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the friends of cha mber music the friends of cha mber music the friends of cha mber music

the friends of cha mber music 2011 路 2012

36th annual season


Hear Now the Future

913-722-6810

youthsymphonykc.org


The Friends of Cha mber Music

Transcend

Tradition 2011 · 2012 Season

Table of Contents 6 2011|12 Concert Schedule 10 Welcome from Cynthia Siebert 11 A Letter from the Board Chairman 17 Your Guide to Concert Enjoyment 19 Ticket Information 20 Soirée 2011 22 FORTE Film Series 104 Special Thanks 106 Contributors 110 Glossary 120 Ad Index

Concert Programs and Notes

Cover Art The Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1818 by Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) Location: Hamburger Kunsthalle Hamburg, Germany/ The Bridgeman Art Library Copyright status: German / out of copyright

Program Book Credits

54 Les Violons du Roy with Maurice Steger, recorder

Publisher: Sunflower Publishing Editor-in-Chief: Cynthia Siebert Editor: Eileen Terril Associate Editors: Jeremy Lillig, Kate Beebe & Amy Inderlied Program Annotator: Laurie Shulman Advertising Sales: Sunflower Publishing Design & Layout: Amy Inderlied

58 Bach Festival: Brandenburg Concertos

The Friends of Chamber Music Staff

60 Bach Festival: Inventions and Sinfonias

Cynthia Siebert Founder and President Kate Beebe Director of Development Jeremy Lillig Director of Marketing Eileen Terril General Manager & Director of Artist Services Amy Inderlied Customer & Creative Services Manager

24 The Darwin Project 32 Tokyo String Quartet 36 Chanticleer 42 REBEL with Rufus Müller, tenor 48 Tallis Scholars

64 Bach Festival: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II 68 Bach Festival: Bach Concertos 70 Bach Festival: Goldberg Variations 74 Bach Festival: The Art of the Fugue 78 Richard Goode 82 The Morgenstern Piano Trio 84 Piffaro & King’s Noyse with Ellen Hargis, soprano

Contact The Friends

92 Jonathan Biss

4635 Wyandotte, Suite 201 Kansas City, Missouri 64112 Telephone: 816-561-9999 Fax: 816-561-8810 www.chambermusic.org

96 Jennifer Koh & Shai Wosner 98 Young Mozart 100 Artemis String Quartet

36th season 2011-2012

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The Friends of Cha mber Music In ter n ation a l Ch a mber Music Seri e s The Darwin Project October 14 | 8 pm Tokyo String Quartet October 21 | 8 pm Chanticleer November 5 | 8 pm Les Violons du Roy January 27 | 8 pm

with Bernard Labadie, music director and Maurice Steger, recorder

Artemis String Quartet April 27 | 8 pm m as ter p i a n i s ts ser i es Richard Goode March 9 | 8 pm Jonathan Biss April 13 | 8 pm

ea r ly music ser i es REBEL with Rufus Müller November 18 | 8 pm Tallis Scholars December 6 | 7:30 pm Piffaro & King’s Noyse March 24 | 8 pm

2012 Ba c h Fes ti va l Kansas City Chamber Orchestra January 24 | 8 pm Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 10 | 8 pm Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 11 | 8 pm

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Kansas City Chamber Orchestra February 14 | 8 pm with Konstantin Lifschitz, piano

Tradition 2011 · 2012 Season

Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 18 | 8 pm Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 19 | 2:30 pm

A Music Alliance Production

music a l l i a nc e P r esen ted w i th UM K C Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 19 | 2:30 pm The Morgenstern Trio March 16 | 8:00 pm Jennifer Koh, violin & Shai Wosner, piano April 21 | 7:30 pm

Educ ation a l P ro g r a m Young Mozart, a children’s play April 22 | 2 pm April 23 | 10 am and 12 pm

Many thanks to the Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund, the ArtsKC Fund, the Missouri Arts Council, and the National Endowment for the Arts for providing critical local, state, and national funding to The Friends of Chamber Music.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


THE KANSAS CITY STAR IS PROUD TO SUPPORT THE FRIENDS OF CHAMBER MUSIC 2011 - 2012 SEASON!

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From the Founderand

President

Dear Friends,

For over 35 years, The Friends of Chamber Music has presented exceptional musicians from all corners of the globe, known for their virtuosic excellence and intellectual programs—artists who have embraced the finest traditions of chamber music, and transcended them. The Friends continues to search out these great musicians and programs, to challenge and refresh your spirit with the power of glorious music. On October 14th, we explode into the fall with a daring new venture: the world premiere of The Darwin Project. The Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts joins The Friends in co-presenting this highly unusual creation incorporating theater, music, science, and the visual arts—a spectacular way to show off the new Helzberg Hall and a glorious opening for our new season. The Friends proudly announces a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to celebrate the creative genius of Bach. The 2012 Bach Festival will center primarily on the work of a single artist—the great Russian pianist, Konstantin Lifschitz—whose astounding feat of performing five concerts in ten days will bring you some of Bach’s most beautiful and profound keyboard works. Don’t miss this chance to experience one of the richest musical encounters of a lifetime. The discussion of attracting new and young audiences is part of the planning for every Friend’s season. This is the second season of The Friend’s collaboration with the UMKC Conservatory of Music and Dance in Music Alliance. This series is devoted to presenting the best of emerging chamber musicians to inspire and educate our area’s aspiring music students, as well as other lovers of great music. In another new venture, the Friends joins forces with the Folly Theater and Theatre for Young America to present Young Mozart. Targeting third through sixth grade students, this play focuses on the life of young Mozart with a live performance of the composer’s great masterpiece, the Sonata for Two Pianos. While the Friends celebrates the opening of the Kauffman Center with several events this season, our home continues to be the Folly Theater, the finest recital hall in Kansas City. No other space offers the same warmth of sound and intimacy that our presentations require. The architectural grace and beauty of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception and Grace and Holy Trinity Cathedral provide the ideal ambience and acoustical settings for our Early Music Series, the only such series of its kind in the region. As you peruse our program book, you will see that our enthusiasm to bring you great music is unabated. The music from this season has the power to lift you from the ordinary to the transcendent, to remind us of our humanness and divinity. This year take time to listen to and wonder at the creative will of genius and the achievement of the human spirit; this is a season to transform your very being.

Warmest regards,

Cynthia Siebert President & Founder

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


From the Chairman of the Dear Friends:

Board

Welcome to The Friends of Chamber Music’s 2011-12 season. For 36 years, The Friends has provided world-class chamber music to the Kansas City area, celebrating the most intimate of classical music forms. This season we continue and expand upon that tradition of excellence. In our upcoming season, The Friends proudly continues to present exquisite music in Kansas City’s beautiful churches and the area’s most venerable concert venue—The Folly Theater. In addition, we will present breathtaking events in Kansas City’s newest artistic landmark, the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts, including the debut of a dramatic multi-media concert program commissioned and produced by The Friends: The Darwin Project, a celebration in music, poetry, and drama of Charles Darwin’s life and evolution theories. This winter The Friends presents an event to be experienced nowhere else in the Americas: the 2012 Bach Festival featuring Russian pianist Konstantin Lifschitz. This Bach expert brings his astonishing talent to bear on a wide variety of Bach masterpieces, from the Two and Three Part Inventions to The Art of the Fugue. Lifschitz performs five concerts in ten days (including one with the Kansas City Chamber Orchestra)—an amazing feat not to be missed. And for the young and young-at-heart, The Friends partners with the Folly Theater and Theatre for Young America to present Young Mozart, an original children’s play showcasing the life of the adolescent genius. I am honored to be a part of this organization that bases its reputation on the excellence of the music and musicians that it brings to Kansas City, as well as the concert-going experience it provides for its patrons. Very truly yours,

Jerome T. Wolf Chairman of the Board of Directors

Board of Directors

Finance Committee

Jerome T. Wolf Chairman

David M. Eisenberg, chair

David M. Eisenberg Vice Chairman and Treasurer

Joseph T. Fahey

Cynthia Siebert President J. Scott Francis Secretary Nancy Lee Kemper

Harold J. Nicholson Jennifer R. Plackemeier Dale W. Young

Endowment Oversight Committee William Coughlin Janice Newberry Gary Smith Joshua Sosland Jerome T. Wolf

Patricia Miller Janet Miller 36th season 2011-2012

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Get involved with your

cOmmunity Sunflower Publishing is a print publishing company located in downtown Lawrence KS. Our wide range of clients and projects help us create a diverse project portfolio and allows us to excel at start to finish design, production, and sales. We are uniquely positioned to provide big business resources while remaining accessible to our customers. We offer start to finish design and print services to suit your project needs: › Magazines › Brochures › Books › Programs › Guides › Advertising material

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The

First

“Not Brook but Ocean should be his name.” Ludwig Van Beethoven “the greatest music in all the world. . . . If life had taken hope and faith from me, this single chorus would restore all.” Felix Mendelssohn

B

“In Bach the vital cells of music are united as the world is in God.” Gustav Mahler

“a benevolent god to which all musicians should offer a prayer. . . .” Claude Debussy

“the most stupendous miracle in all music!” Richard Wagner “to make divine things human and human things divine; such is Bach, the greatest and purest moment in music of all time.” Pablo Casals

For more information on the Bach Festival, please see pages 58-77. the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

a


a nd

Only*...

Bach Festival *First time in the United States...

with pianist Konstantin Lifschitz

Exclusive to Kansas City... A feat unequaled by any pianist in the world!

Program Kansas City Chamber Orchestra January 24, Folly Theater, 8 PM Brandenburg Concertos Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 10, Folly Theater, 8 PM Inventions and Sinfonias (Two and Three Park Inventions) Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 11, Folly Theater, 8 PM Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II, Kansas City Chamber Orchestra with Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 14, Kauffman Performing Arts Center, 8 PM Bach Concertos Konstantin Lifschitz, piano February 18, Kauffman Performing Arts Center, 8 PM Goldberg Variations Konstantin Lifschitz, piano Music Alliance Concert Series February 19, White Recital Hall, UMKC, 2:30 PM The Art of the Fugue

36th season 2011-2012

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the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

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It takes great audiences to make great artists. - Walt Whitman

Your Guide to Concert Enjoyment Welcome to today’s live performance. No matter the quality of a compact disc, and regardless of opportunities to hear “virtual” concerts on the Internet, nothing can replace the exhilaration of experiencing a live performance. Chamber music concerts, especially, provide audiences the opportunity to participate in a unique musical event, where the energy is unpredictable and largely affected by those in attendance. We hope the following notes, reminders and rules of etiquette help make today’s concert one you’ll remember for a lifetime. Enjoy! What if I arrive late? Latecomers are asked to remain in the lobby and not enter the hall until the first work is completely finished and the audience is clapping. There are no exceptions to this rule. The ushers will prompt you when it is time to enter, and you may then quietly enter the hall and take a seat nearest the door. What if I need to leave during the performance? When possible, please wait for the end of a piece to leave the concert hall. Of course, if you need to leave the hall at once due to an emergency or an incessant cough, please do so as quietly as possible.

Maurice Steger ( see p. 54)

Other Notes and Reminders If you wish to receive future mailings from The Friends of Chamber Music, please leave your name and address at the box office, call our offices during business hours (9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday) or visit our website at www.chambermusic.org. Patrons needing wheelchair seating or other assistance are asked to notify the box office when ordering tickets. Smoking is prohibited at all concert venues. Food and drink, including bottled water, are not permitted in the concert hall. Lost articles may be claimed at the box office, or at the offices of The Friends of Chamber Music. Programs and artists are subject to change.

Is it okay to cough? Extraneous noise does affect the musicians on stage and those around you. The Friends of Chamber Music provides free cough drops in an effort to keep distractions to a minimum. These are available in the lobby by the doors; please take only what you expect to use during the concert. It is advisable to unwrap the cough drop before the work begins. No matter how quietly you attempt to remove the wrapper, it will cause some annoying rustlings that are sure to distract those seated around you. When should I clap? Most musical works consist of a series of movements, and it is at the end of the last movement that audiences applaud the musicians. Still unsure? Follow along in your program, watch for the musicians to completely lower their instruments, or wait until others around you begin clapping. Are children welcome at concerts? If you are using this concert to introduce a young person to fine music, Bravo! We welcome young people to our concerts and have many students in our audience. However, as a general rule, we ask that children 12 years and younger be accompanied by an adult. It is a good idea to talk about concert etiquette before the performance begins, ensuring the best experience for all. Please note that infants and children less that six years old are not allowed at concerts. What if there is an emergency? Should a medical emergency arise, please contact an usher or a Friends of Chamber Music staff person. May I photograph the performance? No. Cameras (including cell phone cameras), recording equipment and flashlights all are prohibited in the concert hall. What about cell phones, watches and other electronic devices? For the enjoyment of all, please ensure that all electronic devices are turned off. I’m on call and must keep my pager with me at all times. If your pager or mobile phone can be placed on vibrator mode, please do so before the concert begins. However, if you have an audio pager and are on call, please check your pager with the box office. Your pager will be monitored during the performance, and you’ll be notified immediately of any pages. Please note that your seating assignment may be changed to accommodate such an emergency. 36th season 2011-2012

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Mission and

Beliefs

MISSION STATEMENT

The Friends of Chamber Music is dedicated to fulfilling the human need for beauty, inspiration, and spiritual sustenance. For 36 years, our concert series has provided the Kansas City community with the transformitive gift of the world's greatest chamber music played by the world's finest artists.

BELIEFS 1. Chamber music nurtures the soul and mind. 2. Chamber music binds a community together with shared values, where the listener is always honored. 3. Live chamber music performances exemplify the importance of the human element in our lives. 4. Live chamber music performances stimulate the public imagination and provide a place where imaginations meet. 5. Chamber music performances should uphold the highest artistic standards of excellence and elegance, truthfulness and authenticity. 6. Chamber music performances engage an audience in a conversation that transcends geographic, cultural and time barriers. 7. Chamber music performances provide touchstones to illuminate everything from our own personal history to our national character. One's mental landscape includes all of those moments and which become part of who we are. 8. Chamber music performances invite us to listen actively, to be moved, inspired, and transformed, to debate and ruminate between and within ourselves to make us more deliberative citizens and more responsible custodians of human thought. 9. Chamber music reflects the human condition, opening avenues for self-discovery and self-actualization. 10. A great work of art becomes society's conscience.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


BOX OFFICE SCHEDULE

You may purchase and print tickets online up to 30 minutes before a performance (excluding concerts at Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts, Music Alliance Concerts, Kansas City Chamber Orchestra Concerts, or Young Mozart) or by phone during office hours. Ticket orders that do not meet these criteria cannot be confirmed or guaranteed. You may also purchase tickets the night of the performance at the Box Office beginning 90 minutes before each performance. Student rush tickets (see explanation of discounts below) are sold 30 minutes before each performance.

DISCOUNTS

Subscriptions are available at significant savings to you! You may: Enjoy the entire season with a Combo Series subscription; purchase a sub-series with selected concerts, such as the International Chamber Music Series, International Chamber Music Series + Master Pianists Series, Master Pianists Series, Early Music Series, or the 2012 Bach Festival package. You may also create your own mini-series with sampler packages (Trio and Quartet Sampler Packages available). Please request a season brochure for a complete list of concerts. Free Student Tickets: We offer FREE tickets to students 18 and younger to concerts on the International Chamber Music and Early Music Series! (Master Pianists Series and Bach Festival concert tickets for students 18 and under are only $15 each.) This is a fantastic way to encourage the next generation of chamber music lovers to attend live performances. Don’t miss this opportunity to introduce a young person to classical music. To take advantage of these tickets: Please reserve in advance by calling 816-561-9999 or visit www.chambermusic.org. Free tickets are based on availability. Each person must be 18 years old or younger. Youth Subscriptions: The Friends offers a special opportunity for budding music lovers to subscribe to the entire season or the Master Pianists Series for just $48! (International Chamber Music Series and Early Music Series tickets are free for students 18 and under.) Subscribing gives a young person priority seating and discounted season tickets. Parents, grandparents, and friends: Want to instill the joy of discovering great music, stimulate imagination, raise better listeners, and create active arts conversations? Buy your aspiring musician or concert-goer a season subscription! We ask that children under the age of 12 years be accompanied by an adult. Infants and children under six years old are not allowed at concerts. Senior/Student/Educator Discount: $3 off single ticket purchases. You must call for tickets or visit www.chambermusic.org and mention the discounts at time of ticket purchase in order to receive them. Group Discount: Groups of 10 or more attending the same concert may purchase single tickets for $15 each. Rush Tickets: $12 tickets may be purchased 30 minutes before each performance for students with a valid I.D. and seniors 60 and older (one rush ticket per person). At the Folly Theater, seating may be limited to specific sections, depending on availability. Employee Share Discounts: If your employer participates in our Employee Share Program, you may pay as little as half of the total single ticket price (your employer pays the balance). Call The Friends of Chamber Music or check our website for a current list of participating companies. Ask for information on how your company can become part of our Employee Share Program!

EXCHANGES/REFUNDS

Tickets are non-refundable. If you are unable to attend a concert and would like to release your tickets for resale, we will mail you an acknowledgement of a tax-deductible contribution for the amount you paid for your tickets. To release your seats, please call The Friends of Chamber Music at least 48 hours before the performance. Exchange privileges: If you are a subscriber and are unable to attend a performance on your subscription series, you may exchange your tickets for a different performance. All exchanges must be within the same season and you must call The Friends of Chamber Music at least 48 hours before the performance. Lost tickets: If you have lost your tickets, please contact us at least 48 hours before the performance. We will hold reprinted tickets for you in Will Call. If you forget your tickets on a performance night, please see the Box Office Manager in the box office to reprint your ticket.

Ticket Information The Friends of Chamber Music 4635 Wyandotte, Suite 201 Kansas City, MO 64112 Ph: 816-561-9999 Fax: 816-561-8810 w w w. cham be r m us ic.or g Season Hours: Monday—Friday, 9 am–5 pm Summer Hours: Monday—Thursday, 9 am–5 pm

THREE EASY WAYS TO ORDER!

(Cash, checks and all major credit cards acccepted!) 1. Buy Online a t w w w. cham be r m us ic.or g Click on the “Buy Tickets” link. You may purchase either single or series tickets. 2. Call us at 816-561-9999 Callers from outside the KC metropolitan area may call toll-free at 877-MY SEATS (877-697-3287). 3. Mail Your Order to the address above.

The Kansas City Downtown Marriott Celebrates The Arts Friends of Chamber Music Rate

$99 You are demonstrating your support for The Friends’ outstanding contribution to the community. We at the Kansas City Marriott Downtown are demonstrating our support for the Friends of Chamber Music and our thanks to you–by offering you a special Celebrate the KC Arts Friends of Chamber Music Room Rate of just $99! Your stay will be complete with the elegant amenities you expect, and the totally luxurious Marriott Revive bedding program with cotton rich linens, down comforter and fluffy feather pillows. Other Friends of Chamber Music Benefits 10% off dinner at Lilly’s (Night of Show) when you show your tickets. This special rate is offered on performance dates only; you must show ticket to receive rate and any discount. Call 800-228-9290 and ask for the Kansas City Friends of Chamber Music Rate (Booking code FOCO) Or book on-line at www.marriott.com/mcidt

36th season 2011-2012 36th season 2011-2012

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the friends of chamber music Benefit & Wine Auction

Soirée 2011

Paul Katz and FCM Board Member Nancy Lee Kemper

Soirée, The Friends of Chamber Music's annual benefit and wine auction, was held on May 14, 2011, at the InterContinental Hotel. Guests celebrated the culmination of The Friends' 35th Anniversary Season, and enjoyed silent and live auctions and a performance by Kansas City's own Fairway Quartet. Paul Katz, cellist and founding member of the Cleveland Quartet, was honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award. Thank you to the event’s attendees for supporting The Friends’ mission of bringing world-class chamber music to our community. Proceeds from Soirée support The Friends’ concert series and educational activities.

FCM Board Member Scott Francis and Susan Gordon

Soirée Folly Theater Executive Director Gale Tallis and FCM President and Founder Cynthia Siebert

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

The Fairway Quartet with Paul Katz

2011


More scenes from Soirée 2011

photos by Stu Nowlin Imaging

Guests browse the silent auction

Benny and Edith Lee

Mary and Bob Biber

Robin Johnson and UMKC Conservatory Dean Peter Witte

Sandy Eisenberg and FCM Board Member David Eisenberg

FCM Board Chair Jerry Wolf and FCM President and Founder Cynthia Siebert

Save the date! Soirée 2012 will take place on Saturday, May 5, at the Kansas City Country Club. Visit www.chambermusic.org for more information.

Soirée W ine. M usic. Dinner. 36

th

2012

season 2011-2012

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Series

Forte Film

Returning for its third year, the FORTE Film Series is becoming increasingly popular as a delightful complement to The Friends’ renowned concert series. This season again brings three amazing films presented for FREE at the Tivoli Cinemas. Reserve your seats today! Call 816-561-9999 or RSVP at chambermusic.org.

Creation (2009) Thursday, October 6 | 7:00 PM |Tivoli Cinemas The extraordinary story of Charles Darwin and how his masterwork The Origin of Species came to light. A global revolution plays out in the confines of a small English village, a passionate marriage is tested by the most provocative idea in history–evolution–and a daring theory changes the way we understand life. Stars Paul Bettany and Jennifer Connelly as Charles and Emma Darwin. Presented in conjunction with The Darwin Project.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


Les Chor istes (2004)

Together (2002)

Thursday, March 8 | 7:00 PM |Tivoli Cinemas The new teacher at a severely-administered boarding school for “difficult” boys struggles to effect the students’ lives through singing. Set in post-WWII France and featuring a musicallytalented cast of youngsters, Les Choristes was nominated for two Academy Awards (Best Foreign-Language Film, and Best Achievement in Music Written for Motion Pictures—Original Song) and won a Golden Globe for Best Foreign-Language Film. The soundtrack topped the French albums chart for a total of 11 weeks. Features music by Rameau and Strauss, including Rameau’s hymn-like “La Nuit.”

Thursday, April 19 | 7:00 PM |Tivoli Cinemas A poverty-stricken man brings his son—a young violin prodigy—from their home in a provincial Chinese town to audition at a prestigious Beijing conservatory. With the audition looming, the father desperately attempts to provide the opportunities for his son’s success while the son struggles with the pressure from a new teacher, and the dedication that is required to be a serious musician. Features music by Tchaikovsky, Paganini, Sibelius, and Max Bruch.

