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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

M.P. Pollution Control Board, executed the project entitled Bio Mapping of River Narmada. The project is sponsored by Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. Project tenure is of two year w.e.f. May, 2007. Monitoring work was started from October, 2007 with identification of sampling sites in entire river stretch in M.P. Total 30 sampling sites were fixed for monitoring the river.

Eastern Zone cover the river stretch from Amarkantak to Narsingpur with fourteen sampling sites viz., Origin of Narmada (Kund, Amarkantak), Ramghat (Amarkantak), Graveyard (D/S Stop Dam), Kapil Van (Amarkantak), Kapil Dhara (Amarkantak) ,Dindori ghat, Jogi Tikaria (Near Dindori), Raptapul Ghat (D/S Road Bridge), Mandla, Chiri Ghat (Near Mandla), Bargi Reservoir U/S (Near Maikal Resort), Bargi Dam D/S (Jabalpur), Saraswati Ghat (Jabalpur), Jhansi ghat (Shahpura), Barmanghat (Near Narsingpur).

In Central zone the sampling sites were identified at Hoshangabad region with eight sampling locations viz., Ram Mandir (Bandrabhan), Jarrapur (Near Budni), Tawa river,

Tawa confluence, Goalgaon (Near Budni Ghat), Mangalwara Ghat

(Hoshangabad), SPM Nalla U/S(Hoshangabad), SPM Nalla D/S (Hoshangabad)

Western Zone covers the area of Malwa region and

eight sampling sites were

identified namely U/S Omkareshwar Dam , Nagarghat D/S Omkareshwar dam, Mamleshwar ghat D/S Omkareshwar dam, Khedighat (Mortakka), Mandleshwar, D/S Dam, MPT Hotel (Maheshwar), Rajghat (Badwani), Koteshwar ghat (Nisarpur).


Monitoring of Physico chemical component and Biological parameters like identification of macro invertebrates were carried out from the above sampling sites. Collection of samples for analyzing these components was as per standard methods. Analysis data were compiled and discussed in detail in the project report. It is revealed that the quality of river water based on physico-chemical analysis is classified in class A to D as per BIS 2296 [1982] at different sampling locations with Class B & C in most of the sampling points classified the water used for out door bathing and other recreation use. The water can also be used for domestic use after treatment and disinfection.

Biological Water Quality Criteria [BWQC] used for evaluating water quality based on identification of macro invertebrate families and awarding a specific diversity score and designate the quality from class A to E [from least to severe pollution respectively] .

In Eastern Zone at origin of river at Amarkantak the biological water quality did not support benthic macro-invertebrates due to lack of any substratum. In subsequent sampling locations the quality of water classified in class B-C based on BWQC score. Deterioration of water quality mainly due to anthropogenic activities within and around the river bed. At one location Kapilvan of Amarkantak region observed class D during January, 2009.

In Central Zone, the biological water quality of the river classified in class B-C. The reason for the degradation of water quality is mainly due to human activities which includes mainly religious, recreational and agricultural. Confluence of domestic effluent is affecting water quality of river.


In Western Zone the BWQC score designate the quality of river water in class B-C at all the sampling location. Sampling site at Raptapul ghat in Mandla showed class A at during November, 07 and Oct, 08,

the reason for improved water quality at this region is mainly due to riffle zone. River water at Saraswati ghat showed class D during November, 2007 indicating heavy pollution. The quality of water at this location improved in April, 2008 due to large volume of river water during the sampling time.

During the entire monitoring of river Narmada, in all the three zones at 30 monitoring sites the quality of water classified at most of the sampling locations from Class B to C based on BWQC pollution.

score indicate river water quality as

slight to moderate


2.1. INTRODUCTION: Biomonitoring involves the use of indicators, indicator species or indicator communities. Generally benthic macro invertebrates, fish, and/or algae are used. Certain aquatic plants have also been used as indicator species for pollutants including nutrient enrichment (Phillips and Rainbow, 1993; Batiuk et al., 1992). Macro invertebrates are most frequently used component of water quality (Rosenberg and Resh, 1993). Biochemical, genetic, morphological, and physiological changes in certain organisms have been noted as being related to particular environmental stressors and can be used as indicators. Biomonitoring is used to measure the response of aquatic communities to anthropogenic stressors like energy source, water quality, habitat quality, flow regimes and biotic interactions. Toxic substances, urban influences, sedimentation and flow regulation are some of the stressors that impact the water quality considerably. Benthic macro invertebrates have been found as the most common faunal assemblages for bio assessment and provide more reliable assessment for long term ecological changes in the quality of aquatic system compared to its rapidly changing physico-chemical characteristics. Structure of macroinvertebrate has long been used as bio-indicators to assess the water quality of a water body (Hynes, 1972 and Reynoldson et al 1989). The presence/absence, numbers (% abundance), morphology, physiology or behaviour of these indicator organisms can significantly predict the physico-chemical conditions defining the status of given water body at a given location e.g. the presence of some families of highly tolerant organisms is usually an indication of poor water quality (Tyagi, 2006). Advantage of macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators inhabiting the lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams and other water bodies are that they are visible to unaided eyes and can be retained by a sieve having a mesh size of 500 Âľm pore diameter, have sedentary and long life span and are significantly sensitive to organic pollution, thermal pollution, substrate alteration and toxic substances. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the benthic communities have also been used as tool for checking pollution through use of indices [Dhillon et al, 1995]. Sharma et al (2006) have conducted the


bio assessment of Behta River with benthic macroinvertebrates using Nepalese Biotic Score (NEPBIOS) and National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) system to see impact of slaughter house located on the bank of river.

Stream order (stream size) affects a stream’s natural characteristics, including the biological communities that live in stream, such as fish and invertebrates. Very small 1st-order and 2nd-order streams are often quite clear and narrow and are frequently shaded by grasses, shrubs, and trees that grow along the stream bank. The food base of these streams is found along the stream bank and tends to consist of leaves and terrestrial insects, which dominate the streams’ ecology, along with algae that attach to rocks and wood, aquatic insects adapted to shedding leaves and scraping algae, and small fish that feed on these organisms. In contrast, larger 6th and 7th order rivers typically appear muddy because their flow carries accumulated sediments downstream. These rivers are wide enough that the canopy cover along their banks shades only a narrow margin of water along the river’s edge. The food base for these water bodies shifts towards in-stream sources, such as algae; downstream drift of small organisms; and deposition of fine detritus. Although the aquatic communities of larger rivers include the algae and terrestrial insects found in streams, these rivers are dominated by insects adapted to filtering and gathering fine organic particles, and larger fish that are omnivorous (feeding on plants and animals) and/or piscivorous (feeding on smaller fish).


The BWQC uses benthic macroinvertebrates (e.g., aquatic larval stages of insects, crustaceans, worms, mollusks) as the biological indicator of a stream’s ecological condition. Benthic macroinvertebrates live throughout the stream bed, attaching to rocks and woody debris and burrowing in sandy stream bottoms and among the debris, roots, and grasses that collect and grow along the water’s edge. The BWQC focuses on these macroinvertebrates because of their inherent capacity to integrate the effects of the stressors to which they are exposed, in combination and over time. Stream macroinvertebrates generally cannot move very quickly or very far; therefore, they are affected by, and may recover from, a number of changes in physical conditions (e.g., habitat loss), chemical conditions (e.g., excess nutrients), and biological conditions (e.g., presence of invasive or non-native species). Some types of macroinvertebrates are affected by these conditions more than others. Macro-invertebrates provide a measurement of biological condition or health relative to the biological integrity of a stream. Biological integrity represents the capability of supporting and maintaining a balanced, integrated, adaptive community of organisms having a species composition, diversity, and functional organization comparable to that of the natural habitat of the region. Physical stressors are physical habitat of a stream or its watershed, such as through extensive urban or agricultural development, excessive upland or bank erosion, or loss of streamside trees and vegetation. Chemical stressors include toxic compounds (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides), excess nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus), or acidity from acidic deposition or mine drainage. Biological stressors are characteristics of the biota that can influence biological integrity, such as the proliferation of non-native or invasive species (either in the streams and rivers, or in the riparian areas adjacent to these water bodies). The BWQC water chemistry data allow an evaluation of the distribution of nutrients, salinity, and acidification in the riverine system. The physical habitat data provide information on the prevalence of excess sediments, the quality of in-stream fish habitat, and quality of riparian habitat alongside rivers. Data on biological condition are invaluable for managing the nation’s aquatic resources and ecosystems. Water quality managers can use these data to set protection and restoration goals, decide which indicators to monitor and how to interpret


monitoring results, identify stresses to the water body and decide how they should be controlled, and assess and report on the effectiveness of management actions. The metrics used to develop the Macro-invertebrate index for the WSA covered six different characteristics of macroinvertebrate assemblages that are commonly used to evaluate biological condition: • Taxonomic richness – This characteristic represents the number of distinct taxa, or groups of organisms, identified within a sample. Many different kinds of distinct taxa, particularly those that belong to pollution-sensitive insect groups, indicate a variety of physical habitats and food sources and an environment exposed to generally lower levels of stress. • Taxonomic composition – Ecologists calculate composition metrics by identifying the different taxa groups, determining which taxa in the sample are ecologically important, and comparing the relative abundance of organisms in those taxa to the whole sample. Healthy stream systems have organisms from across many different taxa groups, whereas unhealthy stream systems are often dominated by a high abundance of organisms in a small number of taxa that are tolerant of pollution. • Taxonomic diversity – Diversity metrics look at all the taxa groups and the distribution of organisms among those groups. Healthy streams should have a high level of diversity throughout the assemblage. • Feeding groups – Many macroinvertebrates have specialized strategies to capture and process food from their aquatic environment. As a stream degrades from its natural condition, the distribution of animals among the different feeding groups will change. For example, as a stream loses its canopy (a source of leaves and shading), the aquatic community will shift from a more diverse food chain to one of predominantly algal-feeding animals that are tolerant of warm water. • Habits – Just like other organisms, benthic macroinvertebrates are characterized by certain habits, including how they move and where they live. These habits are captured in the habit metrics. For example, some taxa burrow under the streambed sediment, whereas others clinge to rocks and debris within the stream channel. A


stream that naturally includes a diversity of habitat types will support animals with diverse habits; however, if a stream becomes laden with silt, the macroinvertebrates that cling, crawl, and swim will be replaced by those that burrow. • Pollution tolerance – Each macroinvertebrate taxa can tolerate a specific range of stream contamination, which is referred to as their pollution tolerance. Once this level is exceeded, the taxa are no longer present in that area of the stream. Highly sensitive taxa, or those with a low pollution tolerance, are found only in streams with good water quality. Invertebrate families exhibit different sensitivities to organic pollution, specifically the resultant low oxygen levels, and a characteristic that makes them effective water quality indicators. Each family is assigned a biotic score between 1 and 10 according to this tolerance with no weighting given to the relative abundance of individual organisms. Pollutant intolerant species like mayflies are assigned a high score, tolerant organisms like worms a low score and shrimps, an intermediate organism a mid range score. Benthic macroinvertebrates are widely used to determine biological condition. These organisms can be found in all streams, even in the smallest streams that cannot support fish. Because they are relatively stationary and cannot escape pollution, macroinvertebrate communities integrate the effects of stressors over time (i.e., pollution-tolerant species will survive in degraded conditions, and pollution-intolerant species will die). These communities are also critically important to fish because most game and non-game species require a good supply of benthic macroinvertebrates as food. Biologists have been studying the health and composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams for decades. Biological condition is the most comprehensive indicator of water body health; when the biology of a stream is healthy, the chemical and physical components of the stream are also typically in good condition. In fact, several states have found that biological data frequently detect stream impairment where chemistry data do not. (Plafkin et al, 1989)

2.2 ADVANTAGES OF BIOMONITORING: •

Benthic macroinvertebrates are found in most of the aquatic habitats.


Large number of species and different environmental stresses produce different macroinvertebrate communities.

Small order streams often do not support fish but do support extensive macroinvertebrate communities.

Macroinvertebrates generally have limited mobility [except high current streams]. Thus they are indicators of localized environmental conditions.

Benthic macroinvertebrates may retain (bioaccumulation) toxic substances, where levels of toxins are undetectable in the water resource.

Water quality of a stream can be assessed by identifying the benthic community structure whether the stream is environmental degraded or not?

Benthic macroinvertebrates are small enough to be easily collected and identified.

Sampling of macroinvertebrates under a rapid assessment protocol is easy, requires few people and minimal equipment, and does not adversely affect other organisms.

Macroinvertebrates are the primary food source for recreationally and commercially important fish. An impact on macroinvertebrates impacts the food web and designated uses of the water resource.


3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: •

To assess the quality of Narmada river water by evaluating the composition of biological communities.

•

To detect and report on spatial and temporal trends in the ecological state of aquatic ecosystems.


4. STUDY AREA: Narmada River is the fifth largest river in India and the largest west flowing river of Indian peninsula. It is known as the life line of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Originating from Amarkantak (situated at 200 40’ N, 800 45’E), in District. Shahdol of Madhya Pradesh, the river travels a distance of 1312 km, before meeting Arabian sea situated at 21043’N, 72057’E. in gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, out of which 1077 km is in the state of Madhya Pradesh covering the districts of Shahdol, Dhindori, Mandla, Jabalpur, Hoshangabad, Harda, Khandwa, Khargone, Barwani, Dhar and Jhabua. Narmada river is an inter-state river. 32 kms in common boundry between M.P. and Maharastra and another 40 kms between the border of Maharastra and Gujarat. The river flows through Gujarat state for a length of 161 kms. For ease of study, the entire river stretch in Madhya Pradesh was divided into three zones i.e. Eastern, Central and Western Zones. The Eastern Zone includes 14 sampling sites where as both Central and Western Zone includes 8 sampling sites each. The Eastern Zone extends from origin point to Berman Ghat, Narsinghpur, Central Zone represents Hoshangabad region and Western Zone extents from Omkareshwar to Koteshwar (Nisarpur).


Sampling sites of Eastern zone: 1. Origin of Narmada (Kund, Amarkantak) 2. Ramghat (Amarkantak) 3. Graveyard (D/S Stop Dam) 4. Kapil Van (Amarkantak) 5. Kapil Dhara (Amarkantak) 6. Dindori ghat 7. Jogi Tikaria (Near Dindori) 8. Raptapul Ghat (D/S Road Bridge), Mandla 9. Chiri Ghat (Near Mandla) 10. Bargi Reservoir U/S (Near Maikal Resort) 11. Bargi Dam D/S (Jabalpur) 12. Saraswati Ghat, Jabalpur 13. Jhansi ghat, Shahpura 14. Barmanghat (Near Narsingpur)

Sampling sites of Central zone : 1. Ram Mandir (Bandrabhan) 2. Jarrapur (Near Budni) 3. Tawa river 4. Narmada river, Tawa confluence 5. Goalgaon (Near Budni Ghat) 6. Mangalwara Ghat (Hoshangabad) 7. SPM Nalla U/S(Hoshangabad) 8. SPM Nalla D/S (Hoshangabad)

Sampling sites of Western zone : 1. U/S Omkareshwar Dam 2. Nagarghat D/S Omkareshwar dam 3. Mamleshwar ghat D/S Omkareshwar dam 4. Khedighat (Mortakka) 5. Mandleshwar, D/S Dam 6. MPT Hotel (Maheshwar) 7. Rajghat, Badwani 8. Koteshwar ghat, (Nisarpur)

PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING SAMPLING LOCATIONS


EASTERN ZONE:

Plate 1: Origin Point of River Narmada Amarkantak

Plate 3: Graveyard, Amarkantak

Amarkantak Plate 5: Kapildhara, Amarkantak Dindori

Plate 2: Ramghat,

Plate

Plate

4:

6:

Kapilvan,

Jogi

Tikaria,


Plate 7: Dindori Ghat, Dindori Mandla

Plate

8:

Raptapul

Ghat,

Plate 9: Chiri Ghat, Mandla

Plate 10: Bargi Dam Up stream

Plate 11: Bargi Dam Down stream Jabalpur

Plate 12: Saraswati Ghat,


Plate 13: Jhansi Ghat, Shahpura Narsinghpur

Plate

14:

Barman

Ghat,

CENTRAL ZONE:

Plate 15: Ramnagar, Bandrabhan

Plate 17: Goalgaon, Budni Ghat Hoshangabad

Plate 16: Jarrapur, Budni

Plate 18: SPM Upstream,


Plate 19: SPM Downstream, Hoshangabad

Plate 20: Mangalwara Ghat, Hoshangabad

Plate 21: Before confluence of Tawa River confluence

Plate

22:

After

of Tawa River

WESTERN ZONE :

Plate 23: Omkareshwar Upstream

Plate 24: Nagar Ghat, Omkareshwar


Plate 25: Mamleshwar Ghat, Omkareshwar Mortakka

Plate

Plate 27: Kasrawat, Mandleshwar Maheshwar

Plate 28: MPT Hotel,

Plate 29: Rajghat, Badwani Nisarpur

26:

Khedi

Ghat,

Plate 30: Koteshwar,


5. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Sample collection and Analysis: Samples from Narmada river were collected and analysed at quarterly basis w.e.f. October , 2007 in about 1077 kms of stretch right from Amarkantak to Koteshwar for biological as well as physico-chemical component , from 30 sites from eastern, central and western zones respectively. Physico chemical components of river water were analysed as per Standard Method for the Analysis of Water & Waste Water, APHA, 1992 Ed. Biological sampling involved collection of benthic macro-invertebrates. The biological samples were collected as per standard method by using hand nets, shovel, stones, pebbles, boulders and uprooting macrophytic vegetation of the river. The collected samples were transferred from the net to a sieve (0.6 mm mesh size) and washed in water either by swirling in the river water or by pouring stream or river water through the net for removing the sediments. The benthic animals were then sorted out from the sample with the help of forceps and collected in a white enamel tray having water for identification. The taxonomic identification was done up to family level. The field parameters were done at in the site itself. Rest of the analysis was done in the lab as per approved CPCB protocol.


