store where
-Competition from other high street
TRF collections are usually placed and consider an opportunity to suggest
retailers that sell make-up within their clothing
the student discount for TRF line within make-up.
and professional make-up brands, which Zara needs to consider as a threat as well.
Topshop has international opportunities with its nature market position in the UK, however Zara is more established internationally â€“ 1217
-Negative impact on Topshop celebrity endorecement
stores overseas (Zara 2012: online), while Topshop has only 162
campaigns - debates on celebrity choice etc. , where Zara
stores overseas (Topshop 2012: online). Therefore, Zara has
can gain an advantage in this area when being very
a greater opportunity to expand their make-up line
careful and quite specific with their advertising
internationally as well as in the UK.
(no print or TV adverts) and not using any celebrities endoresements. FIG.49 ZARA COSMETICS
TARGET CONSUMER Customers are the center of the big idea for Zara brand (fig. consumer satisfaction model). Primary research (Appendix 2) which examined the nature of consumer buying behavior and buying process, helped to identify which consumers Zara make-up line could target. This helps to answer the question later on - what positioning Zara would intend to use and which approach provide an advantage over competitors when creating a marketing strategy.
To begin with, primary research (Appendix 1, 2) about consumer gave meaningful results. After analysis of received diary and pictures of what cosmetic products female consumers usually have with themselves everyday (Apendix 1), gave some insight about potential Zara consumer touch points and decision-making process (Apendix 2). The results showed that their make-up buying could be separated in three types depending on what kind of product it is and how often it is used.
In the first category, where most of the respondents buy make-up frequently and for low costs, were lip balms or lip-glosses. According to marketing theory, when buying such items, a consumer may prefer a particular brand, but will probably be familiar with several brands (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:162). A consumer buys these products through routine response behavior and almost
category, where consumers buy make-up
and want to
obtain some more information about the product before buying, were beauty products like, mascaras and foundations. This type of decision-making requires for the female consumer to take an extra time to get more information about benefits they can get from the product: mascara – consideration of volume, length, definition or colour; foundation – consideration of suitability for certain skin type, ability to hide imperfections etc.
And finally, in the third category was make-up that consumer buys more
– “no conscious
planning but a powerful persistent urge to buy something immediately” (ibid). More colourful cosmetics belong to this category – lip sticks, eye shadows, blushers and nail polishes, which are especially on the trend at the moment– according to Vogue Beauty Director Eva Chen “girls are going crazy for nails <…> building entire nail wardrobes. So they’re changing their nail polish every two to three days depending on their mood – or even every day. <…> I think we like how disposable they are. At the end of the day, if you do one nail and you hate the colour and it doesn’t work, you just wipe it of.” (Chen 2012: 44).
To sum up, from research findings about female consumer make-up buying behavior it is clear, that the most of the beauty products are purchased impulsively. Self-control failure is one factor that appears to affect whether or not the target consumer indulge in this type of buying. Many fashion retailers often capitalize on tendency towards impulse buying – for example, Topshop places their nail polishes next to checkout counters.
NAIL POLISHERS GO VIRAL
FIG.50 MAKE-UP INSPIRATIONS. TARGET CONSUMER GETS INSPIRATION FOR MAKE-UP FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES: MAGAZINES, BLOGS, FASHION SHOWS ETC.
DECISION JOURNEY Moreover, more specific results from the consumer diary (Appendix 2) gave a chance to identify consumer touch points - when they are most open to influence – therefore, Zara would know in which ways they need to interact with their target consumer most.
BEFORE MAKING A PURCHASE Consumer diary identified the importance of word of mouth before making a purchase - opinion former trusted more the advice given in the store or recommendation by a friend rather than going online and looking for some feedback about the products (Appendix 2). However, consumer diary shows that she still uses social media like Facebook or Twitter at some point. This means, that consumer could be affected by adverts or other kind of commercial information about make-up without noticing that herself. Also, inspirations for certain looks or colours were taken from make-up artist’s advice and more occasionally from women lifestyle magazines like, Vogue.
DURING MAKING A PURCHASE Much importance when making a purchase was put on how products were presented – display, packaging, store environment. Furthermore, TV screens in-store showing makeovers or make-up trends, for example, typify some kind of possible developments in this area. Part of the rationale is that consumers walking into make-up or fashion store within make-up section are already in shopping mode and are therefore likely to be receptive to these kinds of media. Retail experts believe that “one of the key success will be to design content that dovetails with the shopping experience in which the consumer is engaged” (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:163).
AFTER MAKING A PURCHASE After purchase the opinion former made, she began evaluating the product to check whether its actual performance meets expected levels. Opinion former mentioned that she “always recommends products to her friends if she is satisfied” (Appendix 2). Therefore, the outcome of buying experience and other products criteria like product quality and its presence determines whether the consumer is satisfied or dissatisfied, which will influence future behaviour – make a complaint, communicate with others or purchase the product again.