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T h e W i l l i a m T. K e m p e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a m b e r M u s i c s e r i e s

The Darwin Project

A Co-Presentation of The Friends of Chamber Music and The Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts Friday, October 14

Helzberg Hall Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts

8 pm

Produced by: The Friends of Chamber Music Written by: Jeremy M. Lillig and Nancy Cervetti Scientific Consultation Robert Powell, Bill Ashworth, Bruce Bradley Original Photography John Hess Directed by

Kyle Hatley Starring

Gary Neal Johnson Kathleen Warfel Cinnamon Schultz Lighting & Projection Design Jeffrey Cady

Set Design Paul Joseph Barnett

Costume Design Ashlea Christopher

Sound Design Joseph Concha Distinguished Lecturer Andrew Berry

Additional images provided by Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering, and Technology, University of South Carolina Library, The C. Warren Irwin, Jr. Collection of Charles Darwin, and Jeff Ackley

Music performed by Alon Goldstein, piano Daedalus String Quartet Min-Young Kim, violin Ara Gregorian, violin Jessica Thompson, viola Raman Ramakrishnan, cello

Sopranos Sarah Tannehill Anderson Lindsey Lang Rebecca Roper Amy Waldron

Kansas City Collegium Vocale Ryan Board, director Altos Tenors Ryan Board Katie Beyers N. Lincoln Hanks Cory Ganschow Jeremy Mims Kate Lohmann Jonathan Thomas Cassaundra Sutherland

Basses Jonathan Krinke Joshua Lawlor Gabe Lewis-O'Connor Edward Straub

Special thanks to Pepperdine University for supporting Dr. Ryan Board’s appearance, and to the Kansas City Repertory Theatre for supporting tonight's performance. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

The actors and stage managers employed in this production are members of Actors' Equity Association, the union of professional actors and stage managers in the United States.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


program

M U S I C F E AT U R E D I N T H E DA RW I N P R O J E C T ANONYMOUS Antiphon: Morning Prayer for the Feast Day of St. Albert the Great (the Patron Saint of Science) Kansas City Collegium Vocale MENDELSSOHN String Quartet No. 2, Opus. 13: Adagio; Allegro Vivace Daedalus Quartet DEBUSSY Preludes, Book II: “Canope” Alon Goldstein SCHUMANN Fantasiestücke, Op. 12: “Des Abends” Alon Goldstein SCHUMANN Fantasiestücke, Op. 12: “Aufschwung” Alon Goldstein BYRD Mass for 5 voices: “Gloria” Kansas City Collegium Vocale RAVEL Miroirs: Une Barque sur l’oceane Alon Goldstein Haydn Quartet in C Major, Op. 33, No. 3: Allegro Moderato Daedalus Quartet INTERMISSION Chopin Preludes, Op. 28, No. 21 in B flat Major Alon Goldstein Debussy Preludes, Book II: "Les tierces alternées" Alon Goldstein Des Prez Inviolata Kansas City Collegium Vocale Chopin Preludes, Op. 28, No. 7 in A Major Alon Goldstein JanÁcek 1.X.1905 Sonata: “Smrt” (Death) Alon Goldstein Mendelssohn String Quartet No. 6 in F minor, Op. 80: Allegro Vivace Assai Daedalus Quartet Vaughan Williams "See the Chariot at Hand" from In Windsor Forest, a cantata (arr. Lee Hartman) Daedalus Quartet and Kansas City Collegium Vocale poem by Ben Jonson

The International Chamber Music Series is underwritten, in part, by the William T. Kemper Foundation. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the RLS Illumination Fund. For a list of the Soirée 2011 Fund-A-Need Donors who helped support The Darwin Project, please see p. 109.

36th season 2011-2012

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program notes As we began to research Darwin’s life, several connections to music emerged which became a starting point for our selections for tonight’s performance. For example, while studying at Cambridge, Darwin would frequently include a detour in his afternoon nature walks that took him by the chapel at King’s College, where he would listen to the choir. It was during these walks that Darwin developed his love of unaccompanied chant and choral music.

Preludes, Book II, No. 10: "Canope: Très calme et doucement triste" Claude Debussy (1862-1918) With this particular prelude we mark the death of Darwin’s mother whom he hardly knew. She died when he was only eight years old and was often sick in the last few years before her death so Darwin’s recollection is more reflective, respectful, and solemn than deeply sad.

Debussy wrote this particular work as an homage to the ancient Egyptian Darwin’s great nephew, Ralph Vaughan Williams, would become one of burial ritual in which the deceased were placed in urns. Often these urns England’s finest composers of the early 20th century with a particular denoted family lineage with ornate designs. gift for choral writing. Vaughan Williams, along with Elgar and others, developed the distinctive “English” string sound that influenced many Fantasiestücke, Op. 12, “Des Abends” composers of their day. Robert Schumann (1810-1856) Darwin’s social status as a member of the aristocracy meant that he had frequent and easy access to soirées that hosted many fine concerts. Meaning, “In the Evening,” this piece’s dream-like intimacy is used to Many of these soirées were organized by his older brother Erasmus, who represent tender memories of Darwin's childhood and his fondness for introduced Darwin into these activities after he returned from his voyage long hours of solitude. The music begins and ends mid-thought, a gentle rumination on the mysteries of life and its many unanswered questions. on the Beagle. Schumann intended the piece to be a “gentle picture of dusk,” a fitting And then, Darwin’s wife, Emma Wedgewood, was an enthusiastic pianist image for the reflective Darwin in the pastoral England in which he lived who had studied with Chopin in Paris. She also studied with the famous as a child. conductor/pianist/composer from Prague, Ignaz Moscheles, who also had taught Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn in Germany. Moscheles eventually lived in London where he, too, organized many soirées with some of the Fantasiestücke, Op. 12, “Aufschwung” Robert Schumann (1810-1856) greatest musicians of his time including Mendelssohn. Other music for the Darwin Project was chosen because the composers In sharp contrast to the last piece selected from this work, Aufschwung, lived at the same time as Darwin and represented the Romantic movement or “soaring,” is full of fierce energy and passion. Its daring, bold gestures describe the thrilling realization that Darwin now not only understands of the time such as Chopin, Schumann, and Mendelssohn. Finally, other music was chosen that we felt would enhance particular his calling with greater clarity than ever, but he seems to foresee the moments of the script and would allow the audience to reflect on the momentous opportunity given him when he is permitted to sail on drama in a more personal way. We wanted the audience to create its own the Beagle. internal dialogue with the greater implications of Darwin’s story and the birth of a theory that would forever change how we understand all of life. Mass for 5 voices: “Gloria” William Byrd (1540 -1623)

When Henry the VIII turned his back on the Catholic Church, Byrd remained a steadfast Catholic, though he was forced to practice “underground” while writing for the newly-established Church The show opens with a sunrise, a clear sense of a beginning, calm and of England. peaceful. As the sun emerges it is accompanied by the sound of an At this moment in our play, Darwin recalls his time at Cambridge when antiphon that has been sung since the 13th century (possibly as early as he heard the King’s College singers on his daily walks. Byrd’s Gloria 1086.) This one in particular, is an homage to St. Albert the Great, the from his Mass in 5 voices is a structural marvel, beginning simply and patron Saint of science. St. Albert, Albertus Magnus (1200-1280) lived in becoming more and more complicated and textually dense. It is a Cologne Germany where he worked as a scientist. After he was canonized magnificent description of man’s desire to attain truth and perfection. he was later awarded the rarely given title of Doctor of the Church Doctor of the Science. Une Barque sur l’oceane from Miroirs Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) String Quartet No. 2 in A minor, Op. 13: Adagio: Allegro Vivace “A boat on the ocean” evokes the movement of the sea, its excitement, its Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) mystery and its power. One can hear in its glistening arpeggios Darwin’s Felix Mendelssohn was born just nine days before Darwin. Both men tremendous expectations as he embarks on the greatest adventure of were born into families of means allowing them the freedom to develop his life. their formidable gifts. Both men craved knowledge and worked feverishly in their respective disciplines. In this movement from Mendelssohn’s first Quartet in A Minor, the composer takes a theme from Beethoven's (a composer admired by Darwin) String Quartet in A-minor, Op. 132. Anitphon: Morning Prayer for the Feast Day of St. Albert the Great (the Patron Saint of Science) Anonymous

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program notes into a marriage full of love, respect and generosity. The prelude has the calmness suited to the moment of a decision wisely taken. There are numerous subtleties in the nuances that suggest unanswered questions.

Allegro moderato from Quartet in C Major Op.33, No.3 (Hob.III:39), “Bird” Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) The thought of birds, namely finches and mockingbirds, figure prominently when looking at the life of Darwin. It was the similarities of birdsong to plainchant and choral music that inspired ideas and Darwin’s theory of the origin of music and speech. When Darwin sent many of his bird samples to the ornithologist John Gould, he learned to his surprise, as different as they all were, the birds were all of the same species. This discovery significantly helped Darwin further the development of the theories of evolution and natural selection. Preludes, Op. 28, No. 21 in B flat major, “Cantabile” Frédéric-François Chopin (1810-1849) Following his 5-year voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was thrust back into the life of high society with dinners, parties, soirées – all of which were not of much interest to him. He preferred to work and study but obliged his brother Erasmus with his many invitations. Chopin, one of the most eloquent and quintessential of soirée composers, was selected to represent this moment.

1.X.1905 Sonata II. “Smrt” (Death) Leoš Janáček (1854-1928) This work was written as a tribute to a Czech labourer and student who was murdered while publicly protesting for education rights. This piece exudes the grief and turmoil of the time and was chosen to represent Darwin’s grief at hearing of the death of his father. String Quartet No.6 in F minor, Op.80: Allegro Vivace Assai Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) The death of Darwin’s favorite child, Annie, was to be the greatest emotional tragedy in his life. Not only did he feel that he had lost a soul mate, and a highly intelligent, sensitive child, this death, more than any other experience in his life, forced Darwin to struggle with his own deeply-held religious beliefs. His attempt to rationalize death counters the very theory he had been developing.

Preludes, Book II, No. 11: "Les tierces alternées" Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

"See the Chariot at Hand" from In Windsor Forest Ralph Vaughan Willams (1872-1958) arr. Lee Hartman Poem by Ben Jonson

This is a highly active, busy work suggesting the growing of excitement and acceleration of ideas that Darwin was now experiencing. His observations, though thrilling in and of themselves, all pointed to the fact that species were not fixed, upending the notion entirely about the origin of species. Inviolata Josquin des Prez (c. 1450 to 1455-1521) Rooted in the Renaissance tradition, this particular piece was selected because this was the music that moved Darwin early in his life and which became a lifelong love. Des Prez' work was also ground-breaking in its search for a new expressivity.

Portrait of Charles Darwin

Preludes, Op. 28, No. 7 in A Major, "Andantino" Frédéric-François Chopin (1810-1849) At this moment in our play, Darwin and Emma have just been married and are riding a train, eating sandwiches and drinking water. This prelude was chosen for its decorum, symmetry, and simplicity. It describes the absence of pretention and the subtle timidity that was likely to have been present as Charles and Emma began their married life together. The decision to marry was made. The marriage was consummated. Though the decision to marry was agreed to by both Charles and Emma for reasons of logic and practical expediency, it would grow over time

Ralph Vaughan Williams, a pupil of Ravel's and beloved British composer, closes the program. Vaughan Williams was Charles Darwin's great nephew and a member of the Wedgewood family. He was, together with Edward Elgar, Gustave Holst and others, one of the pre-eminent composers who founded the "British sound" in the early 20th century. Vaughan Williams also worked to preserve the folk song of England and is consequently credited with having preserved a legacy of music that might otherwise have been lost. In 1906, Vaughan Williams edited the English Hymnal. ©Jeremy Lillig, 2011

Charles Darwin and Romanticism Seventeenth-century Neoclassicism is often associated with the drawing room and the novels of Jane Austen. It was a time emphasizing tradition, objectivity, order, and the mechanical. Its religion was deistic, believing that a Divine Being was remote but knowable through a study of the natural world. It had moved away from an earlier time of superstition and metaphysics, and so it is also known as the “The Enlightenment.” Yet, in spite of the new ideas and the works of Newton, Hobbes, and Locke, a backward glance dominated the Neo-classical world view. In art, philosophy, and literature, it was a time that found its inspiration 36th season 2011-2012

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program notes in imitating and translating ancient Greek and Roman classics, in studying and repeating the ideals and wisdom of Homer and Virgil, and in disciplining imagination and creativity. The emergence of Darwin’s theories of the transmutation of species and natural selection would,

The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David, 1787

arguably, not have been possible in the Age of Enlightenment. Such theories required a break with the past, a reorientation regarding time and possibility, and the free flow of the imaginative powers. The Romantic Era is most often associated with natural scenes such as the Alps, the Rhineland, or, in England, the Lake District. Words frequently used to describe Romanticism are “imagination,” “organicism,”

William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Samuel Taylor Coleridge (17721834), Lord Byron (1788-1824), Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822), and John Keats (1795-1821). Much of their great poetry and criticism was produced between the years 1789 and 1830. Darwin was born in 1819, right in the midst of this amazingly fertile time in the history of British literature. There had been revolutions in the American colonies and in France. There had been a reaction to the stasis and control of Neoclassicism. And it was not just a matter of Darwin reading about these Romantic poets in the newspapers and journals or hearing their poetry discussed at dinner. In his autobiography, he wrote that “up to the age of thirty or beyond it, poetry of many kinds such as the works of Milton, Gray, Byron, Wordsworth, Coleridge and Shelley gave me great pleasure.” And, after his five-year voyage on the Beagle, he noted that he “took much delight in Wordsworth’s and Coleridge’s poetry; and can boast that I read the Excursion twice through.” Darwin was not a Romantic, but he was influenced in significant ways by his reading of the Romantics. His powers of imagination were nurtured and validated through writers like Wordsworth and Byron. Part of his genius was his passion for nature that preceded and shaped his keen skills of observation and analysis. Again and again, he expressed his pleasure in walking tours, excursions, and hunting trips. Some of these “walks” were thirty miles long. This time out-of-doors prepared him well for the three years that he spent on land exploring, hunting, and collecting during the voyage of the Beagle. The Romantic imagination was not a fanciful picture-making faculty or escapism. It was an intellectual power that grasped the natural world as dynamic rather than static and perceived relations and processes beyond the apparent. Nineteenth-century science was an imaginative process. With only a rudimentary knowledge (at least by today’s standards) of genetics, embryology, biochemistry, and the fossil record, scientists had to use their imaginative powers in their search for natural laws. Darwin’s understanding of nature’s secret, the “mystery of mysteries” as he called it, was founded on his appreciation and celebration of nature. In the poem “Manfred” Lord Byron wrote: I linger yet with nature, for the night Hath been to me a more familiar face Than that of man; and in her starry shade Of dim and solitary loveliness, I learned the language of another world.

As a scientist, Darwin learned the language of this other world so well that he was able to read the book of nature, gather the evidence, and articulate a new story of Earth’s history and its inhabitants. William Osler wrote “freedom,” “passion,” “mutability,” and “introspection.” Its religion was that in this new theory, human beings were not fallen creatures marred Pantheism where rather than reflecting God’s work, nature and God were by original sin but the “the crowning glory of organic life” evolving from one. Rather than reflecting God’s work, nature and God were one. There incredible processes that were millions of years old. were seminal texts like Rousseau’s Confessions, Goethe’s Werther, and It would be difficult to overstate the influence of Romantic poets like Wordsworth’s Prelude. But, still, it is difficult to briefly summarize any Wordsworth and Byron on intellectual history in general. For Darwin of these large movements and ways of thinking. Romanticism expressed in particular, they helped him see the natural world as a living creative itself quite differently in different countries and fields, and often the force and understand the ongoing processes of adaptation, extinction, participants were not aware that they were a part of such a movement. sexual selection, and variation. For Darwin, they played a critical role in If one compares the artists Jacques-Louis David (1749-1825) and J. M. preparing him to see life in all its inexhaustible possibilities. W. Turner (1775-1851), one gets a quick impression of the differences © Nancy Cervetti, Ph.D. between Neoclassicism and Romanticism. (Poetry selections in The Darwin Project's script were chosen by Nancy In England the major Romantic poets were William Blake (1757-1827), Cervetti.) The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons by J. M. W. Turner, 1834

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biographies Gary Neal Johnson (Charles Darwin) has appeared in more than 160 productions on the city's professional stages, mostly with the Kansas City Repertory Theatre where he is an Artistic Associate. Roles include Scrooge in A Christmas Carol, Harry Truman in Give ‘Em Hell, Harry, Virgil in Bus Stop, Pizarro in Royal Hunt of the Sun, the Professor in Oleanna, Lear in King Lear, Caesar in Julius Caesar, George in Of Mice and Men, and Squeers in Nicholas Nickleby. In San Francisco, Johnson was honored with a Dean Goodman Award for his performance in The Voysey Inheritance at the American Conservatory Theater. At the Goodman Theatre in Chicago and again in Washington, D.C., Johnson performed the role of King Lear as understudy for Stacy Keach.

organizations. Jeremy is an associate to the Sisters of Saint Joseph, on the board of directors for Theatre For Young America, and is a frequent marketing consultant to non-profit and arts organizations. Lillig regularly gives presentations on the media representation of gender and minorities in pop culture, and has taught English as a Second Language at both the Adult Education and Collegiate level. Lillig currently has several plays in development including a libretto for a chamber opera composed by Lee Hartman adapted from the book Left Hand of Darkness, by Ursula K. Le Guin. Lillig is the Marketing Director for The Friends of Chamber Music. Nancy Cervetti, Ph.D. (co-author) joined the Avila University faculty in 1993 after receiving her Ph.D. in nineteenth-century British literature and feminist theory from the University of Iowa in Iowa City. At Avila she teaches British literature, Darwin and Literature, women’s studies, and literary theory and criticism. Cervetti has published several articles in journals such as Women’s Studies, The Journal of Modern Literature, the Arizona Quarterly, and the Journal of Medical Humanities. She has given presentations in Kansas City and at national conferences. Her awards include Wood Fellowships from the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and a fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. For over ten years the nineteenth-century American neurologist and novelist S. Weir Mitchell has been the focus of Cervetti’s research, and she has traveled extensively to read and transcribe his correspondence. She is currently in the final stages of completing Mitchell’s biography, which will be published by Pennsylvania State University Press in 2012.

Kathleen Warfel (Emma Darwin & others) is a long time Kansas City resident whose roles have included work for Heart of America Shakespeare Festival as Margaret in King Richard III and Nurse in Romeo and Juliet, with the Unicorn Theatre as Big Edie Beale in Grey Gardens and Susie in Omnium Gatherum, with Kansas City Actors Theatre in Fifth of July, Talley and Son and The Cripple of Inishmaan, at the American Heartland Theatre in The Female Odd Couple and Steel Magnolias, and at Kansas City Repertory Theatre in A Christmas Carol, To Kill a Mockingbird and Major Barbara. Warfel also teaches and does commercial and film work. Most recently, she directed the acclaimed production of Marion Bridge for Kansas City Actor’s Theatre. Bill Ashworth, Ph.D. (Script Advisor) is Associate Professor of History at the University of Missouri—Kansas City, and Consultant for the History of Science at the Linda Hall Library. He received his Ph.D. in Cinnamon Schultz (Narrator) appeared in the the History of Science from the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Heart of America Shakespeare Festival’s 2011 and has been teaching ever since. He teaches courses on the Scientific production of Macbeth. She will appear in the Revolution of the 17th century, and the Darwinian Revolution of the upcoming production of God of Carnage at 19th century. He also regularly teaches Cockefair Courses at UMKC, the Unicorn Theatre co-produced with Kansas for adults who wish to go back to school on an informal basis. His own City Actors Theatre. Schultz has also made research is concerned with early scientific illustration, the interaction of appearances at Theatre for Young America, the science and religion in the early modern period, and illustrated scientific New Theatre Restaurant, the Coterie Theatre titlepages in the 17th century. In addition to teaching and conducting and the Kansas City Repertory Theatre. She received her undergraduate research, he advises the Linda Hall Library on its rare book acquisitions, degree from the University of Kansas and her M.F.A. in acting from the and he curates many of the exhibits at the Library. In 2009, Ashworth University of Iowa. Schultz also does frequent voice and on-camera work curated and wrote the catalogue for The Darwin Project: The Grandeur for radio and television. She performed in the acclaimed film Winter’s of Life: A Celebration of Charles Darwin and the Origin of Species for the Bone, which was awarded the Grand Jury Prize at the 2010 Sundance Linda Hall Library. Film Festival and received four Oscar nominations in 2011. Schultz currently lives in the Kansas City area with her husband, Brian, and their Robert Powell, Ph.D (Script Advisor) Powell earned his Ph.D. from children, Anika and Leo. the University of Missouri in 1981. He has taught at Avila University since 1972. His research interests are focused on the natural history Jeremy M. Lillig (co-author) founded Social Theatre of Kansas and ecological relationships of amphibians and reptiles in the West City and Full Circle Theatre Company. He received a BFA in Theatre Indies. Powell teaches introductory biology; animal form, function, from Avila University, while receiving recognition from the Kennedy and development; ecology; evolution; and vertebrate anatomy, as well Center’s American College Theatre Festival and the Missouri College as interdisciplinary courses on environmental issues, the natural and Media Association. Lillig has written twenty plays, including several cultural history of Hawaii and the Bahamas, Darwin and Literature collaborations with long time friend Damian Torres-Botello. With their (with Nancy Cervetti), and the history and science of the Lewis & Clark play Whispers from the Streets: A Play about Homelessness and Poverty expedition. He also is the head of a summer undergraduate research they have raised approximately $1.5 million dollars for social service program offered every other year and funded by the National Science 36th season 2011-2012

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biographies Foundation. Recently Powell was awarded the “Meritorious Teaching Award in Herpetology,” which is sponsored by the American Society of Ichthyologists & Herpetologists, The Herpetologists’ League, and the Society for the Study of Amphibians & Reptiles.

Music Education.

Ryan Board, Ph.D. (Director of Kansas City Collegium Vocale) As the Director of Choral Activities at Pepperdine University, Board continues to garner international attention as a conductor, choral artist, teacher, and clinician. Dr. Board directs the Pepperdine Concert Choir and the Women’s Chamber Choir and teaches courses in Conducting, Music History, and

In addition to teaching, Board maintains an active schedule as a professional singer and conductor. For four years he has directed the KC Collegium Vocale and was previously the director of Armonia Early Music Ensemble. He is currently assistant conductor for the Prague Choral Festival in association with the Prague Proms, and has recently collaborated with or prepared choirs for Anton Armstrong, Simon Carrington, Joseph Flummerfelt, Andrew Megill, Andre Thomas, The Royal Concert Philharmonic Orchestra, Charles Bruffy and the Kansas City Chorale, Jo Jennings, The Jewell Early Music Festival, and The Kansas City Baroque Consortium.

the Juilliard School, Curtis Institute, Cleveland Institute, and Harvard University. Alon Goldstein (Pianist) is known as one of the most original and sensitive artists of his generation, admired for his musical intelligence and dynamic personality. He made his orchestral debut at the age of 18 with the Israel Philharmonic under the baton of conductor Zubin Mehta, and in April of 2008 made a triumphant return with conductor Herbert Blomstedt. In recent seasons Alon has performed across the United States with orchestras such as Michael Stern’s IRIS Orchestra, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Philadelphia Orchestra, the San Francisco, Baltimore, St. Louis, Houston, Vancouver, Kansas City and North Carolina Symphonies, the Rhode Island Philharmonic, and orchestras on tour in London, Paris, Russia, Romania and Bulgaria. His solos recitals and chamber music concerts have been acclaimed in Beijing, Guatemala City, Kent (UK), Chicago, Los Angeles, Coral Gables, Seattle, St. Paul, Jerusalem,Tel Aviv and Paris, among others. Goldstein is the winner of numerous competitions, among them the Arianne Katcz Piano Competition in Tel Aviv, Nena Wideman Competition in the US, and the Francois Shapira competition in Israel. He is also the recipient of the 2004 Salon di Virtuosi Career Grant and the America Israel Cultural Foundation Scholarships. Alon graduated from the Peabody Conservatory where he studied with Leon Fleisher and served as his assistant.