6. OBSERVATIONS, RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS: 6.1. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL COMPONENTS: Temperature Temperature is one of the most important factors which influence the aquatic ecology (Huet,1986). In Eastern region, water temperature was found between 16 - 320 C while in Central and Western region its range was- 18 to 350C and 18 to 290C respectively. The minimum temperature was found in Kapilvan, Amarkantak in the month of January, 2009. Variations in the temperature at sampling locations is

Temparature 0 C

depicted in Fig-1

40 30 20 10 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Jan, 09

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

C

35

Temparature

40

0

Fig. 1a: Variation of water temperature in Eastern region

30 25 20 15 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan Jarrapur

Mangalw ara Goal gaon

SPM U/S Taw a river

SPM D/S D/S Taw a river

Fig. 1b: Variation of water temperature in Central region


Temparature 0 C

30 25 20 15 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month

Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 1c: Variation of water temperature in Western region

Turbidity:

Turbidity NTU

Turbidity of water is mainly due to suspended solids in the water, including silts, clays, industrial wastes, sewage and plankton. Such particles absorb heat in the sunlight, thus raising water temperature, which in turn lowers dissolved oxygen levels. They also prevent sunlight from reaching plants below the surface. This decreases the rate of photosynthesis, so less oxygen is produced by plants. Range of turbidity in eastern and western zone is in between 1-4 NTU and in Central region it is 1-5 NTU. Maximum turbidity was recorded in the month of November, 08 in Tawa River. Variations in the turbidity at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-2

5 4 3 2 1 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 2a: Variation of turbidity in Eastern region


Turbidity NTU

6 4 2 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a conf luence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Turbidity NTU

Fig. 2b: Variation of turbidity in Central region

5 4 3 2 1 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 2c: Variation of turbidity in Western region

pH: pH plays a main role for biological life in order to ensure they may survive in water bodies. The concentration range of pH suitable for existence of most biological life quite narrow and crucial. Generally the desirable pH range for treated effluents either from municipal or industrial discharged into water streams usually varies from 6.5 to 8.5 pH (Metcalf and Eddy, 2004). pH of the entire stretch was observed in the range of 5.03 -9. In case of eastern zone the range was observed in between 5.03-9. Central and Western zone exhibit almost same pH range i.e. 6-9. The minimum pH was recorded in Narmada kund in the month of November, 07. Variations in the pH at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-3.


pH

10 8 6 4 2 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 3a: Variation of pH in Eastern region

pH

10 9 8 7 6 5 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

pH

Fig. 3b: Variation of pH in Central region

10 8 6 4 2 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 3c: Variation of pH in Western region Conductivity:


Conductivity, is a measure of the ability of an aqueous solution to carry an electrical current flow, it is expressed in microSiemens (uS). Because conductivity increases nearly linearly with increasing ion concentration, we can use conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations in solutions. The range of conductivity of the entire stretch was observed in the range of 60- 380 uS/cm showing minimum and maximum in the eastern region. Conductivity in Central and Western region were observed in between 110- 330 uS/cm and 140- 355 uS/cm respectively. Maximum was noted at Raptapul ghat, Mandla in the month of November, 07. Variations in the

Conductivity ÂľS/cm

temperature at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-4 400 300 200 100 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Jan, 09

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 4a: Variation of conductivity in Eastern region

Conductivity ÂľS/cm

400 300 200 100 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Fig. 4b: Variation of conductivity in Central region


Conductivity ÂľS/cm

400 300 200 100 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 4c: Variation of conductivity in Western region

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): Total solids content is the most vital physical characteristic of both water and wastewater, which is composed of colloidal matter, floating matter, settleable matter etc in solution. In Eastern zone range of TDS was observed in the range of 6-190 mg/l, in Central zone it was 18-220 mg/l and in Western zone it was 57-200mg/l respectively. Minimum TDS was recorded in downstream of Bargi reservoir in the month of October, 08. Variations in the TDS at sampling locations is depicted in Fig5

TDS mg/l

200 150 100 50 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 5a: Variation of TDS in Eastern region


TDS mg/l

250 200 150 100 50 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

TDS mg/l

Fig. 5b: Variation of TDS in Central region

250 200 150 100 50 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 5c: Variation of TDS in Western region

DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO): Dissolved oxygen (DO) refers to the volume of oxygen that is contained in water. Oxygen enters the water as rooted aquatic plants and algae undergo photosynthesis, and as oxygen is transferred across the air-water interface. The amount of oxygen that can be held by the water depends on the water temperature, salinity, and pressure. Gas solubility increases with decreasing temperature (colder water holds more oxygen). Dissolved oxygen in Eastern zone varied between 4.2-11.8 mg/l showing maximum in Bargi reservoir upstream in the month of October, 08 and minimum in Saraswati ghat in the month of October, 08. The range of DO in Central and Western zone was 5.413.1 mg/l and 5.6-11.4. mg/l. Maximum DO was recorded in the month of November, 08 at Bandrabhan site, Hoshangabad. Variations in the DO at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-6


DO mg/l

15 10 5 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 6a: Variation of DO in Eastern region

DO mg/l

15 10 5 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a conf luence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Fig. 6b: Variation of DO in Central region

DO mg/l

15 10 5 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 6c: Variation of DO in Western region

Biochemical oxygen demand [BOD]:


Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is one of essential parameter in order to determine organic pollutant level as consequence of domestic wastes, agricultural. Minimum BOD of Eastern and Central zone was observed same 0.4 mg/l. The maximum BOD of Eastern zone was 7.6 mg/l while it was 4.1 mg/l in Central zone. The range of BOD in Western zone was in between 1.2- 4.1 mg/l. Maximum BOD was noted in the month of October, 08 at Bargi U/S. Variations in the BOD at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-7

BOD mg/l

8 6 4 2 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

BOD mg/l

Fig. 7a: Variation of BOD in Eastern region 5 4 3 2 1 0 Oct

Jan

March

May

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Fig. 7b: Variation of BOD in Central region

Nov


BOD mg/l

5 4 3 2 1 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 7c: Variation of BOD in Western region

Chemical Oxygen Demand [COD]: COD refer to the quantity of oxygen required to oxidize a complete organic substance chemically to form Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The deteriorating of water quality can be measured with high value of COD. The minimum COD of the entire stretch of river under eastern to western zone was 10 mg/l while the maximum 110 mg/l. The range of COD in Eastern, Central and Western zone were 10-110 mg/l, 10-100 mg/l and 10 – 60 mg/l respectively. The maximum COD was found at D/S Bargi in the month of October, 08. Variations in the DO at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-8

COD mg/l

120 70 20 -30

Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month

Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 8a: Variation of COD in Eastern region


COD mg/l

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Fig. 8b: Variation of COD in Central region

COD mg/l

80 60 40 20 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 8c: Variation of COD in Western region

Total Coliform: Total coliform, fecal coliform, and E. coli are indicators of water quality. The total coliform group is a large collection of different kinds of bacteria. Total coliform bacteria are commonly found in the environment are generally harmless.Variations in the coliforms at sampling locations is depicted inFig-9


MPN /100 ml

2000 1500 1000 500 0 1

2

3

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 9a: Variation of total coli form in Eastern region

MPN /100 ml

2000 1500 1000 500 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

MPN / 100 ml

Fig. 9b: Variation of total coli form in Central region

400 300 200 100 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat


Fig. 9c: Variation of total coli form in Western region

Fecal Coliform: Fecal coliforms are mostly exists in faeces. Fecal coliform bacteria are a sub-group of total coliform bacteria. They appear in great quantities in the intestines and faces of people and animals. The presence of fecal coliform in a drinking water sample often indicates recent fecal contamination meaning that there is a greater risk that pathogens are present than if only total coliform bacteria is detected. In most cases fecal coliform bacteria was absent in the sample. In Narmada kund (origin of Narmada river) fecal coliform was found maximum (9 MPN/100 ml) in the month of November, 07.

Ammonical nitrogen The major sources of ammonical nitrogen are herbicide, pesticide and fertilizer from agricultural and farming activities, detergent from diurnal resident activities and animal manure from pig farm. The range of ammonical nitrogen in Eastern zone was observed in the range of 0.1- 1.17 mg/l. In Central zone and Western zone ammonical nitrogen ranged between 0.214- 0.979 mg/l and 0.008- 5018 mg/l showing maximum in Omkareshwar in the month of December, 08 and minimum in Maheshwar in the month of June, 08. Variations in the ammonical nitrogen at sampling locations is

Ammmonical nitrogen mg/l

depicted in Fig-10

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Sarasw ati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 10a: Variation of Ammonical nitrogen in Eastern region


Ammonical nitrogen mg/l

1.5 1 0.5 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Ammonical nitrogen mg/l

Fig. 10b: Variation of Ammonical nitrogen in Central region 6.05 5.05 4.05 3.05 2.05 1.05 0.05 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 10c: Variation of Ammonical nitrogen in Western region

Nitrate nitrogen : Although nitrates occur naturally in soil and water, excess levels of nitrates can be considered to be a contaminant of ground and surface waters. Most sources of excess nitrates come from anthropogenic activities. The source of excess nitrates can usually be traced to agricultural activities, human wastes, or industrial effluents. Nitrate concentration in Eastern zone was observed in the range between 0.01- 1.0 mg/l while it was 0.003- 0.516 mg/l in Central zone and 0.085 – 0.809 mg/l in Western zone. Variations in the nitrate nitrogen at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-11


Nitrate mg/l

1.5 1 0.5 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Jan, 09

Month

Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Saraswati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 11a: Variation of nitrate in Eastern region

0.6

Nitrate mg/l

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month

Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Fig. 11b: Variation of nitrate in Central region

Nitrate mg/l

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshw ar

Mandleshw ar

Omkareshw ar

Badw ani

Koteshw ar

Khedighat

Mamleshw ar

Nagarghat

Fig. 11c: Variation of nitrate in Western region


Nitrite nitrogen : Nitrite is an intermediate oxidation state of nitrogen. In aquaria and ponds, nitrites are produced by Nitrosomonas bacteria when ammonia is broken down. Nitrite concentration in the entire stretch observed in a range of 0.003- 20.52 mg/l. Maximum nitrite concentration was observed at SPM D/S in the month of October, 07. The ranges of nitrite in Eastern, Central and Western zone were 0.01-5.336 mg/l, 0.026 – 20.62 mg/l and 0.003 -.0.68 mg/l respectively. Variations in the nitrite nitrogen at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-12

Nitrite mg/l

6 4 2 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month

Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Saraswati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Nitrite mg/l

Fig. 12a:Variation of nitrite in Eastern region 25 20 15 10 5 0 Oct, 07

Jan, 08

March,

May,

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S

Mangalw ara Jarrapur

Taw a river

D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Fig. 12b:Variation of nitrite in Central region

Nov,


1.2

Nitrite mg/l

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshwar

Mandleshwar

Omkareshwar

Badwani

Koteshwar

Khedighat

Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Fig. 12c: Variation of nitrite in Western region

Phosphate : Phosphate deposits and phosphate-rich rocks release phosphorus during weathering, erosion, and leaching process. Phosphorus may also be released from lake and reservoir bottom sediments during seasonal overturns. Sewage treatment plants provide most of the available phosphorus to surface water bodies. The range of phosphate in Eastern zone was observed in between 0.222- 1.894 mg/l, in Central zone it was 0.021 – 1.5 mg/l and in western zone it was 0.036 – 2.5 mg/l. Variations in the phospates at sampling locations is depicted in Fig-13

Phosphate mg/l

1.5 1 0.5 0 Nov, O7

April, 08

Oct, 08

Month Narmada Kund Kapilvan Mandla raptapul Saraswati ghat

Ramghat Jogitikara U/ S Bargi Jhansighat Shahpura

Graveyard Dindori ghat D/S Bargi Barman ghat

Fig. 13a: Variation of phosphate in Eastern region


Phosphate mg/l

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Jan, 08

March, 08

May, 08

Nov, 08

Month Bandrabhan SPM D/S Taw a river

Mangalw ara Jarrapur D/S Taw a confluence

SPM U/S Goalgaon

Phosphate mg/l

Fig. 13b: Variation of phosphate in Central region 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Dec, 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec, 08

Month Maheshwar

Mandleshwar

Omkareshwar

Badwani

Koteshwar

Khedighat

Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Fig13c. Variation of phosphate in Western region The surface water quality of the Narmada river is also compared with BIS 2296 [1982]. It is observed that the quality of river water of the Eastern Zone classified under class A and B in most of the sampling sites and class C at Dindorighat. This reveals that the surface water in this region is suitable for outdoor bathing and used for domestic use after treatment and disinfection. Surface water quality at Central Zone classified under class A-C. The surface water in this region is suitable for outdoor bathing and used for domestic use after treatment and disinfection. In Western Zone the quality of water classified in class B in most of the sampling location which reveals that the water is suitable for out door bathing. Statistical details of the physico chemical components are as per table No- 1.7.1-1.7.4.

6.2. BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS (BENTHIC MACRO INVERTEBRATES:


The status of any water quality can also be assessed by Biological Water Quality Criteria (BWQC) for water quality evaluation. This system is based on the range of saprobic and diversity score of the benthic macro invertebrate families with respect to water quality. To determine the changes in water quality to different grades of pollution level, the entire taxonomic groups, with their range of Saprobic score from 1-10, in combination with the range of diversity score from 0-1 has been classified into 5 different classes of water quality as specified below:

Sl. No.

Taxonomic Groups

Range of saprobic score

1.

Ephemeroptera,

7 and

Plecoptera,

more

Range of Diversity Score

Water Quality

Water Quality Class

Indicator Colour

0.2-1.0

Clean

A

Blue

0.5-1.0

Slight

B

Light

Tricoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera

2.

Ephemeroptera,

6-7

Plecoptera,

Pollution

Blue

Tricoptera, Hemiptera, Planaria, Odonata, Diptera

3.

Ephemeroptera,

3-6

0.3-0.9

Plecoptera,

Moderate

C

Green

D

Orange

E

Red

Pollution

Tricoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Crustacea, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Coleoptera,

Diptera,

Hirudinea, Oligochaeta

4.

Mollusca, Hemiptera, Coleoptera,

2-5

0.4-less

Diptera,

Heavy Pollution

Oligochaeta

5.

Diptera, Oligochaeta, No animals

0-2

0-0.2

Severe Pollution


In Eastern Zone, the analysis results indicated that biological water quality of River Narmada did not support establishment of benthic macro-invertebrates at the origin of river at Amarkantak due to lack of any substratum essential for the growth and survival of invertebrate macro benthos and the water quality of River Narmada on this site found to be moderately polluted (Class “C”) due to various human activities related to religious and tourism. The water quality has changed to slightly polluted state (Class “B”) at Mandala. In Jabalpur region, the biological water quality of River Narmada observed from slight to heavy pollution due to anthropogenic activities. The river water quality from Jabalpur onwards to Badwani observed moderate pollution.

In Central Zone, the results indicated that biological water quality of River Narmada is maintained as moderately polluted (Class “C”) due to religious and recreational activities except at Bandrabhan after confluence of Tawa river which shows slight polluted water quality (Class “B”). In Western Zone, the results indicated that biological water quality of River Narmada is moderately polluted (Class “C”) due to anthropogenic activities except at Nagar ghat, Omkareshwar and Khedi Ghat, Mortakka which shows slight polluted water quality (Class “B”). Hence, the entire study reveals that the quality of the Narmada River Based on BQC is observed to be in Class C as per standard saprobic and diversity score of the benthic macro invertebrate families. Except in few sampling sites i.e. Bandrabhan after confluence of Tawa river in central zone shows slight pollution i.e. Class “B” and Nagar ghat, Omkareshwar and Mortakka, Khedighat, in western zone observed slight pollution i.e. Class “B” Summary of diversity and saprobic scores observed in eastern, central and western zone of River Narmada is depicted in Fig-14, 15 and 16 respectively and table 2.1.a, 2.2.a and 2.3.a.