YOUNG FEMALE DEMOGRAPHICS MIDDLE CLASS
FIG.51 TARGET CONSUMER FOR ZARA MAKE-UP LINE
The results from stage 1 identified younger female consumer aged between 18-30 years old as Zara target for the new brand extension. Therefore, targeting quite broad demographics, primary research results’ that were analyzed according to consumer touch points and decision journey theory in the stage 2 allows building more specific consumer profile that Zara could target with the make-up range. Therefore, it is clear that Zara would need to interact with the consumer who either familiar with make-up products herself or ones that likely to seek advice or recommendation from others when making a purchase. Yet the reviews or feedback on make-up online were not that important when making a decision. However, when younger consumer is not seeking to get a certain product but a certain
trendy look, the colour cosmetics’ buying is more impulsive and younger female
consumer gets her inspiration for beauty from different sources, which can be fashion magazines or Internet. Furthermore, even though the big marketing idea is to create product range that would be not only as complementary products but also strong products line that could stand on its own, the individuals’ attitudes towards Zara company and its clothing would greatly influence the new products consumers will buy. As a result, existing middle
class Zara affordable, classic but modern and fashionable clothing in the stores in high-end store atmosphere would be a big part of individuals that
consumers, who buy
Zara would target with this product range.
THE BIG IDEA Product creation today is far more complex than in the days when all that needed was to design it and make it. Now it consists of all the elements involved in bringing a product to market: customer inputs and marketing analysis, design and production. However, after competitors, consumer and market analysis the most important part is to understand what opportunities lie within the market for this new Zara make-up range that will attract and keep customers.
professional make-up range that would unique to Zara brand and could stand alone as individual
product range. After market analysis in the stage 1 and stage 2 it became clear that most of the clothing brands that have professional make-up lines are higher-end designer brands (Chanel, Dior, most recently Tom Ford and Burberry) and only a few high street retailers, such as Topshop, have professional make-up ranges, which come carefully coordinated with women’s
wear trends each season. Therefore, the research allowed coming to conclusion that there is a gap in the clothing retailing on the high street for make-up products. The only question here might be how to differentiate itself from high street brands (core competitor - Topshop make-up) that are doing make-up successfully. However, using Zara unique selling point and developing big creative idea can solve this. Primary research such as interviews with Zara staff (Appendix 3), visits to UK and international Zara stores, Zara website analysis and reports based on Zara company helped to understand what is that unique about Zara brand. Zara stores have high-end atmosphere as if consumers shop in luxurious brand store, however “affordable and orientated to masses clothing leads to average quality product. <…> Zara’s product merchandising policies emphasized broad, rapidly changing product lines, relatively high fashion content, and reasonable but not excessive physical quality: “clothes to be worn 10 times,” some said” (Ghemawat and Nueno 2006:13). However, as it was pointed out in the research in the stage 1 younger consumers are not that concerned about quality of colour cosmetics as long it does not irritate their skin (fig) and provides a hint of colour. Furthermore, Zara still suggest “relatively high fashion content” (bid), and as in the primary research (Appendix 3) it was mentioned, Zara has the style described as “classy
with a modern twist”.
Therefore, the biggest focus when creating Zara make-up range would be on product presence and interactive side of it as it was found in competitors case studies, this is the key area where make-up brands work when they do not have long brand history and have not built the trust and reputation in the industry yet. Therefore, the aim in the implementation stage is to create
where Chanel, for
example, could be a great source of inspiration for the tone of voice that could be used – “product can present
elegance, simplicity, modern and class
but still retain younger
demographics” (Jia En 2010:5), which Zara is all about, except suggesting a little bit lower quality but more affordable
product for middle
CREATIVE IDEA PRODUCT In order to keep customer motivated to make the purchase, the product must have a core benefit (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:301). Therefore, the report introduce Zara make-up product in 3 levels: core product, actual product and augmented product (ibid). The big idea defined in previous chapter explained the core product - Zara make-up; the big creative idea is going to represent the actual product - a composite of several factors: the features, quality, design and product styling, packaging and logo. Finally, augmented product will give a chance to consider factors like customer service, personnel etc.
PRODUCT INTRODUCTION FIG.52
When launching Zara make-up, product would go through 4 stages of the product life cycle (fig). In the introduction stage Zara make-up would begin its’ first appearance in the market. As time passes, sales should move upwards from zero. The growth stage would be critical to Zara product survival because competitive reactions to its success during this period would affect the product’s life expectancy. At this point it is crucial that the big creative idea would encourage FIG.53 BUYING DECISION AND INFLUENCES
strong brand loyalty, using sales promotion, try to strengthen Zara make-up market share and develop a competitive position by emhasising the product’s benefits.