Formerly, Board was a member of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory faculty. He holds degrees from the University of Northern Colorado, Westminster Choir College, and the Conservatory of Music Kyle Hatley (Director) is an actor, director, playwright, producer and and Dance at the University of Missouri-Kansas City Associate Artistic Director of Kansas City Repertory Theatre in Kansas City. At the Kansas City Rep, he has directed The Borderland, Broke-ology, Daedalus String Quartet Praised by The New the 30th Anniversary Production of A Christmas Carol, and Circle Mirror Yorker as “a fresh and vital young participant in Transformation. For the Rep’s 2011/2012 Season, he will be directing A what is a golden age of American string quartets,” Christmas Carol, Little Shop of Horrors and he will associate-direct August: the Daedalus Quartet has established itself as Osage County. Also at the Rep he has been assistant director on many a leader among the new generation of string productions including Clay, A Christmas Story, Into The Woods, The ensemble. Since its founding ten years ago, the Laramie Project: Ten Years Later, Radio Golf, and The Glass Menagerie. At Daedalus Quartet has performed in many of the various other Kansas City venues, he has directed Carousel, Hamlet, How world’s leading musical venues winning plaudits Does Your Garden Grow, and Ben Franklin’s Apprentice. For Kansas City for its adventurous exploration of contemporary music, most notably Fringe Festival, he wrote and directed Watering The Grave, The Death the compositions of Elliott Carter, George Perle, György Kurtág and of Cupid, and Head. He is also the artistic director and co-founder of György Ligeti. The quartet will premiere a new work from Joan Tower, Chatterbox Audio Theater, a non-profit, web-based theatre company commissioned for them by Chamber Music Monterey Bay, in April where he has written and directed The Dead Girl, which won the Silver 2012. The Daedalus Quartet has been Columbia University’s Quartet- Ogle Award for excellence in Horror & Fantasy for audio theatre in 2008; in-Residence since 2005, and has served as Quartet-in-Residence at the Six, produced both in Memphis and at the 2008 Kansas City Fringe Festival; Surfacing; an adult adaptation of Pinocchio, and most recently University of Pennsylvania since 2006. The Human Experience, a form of confessional theatre. In 2009 he was The Daedalus Quartet’s debut recording, music of Stravinsky, named Best Director in Kansas City by The Pitch, a 2011 Man of the Sibelius, and Ravel, was released by Bridge Records in 2006. A Year nominee for KC Connect, and was recently named a 2011 Charlotte Bridge recording of Haydn’s complete “Sun” Quartets, Op. 20, was Street Foundation Generative Artist Fellow. Hatley received his degrees in released on two CDs in July 2010, and future recordings, also for Theatre from Rhodes College. Bridge, include an album of chamber music by Lawrence Dillon (Fall 2010) and the complete string quartets of Fred Lerdahl (Fall 2011). Among the highlights of the Daedalus Quartet’s 2010-2011 season were performances at the Bravo! Vail Festival, the Bard Music Festival, the Mt. Desert Chamber Music Festival, the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, and many more. The award-winning members of the Daedalus Quartet hold degrees from

Joseph Concha (Sound Designer) is currently in his final year at UMKC as a Graduate Sound Designer and is an audio contractor working for Bazillion Pictures. He is extremely excited to be working on such an interesting project with such high caliber talent (in the brand new Kauffman Center no less!). Please enjoy The Darwin Project as much as Concha enjoyed working on it. As always, he would like to thank his wife

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biographies featured speaker at a number of venues including the Illinois Natural Paul Joseph Barnett (Scenic Designer) PJ is excited to be working with History Survey, the University of Colorado and the University of Central The Friends of Chamber Music for the first time. Other scenic designs Missouri, among others. include The Putnam County Spelling Bee and Lend Me a Tenor at the New Theatre Restaurant, and Palomino for the Kansas City Repertory Theatre. Born in London, Andrew Berry, Ph.D. (Distinguished Lecturer) has In addition to scenic design Mr. Barnett has designed the special effects and a degree in zoology from Oxford University and a PhD in evolutionary props for shows including Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat genetics from Princeton University. He is currently Lecturer on at the New Theatre Restaurant, and The Lieutenant of Inishmore at the Organismic & Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. Combining Unicorn Theatre. Barnett has designed corporate events for companies the techniques of field biology with those of molecular biology, his work including Helzberg, Walmart, and Sprint. Barnett attended UMKC has been a search for evidence at the DNA level of Darwinian natural where he earned a BA in philosophy and in theater as well as his MFA in selection. scenic design. He has published on topics as diverse as giant rats in New Guinea, mice on Atlantic islands, aphids from the Far East, and the fruit fly. At Jeffrey Cady (Lighting and Projection Designer) is a freelance designer Harvard, he currently co-teaches courses on evolutionary biology, on living in Kansas City. Recent design credits include the world premiere of the development of evolutionary thinking, and on the physical basis Sherlock Holmes and the Suicide Club, for the Arizona Repertory Theatre, of biological systems. He also teaches a Harvard study abroad summer Cups for Theatre League and The Wiz for Maine State Musical Theatre. program based at Queen’s College, Oxford, that combines the history Jeffrey’s work has been seen regionally at Kansas City Repertory Theatre, of science with a review of current thought in evolutionary biology. He Seattle Repertory Theatre, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Alley Theatre, has additionally taught courses in less predictable venues, like Sabanci and Arkansas Repertory Theatre, to name a few. Nationally, he has University, Istanbul, and the University of Antananarivo, Madagascar. designed lighting and projections for Columbia Artists Theatricals’ tours He has given lectures on evolutionary topics to popular audiences all over of Love, Janis and lighting for Theatre Leagues’ production of Joseph and the world—everywhere from Ankara to the Antarctic. His non-technical the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. Jeffrey has also served as the Head writing has appeared in, among others, Slate, The Independent, and the Media Server Programmer for the Broadway production of Green Day’s London Review of Books. He is the editor of a collection of the writings of American Idiot and Cirque du Soleil’s Wintuk. Alfred Russel Wallace, the Victorian biologist who, with Charles Darwin, Kaeda for her love and support of all of his work and endeavors.

co-discovered natural selection (Infinite Tropics, Verso 2002), and the author, with James D. Watson, of an account of the history and impact of modern genetics published to mark the 50th anniversary of Watson & Crick's discovery of the double helix (DNA, Knopf 2003). He has worked in script development for two major PBS television series: "Race, the Power of an Illusion"; and "DNA". As an educator and popularizer, his mission is to demystify the most important and most misinterpreted of all biological ideas: evolution.

Lee Hartman holds degrees from the University of Missouri-Kansas City (D.M.A., M.M.) and the University of Delaware (B.M.). Recent commissions include those from the Animus Ensemble, Project 60/40, the Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art in Kansas City for a collaborative, live performance, film score and the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art for accompaniment to the special exhibit, George Segal: Street Scenes. He currently teaches music at the University of Central Missouri and Park The lecture by Andrew Berry at the Truman Forum of the Kansas City University, and serves as Editor-in-Chief of KCMetropolis.org. Public Library's Plaza Branch on Thursday, October 13, 2011, at 7:30 pm is partially underwritten by the Avila University Harry S. Truman John Hess, Ph.D. (Nature Photographer) is a scientist combining Lecture Series. knowledge of biology with the aesthetic of an artist. In his book, that is a naturalist. He began accumulating his knowledge base with a PhD in Zoology from Colorado State University; taught evolutionary biology, ornithology and other courses, including photography, for more than 30 years; and is now Emeritus Professor of Biology at the University of Central Missouri. This broad background in science lies at the core of his approach to art. His artistic leanings have been satisfied through photography with which he has been active for more than 40 years. During this wide-ranging exploration he has dipped his toe into most facets of photography and along the way has developed a level of expertise in most formats. Influenced by Edward Weston, Ansel Adams and Eliot Porter, his subjects are nearly always natural, but they range in scale from broad panoramas to microscopic subjects—wherever there is beauty to be enjoyed. With the advent of the digital revolution, and the development of technologies of permanence, Hess has shifted to this new and exciting arena. In 2006 he was awarded an Artist-in-Residence position at Rocky Mountain National Park and in 2007 at Mesa Verde. He has been a 36th season 2011-2012

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T h e W i l l i a m T. K e m p e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a m b e r M u s i c s e r i e s

Tokyo String Quartet Friday, October 21

8 pm Martin Beaver Kikuei Ikeda Kazuhide Isomura Clive Greensmith

The Folly Theater violin violin viola cello

HAYDN String Quartet in G Major, Op. 77 No.1 (Hob. III:81) Allegro moderato Adagio Menuetto: Presto Finale: Presto HINDEMITH String Quartet No. 4, Op. 22 Fugato: Sehr langsame Viertel Schnelle Achtel: Sehr energisch Ruhige Viertel: Stets fließend Mäßig schnelle Viertel Rondo: Gemächlich und mit Grazie INTERMISSION SCHUMANN String Quartet in A Major, Op. 41 No. 3 Andante espressivo; Allegro molto moderato Assai agitato; Un poco adagio; Tempo risoluto Adagio molto Finale: Allegro molto vivace

The International Chamber Music Series is underwritten, in part, by the William T. Kemper Foundation. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the H & R Block Foundation. The Tokyo String Quartet performs on the four Stradivarius instruments known as the “Paganini Quartet,” generously on loan from the Nippon Music Foundation.

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes a restrained march, the initial idea of the first movement employs a jaunty, dotted rhythm and grace notes that set up a playful contrast to the staid march. Then triplets take us even further afield from the constrained march Haydn's two visits to London in 1791 and 1794 gave him a very clear sense by infusing urgency and passion. Haydn is well aware of the high contrasts of his own international fame. After three decades of service to the Austrohe has set up. Each element is limited; but together, their full potential Hungarian Esterházy princes, he found himself the object of an adoring shines. These three motivic ideas dominate the entire fabric of the movement. public, as much a celebrity as any public Sudden contrasts of forte and piano are figure of his day. Far from resting idle very important to the articulation of the to enjoy the adulation, Haydn was as musical material, and focus our attention industrious as ever. During his last active The string quartet is understood to be the most important form on Haydn's skilled use of his ensemble. years following his return to Vienna of composition and player configuration found in chamber music, He gives the cello a surprisingly lively from the second English trip, he wrote showcasing the intimacy, skill, and breath-taking beauty of the art role in this movement picking up the his two greatest oratorios, The Creation form. The great Haydn brought the string quartet into prominence dotted rhythms of the principal melodic in the mid-18th century; both of the string quartet programs that and The Seasons, and several of his best idea and the triplets. At other times, it The Friends will present this season—tonight’s concert by the Tokyo known Masses before illness and old age Quartet and the Artemis Quartet presentation that concludes our occasionally takes the melodic lead. forced him to stop composing. In the season in April—tellingly begin their performances with Haydn In the Adagio, we hear Haydn at his late 1790s, Haydn wrote little music quartets. most heartfelt−what Rosemary Hughes exclusively for instruments. The most As I thought about the Adagio movement of this magnificent quartet, calls his "fathomlessly profound"− noteworthy exceptions are the last string and the significance of Haydn and his quartets to the classical style. Another sonata-form movement, quartets, the Opp. 71, 74, 76, and 77. music literature, I wanted to add some of my own thoughts to Ms. Schulman’s annotations on the unusual key choice for the Adagio it spins most of its material out of The final Haydn quartets are all dedicated movement: the opening measures, through an to members of the nobility. For chamber Why did Haydn do this? Some theories immediately come to mind. exploratory quasi-variation technique. music lovers, these dedicatees are Haydn wishes the slow movement to be set apart from the first Haydn achieves this by two means. One familiar names not only in the Haydn movement. First, it is written in the realm of the key of E-flat with its is a vocal and improvisatory melodic canon but also for Haydn's pupil, three flats, very far removed from that of G Major with its one sharp. line that seems clearly related to the bel Even an inexperienced audience senses that we are now living in an Beethoven. Haydn's Opp.71 and 74 canto of Italian opera, with the most utterly different atmosphere. quartets (published in 1795 and 1796) elaborate variation entrusted to the first Secondly, all four instruments play in unison in a phalanx of solidarity, were commissioned by Count Apponyi, violin. The other is a series of widethe opposite of the roles assigned to the instruments in the first and the set of six that constitute his movement where each instrument plays individual, contrasting ideas. ranging modulations that challenge the Op.76 (published 1799) were written conventional boundaries of late 18thHaydn still understands the necessity for the movements to relate for Count Erdödy. In 1799, Haydn century harmony, stretching toward the so he uses two elements taken from the first movement: the dotted began work on his Op. 77 quartets for rhythm (appearing in measure 2) and the marching idea (first heard in romantic era. Beethoven's patron, Count Lobkowitz measure 16). Haydn miraculously shows us how in this new context–E The slow movement is in the key of (the eventual dedicatee of the "Eroica" flat Major and a very slow tempo–these same elements could not be more different. This mode of thinking would become the basis for E-flat, an unusual choice; a G-major symphony). He would complete only almost all of Beethoven’s creations. quartet would usually have a slow two quartets before he died. He probably movement in the key of its subdominant intended to complete six, but he was In the Adagio, the dotted-rhythm idea is not playful; its slower pace gives it a gravitas unimagined from its use in the first movement. (in this case, C major) or its relative weak and ageing. Two movements of And the marching idea (first heard in the 2nd violin and viola and minor (E minor). The significance of an unfinished third were published as eventually all three lower voices) becomes a foil for the improvisatory, the key choice is underscored in the Trio Op.103 in 1806. operatic-like play in the first violin. But instead of creating restraint, it section of the Menuetto, which is also in becomes an enabler for the flights of fancy of the first violin. The quartet we hear this evening, the E-flat. Op. 77, No. 1, was published by the Midway through the movement comes the most startling gesture of the entire quartet. It is approached with all four instruments in unison, The third movement, the Menuetto, Viennese house of Artaria in 1802; it may a strong signal that we must play closer attention. After 23 measures pushes that normally staid, courtly also have been published by Clementi in of almost uninterrupted marching, all of the instruments stop . . . and dance to the very limits. Marked Presto, London the following year. It is a mature wait. In hushed tones the opening is heard again. Now the dottedit is virtually indistinguishable in spirit work, by a composer at the apogee of rhythmic idea becomes an inexorable marching idea; it changes and drive from the early Beethoven the classical style and reflecting Haydn position with the steady eighth notes–the original marching idea! Its role is to add poignancy to the repeated opening idea and one of the scherzos; indeed, Haydn may well at full mastery. Yet all of the endearing most agonizingly beautiful moments in the entire quartet literature. have been emulating his student, for hallmarks of the younger Haydn are This passage also will later inform many of Beethoven’s most striking Beethoven had already dedicated his there as well, especially his wry sense moments in his own quartets (possibly even the Schumann quartet to Op.2 piano sonatas to Haydn, two of humor, and the essential simplicity be heard later in this program). of them with rapid scherzi in place of that informs his most complex musical – Cynthia Siebert ©2011 minuets. Haydn's quirky, lopsided structures with their inherent integrity emphasis on the second beat gives this and grace. Menuetto a hearty, almost rambunctious irreverence filled with good humor The opening movement, the Allegro moderato, illustrates this magical, very and folk-like immediacy. This is not your dainty, elegant minuet of the past. basic quality so endemic to Haydn’s works. Opening against the backdrop of String Quartet in G, Op. 77, No.1 (Hob. III:81) Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

Futher Analysis on Adagio

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program notes The quartet closes with a wink in a Presto finale of folk-like immediacy. It is another illustration of Haydn's "monothematic" approach, which is actually one of the easiest ways to tell the difference between the music of Haydn and Mozart. Where Mozart's second themes tend to contrast in both character and rhythm, Haydn frequently builds his secondary material out of the opening idea. This finale is an excellent example of this technique. It opens in unison, and then breaks open to some country fiddling that begs for foottapping, if not outright dancing. Even in the development section, Haydn is consistent in his adherence to the opening idea, though he flirts with some cross-rhythms. The sum total is unfailingly bouncy and irresistibly fun.

tone method. Even so, a starkness tinges some of his early 1920s works. The Fourth Quartet has no key signatures. Its emphasis on linear counterpoint lends an in-your-face, expressionist edge to the piece.

String Quartet No.4, Op. 22 Paul Hindemith (1895-1963)

The next two movements inhabit the world of Béla Bartók’s quartets. Schnelle Achtel, sehr energisch (fast eighth notes, very energetic) is atavistic, sometimes brutal, with wild gestures that suggest central European folk dances; a middle section introduces quasi-oriental sonorities. Ruhige Viertel, stets fließend (calm quarter notes, steadily flowing) provides much needed rhythmic stability. Played with mutes throughout, it features an oscillating, hypnotic figure that spans an octave, introduced by the viola. Imitative counterpoint plays a role, but the constant 6/4 pulse maintains a sense of liquidity. Hindemith flirts with polytonality, but this movement feels more centered in a specific key (A minor) than the rest of the quartet.

His opening Fugato: Sehr langsame Viertel (fugue-like: very slow quarter notes) is a salute to Baroque texture and form. Hindemith writes only two strict entrances of the fugue subject, which he marks ‘very soft and tender.’ This unusual designation contrasts with his astringent language, unmoored from any firm tonal center. The movement gathers momentum, building toward an impassioned climax before resuming the steady pulse of quarter notes that governs the whole.

For most of the last century, Paul Hindemith’s music was decidedly out of favor. He was a tonal classicist in a musical world that had all but abandoned traditional harmonic thinking. Steeped in aleatory, serialism, electronic music, and other avant-garde techniques, critics and composers turned up their noses at Hindemith, dismissing him as hopelessly old-fashioned, a stodgy German who had missed the boat. His biographer Ian Kemp concluded a 1970 monograph with a dismal assessment, “Hindemith’s current reputation is at a low ebb, and this principally because this conservatism is at odds with contemporary musical values.” The last two movements are played without pause. A maniacal cello cadenza In the decades since Kemp wrote those words, minimalism and neo- opens the fourth movement, Mäßing schnelle Viertel (very fast quarter notes), romanticism have emerged as significant trends in new music, and musicians with momentary interruptions from the violins; the viola then joins in the are taking a fresh look at Hindemith. They are finding in his compositions cadenza, using bariolage (a virtuoso technique requiring rapid shifting back a rhythmic vigor, contrapuntal skill, quirky harmonic language, and sense and forth between two or more strings to produce a tremolo effect). Viola and of humor that make for engaging listening. Though Europe has embraced cello open the concluding Rondo: Gemächlich und mit Grazie (leisurely and his works with enthusiasm in the last few decades, the programming of a with charm) in the manner of a Bach two-part Invention. After the violence Hindemith quartet in America is still a rarity, making this a welcomed event. of the preceding material, the tunefulness is a surprise. Presently Hindemith moves to a more chordal texture, traveling through a series of episodes linked Hindemith’s seven quartets are also of particular interest to performers by returns to the opening motive. Throughout, his mastery of string playing because of his extensive experience as a string player. He began his career in envelops the listener with inventive sounds. the first violin section of the Frankfurt Opera Orchestra in 1914. By 1917 he was its concertmaster and appeared with other orchestras as a concerto soloist. He also joined the Rebner String Quartet as second violinist. String Quartet in A, Op. 41, No. 3 Hindemith’s career was interrupted by military service at the end of 1917. Though assigned to an army band, he was sent to the front in both Alsace and Flanders. Somehow he continued to compose and he formed an army string quartet. Following the war, he switched to viola and focused increasingly on composition. With his brother Rudolf, a cellist, he founded the AmarQuartett in 1921.

Robert Schumann (1810-1856)

Hindemith was a leader in a new generation seeking to distance themselves from the sweeping gestures and lush textures of the post-romantic symphonists. They attempted a leaner, more muscular style, with fewer melodic frills. Critics dubbed it the ‘New Objectivity’ and praised the victory of linear energy over perceived romantic decadence.

criticize the Schumann quartets often cite evidence of piano music transferred to the idiom of string playing, and it is true that some of the writing lies awkwardly for the strings, particularly the violins. Schumann also faced a challenge in the formal discipline demanded by large-scale, multi-movement works. He had only composed his first symphony the previous year, having up until that time written exclusively miniatures for piano or voice and piano.

Robert Schumann and Clara Wieck were married on 12 September 1840, the day before Clara’s twenty-first birthday. Despite fierce opposition from Clara’s father, Friedrich Wieck, the young couple were deliriously happy, and the first years of their marriage were to be the most stable and contented of Robert’s life. Their first separation came after the wedding occurred in the spring The same year, Prince Max Egon zu Fürstenburg founded a new chamber of 1842, when Clara embarked upon her first concert tour as Frau Clara music festival intended to be a showcase for young composers. The site was his Schumann. She returned in April from a series of successful performances in family’s ancestral home in the small German town of Donaueschingen at the Hamburg and Copenhagen. Robert was as elated by their reunion as he had source of the Danube River. Donaueschingen had a centuries-old tradition been despondent during his wife’s absence. He composed furiously, and by of good music, thus the inaugural festival devoted to new music drew wide the end of July he had completed the three string quartets of Opus 41. critical attention. The Amar-Quartett introduced Hindemith’s Third Quartet, It is characteristic of Schumann that, never having tried his hand at a string Op.16 as one of the new works at the first festival, establishing him as the quartet, he should burst forth with three at once, never to return to the foremost young German composer. genre. These quartets were his only chamber music without piano. Those who

The Fourth Quartet, which the Amar-Quartett premiered at the Second Donaueschingen Festival in 1922, personifies this approach. Hindemith never Schumann’s achievement in his Opus 41 is all the more remarkable for this abandoned tonality altogether and did not embrace Schoenberg’s twelve- background. In preperation for writing the quartets, he immersed himself the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes in study of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier and the quartets of the Viennese masters. In an 1842 review of a string quartet by Julius Schapler published in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, Schumann wrote: The quartet has come to a standstill. Who does not know the quartets of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, and who would wish to say anything against them? In fact it is the most telling testimony to the immortal freshness of their works that still, after half a century, they gladden the hearts of everyone; but it is no good sign that the later generation, after all this time, has not been able to produce anything comparable. [George] Onslow [1784-1853] alone met success, and later Mendelssohn, whose aristocratic, poetic-nature is particularly amenable to this genre.

The finale opens with a strong, Schubertian, dotted-rhythmic figure that constitutes the principal rondo subject. Schumann unifies the movement through the regular restatement of this distinctive rhythm. The episodes that fall between its recurrence ramble far afield in both key center and mood, lending this finale some of the sectional character of a ballet suite. Certainly it is imbued with dancers’ energy throughout.