Diversity Score of Eastern Zone

Diversity Score

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Nov-07

Apr-08

Oct-08

Jan-09

Ramghat, Amarkantak Kapildhara, Amarkantak

Graveyard, Amarkantak Jogi Tikaria, Dindori

Kapilvan, Amarkanatak Dindori Ghat, Dindori

Raptapul Ghat, Mandla Bargi Dam D/S

Chiri, Mandla Sarasw ati Ghat, Jabalpur

Bargi Dam U/S (Maikal Resort) Jhansi Ghat, Shahpura

Barmanghat, Narsinghpur

Fig. 14a: Variation of Diversity Score in Eastern region

Saprobic Score of Eastern Zone Saprobic Score

10 8 6 4 2 0 Nov-07

Apr-08

Oct-08

Jan-09

Ramghat, Amarkantak

Graveyard, Amarkantak

Kapilvan, Amarkanatak

Kapildhara, Amarkantak

Jogi Tikaria, Dindori

Dindori Ghat, Dindori

Raptapul Ghat, Mandla

Chiri, Mandla

Bargi Dam U/S (Maikal Resort)

Bargi Dam D/S

Sarasw ati Ghat, Jabalpur

Jhansi Ghat, Shahpura

Barmanghat, Narsinghpur

Fig. 14b: Variation of Saprobic Score in Eastern region


Diversity Score of Central Zone Dversity Score

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Oct., 2007

Jan., 2008

Ramnagar, Bandrabhan Goalgaon, Budni Bandrabhan, A/C of Tawa river U/S SPM Nallah, Hoshanga-bad D/S SPM Nallah, Hoshangabad

Feb., 2008

May, 2008

Jarrapur, Budni Tawa, Bandrabhan Mangalwara Ghat, Hoshanga-bad SPM Nallah*

Saprobic Score

Fig. 15a: Variation of Diversity Score in Central region

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Saprobic Score of Central Zone

Oct., 2007

Jan., 2008

Ramnagar, Bandrabhan Goalgaon, Budni Bandrabhan, A/C of Tawa river U/S SPM Nallah, Hoshanga-bad D/S SPM Nallah, Hoshangabad

Feb., 2008

May, 2008

Jarrapur, Budni Tawa, Bandrabhan Mangalwara Ghat, Hoshanga-bad SPM Nallah*

Fig. 15b: Variation of Saprobic Score in Central region


1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Dec., 2007

March, 2008

Omkareshwar U/S Mamleshwar Ghat, Omkareshwar Mandleshwar D/S Rajghat, Barwani

June, 2008

Dec., 2008

Nagar Ghat, Omkareshwar Khedi Ghat, Mortakka Maheshwar (MPT Hotel) Koteshwar Ghat, Nisarpur

Fig. 16a: Variation of Diversity Score in Western region

Saprobic Score of Western Zone Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

Diversity Score of Western Zone

8 6 4 2 0 Dec., 2007

March, 2008

Omkareshwar U/S Mamleshwar Ghat, Omkareshwar Mandleshwar D/S Rajghat, Barwani

June, 2008

Dec., 2008

Nagar Ghat, Omkareshwar Khedi Ghat, Mortakka Maheshwar (MPT Hotel) Koteshwar Ghat, Nisarpur

Fig. 16b: Variation of Saprobic Score in Western region


7. CONCLUSION: Monitoring of River Narmada was started from October, 2007 for two years. During this period monitoring of river is being carried out at 30 locations on quarterly basis in eastern, central and western zone respectively. Monitoring of physico chemical component and biological parameters like identification of macro invertebrates were carried out from all the 30 sampling sites. Collection of samples for analyzing these components was as per standard methods. Analysis data were compiled and discussed in detail in the project report. It is observed that the quality of river water based on physico-chemical analysis is classified in class A to D as per BIS 2296 [1982] at different sampling locations with Class B & C in most of the sampling points classified the water used for out door bathing and other recreation use. The water can also be used for domestic use after treatment and disinfection.

Biological Water Quality Criteria [BWQC] used for evaluating water quality based on identification of macro invertebrate families and awarding a specific diversity score and designate the quality from class A to E [from least to severe pollution respectively] .

In Eastern Zone at origin of river at Amarkantak the biological water quality did not support benthic macro-invertebrates due to lack of any substratum. In subsequent sampling locations the quality of water classified in class B-C based on BWQC score. Degradation of water quality mainly due to anthropogenic activities within and around the river bed. At one location Kapilvan of Amarkantak region observed class D during January, 2009.


In Central Zone, the biological water quality of the river classified in class B to C. The reason for the degradation of water quality is mainly due to human activities which includes mainly religious, recreational and agricultural. Confluence of domestic effluent is affecting water quality of river.

In Western Zone the BWQC score designate the quality of river water in class B to C at all the sampling location. Sampling site at Raptapul ghat in Mandla showed class A at during November, 07 and Oct, 08, the reason for improved water quality at this region is mainly due to riffle zone. River water at Saraswati ghat showed class D during November, 2007 indicating heavy pollution. The quality of water at this location improved in April, 2008 due to large volume of river water during the sampling time.

During the entire monitoring of river Narmada, in all the three zones at 30 monitoring sites the quality of water classified at most of the sampling locations from Class B to C based on BWQC score indicate water quality as slight to moderate pollution.


8. REFERENCE: 1.

Hynes HBB. The Ecology of Running Water. University of 1. Toronto Press. 1972; 555.

2.

Reynoldson TB, Schloessor DB, Manny BA. Development of benthic invertebrate objective for mesotrophic great lakeswaters. J Great Lakes Res 1989; 15: 669 – 86.

3.

Tyagi P. Occurrence of benthic macroinvertebratres families encountered in River Hindan in Uttar Pradesh (India). J Zool India 2006; 9(1): 209 – 16.

4.

Dhillon S.S, Bath K.S, Mander G. Invertebrate fauna of fresh water bodies existing in and around Patiala. Journal of Environment and Pollution 1995; 2: 163 – 7.

5.

Sharma M.P, Sharma S, Goel V, Sharma P, Kumar A. Water quality assessment of Behta River using benthic macro-invertebrates. Life Science J 2006; 3(4): 68 – 74.

6.

Plafkin, J.L. M.T. Barbour, K.D. Porter, S.K. Gross, R.M. Hughes. 1989. Rapid Assessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Rivers: Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish. EPA: Washington, D.C. Rosenberg, D.M., V. H. Resh (eds). 1993. Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman & Hall: New York, NY. Batiuk, R.A., R.J. Orth, K.A. Moore, W.C. Dennison, J. C. Stevenson, L.W. Staver, V. Carter, N.B. Rybicki, R.E. Hickman, S. Kollar, S. Bieber, P. Heasly. 1992. Chesapeake Bay Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Habitat Requirements and Restoration Targets: A Technical Synthesis. EPA: Annapolis, MD.

7.

8.

Phillips, D.J.H., P.S. Rainbow. 1993. Biomonitoring of Trace Aquatic Contaminants. Elsevier Applied Science: New York, NY.

9.

Rosenberg and Resh, 1993, Freshwater macroinvertebrates. Chapman & Hall, NY.

10.

Huet,M.,1986.Textbook Ltd.,England.

11.

Weisse, T. and Stadler, P. (2006). “Effect of pH on Growth, Cell Volume, and Production of Freshwater Ciliates, and Implications for Their Distribution.” Limnology and Oceanography. 51(4). 1708–1715.

12.

Metcalf and Eddy. Inc. (2004). “Wastewater Engineering Treatment, Disposal and Reuse.” 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.

13.

Standard Method for the Analysis of Water and Waste Water, APHA, 19Ed ,1992.

of

Fish

biomonitoring

Culture.2nd

Edn.,Fish

and

benthic

News

Book.


9. PUBLICATIONS : 1. Water Quality assessment of River Narmada by Benthic Macroinvertebrate: Proc of Madhya Kshetriya Vigyan sammelan, Feb, 2122,2009 at Jabalpur. 2. o`gn vd’ks:dh; thoksa }kjk ueZnk unh ds ty dh xq.koRrk dk v/;;u : Proc of Madhya Kshetriya Vigyan sammelan, Feb, 21-22,2009 at Jabalpur 3. Benthic macro-Invertebrates of River Narmada in the Eastern Zone of Madhya Pradesh : Proc of 96th Annual Science Congress, 3-7, Jan, Shillong.

1


CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi-110 032 BIO-SCIENCE LABORATORY

Field Protocol for Bio-Monitoring SAMPLING EVENT DETAILS : Water body

:

Location

:

Date of sampling

:

Certificate No.: T-0644

Starting time of sampling Ending time of sampling

:

Sampling team

:

LOCATION DETAILS : Avg. Depth (m) or feet

:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

_ d

(Approx. depth can be measured from height of cattles wading, from bathing activities, length of iron rope of artificial substratum in water body or any other measuring device) Approx. width (m or feet) Approx. main stream flow (m/s)

:

Description of water

:

Pool Slack Riffle Run Depositing Eroding Turbulent Canalized

> 256 mm 255 – 64 mm

Boulders Cobbles

% %

63 – 16 mm 15 – 2 mm

Pebbles Gravel Sand Silt Clay Detritus Macrophytic vegetation Artificial substratum

% % % % % % % %

Substrate composition of Natural or Manmade water body/Wetland

:

Signature of Team Leader

Human influences

:

Melon farming Cattle wading


Dredging Sand recovery Other

Bathing, Tourist place

Wet land plants

:

%

Macrophyte cover/Name

:

%

Birds/wild life habitation/Name Surrounding land use

:

% :

Urban Arable Grazing Forest Other

Sun’s Intensity

:

Nil Moderate Heavy

Approx altitude (m)

:

Discharges

:

Confluences

:

Upstream- Industrial discharge from Mandideep

Make a detailed drawing or photograph of the local situation, and indicate sampling stations and other peculiarities:

Signature of Team Leader


Check List for Bio-Monitoring

1.

Sieve with 0.6 mm mesh size

2.

Hand net

3.

Shovel

4.

Scrapper

5.

Depth measurement device – Folding stick etc.

6.

Plastic ball, measuring tape & stop watch for flow measurement

7.

Gum boots and hand gloves

8.

pH strips, DO bottles & reagents

9.

Thermometer

10.

White enamel trays

11.

Small plastic bucket & rope

12.

Wide mouth bottle

13.

Forceps, needles & convex hand lens

14.

Formalin (4%) or Alcohol (70%)

15.

Stickers & marking pen

16.

Artificial substratum & its accessories for lined canals etc.

17.

First aid box, soap, disinfectant & towel

18.

Field protocols

19.

Camera for site photograph if required, caps etc.

20.

One big box/crate to accommodate artificial substratum for biomonitoring of benthic macro-invertebrate.

21.

Water proof file/bag for placing the field protocols

22.

Life Jacket

Signature of Team Leader


Check List for Sample Collection: SAMPLE TYPE

BOTTLE

VOLUME

PRESERVATION TICK MARK THE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SITE

Water Samples for Chemical Analysis Physico-chemical composition Ammonia Heavy metals Mercury Pesticides PAH + PCB + etc. Oil and grease Cyanide Phenol Chlorophyll

Total Coliform and Faecal Coliform

Heavy metals Pesticides + PAH + PCB + etc.

PE carboy

5L

Cooled in ice

G NM PE NM G NM

1L 250 ml 250 ml

G NM (brown) G NM (brown) G NM (brown) G NM G NM (brown) PE NM G NM GS (Sterilized)

1L 1L 1L 1L 1L 1L 300 ml

2 ml H2SO4 1 ml HNO3 1 ml HNO3 + 5ml K2Cr2O7 Cooled in ice Cooled in ice Cooled in ice Cooled in ice

Water Samples for Bacteriological Analysis Sterilized Glass Bottle 125 ml Cooled in ice

Sediment Samples for Chemical Analysis PE WM 1L Cooled in ice G WM 1L Cooled in ice

Biological Samples for Chemical Analysis (Fish, Mussels, Water Hyacinth, etc.) Heavy metals Pesticides + PCB + etc.

PE bag G WM

Deep frozen Deep frozen

1L

Biological Samples for Bio-Assessment Benthic Macro-Invertebrates

PE WM

0.1 – 0.5 L

Alcohol 70% or Formalin (4%)

25 L 25 L

None None

Others Effluent toxicity Up-stream dilution water

G – Glass,

PE carboy PE carboy

GS – Glass stoppered,

PE – Polythene,

NM – Narrow Mouth,

WM – Wide Mouth

Signature of Team Leader


FIELD MEASUREMENTS :

TIME

DATE

Water Temperature o ( C) Temp. Correc Actual Observed tion Temp. factor

Air Temperature o ( C) Temp. Corre Actual Observed ction Temp. factor

DOTitration (mg/l)

SAMPLING OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANISMS PROCEDURE :- Different procedures can be employed for sampling of biological parameters. Sampling should be conducted during availability of ample amount or sunlight in the field. Find out the nature of river bed and select the procedure. Always approach the sampling area starting from down stream to upstream. Avoid bio-monitoring at places of acute air quality problems. I.

Stoney River Bed: (a)

II.

III.

IV.

Pick up stones randomly from the fast flowing shallow stream and remove the organisms by brush or soft forceps pins into a white tray. (b) Place the sampling net firmly on to the stream bed. (c) Brush off the larger stones or rocks lying under water and placed adjacent to the mouth of net for collecting animals. Smaller Stones and Sandy Bed: Place the net or sieve firmly on to the stream bed against the flow. Stand before the net or sieve and kick up by foot the stream bed and collect the animals into the net or sieve. Wash the animals into white tray. Mud and Silty Bed: Pick up 5 grab samples of the river bed by the shovel. Wash the sample in the sieve by river water. Pick up the animals by hand or brush or soft forcep pins into white tray. Water Plants/Floating lands: Uproot the water plants present near the sampling area. Wash and collect the animals either directly into the net or into white tray. Collect the benthic macro-invertebrates from floating land by scrubbing the sieve or net under or sides of the floating land. Identify the indicator animals belonging to various taxa from the given identification chart and the characters. Note down the abundancy of each animals identified. Compare the results from the Water Quality Evaluation system of BWQC and define the water quality class to the investigated water body.

SAPROBIC [BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKING PARTY (BMWP)] SCORE: Ample care should be taken to ensure that all indicator families of Benthic Macroinvertebrates, which are present are actually encountered. This can be accomplished by subsampling all different (micro) habitats in a sizeable stretch of the river/water body. The monthly Inventory fieldwork can be restricted to a biologically mature period of the year (October – May), excluding monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Use identification key at page 12, for preliminary identification of Benthic Macro-invertebrates Taxa.

Signature of Team Leader This method involves a quantitative inventory of the presence of macro-invertebrate benthic fauna upto family level of taxonomic precision. All possible families having saprobic indicator value are classified on a score scale of 1 to 10 according to their preference for saprobic

pH Strip


water quality. The families which are most sensitive to pollution are on the top of the list (Table 1) and are getting a score of 10 while the most pollution tolerant families are getting a scope of 1 and 2. The other intermediately sensitive families are placed in between the scoring scale of 10 to 1. ENTER DIFFERENT SPECIES WITHIN ONE FAMILY SEPARATELY, AND INDICATE ABUNDANCYAS: Abundance scale:

A B C D E

= = = = =

single (one individual) scarce (2-10 individuals) common (10-50 individuals) abundant (50-100 individuals) excessive (more than 100 individuals or only one species) TABLE – 1

TAXONOMICAL GROUP

Ephemeroptera

TAXONOMICAL FAMILIES

MARK ENCOUNTERED FAMILIES AND IF POSSIBLE SPECIES WITHIN FAMILIES ALSO MARK ABUNDANCY AS 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E

TOTAL FAMILIES/ SPECIES ENCOUNTERED

BMWP SCORE

MULTIPLIED SCORE

X 10

30

Siphonuridae Heptageniidae Leptophlebiidae Ephemerellidae

1A

Pothaminthidae Ephemeridae Prosopistomatidae Plecoptera

Taeniopterygidae Leuctridae

1A

Capniidae Perlodidae Perlidae Hemiptera

Aphelocheiridae

Trichoptera

Leptoceridae Goeridae Lepidostomatidae Brachycentridae

1C

Sericostomatidae TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE

3


Signature of Team Leader TAXONOMICAL GROUP

TAXONOMICAL FAMILIES

Odonata

Euphaeidae

MARK ENCOUNTERED FAMILIES AND IF POSSIBLE SPECIES WITHIN FAMILIES ALSO MARK ABUNDANCY AS - 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E

TOTAL FAMILIES/ SPECIES ENCOUNTERED

BMWP SCORE

MULTIPLIED SCORE

X8

16

Lestidae Plathycnemididae Gomphidae Cordulegasteridae Aeschnidae Corduliidae Libellulidae Micronectidae Trichoptera

1A

Psychomyiidae Philopotamidae

1C

TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE Ephemeroptera

Caenidae

Plecoptera

Nemouridae

Trichoptera

Rhyacophilidae

2

Polycentropodidae Limnephilidae TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE Mollusca

X7

Neritidae Viviparidae

1B

Hydrobiidae Thiaridae Bithynidae Ancylidae Unionidae Trichoptera

Hydroptilidae

Crustacea

Atydae

1B

Gammaridae Paleamonidae Polychaeta

Nereidae Nephthyidae

Odonata

Agriidae Coenagriidae

TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE TAXONOMICAL

TAXONOMICAL

MARK ENCOUNTERED FAMILIES AND IF POSSIBLE

2 TOTAL

X6 BMWP

12 MULTI-


GROUP

Hemiptera

FAMILIES

SPECIES WITHIN FAMILIES ALSO MARK ABUNDANCY AS - 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E

FAMILIES/ SPECIES ENCOUNTERED

SCORE

PLIED SCORE

Mesovelidae Hydrometridae Gerridae Nepidae Naucoridae Notonectidae Pleidae Veliidae Hebridae Belastomatidae Corixidae

Coleoptera

Haliplidae Hygrobidae Dytiscidae Gyrinidae Hydrophilidae Dryopidae Elminthidae Noteridae Psephenidae

Trichoptera

Hydropsychidae

Diptera

Tipulidae

1C

Culicidae Blepharoceridae Simulidae Planaria

Planariidae Dendrocoelidae

TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE Ephemeroptera

Baetidae

Megaloptera

Sialidae

Hirudinea

Piscicolidae

TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE

1

X5

X4

5


Signature of Team Leader TAXONOMICAL GROUP

TAXONOMICAL FAMILIES

Mollusca

Lymnaeidae

MARK ENCOUNTERED FAMILIES AND IF POSSIBLE SPECIES WITHIN FAMILIES ALSO MARK ABUNDANCY AS - 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E 1A

TOTAL FAMILIES/ SPECIES ENCOUNTERED

BMWP SCORE

MULTIPLIED SCORE

1

X3

3

1

X2

2

Physidae Planorbidae Sphaeridae Hirudinea

Glossiphonidae Hirudidae Erpobdellidae

Planaria

Dugesiidae

Crustacea

Asellidae

TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE Diptera

Syrphidae Chironomidae

1B

Ephydridae TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE Oligochaeta

All families

X1

TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE

GRAND TOTAL FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED & GRAND TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE

Saprobic score:

10

GRAND TOTAL MULTIPLIED SCORE GRAND TOTAL NUMBER OF FAMILIES ENCOUNTERED

SAPROBIC SCORE:

68/10 = 6.8

REMARKS:

Signature of Team Leader

68


DIVERSITY SCORE (SEQUENTIAL COMPARISION): The evaluation of the benthic fauna diversity level can easily be done utilizing the same animals collected for estimating the saprobity score. Take photograph of the living animals in the field for evidence. Since the method only involves a pair-wise comparison of sequentially encountered individuals, and the differences of two specimen can easily be observed up to the species level, no taxonomic skill is required. First observed animal is always different and scored as 1 run. When the next observed animal is different from the last, a new run starts. The encounter of an individual which cannot be discerned from the last does not increment the number of runs. Size differences only do NOT change the run. SAME RUN IS 0 (organism is the same as the previous) NEXT RUN IS I (organism is different from the previous) When a row is full, continue on next row. Enter the number of runs over all rows (sum of I’s). Total Total Diversity No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Runs Org. Score 1.