FIG.54 Having indentified a market opportunity and selected a target market it is essential for Zara to design make-up line that will satisfy potential consumers, while maximizing the marketing opportunity. However, the product line might be exactly what Zara make-up target consumer desire, but if it is not made available for them, they will not be able to adopt the product. The place ingredient of the marketing mix addresses the distribution and marketing channel decisions that are necessary to provide the target with convenient and ready access to the Zara make-up products (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:406). Buying behaviour was a crucial consideration in selecting distribution channels. As a result, primary research, like consumer diary (Appendix 2) helped to understand in which ways Zara would need to interact with their potential consumers for make-up.
As it was mentioned before
make-up with the potential idea of make-up for Zara, in order to gain the advantage in the competitive beauty market when the brand or product line does not have established name or long brand history, Zara make-up has to be more fun, innovative and interactive for their consumers with their presence and promotion. Furthermore, to attract customers, a retail store must project the image – a functional and psychological picture in potential Zara make-up consumer’s mind. Although heavily dependent on atmospherics and design, a store image would also shape Zara brand reputation for integrity, the number of services offered, personnel, merchandising, and assortment (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:493).
FIG.55 ZARA COSMETICS
As the target is a young
consumer – very fashion- conscious group that spends more on trendy make-up, the solution for Zara could be focusing on their
(which is more orientated to younger Zara
consumer). Launching it in the area in the store where TRF collections are usually placed could attract more target consumers. However, still keeping with Zara
minimal, clean, bright,
in the store (fig). Assistance in
the store would be important part in the store as findings from the primary research identified (Appendix 2) that female customer is
Zara TRF collection 2012
willing to get an advice or further information about the product while shopping for make-up. Furthermore, core competitor Topshop make–up does not have this kind of help available for their consumers. FIG.56 ZARA COSMETICS DISPLAY
FIG.57 ZARA TRF COLLECTION 2012
Organized product display - section of key fashionable colours and products in order to create certain trendy look that would be refreshed seasonally; -
section of core products that customers could test it by
themselves or with the assistance would be integrated part of store atmosphere. Finally, in order to increase impulse purchases of colour cosmetics it would be important to place trendy, ‘musthave’ colours nail polishes, lip sticks or lip glosses
next to the check out counters.
FIG . 58 ZARA WEBSITE
While Zara core competitor for potential makeâ€“up line, Topshop is being very interactive with their promotional strategies online and Zara as a company does not do any TV or print advertising, online market would be the key part of creative idea for Zara make-up. Therefore, Zara would need to be quick to identify this additional medium as an opportunity for providing existing and potential customers with product and brand information. Zara page for make-up could stand almost as separate page or website where potential consumers could browse for make-up. The page would be tailored to match target customer buying behaviour and expectations â€“ would be informative but not mesmerizing, while reflecting the existing branding and product positioning already defined in the big idea. The website would require daily updating and design which would fit to existing Zara website and new product range idea. Additionally, interaction with other
key make-up blogs
Crilly (www.amodelrecommends.com), Chloe Butcher (www.ohsochloe. com), Teen Vogue editor Eva Chen (www.evachen212.tumblr.com) etc. would support the idea of making target consumer aware of the new product and would help to built their interest.
FIG.59 KEY BEAUTY AND FASHION BLOGS ZARA SHOULD FOLLOW WHEN ENTERING A NEW MARKET
FIG.60 PRICING DECISION IS AFFECTED BY MANY FACTORS
The price of products in Zara make-up line would determine how consumers perceive it, reflect on the brand and product positioning, affect how it is promoted and have an impact on the level of customer service expected by target consumers (Dibb, Simkin,
FIG.61 ZARA BUSINESS EXISTING PRICING AND POSITIONING AS WELL AS CORE COMPETITORS’ PRODUCTS IN
Pride, Ferrel 2006: 630).
THE MIDDLE MARKET WOULD ALREADY
However, Zara business existing pricing and positioning as well as core competitors’ products would already reflect the pricing decisions. Therefore, the price set must be
middle class consumer and Zara brand positioning on the high street fashion. When making according to the marketing strategy for Zara make-up products: targeting
a good, satisfactory quality to the middle class consumer product, not doing any print or TV advertising, but focusing on presence and packaging, the manufacturing and promotion should not exceed core competitors’ products costing. As a result, separate make-up items would be priced at £5 - £12.50 depending on product type (eyes products - £5 to £12.50; lips products - £7 - £8; face products £6 - £9; nail products £5 - £6). Furthermore, student discounts or special offers for make-up (as well as for the whole TRF section) would attract even more young consumers.
REFLECT THE PRICING DECISIONS
the new Zara make-up products to the target audience the product line would go through adoption process: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial and adoption. Therefore, marketing communication strategy would play the key role in enticing customers to progress from awareness to adoption – consumption – of Zara make-up. At the beginning the big creative idea focuses on mass communication sources in order to build consumer awareness and interest of the new Zara product. As, Zara company does not do any print or TV advertising, mass communication source, like Internet as well as in Zara stores would be the great way to make potential consumers aware of the new Zara brand extension. As a result, in the interest stage the target consumer would be motivated to obtain more information about Zara make-up which leads to informative and innovative communication strategy, in order to attract more customers.