– Laurie Shulman ©2011

Like the Viennese masters before him and his contemporaries Onslow and Mendelssohn, Schumann found the quartet to be an ideal vehicle for his musical and emotional ideas. In many ways this third quartet is the most characteristic of the set. Perhaps feeling vindicated by extensive polyphonic essays in the first two quartets, Schumann gave full expression to his lyrical spirit in this sunny work. It is not that he avoided counterpoint but rather that, in this quartet, the imitative sections sound less academic and more natural than in the first two of Op.41. The first movement, which opens with a brief slow introduction marked Andante espressivo, is dominated by the motive of a falling fifth. This tender opening idea occurs in both the opening measures and the first subject of the Allegro molto moderato that follows; this motive and its questioning chords are the foundation of the entire movement. Schumann skillfully inserts a couple of meter changes from triple to common time. So smoothly and subtly are they integrated that without a score, they are difficult to pinpoint. In this movement, Schumann employs a device that he uses in many of his compositions: which is a syncopated accompaniment that adds a powerful sense of yearning and urgency to the main theme it accompanies. This off-beat figure pants with breathlessness as if it cannot catch up with the beat. Instead of a brisk, whirlwind scherzo, Schumann presents us with a set of variations in the second movement that fulfills the function that a scherzo might have served within the quartet. In an unusual twist, however, he does not state the theme first. We hear two variations (Assai agitato) before the theme appears in an expressive Adagio. Intimate dialogue among the four players makes for a varied texture. Schumann uses syncopation and chromaticism to great effect in this movement. The slow movement, Adagio molto, is quintessential romanticism, couched, ironically, in a highly structured format: Schumann has written a full-bore sonata form, the only such slow movement among his quartets. Rich harmonies and delicious restatements lend extraordinary expressiveness to what might have been an undistinguished melody. However, we soon learn that this melody serves as a foil for the emotional intensity that follows. In an especially poignant moment in this movement, time seems to stop. A dotted-rhythmic figure, halting and hypnotic, begins and becomes intensely wrought. Schumann often uses two instruments that speak to each other, a clear reference to himself and Clara. He does so here with great effect. Schumann is noted for his attention to inner voices, and the viola part in this movement provides particularly rewarding listening.

Tokyo String Quartet

T

he Tokyo String Quartet has captivated audiences and critics alike since it was founded 42 years ago. Regarded as one of the supreme chamber

ensembles of the world, the Tokyo Quartet-Martin Beaver and Kikuei Ikeda (violins), Kazuhide Isomura (viola) and Clive Greensmith (cello)-has collaborated with a remarkable array of artists and composers, built a comprehensive catalogue of critically acclaimed recordings and established a distinguished teaching record. Performing over a hundred concerts worldwide each season, the quartet has a devoted international following across the globe. Officially formed in 1969 at the Juilliard School of Music, the Tokyo Quartet traces its origins to the Toho School of Music in Tokyo, where the founding members were profoundly influenced by Professor Hideo Saito. Instilled with a deep commitment to chamber music, the original members of what would become the Tokyo String Quartet eventually came to America for further study with members of the Julliard String Quartet, Robert Mann, Raphael Hillyer and Claus Adam. Soon after its formation, the quartet won First Prize at the Coleman Competition, the Munich Competition and the Young Concert Artists International Auditions. An exclusive contract with Deutsche Grammophon firmly established it as one of the world's leading quartets. For more information visit www.tokyoquartet.com Tokyo Quartet appears by arrangement with Opus 3

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T h e W i l l i a m T. K e m p e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a m b e r M u s i c s e r i e s

Chanticleer Saturday, November 05

8 pm

Helzberg Hall Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts

Love Story Jace Wittig, Interim Music Director Casey Breves, Gregory Peebles, Kory Reid soprano Cortez Mitchell, Alan Reinhardt, Adam Ward alto Matthew Curtis, Brian Hinman, Ben Jones tenor Eric Alatorre, Michael Axtell, Matthew Knickman baritone & bass

VIVANCO LUIS DE VICTORIA

I. Veni, dilecte mi Sicut lilium inter spinas Nigra sum sed formosa

II. DURUFLÉ Ubi caritas LESUR Épithalame from Le Cantique des cantiques SERMISY JANEQUIN Le Jeune

III. Tant que vivray Toutes les nuits Revoici venir du printemps

IV. Strauss, R. Drei Männerchöre* Vor den Türen Traumlicht Fröhlich im Maien V. Sametz Not an End of Loving Where I Become You We Two Boys Together Clinging Not an End of Loving

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program

INTERMISSION VI. Whitacre Tavener

This Marriage A Village Wedding*

VII. A World Premiere Commissioned for Chanticleer by Mrs. Mary Rodgers and Mr. Henry Guettel Paulus The Lotus Lovers A Rich Brocade Late Spring All Night Illusions VIII. A selection of popular songs to be announced.

* These works have been recorded by Chanticleer, and are available for sale at tonight’s performance or through our new digital storefront at www.chanticleer.org. Chanticleer is a non-profit organization, governed by a volunteer Board of Trustees, administered by a professional staff with a full-time professional ensemble, and is a recipient of funding from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Grants for the Arts/San Francisco Hotel Tax Fund. Chanticleer recordings are available on the Warner Classics and Chanticleer Records labels. Musical Resources is the printed-music source for Chanticleer.

The International Chamber Music Series is underwritten, in part, by the William T. Kemper Foundation. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Courtney S. Turner Charitable Trust, Daniel C. Weary and Bank of America, Trustees.

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program notes Sebastián de Vivanco (1551-1622) Veni, dilecte mi Sicut lilium inter spinas The walled city of Ávila, in the Castila-Leon province in central Spain, was the birthplace of three important Renaissance figures: composers Tomás Luis de Victoria and Sebastián de Vivanco, and Spanish mystic Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582). Separated in age by only three years, Victoria and Vivanco undoubtedly received their earliest musical training from the same teachers. But unlike Victoria, whose career was centered in Rome, Vivanco remained in Spain throughout his life. After tenures at the cathedrals of Lérida (in the Catalan region) and Segovia (just north of Ávila), Vivanco was invited to become Guerrero’s assistant in Seville in 1587. He went so far as to visit the aging master in Seville, but instead accepted a position as maestro de capilla at Ávila Cathedral.

also, Spain was the dominant political power in many parts of Italy, and during part of this period, Spain controlled the Papacy (Borgia was Pope from 1492 to 1503). Composer and organist Tomás Luis de Victoria was born in Ávila and received training as a chorister in the Cathedral there. So promising was Victoria, he was sent to Rome at the age of sixteen to study at the Collegio Germanico. It is possible that he was tutored by the great Italian master Palestrina, who was teaching at the nearby Seminario—Victoria was certainly one of the few composers in Rome able to master the subtleties of Palestrina’s style. Victoria was ordained to the priesthood in 1575, but continued to compose throughout his life, holding a variety of posts in Italy and, from 1587 until his death, his native Spain. Victoria’s many masses, motets, and other religious compositions brought him a great deal of fame, certainly enhanced by his ability to publish most of his works: all but one of the eight volumes of his Opera omnia consist entirely of music published during his lifetime.

In 1602, Vivanco was appointed to a similar post in Salamanca, but left after less than a year to accept a professorship at the University of Salamanca (the oldest university in Spain). It was through his connections there that he was able to publish three lavish volumes of his works. Although his music is virtually unknown today, Vivanco was one of the leading composers of his time – a master of counterpoint who imbued his works with deep emotional sentiment.

In Nigra sum sed formosa, Victoria sets a text from the Song of Songs. The Catholic Church of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance tended to interpret this text as allegorical to the Virgin Mary, assigning the texts to Marian feasts. This particular text is used as an Antiphon for Second Vespers of the major Marian feasts. Victoria apparently intended for this connection to Mary in liturgical use for this piece as he published it in 1576, assigning the motet “de Beata Virgine” or “of the Blessed Virgin.” Maurice Duruflé (1902-1986) Ubi caritas Daniel-Lesur (1908 –2002) Épithalame from Le Cantique des cantiques

The following two selections, published in a volume of Plainsong, or Gregorian Chant (named Vivanco’s motets from 1610 after Pope Gregory I, d. 604), is the term and dedicated to the Blessed applied to the vast repertoire of liturgical Virgin Mary, are all scored chant assembled over the course of several for eight voices in two fourcenturies, roughly A.D. 700-1300. There voice choirs. Veni dilecte are almost 3,000 extant chants in the mi and Sicut lilium inter Gregorian repertoire, with texts specific to spinas employ texts from the each day of the Roman Catholic Church’s Song of Songs, a book of the liturgical year. Composers Daniel-Lesur Bible closely associated with and Maurice Duruflé both use the flowing the Spanish mystics. Quite melodies of Gregorian chant in their choral controversial at the time, the works. sect, led by Teresa of Ávila, French composer and organist Maurice reinterpreted the quasi-erotic Duruflé was born in Louviers, France in poetry as a metaphor for the 1902. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire Romeo and Juliet by Ford Madox Brown, 1870 Christian Church’s role as the beginning in 1920 where he was later appointed Bride of Christ. Vivanco’s settings professor of harmony (a position he held until 1969). Because he was very portray the mystical rapture through his use of lush suspensions and critical of his own compositions, he wrote very few works. Duruflé had a sharply contrasting harmonies between the choirs. The declamatory unique ability to maintain the supple flow of a Gregorian chant melody style indicates a familiarity with the work of his Italian counterparts, while coloring it with modal harmonies and polyphony. This technique is most notably Giovanni Gabrieli. prevalent in Ubi caritas (“Where Charity Is”), one of his most-performed

compositions, and the first in a set of four choral pieces called Quatre motets sur des thèmes grégoriens (“Four Motets on Gregorian Themes”). Its text is a hymn of the early Western church now most often heard on Holy Thursday, during Eucharistic Adoration, and at weddings. Duruflé The music of Renaissance Spain is inexorably linked with Italy, primarily combines the traditional Gregorian chant melody with the refrain and because so many of Spain’s composers traveled there to work and study; first stanza of the hymn. Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611) Nigra sum sed formosa

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes Daniel-Lesur, French composer and teacher, was born in Paris in 1908. His mother was a composer and a student of Tournemire, from whom Daniel-Lesur took early organ and composition lessons. He studied further at the Paris Conservatoire. In 1936, Daniel-Lesur was—along with Messiaen, Livet, and Baudrier—a founding member of the group La Jeune France, dedicated to a “return to the human” and opposed to the neo-classicism then prevailing in Paris. His collected works include some fifty mélodies, three operas, four cantatas, a mass, and over thirty folksong arrangements, all speaking to his love of the human voice. Le Cantique des cantiques (“The Song of Songs”) was commissioned in 1952 by Radio France. In Épithalame (the word denotes a wedding-day poem), the composer masterfully weaves together the Gregorian chant Veni sponsa Christi (“Come, Bride of Christ”) with one of the most beloved verses from the Song of Songs, “Set me as a seal on your heart…” in an undulating crescendo to a final, dramatic climax. Claudin de Sermisy (1495-1562) Tant que vivray Clément Janequin (c.1485-1558) Toutes les nuits Claude Le Jeune (1529-1600) Revoici venir du printemps Madrigals were the popular songs of the Renaissance. They were sung by amateurs and professionals alike in a variety of settings. The texts often dealt with everyday matters: food, drink, love, and death. The madrigal developed in Italy and quickly spread north through Europe to England. In France, madrigals were known as chanson.

Richard Strauss (1864 – 1949) Drei Männerchöre, Op. 45 Von den Türen Traumlicht Fröhlich im Maien Richard Strauss is best remembered today as the composer of strikingly original orchestral tone poems and operas. He extended the groundbreaking changes to the harmonic language and musical structures made by Richard Wagner. Strauss also wrote little-known works for the male singing-societies of Germany, including these Drei Männerchöre, composed for the Cologne Männergesangverein in 1935. The works were written after Strauss had proven his greatness as an operatic and symphonic composer. They exemplify Strauss’s masterful command of his musical language and his great sensitivity in setting the poetry of the great German Romantic poet Friedrich Rückert (1788 – 1866). Von den Türen (“At the Gates”) is a metaphorical journey through the life of one man, from his early struggle for wealth and love to his final resting place. Traumlicht (“Dreamlight”) paints an almost impressionistic vision of light and dreams, while Fröhlich im Maien (“Joyous in May”) is a strophic romp, treating the listener to a number of unexpected harmonic detours and calling on everyone to “dance, joyous in May.” Steven Sametz (b. 1954) Not an End of Loving To celebrate twenty-five years of musicmaking, the members of the Lehigh University Choral Union commissioned a set of pieces from their director, Steven Sametz, to be performed by Chanticleer. The pieces were premiered at Lehigh University in April 2010. Dr. Sametz has had a close relationship with Chanticleer, writing many works for them and conducting them in the Monteverdi Vespers of 1610. In regard to this collaboration, Sametz shared the following remarks:

Claudin de Sermisy, early 16th century French composer, was recognized both for his chansons and his religious music, as he held positions with the court of France under several kings as well as the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. Sermisy was strongly influenced by the Postage stamp issued in 1954, designed by Leon Schnell Italian frottola style of composition with its harmonic simplicity, homophonic Chanticleer represents the highest levels of professional choral singing, just as texture, and attention to the text. This style is evident in Tant que vivray, we strive to achieve the highest levels of amateur choral art. At the heart of as Sermisy uses a simple harmonic language and subtle text-painting to this – the love of singing, and doing it to our utmost – we have everything in tell a beautiful love story. common. I am deeply honored that the Choral Union has chosen this means Clément Janequin also composed in France in the early 16th century. Unlike Sermisy, Janequin never held a position at a cathedral or a court, and he focused almost exclusively on chanson. His chansons are most famous for their programmatic qualities using onomatopoeic effects to imitate natural sounds. Toutes les nuits, however, does not follow this pattern. Instead, it expresses in simple tones the frustration of a lover who can find his beloved only in dreams.

of showing its pride in what we have accomplished over the years; creating new music shows us that there is no end of loving (as the title indicates), especially the love that brings us together as singers.

The three pieces of Not an End of Loving are analogous to another work of Sametz’s in Chanticleer’s repertoire: in time of, recorded on the GRAMMY© award winning CD Colors of Love. Both works track the passage of time. Not an End of Loving follows a relationship from its intense romantic beginnings (Where I Become You), to its fulfillment of Claude Le Jeune was one of the most prolific composers of the second intimacy (We Two Boys Together Clinging) to the culmination and release half of the 16th century. Le Jeune was a member of the Académie de into an eternal bond (Not an End of Loving). Poésie et de Musique which was interested, among other things, in setting Eric Whitacre (b. 1970) strophic French verses in ancient classical meters. It is not surprising that This Marriage this practice, displayed in the rigid meters and florid rhythms of Revoici venir du printemps, was very short-lived. Le Jeune’s recurring meters and An accomplished composer, conductor and lecturer, Eric Whitacre has rhythms are occasionally ornamented creating a joyous celebration of received composition awards from ASCAP, the Barlow International Composition Competition, the American Choral Directors Association, spring and love. 36th season 2011-2012

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program Notes and the American Composers Forum. In 2001, he became the youngest recipient ever awarded the coveted Raymond C. Brock commission by the American Choral Directors Association. Commercially he has worked with such luminaries as Barbra Streisand and Marvin Hamlisch. In the last ten years, he has conducted concerts of his choral and symphonic music in Japan, Australia, China, Singapore and much of Europe, as well as at dozens of American universities and colleges where he regularly conducts seminars and lectures with young musicians. He received his M.M. in composition from the Juilliard School of Music, where he studied composition with Pulitzer Prize-winner John Corigliano. This Marriage, which sets a beautiful love poem by the 13th-century, Persian poet Mevlana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, was composed in 2005 as a gift to Whitacre’s wife, celebrated soprano Hila Plitmann, on the occasion of their seventh wedding anniversary. John Tavener (b. 1944) Village Wedding English composer John Tavener showed his music talent at a young age. A highly accomplished organist and pianist, he soon turned his attention to composition, and attended the Royal Academy of Music, where he won many major prizes and awards. In 1965, Tavener’s dramatic cantata, The Whale, took the London audience by storm at its premiere, given at the debut concert of the London Sinfonietta. Since that time, he has been commissioned by numerous organizations in England and the United States. Choral music makes up the largest part of Tavener’s works, ranging from simple carols to large-scale works with orchestral accompaniment. Tavener joined the Russian Orthodox Chruch in 1977, and its spirituality, liturgy and music have had an impact on many of his compositions. Tavener notes, “Village Wedding is a series of musical and verbal images, describing a village wedding in Greece. Tavener writes, “My insertion of Isaiah’s Dance (the moment in the Orthodox Marriage Ceremony when the couple is solemnly led three times around the Holy Table by the Celebrant), and the whole tone of (Angelos) Sikelianos’ poetry, however, show that everything in the natural and visible world, when rightly perceived, is an expression of a supernatural and invisible order of reality.”

Oil painting on silk, Hua Mu Lan Goes to War Mulan was first mentioned in a poem by Tzu Yeh.

tradition. Rather, she was trained in the arts of Chinese song, dance, calligraphy, storytelling, and entertainment (a tradition which has continued from antiquity through the early twentieth century). Scholars now question the existence of Tzu Yeh. It is rather ambiguous if she was one woman, or rather the creation of many generations of poets wishing to express the romantic sentiments expressed in these texts. All of this serves to further shroud this poetry in a veil of mystery. Stephen Paulus Village Wedding was composed in 1992 for the Vale of Glamorgan Festival, shared these remarks about the poetry and music: where it was premiered by the Hilliard Ensemble. Chanticleer gave the The Lotus Lovers is a text from the 4th-century Chinese wine shop girl, Tzu United States premiere in 1995 and recorded it for the GRAMMY© Yeh. I had long wanted to set some of these poems, and when Chanticleer’s Music Director Matthew Oltman approached me, I was asked to find a sensual award winning album Colors of Love. Stephen Paulus (b. 1949) from The Lotus Lovers A Rich Brocade Late Spring All Night Illusions Stephen Paulus has composed over 200 works in a multitude of genres, including commissions from many of the world’s most prestigious symphony orchestras, chamber ensembles, and soloists. His music has been hailed by the New York Times to be “fresh and familiar at the same time,” and The New Yorker described Paulus as “…a bright, fluid inventor with a ready lyric gift.” The Lotus Lovers marks Paulus’s first collaboration with Chanticleer.

text to set. The Tzu Yeh poems seemed to fit the bill wonderfully. The many images evoked in the poems are rich in descriptions of nature. Tzu Yeh talks of ‘endless nights, winter skies, harsh winds, the moon’s white light, the willows,’ and ‘the sea breeze.’ The translations are by my friend and colleague, Sam Hamill, who lives in the Pacific Northwest, is a poet in his own right, and has made extensive translations of Japanese, Chinese, and Greek poems. Musically, I have tried to take advantage of the tremendous vocal talents of Chanticleer. I have used everything from unison to divisi chords with a variety of choral textures and ranges. With each movement I have tried to exploit a different choral ‘portrait’ or character. My deep gratitude is extended to my dear friends, Mary and Hank Guettel for their kindness and generosity. I am happy to offer this work in honor of their friendship and their wonderful ability to inspire and motivate.

The text heard in this performance is translated into English, but the original Chinese poems by Tzu Yeh (alternately spelled “Zi Ye”) are at once provocative, sensuous, and redolent of ancient China. Tzu Yeh is often called “The Geisha Poet,” however this does not imply a Japanese

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Program notes by Andrew Morgan, Joseph Jennings, Matthew Curtis, Matthew Oltman, and Jace Wittig


program notes

live performances as broadcast on American Public Media; "Let it Snow", a collection of Christmas music released in 2007, which was on the Billboard charts for twelve weeks. Recently, a selection from Sir John Tavener's "Lamentations and Priases" is featured in Terence Malik’s The Tree of Life. With the help of individual contributions, foundations, and corporate support, the Ensemble involves over 5000 young people annually in its extensive education programing. The 2010-11 season saw the creation of the Louis A. Botto (LAB) Choir – an after-school, honors program for high school and college students which was added to the ongoing programs of in-school clinics and workshops, Chanticleer Youth Choral Festivals™ in the Bay Area and around the country including the National Youth Choral Festival every four years, master classes for university students nationwide, and the Chanticleer

N

Chanticleer amed Ensemble of the Year by Musical America in 2008, Chanticleer will perform more than 100 concerts in 2011-12, the GRAMMY Award-

winning ensemble’s 34th season. Praised by the San Francisco Chronicle for their “tonal luxuriance and crisply etched clarity,” Chanticleer will tour 21 states in the U.S., appearing in a wide variety of venues from the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. On a 10-country tour in early 2012 the ensemble will return to

in Sonoma summer workshop for adult choral singers. The Singing Life - a documentary about Chanticleer’s work with young people- was released in 2008. In 2010 Chanticleer’s education program was recognized by the Chorus America Education Outreach Award. Chanticleer’s long-standing commitment to commissioning and performing new works was honored in 2008 by the inaugural Dale Warland/Chorus America Commissioning Award and the ASCAP/Chorus America Award for Adventurous Programming for the 2006-07 Season in which ten new works were premiered. Chanticleer is proud to have commissioned over seventy

Europe’s most renowned concert halls. Exciting events this season will include

composers in its history.

Chanticleer's performance on the soundtrack of the 10th anniversary release

Named for the “clear-singing” rooster in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales,

by Microsoft of its legendary video game HALO, the ensemble's first live film

Chanticleer was founded in 1978 by tenor Louis Botto, who sang in the

score performance, and a return visit to six California missions with more newly

Ensemble until 1989 and served as its Artistic Director until his death in

discovered music of the period.

1997. Joseph Jennings joined the ensemble as a countertenor in 1983, and

Chanticleer – based in San Francisco – is known around the world as “an

shortly thereafter assumed the title of Music Director which he held until his

orchestra of voices” for the seamless blend of its twelve male voices ranging from countertenor to bass and its original interpretations of vocal literature,

retirement in 2008. Tenor Matthew D. Oltman succeeded Jennings in 2008, and retired in 2011.

from Renaissance to jazz, and from gospel to new music. Chanticleer’s recordings, distributed by Chanticleer, Rhino Records, and iTunes

For more information visit www.chanticleer.org

among others and are available on Chanticleer’s website, www.chanticleer.org.

Chanticleer appears by arrangement with Opus 3 Artists

New this season is "Our Favorite Carols"– popular Christmas music from

36th season 2011-2012

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the friends of cha mber music endowment early music series

REBEL with Rufus Müller, tenor Friday, November 18

8 pm

Grace and Holy Trinity Cathedral

Out of the Eclipse: Music of Transformation & Revelation Jörg-Michael Schwarz & Karen Marie Marmer, co-directors Rufus Müller tenor Meg Owens oboe & oboe d'amore Jörg-Michael Schwarz & Karen Marie Marmer violins Risa Browder viola & violin John Moran violincello Anne Trout double bass Dongsok Shin harpsichord & organ HANDEL Overture to Agrippina in G Minor, HWV 6 (1709) Sinfonia-Allegro-Adagio (oboe, strings & basso continuo) VIVALDI Sinfonia al Santo Sepolcro in B Minor, RV 169 Adagio molto-Allegro ma poco (2 violins, viola & basso continuo) HANDEL “Total Eclipse” from Samson, HWV 57 (1743) “Your Charms to Ruin” from Samson (tenor, strings & basso continuo) PURCELL Chacony in G Minor, Z 730 (1680) (2 violins, viola & basso continuo) TELEMANN "Wie? Kehren sich bei Jesus Krippen" Aria from Cantata #2 in C minor, TWV 1:1625 from Fortsetzung des harmonischen Gottesdienstes (1731/32) Largo (tenor, violins, viola & basso continuo)

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes

BACH Concerto in A Major (after BWV 1055) Allegro Larghetto Allegro ma non tanto (oboe d’amore, strings & basso continuo) BACH "Zerschmettert mich, ihr Felsen und ihr Hügel" (1725) Aria in A Major from St. John Passion, BWV 245 (tenor, strings & basso continuo) INTERMISSION VIVALDI Sonata à 4 al Santo Sepolcro in E-flat Major, RV 130 Largo molto Allegro ma poco (2 violins, viola & basso continuo) TELEMANN "Bei heßer Tränen dickem Regen" Aria from Cantata # 13 in B minor, TWV 1:862a from Fortsetzung des harmonischen Gottesdienstes (1731/32) Un poco vivace (tenor, 2 violins & basso continuo) BLOW Chacony in G Major (2 violins, viola & basso continuo) TELEMANN "Was gleicht dem Adel wahrer Christen" Cantata in F Major, TWV 1:1511 from Der harmonische Gottesdienst, part II (1725/26) Aria Recitativo Vivace (tenor, oboe & basso continuo) PURCELL Fantasia no. 13 à 6 in F Major “upon one note”, Z 745 (1680) (2 violins, 2 violas, violincello, & bass) HANDEL “Tune Your Harps” from Esther, HWV 50a (1718) “His Mighty Arm” from Jephtha, HWV 70 (1752) (tenor, oboe, strings & basso continuo)

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program notes program notes

eorge Frideric Handel (1685-1759) owes much of his musical style to what he learned during his three-year sojourn in Italy early in his career. He had already written four German operas, all performed in Hamburg. Agrippina was Handel’s second Italian opera, written and first performed at the end of his time in Italy in 1709. Agrippina followed on the heels of such accomplishments as his Dixit Dominus, La Resurezzione, and Il Trionfo del Tempo, and his only previous Italian opera, Rodrigo. The libretto was written by Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani, whose family also owned the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo where the opera premiered on 26 December 1709.