1

15

2.

30

3.

45

4.

60

5.

75

6.

90

7.

105

8.

120

9.

135

10.

150

11.

165

12.

180

13.

195

14.

210

15.

225

16.

240

17.

255

18.

270

19.

285

20.

300

DIVERSITY SCORE :

Number of Runs -----------------------------------Number of Organisms

DIVERSITY SCORE : Signature of Team Leader


DIVERSITY SCORE

Make a graph of Diversity score Vs Number of Organisms for selection of appropriate Diversity score at a linear range. 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0 15 30 45 60 225 240 255 270 285 300

75

90

105

120 135 150 165 180

195 210

NUMBER OF ORGANISMS Note: If, there is no linearity in the graph, then take the average value of Diversity Score.

BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA (BWQC) To assess the actual health of water bodies, CPCB has derived a Biological Water Quality Criteria (BWQC) for water quality evaluation. This system is based on the range of saprobic values and diversity of the benthic macro-invertebrate families with respect to water quality. The system has been developed after extensive field trials and calibration on the saprobity and diversity information of different taxonomic groups of benthic animals collected from artificial substratum and natural substratum of various water bodies. To indicate changes in water quality to different grades of pollution level, the entire taxonomic groups, with their range of saprobic score from 1 to 10, in combination with the range of diversity score from 0 to 1 has been classified into five different classes of water quality (Table 2). The abnormal combination of saprobic score and diversity score indicates sudden change in environmental conditions. Table - 2 Range of Saprobic Score

Range of Diversity Score

Water Quality

Water Quality Class

Indicator Colour

7 and more 6–7 3–6 2–5 0–2

0.2 – 1.0 0.5 – 1.0 0.3 – 0.9 0.4 – less 0 – 0.2

Clean Slight Pollution Moderate Pollution Heavy Pollution Severe Pollution

A B C D E

Blue Light Blue Green Orange Red

CRITERIA FOR BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY EVALUATION The biological water quality evaluation using benthic fauna, can easily be done by combining the observed saprobic score and diversity score and the biological water quality class can be determined through comparing the results with the ranges of Saprobic and Diversity score prescribed in Biological Water Quality Criteria (BWQC). Range of Saprobic Score (0 – 10)

Results :

6.8

Range of Diversity Score (0 – 1.0)

Water Quality

Water Quality Class

Slight pollution

B

Indicator Colour

Light Blue

Signature of Team Leader


IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS OF BENTHIC MACRO INVERTEBRATES TAXA PLECOPTERA (Stone fly nymph) :- Animals of this group are very sensitive to pollution. They are most abundant in cold, flowing waters with plenty of dissolve oxygen. They are normally found in the bottom of gravel or stones. The body consists of head, thorax and abdomen. Thorax bears three pairs of jointed legs with two claws or hooks at the end. They have two tails like filaments at the end of abdomen. Their length is up to 2.5 centimeters.

EPHEMEROPTERA (May fly nymph) :- These animals are also sensitive to pollution, but some of the tolerant species are also available. They are very similar to stonefly nymph. Normally, they have three tails (sometimes two) at the end of abdomen. The legs bear one hook or claw at the end. They can be distinguished from stonefly nymph by the presence of gills on either side of abdominal segments. Their length is up to 2.5 centimeters.

TRICHOPTERA (Caddis fly larvae) :- The sensitive forms of caddis fly larvae live in flowing waters and are known for their construction of hollow cases made up of small stones, gravel, leaves, twigs, sand grains etc. Most of them are either attached to the big stone or rocks or they are without cases. The tolerant species are mostly associated with the animals of highly polluted waters. The caddis fly larvae are characterized by a cylindrical body. The terminal end of abdomen bears two small hooks. They grow up to 4.0 centimeters.

ODONATA (Dragon fly and Damsel fly nymph) :- The presence of these animals indicate input of little organic pollution in the slow moving or standing clean waters. They are the nymph of adults dragon fly and damsel fly which are powerful filters and can fly over several hundred kilometers. They can be observed around water bodies. Nymph of dragons are robust while damsel are slender with distinct head, thorax and abdomen. They can be identified by a very distinct spoon – shaped food capturing protrudable device underneath and head. The dragons have pointed extremities at the end of abdomen whereas damsel fly nymph have three plate like gill filaments.

CRUSTACEA (Prawn) :- The animals of this group are moderately intolerant of pollution. Body is flattened from either sides. The animal can be distinguished from the insects by the presence of more than three pairs of legs. The head is fused with few or all the thoracic segments to form cephalo thorax. The whole body is covered externally by chitinuous cuticle. These animals can be observed in variety of standing and flowing waters, hiding in plants of shallow waters under the debris and organic detritus.

COLEOPTERA (Beetles) :- Animals commonly known as water beetles. Beetles belong to the most diverse order of living organisms. Of the more than one million species of insects atleast one third are beetles. Body typically consists of head, thorax and abdomen. Head bears the chewing mouth parts, one pair of antennae. Thorax bearing 3 pairs of jointed legs. The wings are modified to form rigid cover or shield on the abdomen. Different types of beetles can be found in both standing and flowing waters. Some of them are surface dwellers whereas others are submerged forms. They fulfill their oxygen requirement mostly from atmosphere. They either store air under their wing covers, or capture air bubbles on the fine hairs that cover their legs and stomach area. Adult beetles are tolerant of a wide variety of pollutants.

Signature of Team Leader


HEMIPTERA (Bug) :- They are commonly known as water bugs. This is a large order. Diversity within the order is high both in terms of structure and habitat. Aquatic bugs live both in running and standing waters. Most of them are surface dwellers. Some of them are sensitive species but most of them prefer moderately polluted waters. They either carry air bubble while swimming or breath through abdominal tail like siphon. They can be distinguished from beetles by structure of head which prolonged into a beaklike structure adopted for piercing and sucking fluids from plants or animals.

MOLLUSCA (Snails and Mussels) :- The animals of this group of Benthic macro invertebrates are characterized by the presence of a hard calcareous shell and lacking extremities. The snails have a coiled shell and a muscular foot whereas mussels also termed as bivalves are having shells consisting of two halves connected by an elastic hinge. Mollusks are found in almost all kinds of waters and sediments. Some types of mollusca are quite intolerant to pollution, while others are tolerant. Snails which are having gills are dependent on the level of oxygen in water and thus are sensitive to oxygen depletion. Those snails which are characterized by the presence of lungs can obtain oxygen directly from atmosphere. Thus, they are able to live in water with a little or no oxygen. The snails with gills are identified by right handed opening shells, whereas the snails with lungs can be both right and left handed opening shells.

HIRUDINEA (Leeches) :- Commonly named as leeches. They look like worms but do not have hairs on their body. The body is segmented which can shrink and extend. They have suckers at both the ends of body. These animals are indicator of highly polluted waters, and can live for several days without oxygen. They are active during night. Usually they can be found under the stones or rocks. Leeches normally prefer shallow waters with lot of vegetation. They are parasite on animals like gastropods, beetles, insect larvae, aquatic birds, fish and crabs.

DIPTERA Chironomous Larvae or Red Worms :- They are very common indicator of highly polluted waters among the diptera group. They represent the largest family of aquatic insects. These species are tolerant to the organic pollution and found in high abundancy in sedimentation areas. These larvae have thorax without segmented legs mostly with proleg or pseudopodia in one or more segment. Two pairs of tubule or branchiae are present at the end of body segment. They live in running waters making tube-like nests). Rat tailed maggot :- Rat tailed maggot are typical indicators of severely polluted waters. Rat tailed maggot do not have jointed thoracic legs. Instead of legs, they have many pairs of prolegs. An important feature is the presence of single long or short respiratory tube at the end of abdomen used for breathing at the water’s surface. Abdomen is rounded fat body. They are not found in a very high abundance. Their presence indicates very low oxygen content of water.

Signature of Team Leader


EASTERN ZONE Table: 1.1.0 Showing variation in water temperature at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, 07

18

17

April, 08

24

23

22

23

21

Oct, 08

25

25

25

22.4

Jan, 09

19.4

21

19.4

16

Nov., 09 Min

19 18

21 17

19.2 19.2

15 15

Max

25

25

25

23

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

21

25

23

22

20

24

32

28.8

28

21.4

18

21 32

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

22

23

24

22

29

31.5

29

28

29

22.6

23

21.8

21

21.9

21.9

18

19 19

23

21.8

21

21.9

21.9

28.8

28

29

31.5

29

28

29

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

Table: 1.1.1 Showing variation in turbidity at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

3

2

April, 08

3

1

2

4

4

Oct, 08

0

1

1

1

Jan, 09

2

2

1

Nov., 09 Min

0

1

Max

3

2

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

1.6

1.5

1

2

3

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

0

2

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

1 1

1 1

1

1

2 1

1

1

1

1

0

2

4

4

2

3

2

1

2

1

2

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

58


Table: 1.1.2 Showing variation in pH at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

5.03

6

April, 08

6.1

6.63

7.38

7.49

6.75

Oct, 08

7

6

6

6.5

Jan, 09

7.8

9

6

Nov., 09 Min

8 5.03

9 6

Max

8

9

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

7.2

7.76

7

7.33

7.24

7.9

9

8

8

8

8

8

6 6

8 6.5

6.75

7.38

8

9

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

6.81

7.23

7.43

7.35

9

7

8

7

7

8

6

7

8

7.5

8

7.33

9 7.2

6

6.81

7.23

7

7

8

9

9

7

8

7.5

8

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

Table: 1.1.3 Showing variation in conductivity of sampling sites Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

290

157

April, 08

90

130

90

70

160

Oct, 08

130

90

90

70

Jan, 09

270

160

70

60

Nov., 09

260

140

90

70

Min

90

90

70

60

160

180

Max

290

160

90

70

280

280

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

380

194

230

180

180

120

130

120

140

170

260

280

260

150

150

180

190

260

280

280

280

180

180

210

200

220

180

120

130

120

140

170

380

194

230

210

200

260

Jogitikaria

Dindori ghat

260

59


Table: 1.1.4 Showing variation in TDS at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

50

38

April, 08

85

100

86

54

153

Oct, 08

123

8

14

8

Jan, 09

180

100

40

40

Nov., 09

160

110

60

50

Min

50

8

14

8

10

78

Max

180

110

86

54

180

190

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

112

72

60

146

55

86

10

78

65

180

190

190

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

175

63

76

122

2

6

8

61

33

120

120

140

130

160

55

2

6

8

61

33

190

120

175

140

130

160

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

180

Table: 1.1.5 Showing variation in DO at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

7.2

5.8

April, 08

6.6

7.8

7.6

5.4

10.2

Oct, 08

6.5

4.7

6.6

5.7

Jan, 09

7

7.6

8

7.9 7.4 5.4 7.9

Graveyard

Nov., 09 Min

6.5

4.7

7 6.6

Max

7.2

7.8

8

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

8.7

8.8

8.9

8.8

6.7

7.5

7.2

8.8

8.4

7.4

5.6

7

5.4

11.8

8.1

4.2

5.7

5.9

8.9

8

8.6

7.9

8

7.2

7.8

8.7

5.6

7

7.5 5.4

7.5

7.2

4.2

5.7

5.9

10.2

8.8

8.7

11.8

8.9

8.8

8.4

8.7

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

60


Table: 1.1.6 Showing variation in BOD at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

2.3

3.1

April, 08

3.9

NIL

3.9

4

5.8

Oct, 08

2.7

1.7

1.9

0.4

Jan, 09

3.6

2.5

2.6

3.1

2.3

2.7

Nov., 09

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

2.5

2.6

2.7

NIL

NIL

2.5

1.6

2.8

1.6

3.2

3

2.5

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

3.2

3.7

3.7

3.2

7.6

4

1

1.1

1.1

2.9

2.6

2.8

3.2

2.6

2.5

Min

2.3

1.7

1.9

0.4

1.6

2.8

1.6

2.5

2.6

1

1.1

1.1

Max

3.9

3.1

3.9

4

5.8

3

2.5

7.6

4

3.7

3.7

3.2

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

Table: 1.1.7 Showing variation in COD at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

30

40

April, 08

30

60

40

30

10

Oct, 08

20

40

50

60

Jan, 09

40

30

20

40

40

40

Nov., 09

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

20

20

20

30

30

10

20

10

40

30

30

40

40

70

110

60

80

30

30

30

20

10

30

20

30

40

30

Min

20

30

20

30

10

30

20

10

20

10

30

30

Max

40

60

50

60

30

40

40

70

110

60

80

40

61


Table: 1.1.8 Showing variation in MPN at sampling locations Graveyard

Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, 07

160

70

April, 08

26

70

9

500

23

Oct, 08

30

300

90

23

Jan, 09

90

300

30

70 23 23 500

Nov., 09 Min

26

70

40 9

Max

160

300

90

Kapilvan

Jogitikara

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

128

4

2

30

22

4

70

1600

200

23

200

23 70

Dindori ghat

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

2

30

900

26

30

23

40

40

500

300

30

30

70

23

300

30

90 22

4

2

30

23

26

1600

300

30

30

70

900

500

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

Table: 1.1.9 Showing variation in ammonical nitrogen at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, O7

0.819

0.931

April, 08

0.254

0.515

0.523

0.338

0.446

Oct, 08

0.12

0.116

0.152

0.118

Jan, 09

0.21

0.01

0.03

0.6 0.58 0.118 0.6

Graveyard

Nov., 09 Min

0.12

0.01

0.023 0.023

Max

0.819

0.931

0.523

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

0.901

0.879

1.17

1.123

0.392

0.346

0.308

0.308

0.246

0.338

0.096

0.086

0.104

0.116

0.104

0.092

0.108

0.108

0.214

0.065

0.032

0.069

0.048

0.025

0.034

0.028

0.096

0.065

0.58 0.032

0.069

0.048

0.025

0.034

0.028

0.446

1.123

0.901

0.879

1.17

0.308

0.246

0.338

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

62


Table: 1.1.10 Showing variation in nitrite nitrogen at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, 07

0.671

0.495

April, 08

1.193

1.148

1.17

0.698

0.765

Oct, 08

0.072

0.09

0.088

0.46

Jan, 09

0.078

0.087

0.098

0.01

0.012

0.018

Nov., 09

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

0.564

0.797

0.944

5.336

0.653

0.765

0.086

0.068

0.06

0.0245

0.12

0.006

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

0.833

0.9

0.608

0.563

0.054

0.045

0.078

0.062

0.04

0.024

BDL

0.025

0.036

0.014

0.023

Min

0.072

0.087

0.012

0.01

0.0245

0.068

0.006

0.024

0.045

0.025

0.036

0.014

Max

1.193

1.148

1.17

0.698

0.765

5.336

0.653

0.797

0.944

0.9

0.608

0.563

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

Table: 1.1.11 Showing variation in nitrate nitrogen at sampling locations Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, 07

0.819

0.677

April, 08

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

Oct, 08

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

Jan, 09

0.258

0.125

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

Nov., 09

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

0.863

0.93

1.079

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

0.058

0.069

BDL

0.369

0.014

0.021

0.087

0.098

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

BDL

Min

0.258

0.125

0

0

0.058

0.069

0.863

0.369

0.014

0.021

0.087

0.098

Max

0.819

0.677

0

0

0.058

0.069

0.863

0.93

1.079

0.021

0.087

0.098

63


Table: 1.1.12 Showing variation in phosphate at sampling locations

Narmada Kund

Ramghat

Nov, 07

0.639

0.597

April, 08

0.278

0.931

1.253

0.966

0.653

Oct, 08

0.668

0.798

0.458

0.348

Jan, 09

1.32

1.25

0.987

0.968

0.045

0.106

Nov., 09

Graveyard

Kapilvan

Mandla raptapul

U/ S Bargi

D/S Bargi

0.846

0.549

0.739

1.018

0.896

0.609

0.74

0.834

0.832

1.025

0.879

1.354

Jogitikara

Dindori ghat

Saraswati ghat

Jhansighat Shahpura

Barman ghat

BDL

0.722

1.227

1.062

0.321

0.222

0.634

0.932

0.038

1.458

1.369

1.249

0.964

1.894

0.009

Min

0.278

0.597

0.045

0.106

0.653

0.834

0.009

0.321

0.222

0.634

0.932

0.038

Max

1.32

1.25

1.253

0.968

1.025

1.018

1.354

1.458

1.369

1.249

1.227

1.894

64


CENTRAL ZONE Table : 1.2.0 Showing variation in water temperature at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Oct, 07