Creative idea for Zara makeup identifies basic aims of communication:
To make consumer aware of Zara brand extension into make-up within the category in sufficient detail to make a purchase. To make female consumer realize that she needs Zara make-up in order to compliment the look that she already creates with Zara clothing as well as to have it as a ‘must-have’ trendy product. To give the trendy, youthful, classic and modern impression of Zara product in order to create brand attitude which would direct potential consumers to buy the new products.
FIG.61 ZARA MAKE-UP PRODUCTS ADOPTION PROCES - IN AWARENESS AND INTEREST STAGES PROMOTION FOCUSES ON MASS MEDIA INTERNET, INSTORE,; WHEN CONSUMERS REACH EVALUATION STAGE, PROMOTION WILL LEAD TO ADOPTION AND BE FOCUSED ON MORE PERSONAL COMMUNICATION (PHOTO COMPETITION, ZARA MAKE-UP CARD ETC.)
COMMUNICATION STRATEGY ZARA MAKE-UP PAGE
As young target audience is the one, who uses Internet most the effective separate website page for Zara make-up would be a coherent part of communication strategy. The page would be consistent with the brand positioning of existing products, products packaging and other promotional mix that would be used. The information on the website would be updated regularly and accurately, and tailored carefully to reflect the buying
behavior of the target consumer.
As a result, consumer could shop for products separated into two pages - two collections: ones refreshed seasonally and created according to fashion trends in order to compliment trends in Zara store (for consumer that want to create a certain look - for more impulsive buying) and core collection (basic products like mascaras or foundations - products that consumer buys with a little bit more consideration â€“ more information available about the product).
FIG.62 ZARA MAKE-UP PAGE (CORE COLLECTION)
CORE COLLECTION MAIN PAGE
CONSUMER COULD SHOP BE CHOOSING PRODUCT CATEGORY;
CORE COLLECTION CHOICE PAGE
SEASONALLY REFRESHED COLLECTION/ CAMPAIGN
MAKE-UP TUTORIAL VIDEOS (IDEA OF COLLABORATION WITH THE MAKE-UP ARTIST
COLLABORATION WITH THE MAKE-UP ARTIST is an essential part in order to create professional attitude towards Zara make-up line. Collaboration with someone that has experience not only when creating looks with make-up but also worked with other established make-up brands would help to built strong product line image. Therefore, as it was mentioned in the stage 1, make-up artist Gucci Westmann would be one of the most suitable as she is famous for
“the signature clean, dewy, and never-
overdone looks”(Elle 2010: online) she creates, which is very close what Zara make-up would lie on. Furthermore, Gucci Westmann is very experienced in the industry when working with other brands - the make-up artist was Revlon’s global artistic director in 2008, also started her first color collection for the brand in 2010 (ibid). As a result, videos of make-up tutorials by Gucci Westmann using Zara products could be uploaded regularly on Zara website also created looks with seasonal make-up collections. could be presented in Zara stores on the posters or TV screens which were discussed in second chapter about consumer touch points when making a purchase. Additionally, trendy looks could be presented during special events in store. For instance, suggesting in store makeovers and giving a special offers on promoted products could work as promotional activity, which would engage consumers.
FIG.63 GUCCI WESTMAN
looks created by make-up artist Gucci Westman
FIG.64 LOOKS CREATED BY GUCCI WESTMAN
FIG.65 CAMPAIGN POSTER
FIG.66 PHOTO COMPETITION ON ZARA FACEBOOK PAGE - FUN INTERACTIVE WAY OF COMMUNICATING WITH YOUNGER AUDIENCES
CAMPAIGN ‘LEAVE YOUR MARK WITH MAKE-UP BY ZARA’ The campaign idea is to create
fun, interactive and girly
of communicating with younger Zara target audiences. However, still keeping with
elegant, minimal but interactive and modern Zara tone of voice. Campaign idea would consist of viral
video and photos (fig.) on Zara website as well as
having promotional posters or TV screens(fig.) in the stores where make-up would be placed. Additionally, there would be launched the
photo competition on the website and through
social media (Facebook- as Zara already uses this media) – ‘Leave your mark with make-up by Zara’. In this competition people could upload their pictures where they are leaving their make-up mark in most
be fun, playful and not obvious way of communicating with the audience about
unexpected places. This would engage younger female consumer as it would
make-up – using consumers experience and not only obvious benefits of the products. In addition to that the owner of the most smart and quick-witted photo could win individual make-up tutorial with Gucci Westmann and gift voucher for make-up.