Sepolcro in B minor (RV 169) as well as the Sonata al Santo Sepolcro in E-flat major (RV 130) were commissioned for liturgical use in Vienna. Special services unique to that city were held in the churches during the Triduum at the end of Lent, on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday. A life-size model of the holy sepulchre would have been presented in church for adoration. The B minor Sinfonia is unusual among Vivaldi’s works because the bass line, which would typically be shared by a sustaining instrument, such as a cello, with chordal instruments, such as an organ, harpsichord, or theorbo, includes explicit instructions from the composer “Senza Organi, ò Cembali” (literally: without organs or harpsichords).

Henry Purcell (1659-1695) was trained as a boy chorister in the Chapel Royal in London. When his voice broke in 1673 he was appointed assistant to John Hingeston, and received an appointment in his own right on his eighteenth birthday to replace Matthew Locke as the composer for the court violins. Two years later, his mentor John Blow voluntarily gave up the position of organist at Westminster Abbey in favor of his younger colleague. Purcell would stay in this position for seventeen years until his death when the title reverted back to John Blow. Purcell’s contemporaries Handel’s success in the opera house continued in London for a while after lauded his youthful achievements and lamented his abrupt death. Critical recognition of Purcell as he moved there in 1714, but he was England’s greatest composer has, eventually most highly acclaimed however, overshadowed the fact that for his oratorios: works of operatic he is an artist whose merits go beyond proportion, but typically based national boundaries. The Chacony on biblical stories, and presented in G minor, Z. 730 and the Fantasia without staging during the season of “upon one note”, Z. 745 (both 1680) Lent when theatrical performances originally for viols, follow an earlier were not allowed. Writing oratorios English tradition of court consort proved to be an excellent move for music written for violins and viols to Handel. They made him a rich man be played by the King’s Private Music and one of the first independent in the monarch’s personal chambers. composers–a true entrepreneur–in The introspective character of this the history of music. music lies in sharp opposition to the Handel's oratorio entitled Samson extroverted virtuosity of the Corellian received seven performances at style that would soon supplant it. Covent Garden in 1743, the most Agrippina was an immediate popular and critical success, having a run of twenty-seven consecutive performances. An early eighteenth-century engraving of the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo gives some clues as to how the sinfonia or overture to Agrippina might have sounded in its first production in Venice. The engraving shows an opera performance under way. The modest orchestra is composed of twelve musicians. While the exact instrumentation is not discernible, it would appear that, contrary to most modern practice, there is no double bass.

As a boy, John Blow (1649-1708) for any of Handel’s oratorios within George Frideric Handel (left) and King George I on the River Thames, was among the first group of trebles a single season. The libretto, written 17 July 1717 by Edouard Jean Conrad Hamman (1819–88). (sopranos) enlisted to rebuild the Chapel by the Scottish playwright Newburgh Hamilton, was based on John Milton’s Samson Agonistes, which Milton Royal Choir when it was reinstated during the Restoration. Among his had published in 1671 together with Paradise Regain’d and which was many titles was that of Organist of Westminster Abbey (1668-1679 and itself based on the story of Samson in the Old Testament Book of Judges. 1696-1708), the seventeen-year hiatus occurring when he stepped aside Esther was Handel’s first London oratorio, performed at the King’s in favor of his student Henry Purcell. Blow composed a substantial body Theatre in 1732. This work had begun life as a semi-staged masque, of vocal music, especially odes, anthems, and Venus and Adonis (1683), written for a private performance in 1718 at Cannons, the home of the one of the earliest English operas. The Chacone in G Major is one of Duke of Chandos, Handel’s patron at the time. (Handel also wrote his Blow’s very few instrumental compositions. one-act opera Acis and Galatea for the Duke of Chandos. This, too, was performed at Cannons and was first heard in Kansas City on The Friends of Chamber Music series on April 1, 2011.) It is impressive that despite the garbled English of foreign singers–according to one contemporary report the words “I come my queen to chaste delights” came across as “I comb my queen to chase the lice”–the revised version of Esther as an oratorio was such a success.

In modern times Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1767) is best known as a composer of instrumental music, but it should be no surprise that this extremely prolific composer also wrote over 35 operas, more than 40 passions, and approximately 1700 cantatas.

Like many composers with church positions in Protestant Germany in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Telemann wrote weekly sacred cantatas, with appropriate texts selected according to the liturgical Though he spent most of his life in Venice, Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) calendar. During his Hamburg period, Telemann composed at least died in Vienna where he was buried in a pauper’s grave. This last journey twenty annual cantata cycles. Unlike most other composers of cantatas of remains shrouded in mystery, but it seems clear that the Sinfonia al Santo his day, Telemann actually published a large number of liturgical cantatas: the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes

REBEL

H

Rufus Müller

ailed by the New York Times as “Sophisticated and Beguiling” and praised by the Los Angeles Times for their “astonishingly vital music-

making”, the New York-based Baroque ensemble REBEL (pronounced “Re-

T

he English-German tenor, Rufus Müller, was acclaimed by The New York Times following a performance in Carnegie Hall as "...easily the best

tenor I have heard in a live Messiah", and after another as giving "the strongest

BEL”) has earned an impressive international reputation, enchanting diverse

theatrical performance of a Bach Evangelist that I have encountered, and one

audiences by their unique style and their virtuosic, highly expressive and

of the most musical". Rufus is a leading Evangelist in Bach's Passions and his

provocative approach to the Baroque and Classical repertoire.

unique dramatic interpretation of this rôle has confirmed his status as one

Named after the innovative French Baroque composer Jean-Féry Rebel (1666-1747), REBEL was originally formed in The Netherlands in l99l. In the Fifth International Competition for Ensembles in Early Music, Utrecht 1991 (now the Van Wassenaer Competition) REBEL was awarded first prize. Arguably the most aired American Baroque ensemble in the U.S. today, REBEL has been regularly featured on NPR’s Performance Today and MPR’s St. Paul Sunday. In 1999 REBEL became the first and only period instrument ensemble to be awarded an artists’ residency at National Public Radio.Most recently, REBEL appeared at the prestigious Handel Festpiele Göttingen, and was the ensemble in residence at the Finnish festival ‘Les Lumières’ in Helsinki.

of the world's most sought-after performers. He gave the world premiere of Jonathan Miller's acclaimed production of the St. Matthew Passion, which he also recorded for United and broadcast on BBC TV; he has repeated his performance all over Europe, and in three revivals of the production at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York. Rufus Müller was born in Kent, England and was a choral scholar at New College, Oxford. He studies in New York with Thomas LoMonaco. In 1985 he won first prize in the English Song Award in Brighton, and in 1999 was a prize winner in the Oratorio Society of New York Singing Competition. He is Assistant Professor of Music at Bard College, New York.

For more information visit www.rebelbaroque.com and rufusmuller.com

four complete cycles as well as the arias to a fifth cycle. The first of these collections, Der harmonische Gottesdienst (1725-26) requires only modest forces: voice, a single melody instrument, and basso continuo throughout. For his second published cycle, Die Fortsetzung des harmonischen Gottesdienstes (1731/32), he added a second melody instrument. His cantatas, both the published ones and unpublished works circulated in manuscript copies, were well known in his time. Johann Ernst Bach, a nephew and pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach, claimed in 1758 that there hardly existed a German Protestant church where his cantatas were not sung. The Concerto in A Major for harpsichord, strings, and basso continuo, BWV 1055 by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), is, like most of his harpsichord concertos, an arrangement of an earlier work for other forces. This A major concerto can be traced back to an earlier, lost concerto for oboe d’amore, strings, and basso continuo. Bach’s harpsichord concerto arrangements from the 1730s were presumably made for performances by the Collegium Musicum, an organization of Leipzig university students founded earlier by Telemann during his studies in Leipzig, which met regularly at Zimmermann’s coffeehouse. After coming to Leipzig in

1723 as Thomaskantor, a strenuous job with composing, performing, and teaching duties, Bach additionally assumed the position of director of the Collegium and all the responsibilities associated with presenting weekly concerts. Mizler described the Collegium in 1736 as “still flourishing”: Concerts were held on Friday evenings in the winter, out in the courtyard on Wednesday afternoons in the summer, and both Tuesday and Friday evenings during the trade fair which occurred three times each year. Leipzig was an important center for wind instrument builders and most of the repertoire for the oboe d’amore comes from Leipzig.

Bach wrote his St. John Passion, BWV 245, in 1724 and first performed it on Good Friday of that year in Leipzig. When he revived the Passion the following year, among his revisions was the insertion of the aria “Zerschmettert mich, ihr Felsen und ihr Hügel” to replace the aria “Ach, mein Sinn”, both for tenor, strings, and basso continuo. With subsequent revisions in 1732 and 1749 the original tenor aria was reinstated, so that the very fine aria “Zerschmettert mich” is rarely heard in performances of the St. John Passion today. –© John Moran 2011

36th season 2011-2012

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t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s "Total eclipse" Samson HWV 57 Handel Samson: Total eclipse! No sun, no moon, all dark amidst the blaze of noon! Oh, glorious light! No cheering ray, to glad my eyes with welcome day! Why thus depriv’d Thy prime decree? Sun, moon and stars are dark to me! "Your charms to ruin" Samson HWV 57 Handel Samson: Your charms to ruin led the way my sense deprav’d, my strength enslav’d: as I did love, you did betray. Georg Philipp Telemann. Engraving by Georg Lichtensteger, c. 1745.

How great the curse! how hard my fate to pass life’s sea with such a mate! "Wie? Kehren sich bei Jesus Krippen" Fortsetzung des harmonischen Gottesdienstes TWV 1:1625 Telemann

"Wie? Kehren sich bei Jesus Krippen" Fortsetzung des harmonischen Gottesdienstes TWV 1:1625 Telemann

Wie? Kehren sich bei Jesus Krippen, die muntern Lieder froher Lippen so bald in ein beklemmtes Ach!

What? Do the cheerful songs of happy hearts At Jesus’ crib change so soon into a grim Alas!

Ach! Rachels Schmerz ist ohne gleichen; sie ächzt und weinet ihren Leichen mehr Blut, als Tränenwasser nach.

Alas! Rachel's pain is without equal; For the corpses of her children she groans And weeps more blood than tears.

"Zerschmettert mich, ihr Felsen" St John Passion, BWV 245 Bach

"Zerschmettert mich, ihr Felsen" St John Passion, BWV 245 Bach

Zerschmettert mich, ihr Felsen und ihr Hügel, Wirf, Himmel, deinen Strahl auf mich! Wie freventlich, wie sündlich, wie vermessen Hab ich, o Jesu, dein vergessen!

Oh crush me, ye rocks and ye mountains, O Heaven, cast your bright beam upon me! How wickedly, how sinfully, and with what arrogance Have I forgotten thee, O Jesus!

Ja, nähm ich gleich der Morgenröte Flügel, So holte mich mein strenger Richter wieder ; Ach! fallt vor ihm in bittern Tränen nieder!

Yea, though I were to don the rosy wings of dawn, My stern judge would draw me back again; Ah, fall prostrate in bitter tears before him!

"Bei heßer Tränen dickem Regen" Fortsetzung des harmonischen Gottesdienstes, TWV 1:862a Telemann

"Bei heßer Tränen dickem Regen" Fortsetzung des harmonischen Gottesdienstes TWV 1:862a Telemann

Bei heißer Tränen dickem Regen zerschmilzt des Jammers kalter Schnee.

At the thick rain of hot tears Grief’s cold snow melts away.

Die holde, heitre Gnadensonne bestrahlet ihn mit Kraft und Wonne, und machet lauter Wohl für Weh.

The mild, cheerful sun of grace Shines on it with strength and delight, And changes woe to abundant wellbeing.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s "Was gleicht dem Adel wahrer Christen" Der harmonische Gottesdienst, part II, TWV 1:1511 Telemann

"Was gleicht dem Adel wahrer Christen" Der harmonische Gottesdienst, part II TWV 1:1511 Telemann

Aria: Was gleicht dem Adel wahrer Christen da Gott sie seine Kinder heißt. Der Thronen stürzt und Thronen bauet, ist, der auf uns als Vater schauet sein Geist bezeugt es unserem Geist.

Aria: What is equal to the nobility of true Christians, Since God calls them his children. He who throws down and builds up thrones Is he who looks on us as a Father; His spirit bears witness of this to our spirits.

Recitativ: Nur darum kommt sein Sohn auf Erden und muß der Menschen Bruder werden, daß er dem menschlichen Geschlechte die Kindschaft Gottes brächte.

Recitativ: For this reason alone his Son comes to Earth And has to become mankind’s brother: To bring to humans The gift of becoming God’s children.

Der ärmste Bettel Mann, der dieser Hoheit sich im Glauben trösten kann, ist glücklicher daran, als der, der Ost und West dem Zepter zugebracht der Süd und Nord sich zinsbar macht, und doch, was jenen zieret, bei seinem Überfluß und Stande nicht verspüret.

The poorest beggar Who can console himself in faith with this nobility Is happier for this than the man Who has brought East and West under his sceptre And made South and North his vassals, And yet has no appreciation, in the midst of his excess and rank, For what graces the former.

Was ist für Nutzbarkeit mit dieser Kindschaft nicht verbunden! Sie gibt uns Mut und Freudigkeit, mit Beten vor Gott zu treten, und, wie ein liebes Kind den lieben Vater bittet zu stehen, bis er uns mit allem Heil beschützet, wird Raht gefunden, so setzet sie uns in Zufriedenheit:

What advantage does not derive from being a child of God! It gives us courage and joy To come before God with prayer and, Just as a beloved child begs a beloved father to stand and protect us with all his healing power, Once counsel has been given, it puts us in a state of contentment:

Wer solichen Vater hat, wie könne der verderben! Und endlich folgen ihr die Schätze jener Zeit: die Gotteskinder sind, sind auch Gottes Erben! Sind das nicht große Gaben, die wir von unserem Vater haben! Ach einen Vater nennt er sich liebt aber uns gewiß noch mehr als väterlich!

Which we receive from our Father! Ah, he calls himself a Father, But certainly loves us much more than as a Father! If someone has a father like this, how can he be undone! And in the end it is followed by the treasures of that time: Whoever are God’s children are also God’s heirs! Are these not great gifts!

Vivace: Walle vor Inbrunst, erfreutes Geblüte! Zeige dem Vater ein kindliches Herz! Bey so zart- und holdem Triebe steige deine Gegenliebe, voll Gehorsam Himmelwärts.

Vivace: Surge with ardor, delighted brood! Show your Father a childlike heart! At such a tender and mild urging Let your reflected love mount Full of obedience towards Heaven!

"Tune your harps" Esther, HWV 50a Handel 2nd Israelite: Tune your harps to cheerful strains, moulder idols into dust! Great Jehova lives and reigns, we in great Jehova trust. "His mighty arm" Jephtha, HWV 70 Handel Jeptha: His mighty arm, with sudden blow, dispers’d and quelle’d the haughty foe. They fell before him, as when thro’ the sky, he bids the sweeping winds in vengeance fly.

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the friends of cha mber music endowment early music series

The Tallis Scholars Tuesday, December 06

7:30 pm

Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

Hymm to the Virgin: A Program for the Christmas Season Peter Phillips, director Janet Coxwell, Amy Haworth, Amy Wood & Cecilia Osmond Patrick Craig & Caroline Trevor Mark Dobell & Christopher Watson Donald Greig & Rob Macdonald

SWEELINCK

Hodie Christus natus est

TAVERNER

Magnificat à 5

WHITE

Tota pulcra es

PÄRT

Magnificat Nunc dimittis

soprano alto tenor bass

INTERMISSION PRAETORIUS

Magnificat IV

WHITE

Regina caeli

MORALES

Regina caeli

BRITTEN

Hymn to the Virgin

PALESTRINA

Magnificat Nunc dimittis

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes

“My soul doth magnify the Lord. And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.’” he Virgin Mary–Star of the Sea, Our Lady, and Advocate of Eve–is celebrated in many guises. Iconography and music, drawing their inspiration from biblical texts, have both fostered and fed off of the Christian culture of Marian devotion. Yet while many of these texts elevate Mary, strip her of flesh and transform her into saint and symbol, none are more emotive than those that retain her humanity. Tonight’s programme takes a winding musical journey across nations, cultures, and centuries by recounting the life and the various roles of Mary in history. We see her by turns as daughter and mother, servant of God and Queen of Heaven–a woman at once divine and touchingly human.

Sharing the alternatim structure with Taverner’s Magnificat is Praetorius’s Magnificat IV (“Magnificat quarti toni”). One of the first German composers to adopt the progressive polychoral style, Hieronymus Praetorius (1560-1629) is perhaps best known for his many settings of the Magnificat. Tonight’s Magnificat employs the double-choir, eight-part texture typical of the composer, but it opens with perhaps the most striking and unusual melodic gambit of any of his settings. The rising chromatic phrase seizes the ear, conveying the excitement of the text while maintaining a stark monumentality that characterises the work. Only in the occasional triple-time interjections and the final pealing echoes of “Et Saeculorum” does this striking setting unbend a little.

We return once again to the English tradition for Robert White’s (1538-1574) Tota Pulchra Es, an ecstatic meditation on the beauty of the Shulamite Beloved from the Song of Songs (the unnamed young woman protagonist in this book of the Hebrew Bible). While rich in sensual imagery and barely-concealed eroticism, the metaphorical The madrigalian colours and textures of Jan P. Sweelinck’s (1562understanding of the beloved as Mary, mystical bride of God, allowed 1621) Hodie Christus Natus Est offer an evocative celebration of the such texts to become an accepted part of the liturgy. birth of Christ. A motet for Christmas Day, the text is punctuated White’s consonant English by exuberant cries of “alleluia” harmonies provide the perfect that burst musically through the canvass for such an allusive text, texture as though the composer circling perpetually around the can scarcely contain his rejoicing. tonic yet with a bittersweet Although based in the Protestant plangency that avoids the city of Amsterdam throughout his heavy-footed resolution of his career, Sweelinck’s Hodie Christus predecessors. Extracting all possible Natus Est is one of a collection of richness from the six-part texture Catholic motets he published in dominated by the lower-voices, 1619. Traditional Netherlandish White keeps his imitation simple, techniques are evident in the focusing the listener upon the five-part counterpoint, while the declamatory text which reaches its antiphonal exchanges and wordclimax in the insistently repeated painting owe more to the expressive exhortation, “Veni…veni.” contemporary influences of Rome (“Come…come.”) and Venice. In contrast to the rich sensuality of The career of John Taverner White, the music of contemporary (c 1490-1545) spanned a Estonian composer Arvo Pärt particularly volatile period of (1935- )is stark indeed–an exercise English ecclesiastical history. in aural simplicity. Derived from Political change was mirrored his studies of Gregorian chant, in the musical developments of Renaissance polyphony, and the period–developments that Russian Orthodox music, Pärt’s would culminate in the music signature technique–a reverberant of Byrd and Tallis. Yet Taverner’s choral homophony he terms Magnificat à 5 looks back rather ‘tintinnabuli’–places his voices in than forward in its style with its Freskenzyklus im Dominikanerkloster by Fra Angelico, c. 1437-1446 a constantly shifting yet strangely long melismatic phrases, florid static harmonic relationship. counterpoint, and hollow, modal harmonies recalling the earlier work of Fayrfax and Cornysh. Structurally this setting of Mary’s “Song of Although not originally composed as a set, Pärt’s Canticles chosen for Praise” is built around contrast. Polyphonic sections are alternated this program work naturally together–a pair of textural variations on with sections chanted by the lower voices, and within the polyphonic a spiritual theme. His Magnificat places a solo soprano voice chanting portions, the full five-part texture is set against the intimacy of verse. on a single pitch against a series of homophonic choral ensembles. The most spare of these verse sections is in the two-part duet for tenor This is a contemporary take on the Renaissance fauxbourdon and bass when they sing “Sicut erat in principio.” technique of harmonised chant. The Nunc Dimittis, by contrast, sees Pärt’s voices deployed in more flexible units, sustaining by turns a 36th season 2011-2012

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program notes rocking dialogue between upper voices over pedal notes chanted by the men’s voices, and a denser, chorale-like homophony. The work ultimately collapses back into the familiar waves of echoing sound for the Gloria. White’s votive antiphon Regina Caeli is one of four seasonal Marian antiphons. Together with Alma Redemptoris Mater, Ave Regina Caelorum, and Salve Regina they divide the church year. Associated with the Easter period, the Regina Caeli celebrates Mary as the Queen of Heaven, asking for her intercession and blessing.