28

29

29

27

Jan, 08

20

21

19

March, 08

19

18

May, 08

29

Nov, 08

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

18

19

19

29

29

28

29

27.7

26.5

27.5

24.2

24.2

30

28

26.9

27

25.6

26

18

18

19

18

18

19

19

35

31

30

29

29

28

29

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

20

20

20

18

19

18

35

31

30

25.1

25.5

27.7

Feb. 09

26.1

24

Min

19

Max

29

Place

Table : 1.2.1 Showing variation in turbidity at sampling locations SPM SPM Tawa Bandrabhan Mangalwara Jarrapur Goalgaon U/S D/S river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

1

4

2

2

Jan, 08

0

2

0

0

1

2

March, 08

1

4

1

0

2

1

3

4

May, 08

2

4

1

2

2

2

1

2

Nov, 08

4

3

2

2

2

2

5

2

Feb. 09 Min

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

4

0

2

0

0

1

1

1

2

Max

4

4

3

2

2

3

5

4

65


Table : 1.2.2. Showing variation in pH at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Jarrapur

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

8.78

8.01

8.32

8.5

S

Jan, 08

8.01

8.14

8.41

7.69

7.81

8.24

March, 08

8.14

7.9

7.52

8.21

6.71

7.94

8.09

8.07

May, 08

8

7.5

6

7

8

8

9

8

Nov, 08

9

9

8

8

7

8

9

8

Feb, 09 Min

8

8.2

8

8

8

8

8

7

8

7.5

6

7

6.71

7.94

8

7

Max

9

9

8.41

8.5

8

8.24

9

8.07

Goalgaon

Table : 1.2.3 Showing variation in conductivity at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

140

120

140

130

Jan, 08

140

140

130

March, 08

140

170

160

190

180

May, 08

130

130

110

140

150

Nov, 08

240

240

210

330

330

280

300

240

240

370

260

120

130

120

120

110

140

150

240

280

300

240

240

370

330

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

120

120

120

230

210

150

180

140

120

240

240

250

Feb, 09

370

240

Min

130

Max

370

66


Table : 1.2.4 Showing variation in TDS at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

18

129

193

21

Jan, 08

78

161

114

March, 08

143

117

66

78

122

May, 08

180

120

158

122

160

Nov, 08

130

160

160

190

220

220

Feb, 09

250

Min

18

170

250

160

160

250

150

108

21

41

66

78

122

Max

250

161

250

160

190

250

220

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

65

94

76

126

108

41

146

108

111

160

160

160

117

193

Table : 1.2.5 Showing variation in DO at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

8.4

7.6

8.2

8.5

Jan, 08

8.5

8.3

8.1

March, 08

9.2

7.2

6.9

8.9

8.6

May, 08

5.5

8.2

8.1

7.8

8

Nov, 08

7.90

8.4

8.70

7.80

6.00

Feb, 09 Min Max

8 7.9 8.5

7.9 7.9 8.4

8.2 6.9 8.7

8.4 7.8 8.9

8.2 6 8.6

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

7.9

8

8

7.8

8

8.4

5.4

8.2

8.1

13.10

9.40

8.70

8.6 5.5 13.1

8.4 5.4 9.4

8.1 7.8 8.7

67


Table : 1.2.6 Showing variation in BOD at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct., 07

2.4

3

3.2

2.4

Jan., 08

1.2

0

1.9

March,08

1.9

4.1

2.8

1.8

1.8

May,08

2.8

3.2

3.1

3

2.3

Nov,08

2.3

2

3.4

0.4

1.7

Feb, 09 Min Max

2.4 1.5 2.6

2.7 2 3.2

3.1 1.7 3.4

2.4 0.4 3

2.8 1.7 2.8

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

1.5

2.6

1.7

2.6

2.2

2

2.6

2.4

2.6

2.1

3.6

2.7

2.3 1.2 2.8

3.1 0 4.1

2.6 1.9 3.2

Table : 1.2.7 Showing variation in COD at sampling locations Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

40

40

30

20

Jan, 08

10

20

50

March, 08

30

50

40

20

50

May, 08

30

20

30

10

20

Nov, 08

30

20

40

10

20

20

30

20

30

20

30

20

20

10

20

10

10

20

100

50

30

50

40

20

50

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

30

50

10

30

20

20

20

40

10

30

100

50

Feb, 09

40

40

Min

10

Max

40

68


Table : 1.2.8 Showing variation in MPN at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

500

1600

280

170

Jan, 08

1600

140

35

March, 08

13

1500

300

30

23

May, 08

26

30

70

4

23

Nov, 08

23

8

34

180

170

34

180

14

8

30

23

140

23

14

8

8

4

23

1600

280

1600

1600

1600

180

170

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

1600

1600

1600

23

14

8

280

50

130

1600

1600

34

Feb, 09

500

280

Min

13

Max

1600

Table : 1.2.9 Showing variation in ammonical nitrogen at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

0.8

0.977

0.877

0.938

Jan, 08

0.32

0.54

0.23

March, 08

0.312

0.591

0.706

0.312

0.214

May, 08

0

0

0.038

0

0

Nov, 08

0

0

0.038

0

0

0.12

0.11

1.1

0.99

1.8

0.13

0.331

0

0

0

0.038

0

0

1.12

0.877

0.938

1.1

0.99

1.8

0.214

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

0.65

0.26

0.35

0.661

0.858

0.678

0.446

0

0

0

0.331

0

Feb, 09 Min

0.18

1.12

0

Max

0.8

69


Table : 1.2.10 Showing variation in nitrite nitrogen at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

Oct, 07

0

12.188

2.011

20.52

Jan, 08

0.026

0.036

0.034

March, 08

0.539

0.645

0.163

0.352

0.214

May, 08

0

0

0

0

0

Nov, 08

0.065

0.215

0

0

0

0.49 0

0.49 0

0.47 0

0.72 0

0.45 0

0.49 0

2.011

20.52

0.979

0.72

0.45

0.49

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

0.058

0.069

0.3

0.489

0.806

0.979

0

0.417

0

0.009

0

0

Feb, 09 Min

0.45 0

0.4 0

Max

0.539

12.188

Table : 1.2.11 Showing variation in nitrate nitrogen at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Oct, 07

0

0

0

0

Jan, 08

0

0

0

March, 08

0

0

May, 08

0

Nov, 08

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

0

0

0

0.202

0.506

0.263

0.32

0

0.202

0.506

0.031

0.263

0.121 0

0.085 0

0.29 0

0.15 0

0.134 0

0.152 0

0.303

0.085

0.29

0.506

0.263

0.32

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.303

0.303

0

0

0.295

0.303

Feb, 09 Min

0.064 0

0.12 0

Max

0.064

0.303

70


Table : 1.2.12 Showing variation in phosphate at sampling locations Place

Bandrabhan

Mangalwara

SPM U/S

SPM D/S

Jarrapur

Goalgaon

Jan, 08

1.5

1.2

1.5

1.4

1.1

0.9

March, 08

0.312

0.214

0.601

0.524

0.021

May, 08

0.212

0.097

0

0.035

Nov, 08

0.124

0.084

0

Feb, 09

2.5

1.2

Min

0.124

Max

2.5

Tawa river

D/S Tawa confluence

0.145

0.047

0.069

0.265

0.626

0

0.21

0.035

0.265

0.626

0.214

0

2.3

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.7

0.084

0

0.035

0.021

0.145

0

0

1.2

2.3

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.7

71


WESTERN ZONE Table : 1.3.0 Showing variation in water temperature at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

23

22.5

22.5

21.5

27

25

24

23

24

18

21

18.6

June, 08

29

29

28

29

29

29

28

27

Dec, 08

23.2

25.2

25.4

23.3

24.7

25

23.3

22.1

May, 09

28

25

28.1

29

28

27

26.8

27

Min

23

22.5

22.5

21.5

24

18

21

18.6

Max

29

29

28.1

29

29

29

28

27

Table : 1.3.1 Showing variation in turbidity at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

1

4

1

1

3

1

1

1

1.5

4

1

1

June, 08

2

1

2

2

2

4

1

1

Dec, 08

2

3

2

4

2

2

1

1

May, 09 Min

1 1

2 1

3 1

1 1

4 1.5

2 2

1 1

3 1

3

4

3

4

4

4

1

3

Max

72


Table : 1.3.2 Showing variation in pH at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.84

7.72

8.03

7.97

8.04

7.99

7.35

7.64

June, 08

7

7

7

6

8

7

7

8

Dec, 08

8

9

6

7.5

8

9

8

8

May, 09

7

8

7

8

9

7

8

7

Min

7

7

6

6

8

7

7

7

Max

8

9

8.03

8

9

9

8

8

Table : 1.3.3 Showing variation in conductivity at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

355

276

310

283

170

180

160

170

170

180

160

180

June, 08

150

170

150

160

180

170

140

140

Dec, 08

300

260

260

260

260

260

260

250

May, 09

270

290

250

440

550

230

280

250

Min

150

170

150

160

170

170

140

140

Max

355

290

310

440

550

260

280

250

73


Table : 1.3.4 Showing variation in TDS at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

182

159

150

185

82

107

134

93

57

103

69

98

June, 08

106

123

140

138

108

91

93

120

Dec, 08

200

140

150

140

140

160

170

140

May, 09

180

200

170

290

300

170

190

170

Min

82

107

134

93

57

91

69

98

Max

200

200

170

290

300

170

190

170

Table : 1.3.5 Showing variation in DO at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

7.9

8

7.8

7.7

8.6

7.7

6.4

7.3

8

10

9

6.7

June, 08

8.9

9.5

11.3

8

7.5

11.4

9.6

5.6

Dec, 08

8.3

8.2

7.7

7.9

8

8.8

7.9

8.5

May, 09

8

8.5

8.1

7.9

7.8

8.1

8

8.1

Min

7.9

7.7

6.4

7.3

7.5

8.1

7.9

5.6

Max

8.9

9.5

11.3

8

8

11.4

9.6

8.5

74


Table : 1.3.6 Showing variation in BOD at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

1.4

1.4

1.2

1.7

2.8

3.2

3.1

2.3

2.8

3.4

3.1

4.1

June, 08

2.3

3.1

2.8

2.1

3.1

3.1

2.9

3.2

Dec, 08

2.9

2.7

2.2

2.2

2.8

2.6

2.3

2.5

May, 09 Min

2.1 1.4

2.4 1.4

2.6 1.2

2.9 1.7

2.8 2.8

2.7 2.6

2.5 2.3

2 2

Max

2.9

3.2

3.1

2.9

3.1

3.4

3.1

4.1

Table : 1.3.7 Showing variation in COD at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

20

20

20

20

20

30

40

30

50

10

10

20

June, 08

20

30

30

20

40

30

20

30

Dec, 08

60

30

20

40

30

10

50

50

May, 09

30

20

40

20

30

20

40

20

Min

20

20

20

20

30

10

10

20

Max

60

30

40

40

50

30

50

50

75


Table : 1.3.8 Showing variation in MPN at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

210

170

170

80

23

13

140

2

13

140

13

8

June, 08

280

130

300

70

4

70

6

350

Dec, 08

50

22

80

80

240

80

50

27

May, 09

22

8

140

2

13

140

13

23

Min

22

8

80

2

4

70

6

8

Max

280

170

300

80

240

140

50

350

Table : 1.3.9 Showing variation in ammonical nitrogen at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

1.2

1.6

1.8

1.4

0.9

1.1

1.6

1.3

1.2

1

0.8

0.5

June, 08

0.008

BDL

BDL

0.761

0.215

BDL

0.038

0.038

Dec, 08

1.11

0.99

5.18

1.8

0.13

1.1

1.12

1.12

May, 09

0.181

0.098

0.106

0.093

0.108

0.09

0.108

0.094

Min

0.008

0.098

0.106

0.093

0.108

0.09

0.038

0.038

Max

1.2

1.6

5.18

1.8

1.2

1.1

1.12

1.12

76


Table : 1.3.10 Showing variation in nitrite nitrogen at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

0.006

0.003

0.02

0.02

0.68

0.54

0.36

0.25

0.46

0.35

0.59

0.36

June, 08

0

0

0

0.564

0

0

0

0

Dec, 08

0.49

0.46

0.45

0.46

0.49

0.47

0.49

0.4

May, 09

0.11

0.107

0.13

0.1

0.109

0.103

0.111

0.118

Min

0

0

0

0.02

0

0

0

0

Max

0.68

0.54

0.45

0.564

0.49

0.47

0.59

0.4

Table : 1.3.11 Showing variation in nitrate nitrogen at sampling locations Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

0.4

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

June, 08

0.809

0.364

0.121

0.445

0.101

0.263

0.303

0.303

Dec, 08

0.085

0.15

0.64

0.134

0.152

0.29

0.141

0.12

May, 09

0.012

0.21

0.17

0.35

0.41

0.21

0.25

0.24

Min

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Max

0.809

0.6

0.64

0.445

0.41

0.29

0.303

0.303

77


Table : 1.3.12 Showing variation in phosphate at sampling locations

Maheshwar Mandleshwar Omkareshwar Badwani Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar

Nagarghat

Dec, 07 March, 08

1.6

1.4

1.2

2

0.06

0.069

0.34

0.68

0.23

0.4

0.036

0.247

June, 08

0.461

0.409

0.244

0.235

0

0.27

0.305

0.461

Dec, 08

1.7

1.5

2.5

1.6

1.7

1.5

2.3

1.2

May, 09 Min Max

1.438 0.06 1.7

1.807 0.069 1.807

1.904 0.244 2.5

1.618 0.235 2

1.627 0 1.7

1.528 0.27 1.528

0.823 0.036 2.3

1.665 0.247 1.665

78


EASTERN ZONE Table: 1.4.0 Water quality status of Narmada Kund

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l 7.2 6.6 6.5 7 6.8 A

BOD mg/l 2.3 3.9 2.7 3.6 3.1 B

MPN/100ml 160 26 300 90 76.5 B

pH 5.03 6.1 7 7.8 6.48 A

Class

pH 6 6.83 6 9 6.9 A

Class

pH _ 7.38 6 6 6.46 A

Class

pH _ 7.49 6.5 8 7.33 A

Class

B

Table: 1.4.1 Water quality status of Ramghat Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l 5.8 7.8 4.7 7.6 6.4 A

BOD mg/l 3.1 Nill 1.7 2.5 2.4 B

MPN/100ml 70 70 300 300 185 B

B

Table: 1.4.2 Water quality status of Graveyard

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l _ 7.6 6.6 8 7.4 A

BOD mg/l _ 3.9 1.9 2.6 2.8 B

MPN/100ml _ 9 90 30 63 B

B

Table: 1.4.3 Water quality status of Kapilvan

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l _ 5.4 5.7 7.9 6.3 A

BOD mg/l _ 4 0.4 3.1 2.5 B

MPN/100ml _ 500 23 70 197 B

Table: 1.4.4 Water quality status of Mandla Raptapul

79

B


Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l 8.7 6.7 5.4 8.6 7.4 A

BOD mg/l 2.5 Nill 1.6 2.5 2.2 B

MPN/100ml 128 22 200 300 162.5 B

pH 7.2 7.2 8 8 7.61 B

Class

pH 7.76 7.9 9 6 7.67 B

Class

pH _ 6.75 9 8 7.92 B

Class

pH _ 7.33 8 8 7.73 B

Class

pH 7 6.81 7

Class

B

Table: 1.4.5 Water quality status of Bargi dam U/S

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l 8.8 7.5 11.8 7.9 9 A

BOD mg/l 2.6 2.5 7.6 2.9 3.9 C

MPN/100ml 4 4 30 30 17 A

A

Table: 1.4.6 Water quality status of Jogitikaria

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l _ 10.2 5.6 8.9 8.2 A

BOD mg/l _ 5.8 1.6 3.2 3.5 B

MPN/100ml _ 23 70 23 38.6 A

A

Table: 1.4.7 Water quality status of Dindorighat

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008

D.O. mg/l BOD mg/l MPN/100ml _ _ _ 8.8 _ 30 7 2.8 1600 8 3 200 7.9 2.9 610 A B C Table: 1.4.8 Water quality status of Bergi D/S

D.O. mg/l 8.9 7.2 8.1

BOD mg/l 2.7 3.2 4

80

MPN/100ml 2 2 23

C

A


Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

8 8.1 A

2.6 3.1 B

30 14.25 A

7 6.95 A

Table: 1.4.9 Water quality status of Saraswati ghat

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l _ 8.8 4.2 7.2 6.7 A

BOD mg/l _ 2.5 1 2.8 2.5 B

MPN/100ml _ 46.6 40 70 46.6 A

pH _ 7.74 8 8 7.74 B

Class

pH _ 7.43 7 7.5 7.31 A

Class

pH _ 7.35 7 8 7.45 A

Class

A

Table: 1.4.10 Water quality status of Jhanshi ghat

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l _ 8.4 5.7 7.8 7.3 A

BOD mg/l _ 3.7 1.1 3.2 2.7 B

MPN/100ml _ 900 40 23 321 B

B

Table: 1.4.11 Water quality status of Barman ghat

Month of sampling Nov. 2007 Apr. 2008 Oct. 2008 Jan. 2009 Avg. value Class

D.O. mg/l _ 7.4 5.9 8.7 7.3 A

BOD mg/l _ 3.2 1.1 2.6 2.3 B

MPN/100ml _ 26 500 300 275.3 B

B

CENTRAL ZONE Table: 1.5.0 Water quality status of Bandrabhan Month of sampling Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008