CAMPAIGN ‘LEAVE YOUR MARK WITH MAKE-UP BY ZARA’ ONLINE
FIG.67 CAMPAIGN VIDEO - AVAILABLE ON ZARA WEBSITE, FACEBOOK, YOUTUBE - IN THE INTEREST STAGE THE TARGET CONSUMER WOULD BE MOTIVATED TO OBTAIN MORE INFORMATION ABOUT ZARA MAKE-UP
FIG.68 CAMPAIGN PAGES ON ZARA WEBSITE
MAIN PAGE FOR THE CAMPAIGNS WOULD BE UPDATED REGULARLY
AS WELL AS THROUGH FACEBOOK, CONSUMER WOULD BE ABLE TO ENTER COMPETITION THROUGH ZARA WEBSITE AND VOTE FOR PHOTOS
EXECUTIONS INSTORE In store interactions would be very important when engaging consumers who already shop in Zara for clothing. Therefore, the big role here would play Zara
make-up as a coherent part when creating look with Zara clothing. As a result, make-up collections refreshed seasonally would be carefully coordinated with women’s wear trends. Furthermore, there could be launched
Zara make-up card,
which could be used also as gift
card and give £5 off every time when consumers would spend more then £20. The cardholder could check her card balance and made transactions as well as make faster purchase process on the website. This would
loyalty and bring intimacy to the consumer shopping experience as well as lead to adoption stage – when Zara customers would choose Zara make-up in the first place when they need build consumer
beauty product. Finally, this would help when measuring Zara make-up success and trying to know more about Zara makeup consumer. Also, sales promotional activity such as free samples of some make–up products could be used, as it would stimulate trial of the new product range so there would be more chances to increase sales volume in the early stages of Zara make-up products line’s life cycle. However, “sampling is the most expensive of all sales promotion methods” (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006: 599), therefore it would be used only in-store at the early product adoption stages, as “free samples are not appropriate for mature products” (ibid). ZARA MAKE-UP CARD WOULD BUILD CONSUMER LOYALTY AND BRING INTIMACY TO THE CONSUMER SHOPPING EXPERIENCE AS WELL AS LEAD TO ADOPTION STAGE – WHEN ZARA CUSTOMERS WOULD CHOOSE ZARA MAKE-UP IN THE FIRST PLACE WHEN THEY NEED BEAUTY FIG. 70,
FIG. 74 ZARA MAKE-UP CAMPAIGN POSTERS INSTORE - A GREAT DEVELOPEMENT IN THISAREA WOULD BE TV SCREENS AS IT IS MORE INTARACTIVE WAY TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE CONSUMERS INSTORE.
FIG. 76 INSPIRATION FOR PRODUCT DESIGN : WOOD
PACKAGING FIG. 75 EXISTING PRODUCTS WOOD PACKAGING
Zara make-up line packaging and labeling would be a very important part of marketing process as Zara put much importance to Zara brand presence and their store environment (Zara unique selling point identified in the big idea). Zara make-up packaging would exhibit functionality in order to protect and convey the product inside, and facilitate its easy use and storage. Additionally, make-up packaging would support Zara product line’s
branding and differentiation.
for make-up products like wood when creating
some of the pieces of the product (fig) would make product to look innovative and different from other products in the beauty market. Furthermore, it would make female consumer want this product not only because of the benefits she can get from the product (get the hint of colour, hide the imperfections etc.) but also have it as a nice,
have’ innovative product. FIG. 77 INSPIRATION FOR PRODUCT DESIGN :NATURAL MATERIALS, SIMPLE SHAPES
FIG. 78 PRODUCTS MOCK-UPS
functionality in order to protect and convey the product inside, and facilitate its easy use and storage. Additionally, make-up packaging would support Zara product lineâ€™s branding and differentiation.
FIG. 81 Zara up design.
handwritten make-up logo print, brown recycled paper and â€˜wavyâ€™ card paper inside to protect the product.