The Tallis Scholars

T

he Tallis Scholars were founded in 1973 by their director, Peter Phillips. Through their recordings and concert performances, they have established

themselves as the leading exponents of Renaissance sacred music throughout the world. The Tallis Scholars perform in both sacred and secular venues, performing around 70 concerts each year across the globe. The Tallis Scholars’ career highlights have included a tour of China in 1999, including two concerts in Beijing; and the privilege of performing in the Sistine Chapel in April 1994 to mark the final stage of the complete restoration of the Michelangelo frescoes, broadcast simultaneously on Italian and Japanese television. The ensemble has commissioned many contemporary composers during their history: in 1998 they celebrated their 25th anniversary with a special concert in London’s National Gallery, premiering a Sir John Tavener work written for the group and narrated by Sting. A further performance was given with Sir Paul McCartney in New York in 2000. The Tallis Scholars are broadcast regularly on radio (including performances from the BBC Proms at the Royal Albert Hall in both 2007 and 2008) and have also been featured on the acclaimed ITV programme The Southbank Show. Recordings by the Tallis Scholars have attracted many awards throughout the world. In 1987 their recording of Josquin’s Missa La sol fa re mi and Missa Pange lingua received Gramophone magazine’s Record of the Year award, still the only recording of early music ever to win this coveted award. In 1989 the French magazine Diapason gave two of its coveted Diapason d’Or de l’Année awards for recordings of a mass and motets by Lassus and of Josquin’s two masses based on the chanson L’Homme armé. Their recordings were awarded Gramophone’s Early

Music Awards in 1991 and 1994, and in 2005 for their performance of music by John Browne which was also nominated for a Grammy. Their most recent disc, featuring the music of Josquin, received exceptional reviews and was awarded a further Diapason d’Or. These accolades are continuing evidence of the exceptionally high standard maintained by the Tallis Scholars, and of their dedication to one of the great repertoires in Western classical music. For more information visit www.thetallisscholars.co.uk Tallis Scholars appears by arrangement with Hazard Chase Ltd

While White’s Tota Pulchra Es is a luxuriant, evocative affair, his Regina Caeli is altogether more muscular and matter of fact. Built around a cantus firmus in the tenor part, the outer parts weave their imitative, scale-like counterpoint with careful emphasis on the text. An extended “alleluia” section sees the hymn become a stately dance, animated by the repeated quavers throughout the voices. The sole work from the Spanish tradition in tonight’s programme, Cristóbal de Morales’s (c. 1500-1553) Regina Caeli offers a glimpse into the distinctive polyphonic tradition that would culminate so spectacularly in the works of Victoria. More expansive than White’s setting, Morales’s is also the more technically elaborate, sustaining a canon between the second soprano and second alto throughout. This provides the imitative core around which the other four parts construct their textural patterns, producing an affirmative and densely layered work of celebration. Based on an anonymous medieval carol, Benjamin Britten’s (1913-1976) Hymn to the Virgin narrates the history of the Virgin Mary in alternating phrases of English and Latin. The composer echoes the macaronic form of the carol setting, which is divided between two choirs: one smaller choir singing the Latin texts and the whole group singing the English texts. The two realms–the heavenly and the earthly–are heard here: the choir that sings in the vernacular choir to an impassioned musical and emotional climax; the smaller, heavenly chorus that sings in Latin remains coolly unmoved and unchanging. We close with a classic sixteenth-century Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis from the height of Rome’s polyphonic flourishing. Written for double choir, the punchy, dynamic exchanges of Palestrina’s two SATB groups in his Magnificat follow convention: each is heard first in antiphonal isolation before coming together climactically in the full eight parts. Straightforwardly consonant in its harmony, the piece gains descriptive impact and drama through textural manipulation of the vocal forces. The second choir entry, “omnes generationes”, for example–the piece’s first eight-part section–crowds in unexpectedly upon choir one, joyously enacting the abundant image of “all generations” described in the text. The Nunc Dimittis employs the same techniques–typical of the composer’s later style–to altogether more contemplative effect. As befits the gentler nature of the text, “Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace”, phrases are longer and more sustained, favouring initially a smooth homophony rather than the rhythmically articulated polyphony of the Magnificat. © Alexandra Coghlan, 2011

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t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s Hodie Christus natus est Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck Hodie Christus natus est: Hodie Salvator apparuit: Hodie in terra canunt Angeli, Laetantur Archangeli: Hodie exsultant justi, dicentes: Gloria in excelsis Deo. Alleluia.

Hodie Christus natus est Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck Today Christ is born; Today the Savior appeared; Today on earth the Angels sing, Archangels rejoice; Today the righteous rejoice, saying: Glory to God in the highest. Alleluia.

Magnificat Ă 5 John Taverner Magnificat anima mea Dominum. Et exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo. Quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae: Ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes. Quia fecit mihi magna qui potens est: et sanctum nomens eius. Et misericordia eius a progenie in progenie timentibus eum. Fecit potentiam in brachio suo: dispersit superbos mente cordis sui. Deposuit potentes de sede; et exeltavit humiles. Esurientes implevit bonis: et divites dimisit inanes. Suscepit Israel, puerum suum, recordatus misericordiae suae. Sicit locutus est ad patres nostros, Abraham et semini eius in saecula. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

Magnificat a 5 John Taverner My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. For he has looked with favour on the lowliness of his handmaiden. Behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty has done wondrous things for me; and holy is his name. And his mercy is upon them that fear him throughout all generations. He has shown the power of his arm; he has scattered the proud in their conceit. He has put down the mighty from their seat, and has exalted the humble and meek. He has filled the hungry with good things and the rich he has sent empty away. He has sustained his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy; As he promised to our forefathers, Abraham and his seed, forever Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be: world without end. Amen.

Tota pulchra es Robert White Tota pulchra es, amica mea, et macula non est in te; Favus distillans labia tua; mel et lac sub lingua tua; Odor unguentorum tuorum super omnia aromata: Jam enim hiems transiit, imber abiit et recessit. Flores apparuerunt; vineae florentes odorem dederunt, et vox turturis audita est in terra nostra: surge, propera, amica mea: veni de Libano, veni, coronaberis. Magnificat Arvo Pärt Magnificat anima mea Dominum. Et exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo. Quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae: Ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes. Quia fecit mihi magna qui potens est: et sanctum nomens eius. Et misericordia eius a progenie in progenie timentibus eum. Fecit potentiam in brachio suo: dispersit superbos mente cordis sui. Deposuit potentes de sede; et exeltavit humiles. Esurientes implevit bonis: et divites dimisit inanes. Suscepit Israel, puerum suum, recordatus misericordiae suae. Sicit locutus est ad patres nostros, Abraham et semini eius in saecula. Magnificat anima mea Dominum.

Tota pulchra es Robert White You are altogether beautiful, my love; there is no flaw in you. Your lips distil nectar; honey and milk are under your tongue; The scent of your perfumes is beyond all spices. For now the winter is past, the rain is over and gone. The flowers have appeared; the flowering vines have given forth their fragrance, And the voice of the turtle-dove is heard in our land. Arise, my love, my fair one; come from Lebanon, come, you will be crowned. Magnificat Arvo Pärt My soul doth magnify the Lord And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. For he hath regarded the lowliness of his handmaiden. For behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath magnified me; and holy is his name. And his mercy is on them that fear him; throughout all generations He hath showed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He hath put down the mighty from their seat; and hath exalted the humble and meek. He hath filled the hungry with good things and the rich he hath sent empty away. He, remembering his mercy, hath holpen his servant Israel; As he promised to our forefathers, Abraham and his seed, forever. My soul doth magnify the Lord.

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t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s

Nunc dimittis Pärt

Nunc dimittis Pärt

Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine, secundum verbum tuum in pace: Quia viderunt oculi mei salutare tuum Quod parasti ante faciem omnium populorum: Lumen ad revelationem gentium, et gloriam plebis tuae Israel.

Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word. For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; To be a light to lighten the Gentiles, and to be the glory of thy people Israel.

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto: Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in sæcula sæculorum. Amen.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Magnificat IV Hieronymous Praetorius Magnificat anima mea Dominum. Et exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo. Quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae: Ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes. Quia fecit mihi magna qui potens est: et sanctum nomens eius. Et misericordia eius a progenie in progenie timentibus eum. Fecit potentiam in brachio suo: dispersit superbos mente cordis sui. Deposuit potentes de sede; et exeltavit humiles. Esurientes implevit bonis: et divites dimisit inanes. Suscepit Israel, puerum suum, recordatus misericordiae suae. Sicit locutus est ad patres nostros, Abraham et semini eius in saecula. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

Magnificat IV Hieronymous Praetorius My soul doth magnify the Lord, And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. For he has looked with favour on the lowliness of his handmaiden. Behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty has done wondrous things for me; and holy is his name. And his mercy is upon them that fear him throughout all generations. He has shown the power of his arm; he has scattered the proud in their conceit. He has put down the mighty from their seat, and has exalted the humble and meek. He has filled the hungry with good things and the rich he has sent empty away. He has sustained his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy; As he promised to our forefathers, Abraham and his seed, for ever. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be: world without end. Amen.

Regina caeli White Regina caeli laetare, alleluia, Quia quem meruisti portare, alleluia, Resurrexit sicut dixit, alleluia. Ora pro nobis Deum, alleluia.

Regina caeli White Queen of heaven, rejoice, alleluia, For he whom thou wast worthy to bear, alleluia, Hath risen as he said, alleluia. Pray for us to God, alleluia. Regina caeli Cristóbal de Morales

Regina caeli Cristóbal de Morales Regina caeli laetare, alleluia, Quia quem meruisti portare, alleluia, Resurrexit sicut dixit, alleluia. Ora pro nobis Deum, alleluia.

Queen of heaven, rejoice, alleluia, For he whom thou wast worthy to bear, alleluia, Hath risen as he said, alleluia. Pray for us to God, alleluia.

Hymn to the Virgin Benjamin Britten Of one that is so fair and bright Velut maris stella, Brighter than the day is light, Parens et puella: I cry to thee, thou see to me, Lady, pray thy Son for me Tam pia, That I may come to thee. Maria!

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t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s In sorrow, counsel thou art best, Felix fecundata: For all the weary thou art rest, Mater honorata: Beseech him in thy mildest mood, Who for us did shed his blood In cruce, That we may come to him In luce. All this world was forlorn Eva peccatrice, Till our Lord was y-born De te genetrice. With ave it went away Darkest night, and comes the day Salutis The well springeth out of thee. Virtutis. Lady, flow'r of ev'rything, Rosa sine spina, Thou bare Jesu, Heaven's King, Gratia divina: Of all thou bear'st the prize, Lady, queen of paradise Electa: Maid mild, mother Es effecta. Magnificat for double choir Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Magnificat anima mea Dominum. Et exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo. Quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae: Ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes. Quia fecit mihi magna qui potens est : et sanctum nomens eius. Et misericordia eius a progenie in progenie timentibus eum. Fecit potentiam in brachio suo: dispersit superbos mente cordis sui Deposuit potentes de sede; et exeltavit humiles. Esurientes implevit bonis: et divites dimisit inanes. Suscepit Israel, puerum suum, recordatus misericordiae suae. Sicit locutus est ad patres nostros, Abraham et semini eius in saecula. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

The Visitation in the Book of Hours of the Duc de Berry; the Magnificat in Latin

Magnificat for double choir Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina My soul doth magnify the Lord, And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. For he hath regarded; the lowliness of his handmaiden. For behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath magnified me; and holy is his name. And his mercy is on them that fear him throughout all generations. He hath showed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He hath put down the mighty from their seat, and hath exalted the humble and meek. He hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich he hath sent empty away. He, remembering his mercy, hath holpen his servant Israel: As he promised to our forefathers, Abraham and his seed, forever. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen

Nunc dimittis Palestrina Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine, secundum verbum tuum in pace: Quia viderunt oculi mei salutare tuum Quod parasti ante faciem omnium populorum Lumen ad revelationem gentium, et gloriam plebis tuae Israel. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto: Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in sæcula sæculorum. Amen. Israel. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto:Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in sæcula sæculorum. Amen.

Nunc dimittis Palestrina Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word. For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; To be a light to lighten the Gentiles, and to be the glory of thy people Israel. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

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t h e w i l l i a m t. k e m p e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a m b e r m u s i c s e r i e s

Les Violons du Roy with Maurice Steger, recorder Friday, January 27

8 pm

The Folly Theater

HANDEL Concerto Grosso in B-flat major, Op. 6 No. 7 “Hornpipe,” HWV 325 Largo Allegro Largo Andante Hornpipe TELEMANN Suite in A minor for alto recorder, strings, and basso continuo, TWV 55:a2 Ouverture Les Plaisirs Air à l’italien: Largo Menuet I; Menuet II Réjouissance; Viste Passepied I; Passepied II Polonaise INTERMISSION SAMMARTINI Concerto in F major for soprano recorder and strings Allegro Siciliano Allegro assai GEMINIANI Concerto Grosso No.12 in D minor, “La Follia” (after Corelli) Theme and 25 Variations upon the Sarabanda GEMINIANI Concerto No. 10 in F major for Recorder and Orchestra (after Corelli) Orchestral edition after Arcangelo Corelli’s Opus 5 (with ornamented versions of several eminent masters) Preludio: Largo Allemanda: Allegro Sarabanda: Largo Giga: Allegro Gavotta: Allegro

The International Chamber Music Series is underwritten, in part, by the William T. Kemper Foundation.

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


program notes Concerto Grosso in B-flat major, Op.6 No.7 (“Hornpipe”) HWV 325 George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) The composer we know and love best because of his Messiah actually did not compose sacred oratorios until late in his career. Handel began his study of music as an organist and harpsichordist, also learning the rudiments of composition. In 1705 his first operas were produced in Hamburg. The following year, he traveled to Italy to learn more about fashionable Italian opera. That journey changed his style of composing, and indeed the course of his career. After study and work in Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice, young Handel understood as much about Italian opera as any native. He returned briefly to Germany in 1710, where he secured a position in service to the Elector of Hannover. A series of trips to England ensued; in Britain Handel found great favor and a large, wealthy audience eager for his Italian operas. When his German patron fell heir to the throne of England in 1714, becoming King George I, Handel's English future was sealed. By the late 1730s his reputation was such that entire concerts of his compositions drew audiences. These programs, which often lasted for several hours, required instrumental pieces to fill out the evening’s entertainment. 18th-century audiences demanded their money's worth. This is the context for which he composed the 12 Concerti Grossi, or the 12 Great Concertos, Opus 6. Handel wrote them in a characteristic fever of inspiration during a five-week span in September and October 1739. They were the first pieces protected by a Royal Privilege (essentially a copyright) issued on 31 October, 1739, specifying Twelve Grand Concerto's [sic] in 7 parts, for Four Violins, a Tenor, a Violoncello with a Thorough-Bass for the Harpsichord. His publisher John Walsh issued Opus 6 early the following year. Handel's biographer Percy Young calls these pieces Handel's crowning works in concerto form. Early in his career, Handel had also played violin. He understood string playing well and the way an orchestra worked. The instrumental concerti of his Italian contemporaries were familiar to him as well. However, his concerto model differs from that of Vivaldi and Albinoni, whose Venetian concerti tended to be in three larger movements, with fast-slow-fast tempi. For each of his concerti, Handel composed more movements, and shorter ones. His concerti are far more similar to those of Corelli, whose music was enormously popular in England.

his reputation grew so substantial that he penned two more autobiographies in 1729 and 1739, each for inclusion in a contemporary music dictionary. Because he adapted to stylistic changes evolving around him, he was an important transitional figure from the high Baroque to the Rococo style. The work on this evening’s program is comparatively early and is rooted firmly in the early eighteenth century. At that time, the Italian term flauto meant recorder. Wooden flutes held with the column to the side were called flauto traverso (transverse flute). The modern silver flute we see in symphony orchestras did not yet exist. Recorders were only infrequently used as solo instruments. In larger ensembles such as court orchestras, oboists or transverse flutists doubled on recorder. That increases the significance of Telemann’s Suite in A minor, which is, along with Bach’s Brandenburg Concerti Nos. 2 and 4 and his Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B-minor, a cornerstone of the literature for solo treble recorder. Although Telemann’s suite is not technically a concerto, the recorder part is virtuosic and very much in the limelight. Terminology in the Baroque era was less formulaic than it is today, and many of Telemann’s Suites are closer to concertos in the form of a suite. He and Bach are the most prominent of the 18th-century composers who fused the two genres. Contemporary writers coined several terms for the hybrid, which was variously known as concert en ouverture, concerto en suite, and concertouverture. In this A minor work, the soloist appears in every movement. Telemann opens with a classic French overture with its sharply-dotted rhythms in the outer sections and a central allegro in brisk 6/8 time. His remaining movements are dance-like, but not all are actual dances. Two, Les plaisirs (pleasures, diversions) and Réjouissance (rejoicing, merry-making) bear fanciful French titles that were popular among contemporary French clavecinistes or keyboardists. They reflect the strong influence of French style and taste in Baroque Germany.

The genius of Telemann’s writing in this work is the variety with which he has entwined the piquant recorder timbre with the strings and continuo ensemble, all the while adhering to the formal conventions of the Baroque suite. For example, in Les plaisirs–a movement that illustrates how minor mode can be lively and cheerful–the recorder introduces new material when it enters. The movement’s central section features a lively duet with cello, whose part is also All but one of the Opus 6 concerti feature a small concertino group of soloists, quite virtuosic. Elsewhere in the Suite, Telemann writes for the full ensemble, with a larger accompanying ripieno string ensemble. The exception is this or strings alone with the soloist doubling one or two violins, or violin and Concerto in B-flat, which is for full orchestra throughout. Its opening Largo viola. His imagination with respect to texture is quite impressive. is a brief, sedate ten measures. It serves to introduce the first Allegro, in which Another noteworthy aspect is the two pair of optional extra dances. Telemann, Handel makes a fugue subject based on a repeated F. We hear it first in half Bach, and others called them Galanterien (gallantries). The term comes from notes, then quarters, then eighths, before a closing flourish launches the second popular poetry collections that were circulating in Leipzig in the early 18th entrance. It is as if he is daring us: “Look how easy it is to construct a fugue out century, such as Johann Burchard Mencke’s Galante Gedichte (“Gallant Poetry”) of next to nothing!” The music is a bit impish–and utterly irresistible. (1705) and Johann Ulrich von König’s Theatralische, geistliche, vermischte und The Sarabanda switches to G minor for a sober, old-fashioned movement Galante Gedichte (“Theatrical, Spiritual, Miscellaneous and Gallant Poetry”) that would have appealed to Handel’s conservative audience. The texture is (1716). Telemann’s Galanterien–the two minuets and passepieds–allowed him in four parts throughout. By contrast, the Andante looks to the newer style of to try new ideas. accompanied melody. Andante means “going” or “going forward” in Italian; in music it designates a moderate walking tempo, not a slow pace. Concerto in F major for soprano recorder and strings The concluding Hornpipe gives this concerto grosso its subtitle. This British Giuseppe Sammartini (1695-1750) country dance was popular from the 16th to 19th centuries. Traditionally, sailors performed it as a solo dance. It moves in a relaxed 3/2 time, with a Have you ever wondered how names change from one country to another? distinctive “Scotch snap” (with the short note on the beat, followed by a longer Most of us know that many European names were mangled at Ellis Island during the great immigration waves of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. note). The syncopated effect will have your feet tapping. Sometimes spellings and pronunciations shift just as a matter of acculturation. When the 17th-century French oboist Alexis Saint-Martin relocated to Italy, the home of his wife Girolama de Federici, he Italianized his name. In various Suite in A minor for Recorder, Strings, and Continuo, TWV 55:a2 sources it appears as St. Martini, San Martini, San Martino, or simply Martino. Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1767) Two of his sons followed him into the music profession. The elder, Giuseppe, Telemann was far more famous in his day than his younger contemporary, was a successful oboist like his father. The younger brother remained in Milan Bach. He had achieved enough renown by 1718 to write an autobiography, and and became maestro di capella, or choir director, at several of the city’s churches. 36th season 2011-2012

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program notes Both brothers are known today by the surname Sammartini.

Concerto Grosso No.12 in D minor, “La Follia” (after Corelli) Francesco Geminiani (1687-1762)

If you recognize the name, it’s almost certainly because of the younger brother, Giovanni Battista, who was a central figure in the development of the early Folia (or La Follia) is one of those tunes that has inspired many composers classical symphony. This Concerto is by the other Sammartini: Giuseppe, who writing in different eras and vastly different musical styles. Its roots extend was five years older. He first left Italy in 1727 for Brussels. By 1729 he had back to the 15th century. The term folia, which is of Portuguese origin, is settled in London, where he enjoyed a high profile career as a virtuoso oboist. related to the Latin word for “fool” or “madness,” and refers to a dance that For the last fourteen years of his life, he was in service to the household of was likely a court “fool’s dance.” The follia music that has inspired composers from the Baroque era to the modern Frederick, the Prince of Wales, as music day is a harmonic pattern related to master to the Princess Augusta and her two additional dances: the passamezzo children. One of those children was the Francesco Geminiani was one of the greatest violinists of the antico and the romanesca. future George III. Baroque era and an excellent composer. He remains less known The tune was already well known by One would expect that Sammartini would than many of his Italian contemporaries, in part because so the end of the 17th century. Alessandro have composed several concertos for oboe, many of his better known compositions are reworkings of his Scarlatti, Marin Marais, Vivaldi and and he did. This concerto for descant own music and music by his teacher and mentor, Arcangelo Bach were among the many Baroque recorder, however, has eclipsed all of them. It Corelli (1653-1713). composers who took this harmonic is, by far, his most frequently performed and Geminiani was a violinist, composer, and theorist. Born in pattern as the basis for variations sets. recorded work. It is also the most significant December 1687 in the Tuscan city of Lucca, he appears to The most famous of them all was by solo concerto for the instrument from the have been educated initially by his father, a violinist in Lucca’s Arcangelo Corelli. His La Follia, a mid-18th century. Why soprano recorder? Palatine Chapel. At age sixteen, he was sent to Rome. From 1704 to 1706 he probably studied with both Corelli and sonata for violin and continuo, was Sammartini could well have been writing Alessandro Scarlatti in Rome. In December 1706 he became published with eleven other trio sonatas for himself. As we observed in the Telemann principal violinist of the Teatro dei Fiorentini in Naples for a full as Op.5 in a collection that appeared in earlier this evening, Baroque wind players season, before returning to Lucca for a couple of years. He may Rome in 1700. Corelli used a 16-bar were expected to be proficient on more than have succeeded his father at the Palatine Chapel. series of chords supporting the simple one instrument. As a member of the London After 1714, Geminiani spent most of his career in the British melodic line. opera orchestras of both Bononcini and Isles. We know that he played at the court of King George I in La follia remained popular in the preHandel, Sammartini would have regularly 1716, with Handel at the harpsichord. He soon gained powerful classical and classical eras, when Grétry played the recorder as well as the oboe. patrons among the British aristocracy, augmenting his income and Cherubini adapted it. Franz Liszt through teaching. He died in Dublin. Independent of opera orchestras, different followed in the romantic era with his size recorders were more popular in England Both Geminiani’s Concerto Grosso in D minor, La Follia, and the Rhapsodie espagnole. Twentieth-century F major Concerto that concludes this program come from his than on the continent. Just as treble, alto, iterations include Carl Nielsen’s orchestral arrangements of Corelli’s Op.5 Sonatas for violin tenor, and bass viols were played together as opera Maskarade and Rachmaninoff’s and continuo. Geminiani published them in two groups of six, in a consort, so were recorders. A substantial Variations on a Theme by Corelli, Op. 1726 and 1729, with a dedication to King George I. literature survives for recorder ensemble, but 42. In the 21st century, Puerto Ricanthere are few solo works for the non-standard These works were controversial, drawing criticism from other born Roberto Sierra (b.1953) has Italians who concertized in England. The violinist Francesco members of the recorder family. Sammartini’s taken his bow to Folias as well. Veracini famously disparaged Geminiani as a rifriggitoro–a concerto responded to that need. “reheater” of others’ music. English contemporaries such as The Follia concerto on this evening’s For his Concerto for Soprano Recorder and Charles Burney and John Hawkins also criticized Geminiani, program is listed as being by Geminiani; Strings, Sammartini adopted the English presuming a lack of invention. “Notwithstanding the fine talents however, it is really an arrangement and style, which was conservative. The opening which as a musician Geminiani possessed it must be remarked embellishment of Corelli’s sonata, Op.5, that the powers of his fancy seem to have been limited,” wrote Allegro alternates ritornello passages with No.12 (see sidebar). In Geminiani’s Hawkins. solo ones, allowing the recorder surprising 1749 theoretical publication, A Treatise independence of line and a florid, fastSo what prompted Geminiani to produce so many of these of Good Taste in the Art of Musick–a work moving part. arrangements? One reason was surely commercial: to strengthen focused on the art of ornamentation his reputation in London and encourage sales. But Geminiani The central Siciliano is surely Giuseppe and execution of dynamic gradations– clearly revered Corelli. His motivation could also have been to Sammartini’s best-known movement. It he mentions a discussion with update works for modern taste that might otherwise be deemed shows up on collections of soothing, gentle Corelli about Follia. “[I] heard him out of fashion and thus, lost. He could simply have wished to music. The “road rage remedy” cliché aside, acknowledge the Satisfaction he took in make them available to a wider audience. Biographer Enrico this is expressive and beautiful writing that Careri calls these works “elaborations” of Corelli’s music. They composing it, and the Value he set upon provides ample opportunity for the recorder keep good company with Bach’s arrangements of Vivaldi’s it.” Geminiani’s arrangement of Follia as and Marcello’s works. Both Bach and Handel were inveterate to embellish Sammartini’s elegant melodic a concerto grosso is an act of tribute. borrowers and recyclers of their own and others’ material. line. It is the sole movement in the concerto Geminiani was hardly alone in recrafting the music of an where he specified a cadenza. admired predecessor–or contemporary. Concerto No.10 in F major for Twenty-four years Sammartini’s senior, Recorder and Orchestra (after Corelli) – Laurie Shulman ©2011 Albinoni’s influence is apparent in the finale Francesco Geminiani where Sammartini has employed a bouncy 6/8 movement that is cousin to the finales of the earlier composer’s oboe Corelli’s original for this five-movement work is a sonata for violin and concerti. The soprano recorder shows itself the equal to the violins in its agility. continuo. His Op.5 Sonatas first appeared in Rome in 1700. The collection circulated widely throughout Europe. It was reprinted more than forty times in the 18th century in Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, England, France, and

Misunderstood Master

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program notes

Les Violons du Roy

T

he names of Les Violons du Roy is inspired by the renowned string orchestra of the court of the kings of France. Organized in 1984 at the

Maurice Steger

A

ccording to The Independent, Maurice Steger is “the world’s leading recorder virtuoso”. And indeed, with his tours all across the globe and

instigation of its music director, Bernard Labadie, this ensemble contains

his numerous CDs, some of which received the most prestigious awards,

at least a dozen musicians who are dedicated to the repertoire for chamber

the artist has established himself as today’s most renowned virtuoso playing

orchestra by promoting a stylistic manner most appropriate to each time.

the recorder. With his dynamic style and his brilliant, yet spontaneous and

Although Les Violons du Roy play on modern instruments, their performance

personal technique, he has also contributed to a resurgence of interest in the

of Baroque and Classical music is strongly influenced by contemporary

recorder as an instrument.

movements of renewal in the interpretation of the music of the seventeenth century and first half of the eighteenth century, for which musicians use copies of antique bows. In recent seasons, under the leadership of Principal Guest Conductor Jean-Marie Zeitouni, Les Violons du Roy explore further the repertoire of nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

With a repertoire focused on Early Music, Maurice Steger is a sought-after soloist with the leading Early Music period instrument ensembles.