D.O. mg/l 8.4 8.5 9.2 5.5 13.1

BOD mg/l 2.4 1.2 1.9 2.8 2.1

81

MPN/100ml 500 1600 13 26 1600

pH 8.78 8.01 8.14 8 9

Class

A


Average Value Class

8.9 A

2 A

747 C

8.3 B

Table: 1.5.1 Water quality status of Magalwaraghat

Month of sampling Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008 Average Value Class

D.O. mg/l 7.6 8.3 7.2 5.4 9.4 7.5 A

BOD mg/l 3 0 4.1 2.6 3.6 3.3 C

MPN/100ml 1600 140 1500 280 1600 1024 C

pH 8.01 8.14 7.9 7.5 9 8.1 B

Class

pH 8.32 8.41 7.52 6 8 7.6 B

Class

pH 8.5 7.69 8.21 7 8 7.8 B

Class

pH _ 7.81 6.71 8 7 7.3 A

Class

pH

Class

C

Table: 1.5.2 Water quality status of SPM U/S Month of sampling Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008 Average Value Class

D.O. mg/l 8.2 8.1 7.8 8.2 8.7 8.2 A

BOD mg/l 3.2 1.9 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.5 B

MPN/100ml 280 35 23 50 34 84.4 B

B

Table: 1.5.3 Water quality status of SPM D/S Month of sampling Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008 Average Value Class

D.O. mg/l 8.5 7.9 8 8.1 7.9 8 A

BOD mg/l 2.4 1.5 2.2 2.6 2.3 2.2 B

MPN/100ml 170 1600 14 130 23 387 B

B

Table: 1.5.4 Water quality status of Jarrapur Month of sampling Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008 Average Value Class

D.O. mg/l _ 8 8.4 8.2 8.4 8.25 A

BOD mg/l _ 2.6 2 3.2 2 2.4 B

MPN/100ml _ 1600 8 30 8 411 B

B

Table: 1.5.5 Water quality status of Goalgaon Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

82

MPN/100ml


Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008 Average Value Class

_ 8 6.9 8.1 8.7 7.9 A

_ 1.7 2.8 3.1 3.4 2.7 B

_ 1600 300 70 34 501 C

_ 8.24 7.94 8 8 8 B

C

Table: 1.5.6 Water quality status of Tawa River Month of sampling Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008 Average Value Class

D.O. mg/l _ _ 8.9 7.8 7.8 8.1 A

BOD mg/l _ _ 1.8 3 0.4 1.7 A

MPN/100ml _ _ 30 4 180 71 B

pH _ _ 8.09 9 9 8.5 B

Class

pH _ _ 8.07 8 8 8 B

Final Class

A

Table: 1.5.7 Water quality status of D/S Tawa River Month of sampling Oct.2007 Jan-08 Mar-08 May-08 Nov.2008 Average Value Class

D.O. mg/l _ _ 8.6 8 6 7.5 A

BOD mg/l _ _ 1.8 2.3 1.7 1.9 A

83

MPN/100ml _ _ 23 23 170 72 B

A


WESTERN ZONE Table: 1.6.0 Water quality status of Maheshwar Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

Dec.2007

7.9

1.4

210

7.5

Mar-08

8.6

2.8

23

7.84

Jun-08

8.9

_

280

7

Dec-08

8.3

2.9

50

8

Average Value

8.4

2.3

140

7.5

A

B

B

A

Class

Class

B

Table: 1.6.1 Water quality status of Mandleshwar Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

8

1.4

170

7.5

Mar-08

7.7

3.2

13

7.72

Jun-08

9.5

_

130

7

Dec-08

8.2

2.7

22

9

Average Value

8.3

2.4

84

7.8

A

B

B

B

Dec.2007

Class

Class

B

Table: 1.6.2 Water quality status of Omkareshwar Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

Dec.2007

7.8

1.2

170

7.5

Mar-08

6.4

3.1

140

7.9

Jun-08

11.3

_

300

6

Dec-08

7.7

2.1

80

7

Average Value

8.3

2.1

173

7.1

A

B

B

A

Class

Class

B

Table: 1.6.3 Water quality status of Badwani Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

Dec.2007

7.7

1.7

80

7.5

Mar-08

7.3

2.3

2

7.9

Jun-08

8

_

70

6

Dec-08

7.9

2.2

80

7.5

Average Value

7.7

2

58

7.2

Class

Month of sampling Dec.2007

A A B Table: 1.6.4 Water quality status of Koteshwar

A

A

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

7.7

_

80

7.5

84

Class

Class


Mar-08 Jun-08 Dec-08

7.3 8 7.9

2.8 _ 2.8

2 70 80

7.9 6 7.5

Average Value Class

7.7 A

2.8 B

58 B

7.2 A

B

Table: 1.6.5 Water quality status of Khedighat Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

Dec.2007

__

_

140

_

Mar-08

10

3.4

70

7.9

Jun-08

11.4

_

80

7

Dec-08

8.8

2.6

140

9

Average Value

10

3

108

7.9

Class

A

B

B

B

Class

B

Table: 1.6.6 Water quality status of Mamleshwar Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

Dec.2007

__

_

_

_

Mar-08

9

3.1

13

7.35

Jun-08

9.6

_

6

7

Dec-08

7.9

2.3

50

8

Average Value

8.8

2.7

23

7.45

A

B

A

A

Class

Class

A

Table: 1.6.7 Water quality status of Nagar ghat Month of sampling

D.O. mg/l

BOD mg/l

MPN/100ml

pH

Dec.2007

__

_

_

_

Mar-08

6.7

4.1

8

7.6

Jun-08

5.6

_

350

8

Dec-08

8.5

2.5

27

8

Average Value

6.9

3.3

128

7.8

A

B

B

B

Class

85

Class

B


1.7.1 Statistical data of water quality parameters of Eastern zone

Temperature Turbidity pH Conductivity TDS DO BOD COD Ammonical nitrogen Nitrate Nitrite Phosphate MPN

Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min

Narmada kund 25

Ramghat

Graveyard

Jogitikara

Dindori

Raptapul

25

Kapil Van 23

25

18 3 Clear 7.8 5.03 290 90 180 50 7.2 6.5 3.9 2.3 40 20 0.819 0.12 0.819 0.258 1.193 0.072 1.32 0.278 160 26

17 2 1 9 6 160 90 100 8 7.8 4.7 3.1 1.7 60 30 0.931 0.01 0.677 0.125 1.148 0.087 1.25 0.597 300 70

32

28.8

19.4 2 1 7.38 6 90 70 86 14 8 6.6 3.9 1.9 50 20 0.523 0.03 BDL BDL 1.17 0.088 1.253 0.458 90 9

16 4 1 8 6.5 70 60 54 8 7.9 5.4 4 0.4 60 30 0.6 0.118 BDL BDL 0.698 0.01 0.968 0.348 500 23

21 4 1 9 6.75 280 160 180 10 10.2 5.6 5.8 1.6 30 10 0.446 0.096 0.058 0.058 0.765 0.0245 1.025 0.653 70 23

18 2 1 8 7.33 280 180 190 78 8.8 7 3 2.8 40 30 1.123 0.065 0.069 0.069 5.336 0.068 1.018 0.834 1600 30

86

D/S Bargi 31.5

Saraswati Ghat 29

Jhansighat

Bermanghat

28

U/S Bargi 29

28

29

20 3 1 8 7.2 380 180 190 55 8.7 5.4 2.5 1.6 40 20 0.901 0.032 0.863 0.863 0.653 0.006 1.354 0.832 300 22

23 2 1 9 6 194 120 120 2 11.8 7.5 7.6 2.5 70 10 0.879 0.069 0.93 0.369 0.797 0.024 1.458 0.321 30 4

21.8 1 1 7 6.81 230 130 175 6 8.9 7.2 4 2.6 110 20 1.17 0.048 1.079 0.014 0.944 0.045 1.369 0.222 30 2

21 2 1 8 7.23 210 120 140 8 8.8 4.2 3.7 1 60 10 0.308 0.025 0.021 0.021 0.9 0.025 1.249 0.634 70 30

21.9 1 1 7.5 7 200 140 130 61 8.4 5.7 3.7 1.1 80 30 0.246 0.034 0.087 0.087 0.608 0.036 1.227 0.932 900 23

21.9 2 Clear 8 7 260 170 160 33 8.7 5.9 3.2 1.1 40 30 0.338 0.028 0.098 0.098 0.563 0.014 1.894 0.038 500 26


1.7.2 Statistical data of water quality parameters of Central zone

Temperature Turbidity pH Conductivity TDS DO BOD COD Ammonical nitrogen Nitrate Nitrite Phosphate MPN

Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min

Bandrabhan 29 19 4 Clear 9 8 240 130 180 18 13.1 5.5 2.8 1.2 40 10 0.8 0.312 BDL BDL 0.539 0.009 1.5 0.124 1600 13

Mangalwara 35 18 4 2 9 7.5 240 120 161 117 9.4 5.4 4.1 Fail 100 20 0.977 0.331 0.303 0.295 12.188 0.036 1.2 0.084 1600 140

SPM U/S 31 18 2 Clear 8.41 6 250 130 193 108 8.7 7.8 3.2 1.9 50 30 0.877 0.23 0.303 0.303 2.011 0.034 1.5 0.601 280 23

SPM D/S 30 19 2 Clear 8.5 7 240 120 160 21 8.5 7.9 2.6 1.5 30 10 0.938 0.65 BDL BDL 20.52 0.058 1.4 0.035 1600 14

87

Jarrapur 29 18 2 1 8 6.71 240 120 160 41 8.4 8 3.2 2 50 20 0.678 0.26 0.202 0.202 0.979 0.069 1.1 0.021 1600 8

Goalgaon 29 18 2 1 8.24 7.94 210 110 190 66 8.7 6.9 3.4 1.7 40 10 0.706 0.038 0.506 0.506 0.3 0.163 0.9 0.145 1600 34

Tawa river 28 19 5 1 9 8.09 330 140 220 78 8.9 7.8 3 0.4 20 10 0.312 0.312 0.263 0.031 0.352 0.352 0.214 0.047 180 4

D/S Tawa confluence 29 19 4 2 8.07 8 330 150 220 122 8.6 6 2.3 1.7 50 20 0.214 0.214 0.32 0.263 0.214 0.214 0.21 0.069 170 23


1.7.3 Statistical data of water quality parameters of Western zone Maheshwar Mandleshwar Temperature Turbidity pH Conductivity TDS DO BOD COD Ammonical nitrogen Nitrate Nitrite Phosphate MPN

Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min

29 23 3 1 8 7 355 150 200 82 8.9 7.9 2.9 1.4 60 20 1.2 0.008 0.809 0.085 0.68 0.006 1.7 0.06 280 23

29 22.5 4 1 9 7 276 170 159 107 9.5 7.7 3.2 1.4 30 20 1.6 0.99 0.6 0.15 0.54 0.003 1.5 0.069 170 13

Omkareshwar Badwani 28 22.5 2 1 8.03 6 310 150 150 134 11.3 6.4 3.1 1.2 40 20 5.18 1.6 0.64 0.121 0.45 0.02 2.5 0.244 300 80

88

29 21.5 4 1 7.97 6 283 160 185 93 8 7.3 2.3 1.7 40 20 1.8 0.761 0.445 0.134 0.564 0.02 2 0.235 80 2

Koteshwar Khedighat Mamleshwar Nagarghat 29 24 2 1.5 8.04 8 260 170 140 57 8 7.5 2.8 2.8 50 30 1.2 0.13 0.152 0.101 0.49 0.46 1.7 0.23 240 4

29 18 4 2 9 7 260 170 160 91 11.4 8.8 3.4 2.6 30 10 1.1 1 0.29 0.263 0.47 0.35 1.5 0.27 140 70

28 21 1 1 8 7 260 140 170 69 9.6 7.9 3.1 2.3 50 10 1.12 0.038 0.303 0.141 0.59 0.49 2.3 0.036 50 6

27 18.6 1 1 8 7.64 250 140 140 98 8.5 5.6 4.1 2.5 50 20 1.12 0.038 0.303 0.12 0.4 0.36 1.2 0.247 350 8


1.7.4 Statistical data of water quality parameters of river Narmada –At a Glance Parameters Temperature Turbidity pH Conductivity TDS DO BOD COD Ammonical nitrogen Nitrate Nitrite Phosphate MPN

Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min

Eastern Zone

Central Zone

Western Zone

32 16 4 Clear 9 5.03 380 5.03 190 2 11.8 4.2 7.6 0.4 110 10 1.17 0.01 1.079 BDL 5.336 0.006 1.894 0.038 1600 2

35 18 5 Clear 9 6 330 110 220 18 13.1 5.4 4.1 Fail 100 10 0.977 0.038 0.506 BDL 20.52 0.009 1.5 0.021 1600 4

29 18 4 1 9 6 355 140 200 57 11.4 5.6 4.1 1.2 60 10 5.18 0.008 0.809 0.085 0.68 0.003 2.5 0.036 350 2

89


Table: 2.1.a EASTERN ZONE Sampling Locations

NOVEMBER,07

APRIL, 08

OCTOBER, 08

NOVEMBER, 09

Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

BWQC

Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

BWQC

Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

BWQC

Ramghat, Amarkantak Graveyard, Amarkantak

5.18

0.78

C

5

0.8

C

4.66

0.81

C

7

0.88

A

5.7

0.63

C

5.18

0.95

C

Kapilvan, Amarkanatak

6.33

0.57

B

6.5

0.65

B

6.25

0.61

B

Kapildhara, Amarkantak

-

-

-

4.8

0.5

C

6.2

0.7

B

Jogi Tikaria, Dindori

-

-

-

6.33

0.56

C

6.11

0.65

B

Dindori Ghat, Dindori Raptapul Ghat, Mandla Chiri, Mandla

-

-

-

5.33

0.65

C

6.54

0.73

B

8.8

0.29

A

6

0.6

B

7.11

0.77

A

-

-

-

5.75

0.57

C

-

-

-

Bargi Dam U/S (Maikal Resort)

5.4

0.33

C

5.78

0.52

C

5.75

0.55

C

Bargi Dam D/S

4.28

0.2

D

6.33

0.48

B

5.28

0.88

C

Saraswati Ghat, Jabalpur

3.4

0.15

D

7.75

0.59

A

7

0.53

B

-

-

-

6.54

0.62

B

6

0.76

C

-

-

-

7.11

0.63

A

4.83

0.27

D

Jhansi Ghat, Shahpura Barmanghat, Narsinghpur

90

Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

BWQC

5.33

0.69

C

5.5

0.75

C


Table No: 2.1.b List of benthic macroinvertebrates in Eastern Zone

Trichoptera:

Hydropsychidae,

Philopotamidae,

Policentropodidae,

Goeridae, Leptoceridae

Plecoptera:

Perlidae

Ephemeroptera:

Baetidae,

Heptageniidae,

Leptophlebidae,

Caenidae,

Ephemeridae Odonata:

Protoneuridae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae, Coenagriidae

Hemiptera:

Nepidae, Notonectidae, Belastomatidae, Aphelocheridae, Gerridae, Corixidae, Nepidae, Ranatridae, Mesovalidae, Pleidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae

Coleoptera:

Hygrobidae,

Gyrinidae,

Hydrophilidae,

Ecnomidae,

Dytiscidae, Psephenidae

Mollusca:

Viviparidae, Bithynidae,

Planorbidae, Spheridae,

Lymnaeidae, Assimineidae,

Unionidae, Amblemidae Diptera:

Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae

Crustacea:

Palaemonidae, Atydae, Potamidae

Megaloptera:

Sialidae, Corydalidae

Lepidoptera:

Pyralidae

Oligochaeta:

Nereidae

Annelid:

Salifidae

Total families identified - 54

91

Thiaridae, Corbiculidae,


Table: 2.2.a CENTRAL ZONE Sampling Locations

OCTOBER, 2007

JANUARY, 2008

FEBRUARY, 2008

MAY, 2008

NOV. 2008 FEB., 2009 SS DS BWQC

SS

DS

BWQC

SS

DS

BWQC

SS

DS

BWQC

SS

DS

BWQC

SS

DS

BWQC

5.46

0.6

C

5.82

0.636

C

6.71

0.57

B

5

0.76

C

6.08

0.84

B

Jarrapur, Budni

-

-

-

4.77

0.393

C

5.58

0.5

C

5.29

0.69

C

-

-

-

Goalgaon, Budni

-

-

-

5.46

0.362

C

5.75

0.38

C

5.3

0.89

C

5.14

0.79

C

5.41 5.68

0.81 0.82

Tawa, Bandrabhan

-

-

-

-

-

-

5.8

0.37

C

6.2

0.73

B

5.14

0.79

C

4.69

0.393

Bandrabhan, A/C of Tawa river

-

-

-

-

-

-

6.2

0.4

C

7.22

0.52

B

5.83

0.73

C

5.5

Mangalwara Ghat, Hoshangabad U/S SPM Nallah, Hoshangabad

5.75

0.56

C

6.2

0.47

B

5.9

0.63

C

6

0.8

C

5.8

0.88

C

5.72

0.63 0.51

5.52

0.475

C

5.57

0.4

C

6

0.42

C

5.45

0.86

C

5.4

0.8

C

5.81

0.37

6

0.57

B

5.52

0.79

C

6.22

0.43

C

5.7

0.81

C

5.23

0.84

C

5.18

0.58

Ramnagar, Bandrabhan

D/S SPM Nallah, Hoshangabad Saprobic Score Diversity Score

5

0.362 C C C C

C

C

C

C SS DS

92


Table No: 2.2.b List of benthic macroinvertebrates in Central Zone

Trichoptera:

Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, Hydroptilidae

Plecoptera:

Perlidae

Ephemeroptera:

Leptophlebiidae,

Caenidae,

Baetidae,

Heptageniidae,

Ephimeridae

Odonata:

Gomphidae,

Macromiidae,

Protoneuridae,

Aeshnidae,

Libellulidae, Coenagriidae,

Hemiptera:

Corixidae, Belastomatidae, Nepidae, Pleidae, Gerridae, Aphelocheridae, Ranatridae, Mesovelidae

Coleoptera:

Dytiscidae,

Elminthidae,

Hygrobidae,

Hydrophilidae,

Gyrinidae

Ecnomidae,

Lepidoptera,

Psephenidae,

Dryopidae

Mollusca:

Corbiculidae, Viviparidae,

Amblemidae, Bithyniidae,

Thiaridae,

Assimineidae,

Unionidae, Lymnaeidae,

Planorbidae, Spheridae, Piscicolidae, Diptera:

Tabanidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Simulidae

Crustacea:

Atydae, Palaemonidae, Potamidae, Cirolanidae

Lepidoptera:

Pyrulidae

Annelida:

Glossiphonidae

Platyhelminthys:

Planariidae

Total families identified - 53

93


Table: 2.3.a WESTERN ZONE S. No

Sampling Locations

DECEMBER, 2007 SS DS BWQC

1

Omkareshwar U/S

4.66

0.63

C

4.75

0.69

C

6

0.81

B

2

Nagar Ghat, Omkareshwar

-

-

-

7

0.44

A

5.5

0.74

C

3

Mamleshwar Ghat, Omkareshwar

-

-

-

-

0.16

-

5.25

0.49

C

4

Khedi Ghat, Mortakka

-

-

-

7.01

0.52

A

6.22

0.82

B

5

Mandleshwar D/S

4.77

0.6

C

6.36

0.54

B

6.25

0.88

B

6

Maheshwar (MPT Hotel)

5.5

0.86

C

5.12

0.54

C

5.7

0.82

C

7

Rajghat, Barwani

5.2

0.39

C

6.181

0.69

B

6.3

0.79

B

8

Koteshwar Ghat, Nisarpur

-

-

-

5.625

0.64

C

5.5

0.81

C

SS

MARCH, 2008 DS BWQC

SS

JUNE, 2008 DS BWQC

DECEMBER, 2008 SS DS BWQC 5.58

0.8

SS 5.33

MAY, 09 DS BWQC 0.65

C

94

C

7.6

0.59

A

5.8

0.506

C

5.5

0.61

C

5.8

0.76

C

5.5

0.78

C

4.85

0.62

C

6.4

0.86

B

5.31

0.62

C

4.78

0.79

C

5

0.73

C

5.53

0.83

C

5.33

0.64

C

6.37

0.87

B

5.44

0.74

C


Table No: 2.3.b List of benthic macroinvertebrates in Western Zone Trichoptera:

Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, Goeridae, Philopotamidae, Psychomyiidae

Plecoptera:

Perlidae

Ephemeroptera:

Baetidae, Heptageniidae, Caenidae

Odonata:

Protoneuridae, Libellulidae, Coenagriidae, Macromiidae, Gomphidae

Hemiptera:

Naucoridae,

Belastomatidae,

Corixidae,

Nepidae,

Ranatridae, Gerridae, Pleidae

Coleoptera:

Hydrophilidae,

Dytiscidae,

Psephenidae,

Ecnomidae,

Haliplidae, Gyrinidae, Noteridae, Dryopidae

Mollusca:

Planorbidae,

Lymnaeidae,

Bithynidae,

Viviparidae,

Thiaridae, Amblemidae, Unioidae, Sphaeridae, Pyrulidae, Physidae

Diptera:

Culicidae, Chironomidae, Tabanidae

Crustacea:

Atydae, Cirolanidae, Palaemonidae

Annelida:

Hirudinidae

Total families identified: 46

95


2.4 Statistical data of biological parameters of Eastern zone Sampling stations Ramghat, Amarkantak Graveyard, Amarkantak Kapilvan, Amarkanatak Kapildhara, Amarkantak Jogi Tikaria, Dindori Dindori Ghat, Dindori Raptapul Ghat, Mandla Chiri, Mandla Bargi Dam U/S (Maikal Resort) Bargi Dam D/S Saraswati Ghat, Jabalpur Jhansi Ghat, Shahpura Barmanghat, Narsinghpur

Saprobic Score Max Min Avg.

Diversity Score Max Min Avg.

5.27 7 6.5 6.2 6.33 6.54 8.8 5.75 5.78 6.33 7.75 6.8 7.11

0.81 0.95 0.74 0.88 0.67 0.83 0.77 0.62 0.58 0.88 0.7 0.76 0.8

4.66 5.14 5.44 4.8 5.14 5.33 6 5.25 4.55 4.28 3.4 6 4.83

4.965 6.07 5.97 5.5 5.735 5.935 7.4 5.5 5.165 5.305 5.575 6.4 5.97

0.78 0.63 0.57 0.5 0.56 0.65 0.29 0.57 0.33 0.2 0.15 0.46 0.27

0.795 0.79 0.655 0.69 0.615 0.74 0.53 0.595 0.455 0.54 0.425 0.61 0.535

2.5 Statistical data of biological parameters of Central zone Sampling stations Ramnagar, Bandrabhan Jarrapur, Budni Goalgaon, Budni Tawa, Bandrabhan Bandrabhan, A/C of Tawa river Mangalwara Ghat U/S SPM Nallah, SPM Nallah D/S SPM Nallah

Saprobic Score Max Min Avg.

Diversity Score Max Min Avg.

6.71 5.58 5.75 6.2 7.22 6.2 6 5.3 6.22

0.84 0.69 0.89 0.79 0.73 0.88 0.86 0.77 0.84

5 4.77 5.14 5.14 5.83 5.75 5.4 2.5 5.23

5.855 5.175 5.445 5.67 6.525 5.975 5.7 3.9 5.725

0.57 0.393 0.362 0.37 0.4 0.47 0.4 0.4 0.43

0.705 0.54 0.626 0.58 0.565 0.675 0.63 0.585 0.635

2.6 Statistical data of biological parameters of Western zone Sampling stations Omkareshwar U/S Nagar Ghat, Omkareshwar Mamleshwar Ghat, Omkareshwar Khedi Ghat, Mortakka Mandleshwar D/S Maheshwar (MPT Hotel) Rajghat, Barwani Koteshwar Ghat, Nisarpur

Saprobic Score Max Min Avg.

Diversity Score Max Min Avg.

6 7.6 5.5 7.01 6.4 5.7 6.3 6.37

0.81 0.74 0.61 0.82 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.87

95

4.66 5.5 5.25 5.5 4.77 4.78 5.2 5.5

5.33 6.55 5.375 6.255 5.585 5.24 5.75 5.935

0.63 0.44 0.16 0.52 0.54 0.54 0.39 0.64

0.72 0.59 0.385 0.67 0.71 0.7 0.61 0.755


2.7 Statistical data of Biological quality parameters of river NarmadaAt a Glance

Sampling Zones

Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

Avg. BWQC

Max

Min

Avg.

Max

Min

Avg.

8.8

3.4

6.1

0.95

0.15

0.55

C

7.22

2.5

4.86

0.89

0.362

0.62

C

7.6

4.66

6.13

0.88

0.16

0.52

C

Eastern Zone Central Zone Western Zone

2.8 BWQC OF EASTERN ZONE Sampling Stations

Nov., 07

April, 08

Oct., 08

Jan., 09

Average

Ramghat, Amarkantak Graveyard, Amarkantak Kapilvan, Amarkanatak Kapildhara, Amarkantak Jogi Tikaria, Dindori Dindori Ghat, Dindori Raptapul Ghat, Mandla Chiri, Mandla Bargi Dam U/S (Maikal Resort)

C A B A C

C C B C C C B C C

C C B B B B A C

C C C C C B B C C

C B C C C C B C C

Bargi Dam D/S Saraswati Ghat, Jabalpur Jhansi Ghat, Shahpura Barmanghat, Narsinghpur

D D -

B A B A

C B C D

C C B C

C C B C

95


2.9 BWQC OF CENTRAL ZONE

Sampling Stations

Oct., 07

Jan., 08

Feb., 08

May, 08

C

C

B

C

B

C

-

C C -

C C C C

C C B B

C C C

C C C B

C

B

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

B

C

C

C

C

C

Average

Ramnagar, Bandrabhan Jarrapur, Budni Goalgaon, Budni Tawa, Bandrabhan Bandrabhan, A/C of Tawa river Mangalwara Ghat, Hoshanga-bad U/S SPM Nallah, Hoshanga-bad D/S SPM Nallah, Hoshanga-bad

Nov., 09 Average

2.10 BWQC OF WESTERN ZONE

Sampling Stations

Dec., 07

March, 08

June, 08

Dec., 08

Omkareshwar U/S

C

C

B

C

Nagar Ghat, Omkareshwar

-

A

C

A

Mamleshwar Ghat, Omkareshwar Khedi Ghat, Mortakka

-

-

C

-

A

B

C

Mandleshwar D/S

C

B

B

B

Maheshwar (MPT Hotel)

C

C

C

C

Rajghat, Barwani

C

B

B

C

Koteshwar Ghat, Nisarpur

-

C

C

B

C B C

C

95

B C C C C


2.11 Water resources and their uses SL. NO. 1.

ZONE/ REGION

SAMPLING LOCATION Origin (Kund)

2.

Ramghat

3.

Graveyard

4.

Kapil Van

5. 6.

Kapil Dhara Jogi Tikaria

7.

Dindori Ghat

8. Eastern Zone

Raptapul Ghat (Mandla)

9.

Chiri Ghat

10.

Bargi Upstream (Jabalpur)

11.

Bargi Down stream (Jabalpur) Saraswati Ghat (Jabalpur)

12.

13.

Jhansi Ghat (Shahpura)

95

WATER USE STATUS Bathing, Washing, Ritual activities Cattle wading, Boating, Bathing, Solid waste, floor washing, Open defecation Cattle wading, Bathing, Cremation, Open defecation, Cattle wading Cattle wading, Bathing, Washing, Open defecation Bathing Bathing, Fishing, Vehicle washing Bathing, Washing, Ritual activities, Farming, Cattle wading and Domestic discharge Cattle wading, Bathing, Cremation, Fishing, Open defecation Bathing, washing, Fishing, Open defecation Cattle wading, Sand recovery, Boating, Bathing, Fishing, Hydal power generation, Open defecation Bathing, Cattle wading, Open Defecation and cremation Cattle wading, Bathing, Sand recovery, Vehicle washing and Ritual activities Cattle wading, Sand recovery, Cremation, Bathing & Vehicle washing


14.

Berman Ghat (Narsingpur)

15.

Bandrabhan (Ramnagar)

16.

Jarrapur Central Zone

17.

Goalgaon (Budni Ghat)

18.

Mangalwara Ghat (Hoshangabad)

19.

Before confluence of Tawa River After confluence of Tawa River SPM Nallah Upstream

20.

Central Zone

21. 22.

SPM Nallah Down stream

23.

Omkareshwar Upstream Nagar Ghat (Omkareshwar) Mamleshwar Ghat (Omkareshwar) Khedi Ghat (Mortakka)

24. 25. 26. Western Zone 27.

Kasrawat (Downstream of mandleshwar dam)

28.

Maheshwar (MPT Hotel) Rajghat (Badwani) Koteshwar (Nisarpur)

29. 30.

95

Bathing, Cattle wading, Cremation, Ritual activities and Fishing Cattle wading, Melon farming, Bathing, Boating and Religious activities Cattle wading, Bathing, Washing and boating Farming, Cattle wading, Bathing, Ritual activities, Washing, Fishing, Boating & Cremation Cattle wading, Bathing, Ritual activities, Washing, Boating, Idol immersion, Open defecation & Cremation Sand recovery and Cremation Ritual activity , Bathing and Open defecation Cattle wading, Sand recovery, Bathing and Fishing Sand recovery, Bathing, Cremation, Cattle wading and Fishing Bathing and Power generation Religious activities and Bathing Cattle wading, Bathing, Washing and Open defecation Cattle wading, Bathing, Ritual activities and Washing Cattle wading, Bathing, Washing and Hydral power generation Cattle wading, Bathing and Washing Bathing and Ritual activities Bathing and Religious activities


2.12 HYDROLOGICAL STATUS OF EASTERN ZONE

Sl. No.

1.

2.

Sampling Location

Period of Sampling

Aprox. Depth (m.)

Aprox. Width (m.)

Nov., 07

2.1

50

April, 08

-

24

Oct., 08

6.09

100

Jan., 09

1.52

9.14

Nov., 07

0.5

2.1

April, 08

1.75

0.91

Oct., 08

0.91

3

Ramghat

Graveyard

95

Aprox. Substratum Composition Velocity Substrate Percentage of flow type (m/ sec.) 1 NIL Silt 7 Clay 2 Detritous 90 Artificial Substratum 10 NIL Silt 20 Clay 10 Detritous 60 Artificial Substratum 10 NIL Silt 10 Clay 10 Detritous 70 Artificial Substratum 10 NIL Silt 20 Clay 20 Detritous 50 Artificial Substratum 0.41 Boulders 2 Cobbles 5 Pebbles 5 Gravels 10 Sand 10 Silt 10 50 Clay 5 0.16 Boulders 5 Gravels 10 Sand 70 Silt 10 Clay 10 0.83 Pebbles 20 Gravels 50 Sand 20 Clay


Jan., 09

1.52

1.5

0.30

Nov., 07

-

-

NIL

April, 08

-

-

0.12

Oct., 08

0.47

10

0.45

Jan., 09

0.91

15

3

April, 08

1.5-2.0

30

NIL

Oct., 08

0.60

15

0.66

Jan., 09

0.91

18

10

April, 08

1.5-2.0

100

0.6

Kapil Van 3.

4.

5.

Kapil Dhara

Jogi Tikaria

95

Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Clay Detritus Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Clay Gravels Sand Silt Clay Detritus Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Sand Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Boulders Cobbles Gravels Sand Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Silt Clay Detritus

5 5 3 2 5 70 5 5 40 20 15 15 10 10 60 20 5 5 10 10 70 10 5 5 10 10 70 70 10 5 5 60 20 10 10 80 10 5 5 70 5 5 10 5 5


6.

Oct., 08

0.60

180

0.28

Jan., 09

0.91

100

2

April, 08

0.45

-

0.27

Oct., 08

7.61

200

1

Jan., 09

0.91

250

1.8

Nov., 07

-

-

0.83

April, 08

0.76

200

0.83

Oct., 08

6.09

800

1

Jan., 09

1.52

150

2

Dindori Ghat

7. Raptapul Ghat (Mandla)

95

Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Silt Clay Detritus Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Sand Silt Clay Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Clay Detritus Boulders Cobbles Silt Clay Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Detritus Silt Clay Detritus

80 10 10 60 10 10 10 10 70 10 5 5 5 5 10 20 50 10 10 70 10 5 5 5 5 40 10 10 39 1 60 30 5 5 20 20 10 10 10 10 20 10 80 10


8.

9.

10.

Chiri Ghat

April, 08

12.1

1000

NIL

Jan., 09

1.82

850

NIL

Nov., 07

1

-

NIL

April, 08

100

1000

NIL

Oct., 08

9.41

914.3

NIL

Jan., 09

12.1

1000

NIL

Nov., 07

2.5

200

0.83

April, 08

1.5

121.9

7.1

Oct., 08

41.21

200

0.83

Jan., 09

0.91

150

1.5

Bargi Upstream (Jabalpur)

Bargi Down stream (Jabalpur)

95

Boulders Silt Clay Detritus Boulders Cobbles Gravels Sand Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Gravels Sand Silt Clay Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Clay Gravels Sand Silt Clay Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Silt Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Gravels

10 10 70 10 10 5 5 80 2 2 1 80 15 10 80 5 5 10 10 60 10 10 10 80 5 5 65 15 10 5 5 90 5 3 2 80 5 5 7 3 90 5 3 2


11.

12.

13.

Nov., 07

3

100

0.47

April, 08

2-3.5

600

NIL

Oct., 08

3.04

91

0.55

Jan., 09

1.82

600

6

April, 08

4.5

200

0.52

Oct., 08

4.57

300

0.35

Jan., 09

4.57

200

1.8

April, 08

7

200

0.22

Oct., 08

21

300

0.55

Jan., 09

4.87

225

1.33

Saraswati Ghat (Jabalpur)

Jhansi Ghat (Shahpura)

Berman Ghat (Narsingpur)

95

Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Boulder Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Clay Boulder Cobbles Sand Boulder Cobbles Sand Pebbles Gravels Sand Boulder Cobbles Clay Detritus Boulder Cobbles Pebble Sand Boulder Cobbles Sand Silt Clay

50 20 18 5 5 2 80 10 10 80 10 10 60 10 5 5 10 5 5 80 10 10 80 10 10 70 20 10 10 10 70 10 70 10 10 10 70 10 10 5 5


2.13 HYDROLOGICAL STATUS OF CENTRAL ZONE

Sl. No.

1.

2.

3.

Sampling Location

Period of Sampling

Aprox. Depth (m.)

Aprox. Width (m.)