FIG. 85 FOCUSING ON TRF COLLECTION
FIG. 84 TARGET CONSUMER:
(DIRECTED TO YOUNGER CONSUMER)
YOUNG FEMALE FASHION
WHEN LAUNCHING A NEW PRODUCT
RANGE WOULD HELP ZARA TO REACH MORE TARGET CONSUMERS
CONCLUSION As it was found in the research stage, product introductions with the same brand name are able to leverage the brand image, brand awareness and, on the whole, brand equity obtained in the established markets (Keller, 2003). Furthermore, associating an existing brand to a new product can increase the memory and strengths of the brand (Aaker, 1990). Therefore, as Zara brand is very much fashion focus and has a unique flexible approach when bringing the latest fashion trends for the quick fashion follower the company has great a opportunity to expand the brand further – to make their very own make-up collection that could be coordinated with the latest fashion trends in store and stand out as a professional make-up line. Furthermore, market analysis in stage 1 identified that UK facial skincare market is growing every year about 6% (Mintel: online). However, competitive beauty and the whole high street market require being innovative and producing products, which are different from all other available. As a result, analysis of potential competitors strengths and weaknesses and consumer involvement when buying such products has tested the idea of Zara make-up. The gap of professional make-up within clothing on the high street and analysis of current retailers that sell make-up by using many different promotional tools in order to attract masses resulted in more focus Zara make-up marketing strategy. Therefore, the target audience was identified as young females (aged 18-30). From the research in stage 1 it was found that they shop more according to the fashion trends and are more willing to try new colour cosmetics. Targeting younger female demographics, potential consumer touch points analysis allowed to select the key communication channels within its promotional activities. While Zara company has a different approach to their advertising strategy (no print or TV) online marketing as well as
in store have a big role in the big creative idea in order to reach target audience. Also, focusing on Zara TRF collection and which is directed to younger consumers suggesting student discount would help to attract even more target consumers. Separating Zara make-up into core collection and refreshed seasonally according fashion trends would helped to satisfy younger female consumers who have their own personal point of view when buying such products, as it was found in the consumer research (Appendix 1,2) most of make-up products buying is impulsive - in order to create trendy desirable look and some of the products require more consideration. Furthermore, targeting younger demographics requires being more innovative and fun. Therefore, the big creative idea suggests promotional campaign within make-up collection focusing on interactive side of products, while collaboration with the make-up artist Gucci Westman would be more based on actual Zara products’ functions. The innovative side of products could be reached within
FIG. 87 COLLABORATION WITH THE MAKE-UP
its creative wood packaging, which would also be a part of unique
ARTIST WOULD BE HELP TO
Zara tone of voice when being modern and classic at
INFORM CONSUMERS ABOUT
the same time. FIG. 86 FUN AND INTERACTIVE ZARA MAKE-UP CAMPAIGN ‘LEAVE YOUR MARK WITH MAKEUP BY ZARA’
ACTUAL FUNCTION OF PRODUCTS
FIG. 88 COMMUNICATION STRATEGY ONLINE USING ZARA WEBSITE, VIRAL VIDEOS, PHOTOS, SOCIAL MEDIA
MEASURING SUCCESS & FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS In order to see how beneficial Zara brand extension into make-up would be, different ways could be used to measure the success of the product launch. As Zara website is one of the selected distribution channels for the product range, websites’ measurement site such as Google Analytics (www.google.com/analytics), could help to see how people found Zara makeup page, how they explored it, and how Zara could enhance their visitor experience (Google Support: online). Therefore, this could be a great way to measure Zara make-up products sale success online and see if online service works when satisfying target consumer needs.
Zara make-up cards that were suggested as one of the promotional tools in store could be another great measurement tool in order to see the success of the product launch by finding out more about the consumer who shops for Zara make-up in store as well as online. As a result, consumers’ feedback when registering for make-up card in store or buying make-up products online within their account could do this. Finally, the idea of make-up provides Zara with the opportunities to launch make-up line not only in the UK but also
internationally, which would give another great chance to increase the sales. Furthermore, after Zara brand and UK market analysis, recommendations for the company would be to improve their communication strategy
online and be more interactive with their existing consumers, as well as try to attract younger demographics that are more fashion conscious and spend more on trendy items. Therefore, promotional activities suggested for make-up, such as Zara make-up card or student discount could be used with Zara clothing as well later on, depending on its success with this brand extension. Furthermore, it is essential in the future that Zara would continue keeping up with latest make-up trends, using
collaborations with other make-up artist in the beauty industry and looking at feedback they get from their consumers in order to improve customer service and satisfy fast fashion follower’s needs.