In

addition, he also appears regularly with modern orchestras, like Les Violons du Roy. But Maurice Steger is also no stranger to contemporary music: He premiered two solo concerts for recorder and orchestra and has performed Rodolphe Schacher’s musical fairytale “Tino Flautino” over 50 times.

For more information visit www.violonsduroy.com and www.mauricesteger.com Les Violons du Roy, Bernard Labadie, Artistic and Music Director, appears by arrangement with Opus 3 Artists

working in the British Isles also turned their hand to Corelli arrangements. Mr. Steger draws on ornamentation by various composers and virtuoso performers. According to his liner notes in “Mr. Corelli in London” (Harmonia Mundi 907523), he selects from decorated versions by the Italian violinist Pietro Castrucci, the English harpsichord virtuoso William Babell, He initially tackled six sonatas from Corelli’s Op.3, which are sonate da the Belgian recorder player John Loeillet, the French recorder player Jacques chiesa–that is, church sonatas, the older style with four or five movements. Paisible from Paris, and others. Steger writes: Subsequently, he arranged all twelve of Corelli’s Op.5 sonatas as concerti I studied the numerous exciting English manuscripts of these composing grossi. The first half-dozen of Corelli’s opus are five-movement sonatas with virtuosos and made a selection from them which illustrates the stylistic alternating slow and fast movements. In the second part of the opus, he features of performances in and on the fringes of the Handel clan during experimented more with preludes and dance movements, in the style of a these years. Music that in Corelli’s original was so clear, straightforward and suite. The Sonata No.10–Concerto No.10 d’après Corelli in Geminiani’s easy to understand has been so transformed in these arrangements that they have become one of the richest sources for English Baroque virtuosity. arrangement–falls into this category: a prelude is followed by an allemande, sarabande, gavotte, and gigue. Geminiani anticipated that the soloist in his Corelli arrangements would be a Spain. Corelli’s music became extremely popular in Britain, amounting to an almost cult-like admiration. Thus, when Geminiani made his decision to craft his own versions of them for what we would call chamber orchestra, he was appealing to current fashion.

The most distinctive movement is the Sarabanda, which does not have the characteristic long note values of the triple meter dance. Taken at a relaxed tempo, however, it allows for abundant embellishment, which is a characteristic of most sarabands. Also, the Gavotta is unusually brief: only eight bars. (Giuseppe Tartini later wrote 38 variations on its theme, published in 1758 as L’arte del arco.) There are subtle links among the five movements. For example, the Allemanda adopts a rhythm from the Prelude; the Giga uses a rhythmically-altered theme first heard in the Gavotta. Because of England’s “Corelli mania,” several of Geminiani’s contemporaries

violinist. Mr. Steger’s substitution of recorder for violino primo is impressive. A violinist can easily move from upbow to downbow and back again, or move among different strings, during rapid passage work. The recorder virtuoso must find an appropriate split second to breathe somewhere in the extended virtuoso episodes. Some of the violin parts transfer well to recorder, but the violinistic figuration is less idiomatic for the wind instrument–which makes its execution all the more dazzling in the recorder. In order to avoid transposition of this particular work, Mr. Steger chose, instead, to play four different recorders.  – Laurie Shulman ©2011

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2 0 1 2 b a c h f e s t i va l

Kansas City Chamber Orchestra Tuesday, January 24

8 pm

The Folly Theater

The Brandenburg Concertos Bruce Sorrell, Music Director and Conductor Concerto No. 1 in F Major (Sinfonia in F Major, BWV 1071) [No tempo indication] Adagio Menuet; Trio I; Trio II

B A C H

Concerto No. 5 in D Major, BWV 1050 Allegro Affettuoso Allegro Concerto No. 3 in G Major, BWV 1048 [No tempo indication] Adagio; Allegro

F E S T I V A L

Concerto No. 2 in F Major, BWV 1047 [No tempo indication] Andante Allegro assai

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Concerto No. 6 in B-flat Major, BWV 1051 [No tempo indication] Adagio ma non tanto Allegro

INTERMISSION

Concerto No. 4 in G Major, BWV 1049 Allegro Andante Presto

Please note: For tickets to this performance, please contact the Central Ticket Office at 816-235-6222. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund of Kansas City, Missouri.

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

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Program notes

Note of interest. . . The Brandenburg Concertos Johann Sebastian Bach

The letters "BWV" stand for Bach Werke Verzeichnis, or "Catalogue of Bach's Works," by Wolfgang Schmieder (1901-1990), a German music librarian who first undertook an exhaustive bibliographical study of Bach's compositions and compiled a comprehensive thematic catalogue identifying every known work. Each of the Brandenburg Concertos has a different BWV number. Sometimes these numbers are referred to as a “Schmieder listing,” after the catalogue’s author. ©2009 Laurie Schulman

B A C H

At this early stage in his career, Bach was known primarily as a performer. He had, thus far, composed almost exclusively for solo instruments and for small ensembles. The six concertos he sent to Christian Ludwig in 1721 may have been his first orchestral works.

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Early in 1719, the prince sent Bach to Berlin, probably to negotiate the purchase of a new harpsichord. Scholars believe that Bach encountered Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg on that journey. The Margrave, uncle to the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I, evidently collected concertos, for there were nearly 200 in his private library at his death. After hearing Bach play, he asked him to compose some concertos.

Having little prior experience writing such compositions as the Margrave requested, Bach wrote for his court orchestra at Cöthen. Unfortunately, the Margrave's instrumental resources were more modest than those of Prince Leopold. Although Christian Ludwig earned himself a measure of immortality through Bach's dedication, he never had the works performed in his own court.

F E S T I V A L

The town of Cöthen is approximately 60 miles north of Weimar and west of Leipzig. During the early 18th century, it was the political center of the wealthy house of Anhalt-Cöthen (pronounced AHN-halt KURten). Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen (1694-1728) was a great music lover who played viola da gamba, violin, and harpsichord; he also sang bass. Upon reaching his maturity in 1715, he set about building up his court orchestra.When Johann Sebastian Bach joined Leopold's musical staff as Kapellmeister in late 1717, the young prince employed 18 musicians. That may sound modest to us, but Cöthen's orchestra was then one of the largest and finest in northern Europe.

36th season 2011-2012

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Konstantin Lifschitz Friday, February 10

The Folly Theater

8 pm

Proper Instruction wherein the lovers of the clavier, and especially those desirous of learning, are shown a clear way not only (1) to learn to play clearly in two voices but also, after further progress, (2) to deal correctly and well with three obbligato parts, simultaneously; furthermore, at the same time not only to have good inventiones [ideas] but also to develop the same well, and above all, to arrive at a cantabile [singing] style in playing and at the same time to acquire a strong foretaste to composition. Prepared by Joh. Seb. Bach, Capellmeister to His Serene Highness the Prince of Anhalt-Cรถthen Anno Christi 1723 B A C H F E S T I V A L 2 0 1 2 Title-page of the notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes

Italian Concerto in F Major, BWV 971 Allegro Andante Presto Complete Inventions and Sinfonias (Two and Three Part Inventions) Invention No.1 in C Major, BWV 772 Sinfonia No.1 in C Major, BWV 787 Invention No.2 in C Minor, BWV 773 Sinfonia No.2 in C Minor, BWV 788 Invention No.3 in D Major, BWV 774 Sinfonia No.3 in D Major, BWV 789 Invention No.4 in D Minor, BWV 775 Sinfonia No.4 in D Minor, BWV 790 Invention No.5 in E-flat Major, BWV 776 Sinfonia No.5 in E-flat Major, BWV 791 Invention No.6 in E Major, BWV 777 Sinfonia No.6 in E Major, BWV 792 Invention No.7 in E Minor, BWV 778 Sinfonia No.7 in E Minor, BWV 793 Invention No.8 in F Major, BWV 779 Sinfonia No.8 in F Major, BWV 794 INTERMISSION

B A C H

F E S T I V A L

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Invention No.9 in F Minor, BWV 780 Sinfonia No.9 in F Minor, BWV 795 Invention No.10 in G Major, BWV 781 Sinfonia No.10 in G Major, BWV 796 Invention No.11 in G Minor, BWV 782 Sinfonia No.11 in G Minor, BWV 797 Invention No.12 in A Major, BWV 783 Sinfonia No.12 in A Major, BWV 798 Invention No.13 in A Minor, BWV 784 Sinfonia No.13 in A Minor, BWV 799 Invention No.14 in B-flat Major, BWV 785 Sinfonia No.14 in B-flat Major, BWV 800 Invention No.15 in B Minor, BWV 786 Sinfonia No.15 in B Minor, BWV 801 French Overture in B minor, BWV 831 Overture Courante Gavotte 1, 2 Passepied 1, 2 Sarabande Bouree 1, 2 Gigue Echo

The Master Pianists Series is underwritten, in part, by the Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation. The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation for the Arts. 36th season 2011-2012

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Program Notes This evening’s program is the second of six concerts that comprise our Bach Festival. This festival will explore Bach’s extraordinary contribution to the keyboard and orchestral literature. Four of the six concerts will focus on Konstantin Lifschitz’s four solo recitals that begin tonight and follow a general trajectory from the simple to the complex, from the relatively easy to the highly virtuosic. Bach–the greatest contrapuntalist of all time–also had a dreamy, exploratory, improvisatory side and an endlessly fertile imagination. Through this selective survey of his keyboard music, we will learn a little about Bach as parent and educator, as pragmatic professional and idealist, and as theorist and philosopher, and we will hear a great deal of miraculous music. Italian Concerto in F Major, BWV 971 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Having written a prodigious amount of church music in his first years as Cantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig, Bach took up a further post in 1729: that of director of the Leipzig Collegium Musicum, an institution which put on public concerts in the city. Around this time, he turned his attention to secular works—no doubt with a view to performing them at the Collegium’s concerts—and began to bring out some of them in print. In 1731 he published the six harpsichord partitas as the ‘first part’ of his Clavierübung, making it clear that he already had more ‘keyboard practice’ collections in mind. The second volume of the Clavierübung consisting of the Italian Concerto and the French Overture, duly appeared in 1735.

B A C H F E S T I V A L

Unique to the second volume, is its concentration on the number two: two pieces, two keys, two modes, two nations, a two-manual harpsichord (this last actually specified on the title page). Coming after the immense sophistication of the partitas in the first volume, such apparently crude dualism could have seemed a regressive step, but Bach’s command of the two distinctive national styles is too fascinating for this to be the case.

to the latest galant Italian style: melodious, and softer-edged than Vivaldi. The keyboard figuration shares some of the violinistic touches of the (earlier?) Andante, but at times in the episodes Bach introduces sparkling new ideas strikingly suited to the harpsichord. This trend continues in the Presto, which explores keyboard virtuosity in a manner unique in Bach’s oeuvre (the swift manual changes indicated here are integral to the overall effect). 15 Inventions, BWV 772-786

If he found that anyone, after some months of practice, began to lose patience [with keyboard exercises], he was so obliging as to write little connected pieces, in which those exercises were combined together. Of this kind are the six little Preludes for Beginners and, still more the fifteen two-part Inventions. He wrote both down As applied to music, we think of the Invention as a type of during the hours of teaching and, piece, defined by Bach’s two-part writing. Bach had a different in doing so, attended only to the perspective. He viewed the Latin term "Inventio" as a window momentary want of the scholar. But into composition: the invention of suitable material for musical he afterwards transformed them into development and the motives to be worked through and explored beautiful, expressive little works of art. polyphonically. With this exercise of the fingers, either in single passages or in little pieces His concept of “invention” was thus ideas, themes, and motives. composed on purpose was combined The resulting pieces were small in scale, with a couple of decisive the practice of all ornaments in both cadences and a straightforward tonal structure. His goal was hands.

The Terms Invention and Sinfonia

twofold: to foster expertise at playing in two parts, and to encourage interest in, and understanding of, the art of composition.

The word "Sinfonia" is an Italianization of a Greek term that means “union of sounds,” “sounding together,” or quite simply harmony. In the early 17th century, it certainly did not mean symphony in the sense that Beethoven or Mahler construed that word. Sinfonia was still a generic term for any instrumental piece, ranging from an overture to a larger choral or vocal piece such as an oratorio or cantata. In the first version of his manuscript–volume I of Friedemann Bach’s Clavier-Büchlein–Bach called these two sets Preambles and Fantasias. He made minor revisions for the final, fair copy of the manuscript, which bore new titles for the pieces: Inventions and Sinfonias. Both earlier terms prompt thought. “Preambles” suggests that he knew the simpler two-part works would lead to greater technical and musical knowledge: a prelude to something else. The Sinfonias are the fulfillment of that promise. By means of the third voice, they give added freedom (a latitude implied by “Fantasia”) to Bach’s fertile imagination and contrapuntal gift.

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The Concerto ‘after the Italian taste’ shows him as thoroughly at home with several kinds of Italianate musical language. He acquired his knowledge of Italian repertoire early on: not only did he transcribe the Vivaldi violin concertos for solo harpsichord around 1712-13—as is well known—but he also studied works by such composers as Albinoni, Torelli and Marcello. This apprenticeship showed him how to write large-scale movements with a cogent structure and led to his adoption of the Italian ritornello form (in which, as the name suggests, certain sections of a movement return to give it a satisfying overall shape) in his own concertos. Of these, the Italian Concerto is unique: a wholly original solo keyboard work written as if “transcribed” from a string original. Some violinistic writing, which Bach had found when arranging Vivaldi, transferred extremely well to the harpsichord, and this idiom continued to inform his subsequent music for that instrument. A particularly striking example of this is the slow movement of the Italian Concerto, its Andante. While the left hand’s soft repeated-note figuration mimics a discreet string accompaniment à la Vivaldi, the right hand soars above it with a highly decorated melody, replete from the start with rubato-like syncopations, the whole suggesting the skilful improvisation of an Italian violin virtuoso circa 1700-10.

– Laurie Shulman ©2011

of the next generation.

– from Johann Nikolaus Forkel’s biography of Bach, 1802

Half of us played a few of them as children; the other half have probably heard their own offspring or grandchildren practicing them. The Bach Inventions are the turf of gifted young pianists: finger twisters for hands of students who have only studied for three years or so, but also, real music by a great composer. The little hands for which Bach composed these pieces belonged to his eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann. He was born November 1710 in Weimar to Bach’s first wife, Maria Barbara Bach (she was his second cousin). She had borne Johann seven children before she died in July 1720. Four survived, including Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel, who were to go on to become among the most renowned composers

Seventeen months after Maria Barbara’s death, Bach remarried. His new bride was Anna Magdalena Wilcke, a court singer in Cöthen whose father was court trumpeter at Weissenfels. She was an excellent musician. Born in 1701, Anna Magdalena was sixteen years Bach’s junior. From all reports, the union was happy. She appears to have stepped smoothly into the role of stepmother. Between 1723 and 1742, she bore Bach another thirteen children, six of whom lived to adulthood. Anna Magdalena was an active participant in the Bach household’s music making. She, too, was her husband’s student, and also assisted him in manuscript copying. Bach started work on the Inventions two months after Friedemann’s ninth birthday. The boy had already demonstrated remarkable musical gifts. His father composed these pieces as teaching material for his child, so that he could then participate in the family music-making games of which Bach was so fond.

The first movement, on the other hand, reflects the influence of more up- Beginning in January 1720, Bach compiled the Inventions in a collection to-date Italian music. It, too, features prominent syncopations in its opening called Clavier-Büchlein (The Little Keyboard Book), which remains a bars, but these have no flavour of ‘written-out rubato’; rather, they allude remarkable chronicle of his teaching methods as Friedemann matured and his younger siblings commenced musical instruction. Additions to the the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


Program notes Clavier-Büchlein continued until the mid-1720s, eventually comprising three volumes. The second and third volumes were compiled for Anna Magdalena. Nevertheless, the collection also mirrors Friedemann Bach’s increasing technical and musical mastery.

and virtuosic. The Sinfonias clearly look forward to the fugues of The WellTempered Clavier, Book I, except that in the Sinfonias we hear the subject and countersubject simultaneously at the beginning, rather than in successive entrances. Also in the Sinfonias, Bach never introduces his subject in the lowest voice, and infrequently in the middle voice as he does in his fugues. In all but four of the Sinfonias, the uppermost voice takes the lead.

The first volume, which is almost exclusively in the handwriting of Sebastian and Friedemann, contains the two- and three-part Inventions, eleven of the Preludes that eventually became part of Book I of The Well-Tempered Clavier, As with the two-part works, Bach employs a variety of approaches. Some and other short pieces for clavier. Some of the pieces are by other composers. of the Sinfonias are in a strict, older contrapuntal style with more equality of voices–a style that Bach never abandoned. Others are more free and In 1720, Bach had been employed for three years as Kapellmeister to Prince expressive. The most remarkable is perhaps the F minor Sinfonia, a chromatic, Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen. Most of the instrumental music for which he is expressive masterpiece with sighing figures best known dates from his six years and a dramatic descending bass line. Most of in service to the Prince (1717them are slightly larger in scale than the two1723), but little of that music is for part works. This is a result of the “working keyboard. Almost all of his keyboard Bach’s two volumes of The Well-Tempered Clavier present preludes out” process, as Bach explores the textural and works from the Cöthen years were and fugues in all 24 keys of the chromatic scale. That means twelve developmental possibilities of three voices. private music for his growing family each in minor and major mode, in ascending order: C major, C minor, or for his other pupils. The Clavier- C# major, C# minor, D major, D minor, etc. French Overture in B Minor, BWV 831 Büchlein volumes are thus a glimpse The Inventions and Sinfonias are a precursor to that arrangement, of their lives as a family. In all likelihood, the French Overture was

15 Sinfonias [Three-part Inventions], BWV 787-801

The arrangement of the pieces in the earlier manuscript is slightly different, but for the final, clean copy manuscript, Bach adopted the same ascending order of tonalities for both his fifteen Inventions and fifteen Sinfonias: C - c - D - d - E-flat - E - e - F - f - G - g - A - a - B-flat - b (Lower case letters indicate minor mode.)

Bach's Title Page Bach left Cöthen to take over as music director in Leipzig in spring 1723. That was when he revised both sets of Inventions. Once he had made a fair copy of an authoritative version, his habit was to append an elaborate title page setting forth his intent for the music.

not originally envisaged as a companion to the Italian Concerto. A C minor version dating from before 1733 exists, copied by Anna Magdalena Bach and entitled ‘Partita’. Transposition down a semitone to B minor effected the desired ‘opposition’ to the Concerto, but also (annoyingly!) made it harder to play. Its new title, ‘Ouverture’, emphasised its newly important Frenchness and in fact describes it more accurately. Unlike the six published partitas, the Overture lacks a weighty allemande to balance the extensive first movement; it also contains more lighter dances (gavotte, passepied, bourrée) and thus has a ‘tadpole’ shape resembling that of the Frenchified orchestral suites (themselves called ‘Ouvertures’ by Bach).

Like its companion Concerto, the French Overture may be seen as a keyboard ‘transcription’ of an orchestral genre, although an actual orchestral original is very unlikely to exist. This overture-suite type was seen by German composers as particularly French, in part because they believed the movement it lacked, the allemande, to originate in Germany and to have reached perfection in the hands of German composers. In the French Overture, as in the orchestral suites, Bach eschews the web of ornamental figuration overlying many – Laurie Shulman ©2011 of the dances in the six partitas in favour of much plainer textures that reveal the basic rhythms of the French dances from Louis XIV’s court. Still fashionable in Germany in the 1730s, these dances were familiar to Bach from childhood, as can be seen from manuscripts copied by his elder brother at that time, and few of his German contemporaries approach him in his assimilation of the refined and elusive French bon goût. Highlights of the French Overture include the majestic ‘Ouverture’ first movement, the noble Courante (Louis XIV’s favourite dance) and the Gigue with its sprightly dotted rhythms. The real tour de force, however, comes at the end with the Echo: a movement in which Bach combines a French, binary-form dance with Italian ritornellos and the 17th-century Dutch/German organ technique of echoing one manual by another (here at a quick semiquaver’s distance and therefore requiring much practice!).