Oct., 07

1.82

150

Jan., 08

4.5

220

Feb., 08

1-1.5

150

May, 08

4.5

-

Nov., 08

-

-

Jan., 08

9.14

195

Feb., 08

12.1

250

May, 08

12.1

250

Jan., 08

7.61

250

Feb., 08

7.61

53.3

Bandrabhan (Ramnagar)

Jarrapur

Goalgaon (Budni Ghat)

95

Substratum Aprox. Composition Velocity of flow Substrate Percentage (m/ sec.) type 0.133 Boulders 80 Cobbles 10 Silt 5 Clay 5 80 0.13 Boulders 10 Cobbles 5 Silt 5 Clay 1.25 Boulders 80 Silt 10 Clay 10 80 2 Boulders 10 Cobbles 5 Pebbles 2 Gravels 3 Sand 1 Boulders 50 Cobbles 20 Gravels 10 Sand 10 0.71 Sand 10 Silt 80 Clay 5 Detritus 5 0.71 Sand 10 Silt 10 Clay 70 Detritus 10 0.71 Sand 10 Clay 80 Detritus 10 10 NIL Sand 40 Silt 40 Clay 10 Detritus 0.08 Silt 5 Clay 85 Detritus 10


4.

5.

6.

Mangalwara Ghat (Hoshangabad)

May, 08

7.61

-

NIL

Nov., 08

10.66

-

NIL

Oct., 07

-

-

0.057

Jan., 08

3.04

200

0.62

Feb., 08

13.71

100

0.62

May, 08

3.04

150

0.55

Nov., 08

-

170

-

Feb., 08

-

-

0.43

May, 08

-

-

1.5

Feb., 08

15.2

200

NIL

May,08

15.2

200

0.83

Nov., 08

19.8

200

0.31

Before Tawa Confluence

After tawa Confluence

95

Sand Clay Detritus Silt Clay Detritus Cobbles Sand Silt Clay Detritus Cobbles Sand Silt Clay Detritus Silt Clay Detritus Silt Clay Detritus Silt Clay Detritus Boulder Cobbles Sand Silt Clay Gravel Sand Sand Silt Clay Gravel Sand Silt Sand Silt Clay Detritus

20 70 10 10 80 10 5 40 10 40 5 5 40 10 30 15 10 80 10 10 70 20 10 80 10 10 10 70 5 5 10 90 70 25 5 10 80 10 50 20 20 10


7.

8.

SPM Nallah Upstream

Oct., 07

2.28

1000

0.067

Jan., 08

9.1

1000

0.90

March, 08

9.14

1000

0.90

May, 08

9.14

750

0.5

Nov., 08

9.2

785

0.4

Oct., 07

-

-

0.052

Jan., 08

10.6

-

0.90

March, 08

10.6

1000

0.90

May, 08

6.09

800

1.47

Nov., 08

-

-

1.47

SPM Nallah Down stream

95

Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Clay Cobbles Gravels Sand Silt Sand Silt Detritus Sand Silt Detritus Gravels Sand Silt Clay Detritus Cobbles Pebbles Sand Silt Clay Cobbles Pebbles Sand Silt Clay Cobbles Pebbles Sand Silt Clay Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Sand Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand

5 5 70 10 10 10 10 60 30 80 10 10 40 10 40 10 10 10 60 10 5 10 40 10 35 3 7 60 10 20 3 7 60 10 20 5 5 70 10 10 50 10 30


2.14 HYDROLOGICAL STATUS OF WESTERN ZONE

Sl. No.

1.

2.

Sampling Location

Period of Sampling

Aprox. Depth (m.)

Aprox. Width (m.)

Omkareshwar Upstream

Dec., 07

25

1800

March, 08

-

1500

June, 08

30.4

1500

Dec., 08

21.35

1000

March, 08

2

150

June, 08

0.91

100

Dec., 08

15.2

200

Nagar Ghat (Omkareshwar)

95

Aprox. Substratum Velocity Composition of flow Substrate Percentage (m/ sec.) type 8 NIL Cobbles 2 Pebbles 80 Silt 10 Clay NIL Boulders 1 Cobbles 30 Pebbles 20 Gravels 5 Sand 5 Silt 10 Clay 29 NIL Cobbles 70 Gravels 10 Sand 5 Clay 15 NIL Cobbles 8 Gravels 10 Sand 10 Silt 2 Clay 70 90 0.5 Boulder 5 Cobbles 3 Pebble 2 Gravels 0.16 Boulder 80 Cobbles 10 Clay 5 Detritus 5 0.66 Boulder 90 Cobbles 5 Pebble 3 Gravels 2


3.

4.

5.

Mamleshwar Ghat (Omkareshwar)

March, 08

1.5-2

150

0.34

June, 08

1.5

100

0.16

Dec., 08

2.38

200

0.66

March, 08

-

250

-

June, 08

6.09

-

-

Dec., 08

6.09

600

0.5

March, 08

0.4

200

0.4

June, 08

6.09

600

0.16

Dec., 08

22.05

800

0.18

Khedighat (Mortakka)

Kasrawat (Mandleshwar)

95

Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Boulders Cobbles Gravels Clay Boulders Cobbles Gravels Clay Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Silt Boulders Cobbles Gravels Silt Detritus Boulders Cobbles Gravels Silt Detritus Boulders Cobbles Pebbles Gravels Sand Clay Boulders Gravels Sand Silt Boulders Gravels Sand Silt

70 10 10 5 5 70 10 10 10 70 10 10 10 80 10 5 3 1 1 80 5 3 5 7 60 10 10 10 10 1 5 20 50 10 10 70 10 10 10 70 20 10 10


6.

7.

8.

Dec., 07

4.26

130

-

March, 08

12.1

250

-

June, 08

15

1000

-

Dec., 08

16.95

800

-

March, 08 June, 08

53.3

700

0.6

15

400

16

Dec., 08

15

800

0.8

March, 08 June, 08

9.14

400

-

15.1

1000

-

Dec., 08

7.5

900

-

Maheshwar MPT ghat

Rajghat (badwani)

Koteshwar ghat (Nisarpur)

95

Boulders Cobbles Sand Silt Clay Sand Silt Clay Detritus Gravels Sand Clay Detritus Gravels Sand Clay Detritus Clay

2 20 10 60 8 10 15 70 5 5 5 80 10 5 5 80 10 100

Boulders Sand Clay Detritus Silt Clay Detritus Clay

5 5 80 10 10 80 10 100

Gravels Clay Detritus Gravels Clay Detritus

5 85 10 5 85 10


Interim Report M.P . Pollution Control Board executed the project entitled Biomapping of River Narmada. Project sponsored by Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi project tenure is two years w.e.f. May, 2007 monitoring work was started from 26th Oct. 2007 with identification of sampling sites in entire river stretch in M.P. total sampling sites 31 points selected sites were fixed for monitoring the river.

During

monitoring

work

it

was

informed

by

the

Local

Administration to the Monitoring Team that cleaning activities at Narmada at Amarkantak region will be taken up in the near future, hence the monitoring team perform monitoring of river Narmada at Amarkantak region on 03.11.09 to 08.11.09 to observe whether cleaning activity affect the biota of river water or not. The monitoring result reveals that no change in the species collected during monitoring as compare to previous result. On enquiring it was disclosed that cleaning activities of river Narmada was not takenup so far. The monitoring results accouotated in table no. 1.1.0 to 1.1.12 and 2.1.a. Numeric representation of benthic families at different locations at Amarkantak is appeared as table no.2.15 on wards.

2.15 Numeric representation of benthic families at Ramghat, Amarkantak


Sl. No.

Benthic Families

1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Protoneuridae Gomphidae Mesovelidae Libellulidae Viviparidae Potamidae Nepidae Ranatridae Notonectidae Belastomatidae Hygrobidae Dytiscidae Gyrinidae Dryopidae Hydrophilidae Baetidae Lymnaeidae Bithynidae Planorbidae Spheridae Chironomidae Thiaridae Palaemonidae Haliplidae

Number of Organisms Nov., 07

April, 08

Oct., 08

Jan.,09

34 25 9 16 6 1 2 15 11 1 1 7 5 12 1 -

03 02 17 10

06 02 03 -05 11 17 -

15 11 08 04 10 01 06 02 01 03 01

01 01 07 01 01 09 07 09 03 -


2.16 Numeric representation of benthic families at Graveyard, Amarkantak Sl. No.

Benthic Families Nov., 07

Number of Organisms April, 08 Oct., 08 Jan.,09

Nov., 09

1.

Heptageniidae

-

01

-

2.

Aphelocheridae

01

-

-

3.

Protoneuridae

01

-

-

07

1

4.

Gomphidae

-

02

02

01

2

5.

Libellulidae

7

35

-

6.

Thiaridae

01

41

02

7.

Atydae

-

03

-

8.

Palaemonidae

-

02

02

9.

Nereidae

-

02

-

10.

Caenagriidae

-

04

-

11.

Mesoveliidae

-

02

-

12.

Gerridae

08

06

01

13.

Nepidae

-

02

-

14.

Pleidae

-

02

-

15.

Belastomatidae

-

02

-

16.

Corixidae

-

08

-

17.

Dytiscidae

-

01

-

18.

Lymnaeidae

-

03

-

19.

Hydropsychidae

09

-

01

09

20.

Planorbidae

-

-

04

02

21.

Spheridae

-

-

03

24

22.

Hydrophilidae

-

-

01

23.

Chironomidae

-

-

04

24.

Salifidae

-

-

01

25.

Caenidae

-

-

04

26.

Bithynidae

02

27

Sirphidae

01

28.

Gyrinidae

4

29.

Corbiculidae

5

13 01

4

05

2

13 1

2

6

04

20

01


2.17 Numeric representation of benthic families at Kapil-van, Amarkantak Sl. No.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms Nov., 07

April, 08

Oct., 08

Jan.,09 21

1.

Heptageniidae

01

01

22

2.

Leptophlebiidae

01

01

-

3.

Protoneuridae

07

05

-

02

4.

Gomphidae

06

-

03

04

5.

Libellulidae

05

17

-

08

6.

Caenidae

13

07

-

02

7.

Baetidae

05

-

-

31

8.

Thiaridae

06

11

16

09

9.

Potamidae

01

-

-

10.

Palaemonidae

09

-

-

01

11.

Corixidae

04

-

-

01

12.

Hydropsychidae

07

-

56

31

13.

Ecnomidae

03

-

-

14.

Lymnaeidae

01

-

-

15.

Chironomidae

05

-

-

21

16.

Gerridae

04

-

-

08

17.

Psephenidae

01

-

-

01

18.

Salifidae

01

-

01

19.

Planorbidae

07

-

-

08

20.

Spheridae

06

-

-

01

21.

Perlidae

-

-

04

22.

Syrphidae

-

-

03

23.

Gyrinidae

31

24

Haliplidae

01

25

Hirudinidae

02


2.18 Numeric representation of benthic families at Kapil-dhara, Amarkantak Sl. No.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms April, 08

April, 08

1.

Protoneuridae

02

1.

Protoneuridae

02

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Hydrometridae Gyrinidae Planorbidae Salifidae Heptageniidae Hydropsychidae Dytiscidae Psephenidae larva

06 10 01 01 -

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

06 10 01 01 -

10. 11 12 13 14 15. 16. 17. 18.

Thiaridae Ranatridae Gerridae Gomphidae Baetidae Caenidae Syrphidae Elminthidae Corixidae

-

10. 11 12 13 14 15. 16. 17. 18.

Hydrometridae Gyrinidae Planorbidae Salifidae Heptageniidae Hydropsychidae Dytiscidae Psephenidae larva Thiaridae Ranatridae Gerridae Gomphidae Baetidae Caenidae Syrphidae Elminthidae Corixidae

-


2.19 Numeric representation of benthic families at Raptapul Ghat, Mandla Sl. No. Benthic Families

Number of Organisms April, 08 Oct., 08 02 01 04 -

1. 2. 3.

Heptageniidae Perlidae Goeridae

Nov., 07 01 31

Jan.,09

4.

Philopotamidae

07

-

-

5.

Atydae

15

-

-

04

6.

Palaemonidae

13

-

-

01

7.

Leptoceridae

-

39

01

8.

Viviparidae

-

04

01

9.

Hydrophilidae

-

01

-

10.

Hydropsychidae

-

24

38

11.

Salifidae

-

02

-

12.

Caenidae

-

-

10

13.

Baetidae

-

-

08

14.

Thiaridae

-

-

14

15

Corbiculidae

02

16

Pleidae

04

17

Gerrixdae

05

18

Libellulidae

05

19

Gyrinidae

03

20

Dytiscidae

04

21

Haliplidae

02

22

Protoneuridae

04

23

Hydroptilidae

03

24

Corixidae

03

25

Chironomidae

08

04 48 12 17


2.20 Numeric representation of benthic families at Chiri, Mandla Sl. No.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms April, 08 Jan.,09 6 05 10

1. 2.

Viviparidae Thiaridae

3.

Palaemonidae

1

4.

Gyrinidae

11

5

Bithynidae

12

6

Planorbidae

03

7

Psephenidae

01

8

Caenidae

07

9

Corixidae

02

10

Hydropsychidae

02

30


2.21 Numeric representation of benthic families at Bargi Reservoir, Jabalpur Sl. No.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms Nov., 07

April, 08

Oct., 08

1.

Philopotamidae

11

-

-

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20 21 22

Policentropodidae Caenidae Baetidae Viviparidae Sialidae Chironomidae Macromiidae Ephimeridae Gomphidae Corydalidae Thiaridae Corbiculidae Palaemonidae Assimineidae Heptageniidae Hydropsychidae Corixidae Planorbidae Bithynidae Hirudinidae Haliplidae

06 13 07 62 01 01 -

08 22 09 02 03 01 01 25 45 01 47 -

03 07 08 02

Jan.,09

49 04 04 01

01

01 07 02 03


2.22 Numeric representation of benthic families at Bargi Dam D/S, Jabalpur

Sl. No. 1. 2.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms April, 08 Oct., 08 30

Goeridae Caenidae

Nov., 07 14 11

3.

Baetidae

01

02

-

4.

Thiaridae

01

-

-

5.

Corixidae

01

-

-

6.

Ecnomidae

05

-

-

7.

Hydropsychidae

55

49

-

8.

Pyralidae

07

-

-

9.

Corydalidae

01

-

-

10.

Ceratopogonidae

01

-

-

11.

Chironomidae

16

-

04

12.

Leptophlebidae

-

01

-

13.

Ecnomidae

-

01

-

14.

Bithynidae

-

-

15

15.

Planorbidae

-

-

04

16.

Libellulidae

-

-

03

17.

Cirolanidae

-

-

02

18.

Dytiscidae

-

-

02

Jan.,09

32

15


2.23 Numeric representation of benthic families at Saraswati Ghat, Jabalpur Sl. No.

Benthic Families Nov., 07

Number of Organisms April, Oct., 08 08 01 -

Jan.,09

1. 2.

Hydropsychidae Baetidae

01 17

01 01

3.

Chironomidae

06

-

-

4.

Perlidae

-

06

-

5.

Leptophlebidae

-

10

-

6.

Thiaridae

-

03

06

11

7.

Corixidae

-

-

02

10

8.

Heptageniidae

-

-

13

9

Haliplidae

13

10

Corbiculidae

01


2.24 Numeric representation of benthic families at Jogi Tikaria, Dindori Sl. No.

Benthic Families

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Naucoridae Leptoceridae Libellulidae Thiaridae Viviparidae Planorbidae Unionidae

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 17 18

Corbiculidae Perlidae Hydropsychidae Philopotamidae Heptageniidae Caenidae Baetidae Corixidae Bithynidae Amblemidae Gomphidae

Number of Organisms April, 08.

Oct., 08

01 15 01 01 09 01 -

08 03 03

-

01 02 43 05 09 02 03 04

Jan.,09

12 02

11

05 02 01


2.25 Numeric representation of benthic families at Dindori Ghat Sl. No.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms April, 08. Oct., 08 Jan.,09 07 18 61 15

1. 2.

Gerridae Thiaridae

3.

Assimineidae

03

-

4.

Corbiculidae

03

01

5.

Palaemonidae

01

-

6.

Heptageniidae

-

03

10

7.

Hydropsychidae

-

16

05

8.

Polycentropodidae

-

01

9.

Viviparidae

-

01

10.

Unionidae

-

01

11.

Amblemidae

-

01

12

Bythinidae

01

13

Spheridae

01

14

Libellulidae

21

15

Gomphidae

01

16

Atydae

06

17

Ephimeridae

02

18

Protoneuridae

04

19

Caenidae

09

20

Corixidae

16

21

Baetidae

06


2.26 Numeric representation of benthic families at Jhansi Ghat, Shahpura

Sl. No.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms April, 08. Oct., 08 Jan.,09 07 05

1. 2.

Gerridae Thiaridae

3.

Assimineidae

-

-

4.

Corbiculidae

-

09

04

5.

Palaemonidae

-

-

-

6.

Heptageniidae

-

05

7.

Perlidae

-

10

01

8.

Bithynidae

-

01

02

9.

Corixidae

-

06

10.

Gomphidae

-

01

11.

Dytiscidae

-

01

12.

Baetidae

-

47

59

13

Protoneuridae

-

-

01

14

Aphelocheridae

-

-

01

15

Hydrapsychidae

-

-

03

16

Hydrophilidae

-

-

01

02


2.27 Numeric representation of benthic families at Barman Ghat, Narsingpur Sl. No.

Benthic Families

Number of Organisms April, 08. Oct., 08 Jan.,09 138 09 -

1. 2.

Gyrinidae Palaemonidae

3.

Thiaridae

-

06

11

4.

Corbiculidae

-

06

03

5.

Viviparidae

-

02

02

6

Gomphidae

-

-

01

7

Libellulidae

-

-

02

8

Gerridae

-

-

04

9

Corixidae

-

-

34

10

Atydae

-

-

04

11

Spheridae

-

-

01

12

Baetidae

-

-

20


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