FIG. 89 ZARA MAKE-UP CARD WOULD BUILD CONSUMER LOYALTY AND BRING INTIMACY TO THE CONSUMER SHOPPING EXPERIENCE AS WELL AS LEAD TO ADOPTION STAGE – WHEN ZARA CUSTOMERS WOULD CHOOSE ZARA MAKE-UP IN THE FIRST PLACE WHEN THEY NEED BEAUTY PRODUCT. ALSO, WOULD HELP WHEN MEASURING SUCCESS AND GETTING MORE INFORMATION ABOUT EXISTING CONSUMERS
REFERENCES Introduction (Francis 2000:11) (Francis 2000:15) Methodology (Edelman 2010: 64) (McKinsey in Edelman 2010:67) (Edelman 2010:65) (Gladwell 2000 :59) Competitors (Turner 2010: online) (Max Factor 2012: online) (Jia En 2010:5) (Bobbi Brown 2012: online) (Bussiness Word 2011: online) (Zara 2012: online) (Topshop 2012: online) Consumer (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006: 162) (Chen 2012: 44) (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:163) The Big Idea (Ghemawat and Nueno 2006:13) (Jia En 2010:5) Creative Idea (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:301) (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:406) (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:493) (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006:630) (Elle 2010: online) (Dibb, Simkin, Pride, Ferrel 2006: 599) Conclusion (Keller, 2003) (Aaker, 1990) (Mintel: online) (Google Support: online)
BIBLIOGRAPHY Articles Aaker D. 1990 ‘Brand Extentions: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly’ (1990): 47-56 Chen E. ‘Summer Beauty Report’ Topshop Magazine (2012): 44 David C. Edelman ‘Branding in The Digital Age’ Harward Business Review (Dec 2010):62-69 P. Ghemawat and J.L. Nueno ‘Zara: Fast Fashion’ Harward Business School (Dec 2006): 2-20 T. Jia En ‘Chanel’s Brand Strategies’ Lasalle College of the Arts (Nov 2010): 5-13 Books Dibb S., Simkin L., Pride W.M., Ferrell O.C. 2006 ‘Marketing Concepts and Strategies’ Houghton Mifflin New York Abington Francis P.H. 2000 ‘Product Creation’ The Free Press Gladwell, M. 2000 ‘The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference’ Great Britain: Little Brown Keller, K.L. 2003 ‘Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring and Managing Brand’ Prentice-Hall New York Magazines i-D ‘The Whatever The Weather Issue’ No. 317 (2012) i-D ‘The Winter Warm Up Issue’ No. 316 (2011) L’Officiel Mada No. 19 (Feb 2012) Tony & Guy Spring Issue No. 29 (2012) Topshop Magazine (2012) Internet ‘AA Lip Gloss & Nail Polish’ ‘http://store.americanapparel.co.uk/accessories-aa-lip-gloss.html (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Bobbi Brown’ Available at: http://www.bobbibrowncosmetics.com/landing/makeup/index.tmpl (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Beauty Blog by Chloe Butcher’ Available at: www.ohsochloe.com (Accessed 20 Apr 2012) ‘Beauty Blog by Susannah Taylor’ Available at: www.getthegloss.com (Accessed 20 Apr 2012) ‘Business Word Magazine. Zara Design Strategy’ Available at: http://www.businessworld.in/content/view/898/953/ (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Chanel Make-up’ Available at: http://chanel-makeup-confidential.chanel.com/ (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Design for Topshop make-up’ Available at: http://www.sarahthorne.co.uk/topshop%20make%20up.html (Accessed 25 Apr 2012) ‘Elle: Beauty Insider: Gucci Westman’ Available at: http://www.elle.com/Beauty/Makeup-Skin-Care/Beauty-Insider-Gucci-Westman (Accessed 27 Apr 2012) ‘Fashion and Beauty Blog by Ruth Crilly’ Available at: www.amodelrecommends.com (Accessed 20 Apr 2012) ‘Fashion and Beauty Blog by Sasha Wilkins’ Available at: www.libertylondongirl.com (Accessed 20 Apr 2012) ‘Fashion and Beauty Blog by Zoe Sugg’ Available at: www.schoee.com (Accessed 20 Apr 2012)
‘Facial Skincare –UK- June 2011’ Available at: http://store.mintel.com/facial-skincare-uk-june-2011.html (Accessed 16 Dec 2011) ‘Google Analytics Support’ Available at: http://www.googleanalyticssupport.com (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘H&M Cosmetics’ Available at: http://www.hm.com/gb/subdepartment/LADIES?Nr=4294966136 (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Max Factor’ Available at: http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventors/a/MaxFactor.htm (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Stores’ Available at: http://www.thecoolhunter.co.uk/stores (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Teen Vogue editor Eva Chen’ Available at: www.evachen212.tumblr.com (Accessed 20 Apr 2012) ‘Topshop’ Available at: http://www.topshop.com (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Topshop Make-up’ Available at: http://www.topshop.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/CatalogNavigationSearchResultCmd?catalogId=33057&storeId=12556&langId=1&viewAllFlag=false&sort_field=Relevance&categoryId=208495&beginIndex=1&pageSize=20&interstitial=true (Accessed 10 Apr 2012) ‘Topshop Make-Up Review’ Available at: http://www.fromgemwithlove.com/2012/01/topshop-make-up-review.html (Accessed 25 Apr 2012) Turner C. 2010 ‘What Marketers Can Learn from Topshop’s Make-up Brand Extension?’ Available at: http://www.utalkmarketing.com/Pages/Article.aspx?ArticleID=17636 (Accessed 27 Apr 2012) ‘Unique Independent Design’ Available at: http://www.koobly.com/blog.aspx?tag=design (Accessed 27 Apr 2012) ‘Zara’ Available at: http://www.zara.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/home/uk/en/zara-S2012 (Accessed 10 Apr 2012)
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4 Photos ‘What’s in Your Bag?’ Own images Fig. 5 Opinion former Alexandra Capachenki’s image Fig. 6, 7, 8 Opinion former’s instogram photos Alexandra Capachenki’ images Fig. 9, 10, 11 Zara stores in London, Vilnius, Nottingham Own images Fig. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Visits to competitors stores Own images Fig. 17, 18 Topshop website Screen shots Fig. 19, 20 Topshop make-up logo and products Available at: http://www.sarahthorne.co.uk/topshop%20make%20up%20aw10.html Fig. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 Topshop make-up products Available at: http://www.sarahthorne.co.uk/topshop%20make%20up%20 aw10.html Fig. 31 Max Factor products Portfolio moodboard Fig. 32, 33, 34 Max Factor adverts Portfolio moodboard Fig. 35, 36 Vintage Max Factor adverts Available at: http://www.vintageadbrowser.com/beauty-and-hygiene-ads-1940s/123 Fig. 37, 38, 39, 40 Chanel make-up store Own Images Fig. 41 Chanel ‘Make-up Confidencial’ website Screen shots Fig. 42 Chanel make-up adverts Portfolio moodboard Fig. 43 Chanel make-up products Portfolio moodboard Fig. 44 Bobbi Brown make-up products Portfolio moodboard Fig. 45 Looks by Bobbi Brown Portfolio moodboard Fig. 46 Topshop instore Own Image Fig. 47 Topshop make-up display Own Image Fig. 48 Zara instore Own Image Fig. 49 Zara cosmetics Own Image Fig. 50 Make-up inspirations Portfolio moodboard Fig. 51 Target consumer for Zara make-up line Portfolio moodboard Fig. 52 Product mock-ups Own Image Fig. 53 Buying decision and influences Own Image Fig. 54 Products display mock-up Own Image
Fig. 55 Zara cosmetics display Own Image Fig. 56 Zara cosmetics display Own Image Fig. 57 Zara TRF collection 2012 Available at: http://www.zara.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/category/uk/en/zara-S2012/190004/Campaign Fig. 58 Zara website Screen shots Fig. 59 Key beauty and fashion blogs Screen shots Fig. 60 Pricing decision Own Image Fig. 61 Zara make-up products adoption process Own Image Fig. 62 Zara make-up page (core collection) Own Image Fig. 63 Gucci Westman Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kellystuart/5015934462/in/photostream/ Fig. 64 Looks created by Gucci Westman Portfolio moodboard Fig. 65 Campaign poster mock-up Image in the mock-up available at: www.makeouville.tumblr.com Fig. 66 Photo competition on Zara facebook page Images in the mock-up available at: www.makeouville.tumblr.com Fig. 67 Campaign video Images in the video mock-up available at: www.makeouville.tumblr.com Fig. 68 Campaign pages on Zara website Images in the website mock-up available at: www.makeouville.tumblr.com Fig. 70, 71, 72, 73 Zara make-up card Own Images Fig. 74 Zara make-up campaign posters in store Own Images Fig. 75 Existing products wood packaging Portfolio moodboard Fig. 76 Inspiration for product design Portfolio moodboard Fig. 77 Inspiration for product design Portfolio moodboard Fig. 78 Products mock-ups Own Images Fig. 79, 80, 81,82, 83 Zara make-up packaging design Own Images Fig. 84 Target Consumer Portfolio moodboard Fig. 85 TRF collection Available at: http://www.zara.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/category/uk/en/zara-S2012/190004/Campaign Fig. 86 Zara make-up campaign ‘Leave your mark with make-up by Zara’ Images in the mock-up available at: www.makeouville.tumblr.com Fig. 87 Collaboration with the make-up artist http://www.flickr.com/photos/kellystuart/5015934462/in/photostream/ Fig. 88 Communication strategy online Images in the mock-up available at: www.makeouville.tumblr.com Fig. 89 Zara make-up card Own Images
APPENDIX 3 Interview with Zara staff in Vilnius (28/03/2012)
What do you think about Zara as a brand? What do you like about it?
I like that Zara’s approach to design is closely linked to their consumers. Also, they manage to be on top of the fashion trends and different kind of consumers’ tastes but they never loose what they really are, which I would describe as classic but modern and young fashion. How do you think Zara differentiates itself? What can you find different here in Zara store than in the other retailers stores on the high street?
I think now it’s really hard to do something very different from others, especially in this fast fashion retailing, but I believe Zara differentiates itself by suggesting clothing for consumer who is looking for something classic but also want to look a bit more different from others. I would say Zara suggests classics with a modern twist. Are you aware of fashion trends that are going to be next season?
Well, for Spring Collection Zara is very much about bright, washed-out colours, lightweight materials, summery look. I believe, the big sellers are going to be long skirts with high slit and very trendy tuxedo jackets. What do you think about idea of creating Zara make-up line?
I think it’s interesting idea…I could imagine that in Zara store…After all make-up is one of the supplementing parts in fashion. What do you think, are clothing retailers successful in cosmetics industry? Why?
Yes, I think there are a few successful…I cann’t think about many examples though…I think it’s more popular among luxurious brands… Chanel is doing this very well, I think…
What do you think about current Zara cosmetics products that they already have in their stores, like fragrances? Are they popular in your store? Do people buy them a lot?
Well, in our store we have quite big range of fragrances. I think the smells are very different and everyone can find what they are looking for. Do you think people buy make-up to compliment their outfits or they do not relate that with their clothing?
Yes, I do agree with that – no make-up would look good with horrible tasteless clothing and the other way around, some make-up, I think, can make some outfits to look even better.