The remarkable paragraph on the title page (see p. 60) reveals a great deal, starting with his signature. Leaving Prince Leopold had been a difficult decision and a major career move, yet Bach still chose to identify himself with the prestigious noble court. Although his text implies beginning students, these young players had likely been singing in church choirs for several years and also had at least a couple of years’ of study of simpler keyboard pieces. We know that many of his students made handwritten copies of these pieces. His prefatory title page makes it clear that he intended both groups of Inventions to instruct aspiring composers as well as performers.

Like the two-part Inventions, the Sinfonias are a set of pieces unified by an organizational principle of ascending keys, starting with C major. The principal difference is that each Sinfonia is in three parts rather than two parts. The addition of the third “voice” makes the texture thicker–and increases the technical demands. Several of the Sinfonias are more difficult than some of the preludes and fugues in The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I. Most of Bach’s Sinfonias emphasize a harmonic progression of triads. This compositional technique serves as the basis for virtually all of Bach’s works. The word sinfonia harks back to its root in the Greek word meaning, “sounding together.” The Two-part Inventions are constructed from simple, short, concisely stated ideas–the “inventio” of the title–while the three-part Sinfonias tend to be longer and more complex. Bach was interested in both the theory and the practical application of that theory: that is, the art of composition. He was trying to codify a theory of music through a unified series of pieces. In his view, the two-part Inventions were elementary, the Sinfonias more complex

F E S T I V A L

The less familiar Inventions are rarely assigned to young pianists because they have tricky hand crossings that would have been easy to execute on a two-manual harpsichord, but make for “traffic jams” on a modern piano.

but are limited to fifteen tonalities rather than twenty-four. Bach was making a concession to students–including his own children–who might not yet have mastered the more complex key signatures. He does not exceed four sharps or four flats in any of the Inventions and Sinfonias.

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Most of the two-part inventions are similar in structural design. Musical motives are concise. Bach’s overall style is imitative, but there are abundant melodies. The imitation takes place primarily at the octave, with the two parts virtually equal. Bach addresses the independence of the hands in multiple ways. The C minor Invention, for example, is a rather strict canon. The E major, which moves in contrary motion, is laid out like a miniature sonata form, complete with repeats. It seems downright romantic in its miniature perfection and quality of suspended animation. The B minor Invention favors the upper voice, making it more galant in character, like accompanied melody.

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The Key Scheme

The author of the notes on the Italian Concerto and the French Overture is Lucy Carolan, who wrote them for her album for harpischord "J.S. Bach Italian Concerto and French Overture" released on the Signum label, SIGCD030 All other notes – Laurie Shulman ©2011

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Konstantin Lifschitz Saturday, February 11

8 pm

The Folly Theater

The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II

B A C H

Prelude and Fugue in C Major, BWV 870 Prelude and Fugue in C Minor, BWV 871 Prelude and Fugue in C-sharp Major, BWV 872 Prelude and Fugue in C-sharp Minor, BWV 873 Prelude and Fugue in D Major, BWV 874 Prelude and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 875 Prelude and Fugue in E-flat Major, BWV 876 Prelude and Fugue in D-sharp Minor, BWV 877 Prelude and Fugue in E Major, BWV 878 Prelude and Fugue in E Minor, BWV 879 Prelude and Fugue in F Major, BWV 880 Prelude and Fugue in F Minor, BWV 881

F E S T I V A L

INTERMISSION

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Prelude and Fugue in F-sharp Major, BWV 882 Prelude and Fugue in F-sharp Minor, BWV 883 Prelude and Fugue in G Major, BWV 884 Prelude and Fugue in G Minor, BWV 885 Prelude and Fugue in A-flat Major, BWV 886 Prelude and Fugue in G-sharp Minor, BWV 887 Prelude and Fugue in A Major, BWV 888 Prelude and Fugue in A Minor, BWV 889 Prelude and Fugue in B-flat Major, BWV 890 Prelude and Fugue in B-flat Minor, BWV 891 Prelude and Fugue in B Major, BWV 892 Prelude and Fugue in B Minor, BWV 893

The Master Pianists Series is underwritten, in part, by the Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Sanders and Blanche Sosland Music Fund. The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation for the Arts. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes

Bach’s two volumes called Das Wohltemperirte Clavier [The WellTempered Clavier] are icons of western art. Known collectively as “the forty-eight” since the early 19th century, these parallel collections of Preludes and Fugues in all the major and minor keys are masterpieces of imagination and compositional craft. Students of counterpoint and fugue pore over them; pianists at most levels attempt at least a handful of them, and many historians and theorists cite the Preludes and Fugues as examples of style.

Yet another reason could have been Bach’s professional situation at the Thomasschule. In 1734, Johann August Ernesti took over as the new Rector. Initially, he and Bach had a good relationship; in fact, Ernesti stood as godfather to Bach’s two youngest sons, August Abraham (b.1733) and Johann Christian (b. 1735). In 1736 and 1737, however, Bach and Ernesti got into a serious, ongoing altercation. Ostensibly the disagreement concerned which of them had the authority to appoint prefects, Bach (as Cantor) or Ernesti (as Rector). The underlying issue concerned the role of music in the church and, equally important, in the educational curriculum at the Thomasschule. The squabble escalated. Eventually, resolution required legal intervention by the city fathers and a royal decree.

As collections, Book I and Book II are quite different from each other. In principle, they seem closely allied: each volume contains a prelude and fugue in each key, in ascending chromatic order beginning with the major mode followed by its parallel minor. So, apart from the obvious fact that Book II is different music, what sets them apart? Also in 1737, Johann Adolph Scheibe, a composer and writer on music, Last night, Mr. Lifschitz played the Inventions and Sinfonias, which published an article accusing Bach of writing in a ponderous, obsolete were teaching material initially intended for Bach’s eldest son Wilhelm style that relied excessively on counterpoint. Elsewhere, he wrote in Friedemann, and eventually for Friedemann’s younger siblings and praise of Bach’s music, but the article caused a ruckus and Bach must Bach’s other students. Book I of The Well-Tempered Clavier [WTC] was have smarted from its impact. essentially a continuation of that pedagogical material at a higher, more Bach scholar David Ledbetter hypothesizes: complex level. The Book II collection was the route toward an even more It is therefore not surprising that [Bach] retreated into the more speculative elevated, advanced achievement at the keyboard. As with the Inventions area of his composition (keyboard music) where he had the largest and most and Sinfonias, Bach used it to teach both the art of performance and the appreciative following, and where he could deal with the most enduring artistic principles. art of composition. Bach’s model for assembling a complete set in all the major and minor tonalities was Ariadne musica, a cycle of twenty short preludes and fugues by Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (ca.1656-1746) published in 1702. Fischer's worked spanned twenty keys; Bach extended the concept to the full twenty-four. Bach’s first version of his Book I was complete by about 1720, but he revised it extensively over the next two years. He completed the fair copy by 1723, but manuscripts later bear marks indicating Bach added additional ornaments and small corrections.

The process of compiling Book II took place primarily during the years from 1739 to 1742. Most of the Preludes and Fugues were new, but some are early pieces from the Cöthen years that he reworked. In most cases, he enlarged the original version. Some of the reworkings are transpositions to a different key, which would have helped him “flesh out” the full chromatic spectrum of 24 tonalities. For example, Book II’s Fugue in A-flat was originally in F major; Bach transposed it up a minor third and expanded it significantly.

The genesis of Book II is somewhat more complicated. Toward the end of the 1730s, Bach was working on an enormous number of keyboard works including Part III of the Clavierübung (“Keyboard Works”) which contained mostly liturgical organ music, the Goldberg Variations, Book II

As had been the case with Book I, Bach continued to “tweak” the series, making revisions well into the 1740s. After 1740, apparently all his students were required to copy out both books as part of their tutelage. We know this because a substantial number of contemporary manuscript

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Ralph Kirkpatrick, Interpreting Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier

F E S T I V A L

The progression from the simple to the complex is the most illuminating way in which one can look at the music of Bach.. . . . Bach nearly always elaborates and almost never simplifies. This perhaps accounts for the fact that his style fell out of fashion at the end of his life, when nothing was more prized than an elegant and chaste simplicity.

of WTC, and early versions of The Art of the Fugue. Several theories have been put forth as to why he immersed himself in keyboard music. One is that, after fifteen years of relying on the same teaching pieces, he was ready for new material. Another is that, by the late 1730s, his older sons, particularly Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel, were making a name for themselves as composers in the galant style. In these new keyboard pieces, particularly the Preludes of Book II and the Goldberg Variations, Bach was dipping his toes in the water of the newer style himself.

B A C H

The Well-Tempered Clavier Book II, BWV 870-893 Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach and his sons Carl Philipp Emanuel, Johann Christian, Wilhelm Friedemann, and Johann Christoph Friedrich

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Program Notes copies have survived in different hands. Consequently, for some of the Preludes, multiple versions exist with variant embellishments, accidentals, and sometimes differences in voice leading. There is no definitive source for Book II. Which Keyboard? With the exception of his organ works with pedal, Bach rarely designated a specific keyboard. “Clavier” could mean harpsichord, clavichord, or chamber organ (manualiter, that is, with no pedal). There are some exceptions: he specified double manual harpsichord for the Italian Concerto, the French Overture, and certain movements of the Goldberg Variations. However, the bulk of his solo keyboard works–including both volumes of WTC–leaves the type of keyboard to the interpreter. Essentially, he was writing for a relatively narrow keyboard compass (especially in comparison to the modern 88-key piano) that worked for all keyboards of his day. Presumably he was thinking primarily of clavichord and harpsichord, the instruments that would have been most readily available to his students.

The Preludes In both volumes of WTC, Bach appears to have viewed the Preludes as a free-form vessel for experimentation. Generally speaking, the Preludes of Book II are longer and more substantive than those in Book I. Most striking is that ten of them adopt a binary form complete with double bars for each half. In most cases, the second “half ” is longer, sometimes twice as long. This extended second part effectively makes the structure ternary, with development of material in a manner that anticipates sonata form. The ten preludes with double bars and repeated “halves”–those in C minor, D major, D-sharp minor, E major, E minor, F minor, G major, G-sharp minor, A minor, and B-flat major–favor material that caters to the newer style his sons and their contemporaries were cultivating. We do not know whether Bach had any acquaintance with the keyboard sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), who was working in Spain. If not, Bach’s and Scarlatti’s simultaneous exploration of two-part forms with repeated halves and quasi-development of material seems all the more remarkable, though the transition toward the sonata form was part of the new European zeitgeist. The solo keyboard sonata was coming into its own in Northern Europe, and Bach’s older sons, particularly Emanuel, were proponents of it. Bach’s other Book II Preludes sparkle with equal imagination. Those without double bars tend to be sectional in structure, with no firm governing rules. Most of them are tripartite, also having recapitulationlike characteristics such as the opening gesture returning in the home key.

B A C H

Bach’s approach varies considerably. Some preludes are improvisatory, others toccata-like. Those in minor keys often lean toward the newer empfindsamer Stil—with an emphasis on expression and deep emotion— favored by Bach’s sons, Friedemann and Emanuel Bach. Examples of this type are the F-sharp minor and G-sharp minor preludes. Others (F-sharp major, A-flat major) favor a concerto grosso texture, in which ritornello passages alternate with episodes.

F E S T I V A L

The C minor and the B minor Preludes resemble two-part inventions. The A minor Prelude takes that mode one step further: also highly contrapuntal, but adding extensive chromaticism to a complex two-part invention. The Preludes in A major and B minor approximate the textures of the three-part Sinfonias, with a few liberties taken. The G-sharp minor prelude is noteworthy both for its echo effects, and for Bach’s dynamic markings. They are the sole indications of piano and forte in the entire WTC I and II.

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Listeners of a certain age who are fans of the Swingle Singers will recognize the Preludes in E-flat major, F minor, and B minor. Not surprisingly, these three preludes have memorable themes–though not necessarily ones that are easy to sing! The Fugues Preludes and fugues relate to one another in two principal ways beyond their common tonality. They can either complement one another, or contrast. Bach employs both approaches in Book II. Some of his transitions are jarring in their abrupt switches of character and expression. Other fugues seem to carry forward the affect established by its prelude.

Title page of Das Wohltemperierte Clavier

All twenty-four Fugues in Book II are in three parts or four parts. (WTC Book I, by contrast, includes one two-part Fugue and a couple in five parts.) The Fugue subjects have less chromaticism than in Book I. There are exceptions: the C minor Fugue is heavily chromatic, as is the A minor and G-sharp minor. Elsewhere, Bach seems to have taken pains to turn

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Program notes the Fugues into character pieces, sometimes with surprising lyricism.

Legacy

As with the Preludes, the Fugues of Book II tend to be more ambitious in scope. Bach employs all manner of contrapuntal techniques–stretto, inversion, augmentation and diminution, double and triple counterpoint. Four are double fugues: those in C-sharp minor, G-sharp minor, B major, and B minor. The F-sharp minor is a triple fugue with an especially elaborate principal subject. Each of the three fugue subjects is allowed to

Neither volume of The Well-Tempered Clavier was published in Bach’s lifetime. His student Johann Christoph Altnikol (who later married Bach’s daughter Elisabeth Juliana) made a fair copy of the manuscript to Book II in 1744 that is considered one of the most reliable sources. The autograph copy in the British Library consists of individual Preludes and Fugues, but it only has 21 pair; three are lacking. The first complete edition of WTC appeared in 1801-2. The first critical edition was published in 1862, several decades into the so-called “Bach Revival” spearheaded by Mendelssohn in the 1820s. Textual variants persist because of multiple earlier versions of many individual pieces, because so many students copied these works, and because Bach himself continued to make minor adjustments. What remains unchanged is the formidable architecture of the overall collection and its combination of imagination and skill, reverence for the past, and curiosity about the future.

F E S T I V A L

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– Laurie Shulman ©2011

B A C H

A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das Wohltemperierte Clavier (manuscript)

expand thoroughly, making for one of the lengthiest movements in the entire cycle. Five of the Fugues are significant rewrites and enlargements of earlier works: those in C major, C-sharp major, E minor, G major, and A-flat major. In their fugal, more mature versions, they represent Bach’s late contrapuntal style. Unquestionably more complex, this style reached its apogee in The Art of the Fugue and A Musical Offering. Bach’s stubborn loyalty to complex counterpoint and the genre of fugue in these works and in WTC Book II attest to his ongoing fascination with the discipline and rigor of stile antico, the old style.

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Kansas City Chamber Orchestra with Konstantin Lifschitz, piano Tuesday, February 14

8 pm

Helzberg Hall Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts

Bach Concertos: A Valentine from Bach

Bruce Sorrell, Music Director and Conductor Konstantin Lifschitz, piano Sarah Tannehill Anderson, soprano

Sinfonia from Cantata "Ich steh mit einem Fuss im Grabe", BWV 156

B A C H F E S T I V A L

Cantata Weichet nur, betrübte Schatten "Wedding Cantata", BWV 202 Aria Weichet nur, betrübte Schatten Recitativo Die Welt wird wieder neu Aria Phoebus eilt mit schnellen Pferden Recitativo Drum sucht auch Amor sein Vergnügen Aria Wenn die Frühlingslüfte streichen Recitativo Und dieses ist das Glücke Aria Sich üben im Lieben Recitativo So sei das Band der keuschen Liebe Gavotte Sehet in Zufriedenheit Keyboard Concerto in G Minor, BWV 1058 [No tempo marking] Andante Allegro assai INTERMISSION

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Keyboard Concerto in D Minor, BWV 1052 Allegro Adagio Allegro

Please note: For tickets to this performance, please contact the Central Ticket Office at 816-235-6222.

This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund of Kansas City, Missouri.

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes

Konstantin Lifschitz, Guest Artist

Note of interest. . . Last November, Lifschitz recorded all 7 Bach Concertos for one keyboard and orchestra on the Orfeo label with the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra while conducting from the piano. (These will be for sale in the lobby for all Bach Festival 2012 Concerts.) (In 2008 VAI company released his live-performance of the Bach WTC I and II.)

Highlights of Konstantin's 2010-2011 season included tours in Australia, Japan, Germany, Spain, and Russia as well as recitals in Lucerene, Bucharest, Yerevan, Copenhagen (Tivoli), Vienna (Grand Hall of the Musikverein) and London (Wigmore Hall). In August 2011, he returned to the Rheingau Festival for the continuation of all his All Bach Works Series.

B A C H

Lifschitz is also a dedicated chamber musician, having performed with such major artists as Gidon Kremer, Dmitry Sitkovetsky, Maxim Vengerov, Leila Josefowicz, Misha Maisky, Mstislav Rostropovich, Lynn Harrell, Bella Davidovich, Valery Afanassiev, Talich Quartet, Szymanowski Quartet, Natalia Gutman, and others.

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In 2002-2003 Lifschitz was appointed an Associate Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music in London. Since 2008 he has taught at the Hochschule Musik in Lucerne. Lifschitz gives master-classes around the world and takes part in different educational programs.

F E S T I V A L

Lifschitz' appearances with many of the major orchestras include a long list of illustrious ensembles such as the New York Philharmonic, The Chicago and London Symphonies, the Tokyo and Sapporo Symphonies, the Czech Chamber State Orchestra, and the Gulbenkain Foundation Orchestra Lisbon. Lifschitz has also collaborated with many of the finest coductors in the world. The names read like a Who's Who list of the orchestral world. To name but a few: Mstislav Rostropovich (The New Japan Philharmonic), Sir Neville Marriner (The Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Feilds), Yuri Simonov (The Moscow Philharmonic), Dimitri Sitkovetsky (Russian State Orchestra), Jeffrey Tate (Orchestra della RAI ), Peter Oundjian (New Amsterdam Sinfonietta), Claudio Scimone (I Solisti Veneti), Christopher Hogwood (The Danish National Radio Orchestra), Fabio Luisi (MDR Symphony Orchestra), Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (The Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg), Yuri Temirkanov (The St. Petersburg Philharmonic), Bernard Haitink (The EUYO), Sir Roger Norrington (The San Franscisco Symphony), and Mikhail Jurowsky (The Berlin Radio Orchestra).

Lifschitz has over twenty recordings including several on the Orfeo label. They include Bach's Musical Offering and the St. Anne Prelude and Fugue, BWV 552 and Frescobaldi's Three Toccatas (released in 2007), Gottfried von Einem Piano Concerto with the Austrian Radio and Television Orchesra Vienna under Claudius Meister (2009), Brahms Concerto No. 2 with the Berlin Symphony Orchestra under D. FischerDieskau (2010), Bach's Art of the Fugue (2010).

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Konstantin Lifschitz Saturday, February 18

8 pm

Helzberg Hall Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts

Prelude and Fugue in E-flat Major, BWV 552 (“St. Anne” )

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Goldberg Variations, BWV 988 "Aria with Diverse Variations" Aria Variation 1 Variation 2 Variation 3. Canone all’Unisuono Variation 4 Variation 5 Variation 6. Canone alla Seconda Variation 7 Variation 8 Variation 9. Canone alla Terza Variation 10. Fughetta Variation 11 Variation 12. Canone alla Quarta Variation 13 Variation 14 Variation 15. Canone alla Quinta Variation 16. Ouverture Variation 17 Variation 18. Canone alla Sesta Variation 19 Variation 20 Variation 21. Canone alla Settima Variation 22. Alla breve Variation 23 Variation 24. Canone all’Ottava Variation 25 Variation 26 Variation 27. Canone alla Nona Variation 28 Variation 29 Variation 30. Quodlibet Aria da capo This program contains no intermission

The Master Pianists Series is underwritten, in part, by the Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes harpsichordist by the name of Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (1727-1756). Keyserlingk was friendly with Bach and his family; his daughter had This magnificent work, the sole example on this program from Bach’s studied with Friedemann Bach in Dresden. The count was instrumental later music, hints at the complexity and grandeur we will experience as in securing for Bach the title of Court Composer to the King of Poland this Bach Festival progresses. and the Dresden court in 1736. Prelude and Fugue in E-flat major, “St. Anne” BWV 552

Published in 1739 as Part III of Bach's Clavier-Übung (roughly translated: Keyboard Exercises or Keyboard Practice), the "St. Anne" Prelude and Fugue comprise the bookends for 25 organ chorales. Collectively, they are regarded as one of Bach's finest achievements for organ. Ironically, “St. Anne” was the only Prelude and Fugue for organ published during Bach's lifetime. The fugue acquired its nickname in England because its subject is the same as the hymn, "O God, Our Help in Ages Past," attributed to William Croft (1678-1727), the organist at St. Anne's church in London. Bach based his Fugue on the analogous German chorale, "Was mein Gott will." So what is an organ work doing on a piano recital?

The story behind the commissioning of the variation is charming, but probably not true. Keyserlingk was an insomniac. Forkel reported that Bach composed the variations for Goldberg to play for Keyserlingk, who wanted to hear music that was "soothing and cheerful" on nights when he could not sleep. Scant biographical information has come down to us about Goldberg, but it is likely that Count Keyserlingk brought him from his native Danzig to Dresden about 1736, after which the count may have sent him to Leipzig to study with the elder Bach. A keyboard prodigy, Goldberg apparently worked for the Count until 1745, and then again for two years starting in 1749. He must have been a stunningly gifted player to execute Bach’s variations in 1741 when he was only fourteen years old. We do know that Bach visited Dresden in November 1741 and stayed with Keyserlingk. There is no dedication on the Variations, however. The traditional tale of the variations may thus be apocryphal, but Goldberg certainly earned a measure of immortality as the work’s first performer.

Aria with 30 variations for two-manual harpsichord, BWV 988. The Goldberg Variations (1741) form the fourth and final part of Bach’s Clavier-Übung cycle, which began with the first keyboard Partita in 1726. Although it is not specifically numbered as part four, the title-page shares the same format as the first three parts, and is likewise dedicated to ‘music-lovers.’

So begins John Butt’s article on the Goldberg Variations in the Oxford Composer Companions: J.S. Bach, a one-volume encyclopedia on all things pertaining to Bach’s life, contemporaries, community, and compositions. Those few lines tell us a great deal, yet they also raise many questions. How does one have an aria without a singer? If Bach composed this work for a two-manual harpsichord, why are we hearing it on the piano? What does Clavier-Übung mean? What works are in the other three parts of that Clavier-Übung? What did Bach mean by "music-lovers"? Bach's thirty "different variations" are not variants on the richly ornamented theme unfolding above. Instead, they derive from the left hand notes in the first eight measures. This bass line undergirds the aria above and becomes the governing premise of variations. Bach’s Goldberg Variations have become something of a cult piece because of the two legendary recordings on modern piano made by the late Glenn Gould. Bach, of course, composed the work for harpsichord. According to Johann Nikolaus Forkel, Bach’s first biographer, the work was commissioned by Count Hermann Carl von Keyserlingk, the Russian envoy to the Electoral Court at Dresden and the Prussian court of Frederick the Great [see sidebar]. A dedicated music lover, he established a household in Neustadt filled with music, including a resident

Bach had not composed a substantial set of variations in many years, but he certainly knew the variations of his contemporaries: Corelli, Rameau, Handel, and others. Aria or Theme Bach’s full title is Clavier-Übung that translates to “Keyboard Practice.” The subtitle elaborates: “consisting of an Aria with different variations for the harpsichord with 2 manuals prepared for the enjoyment of musiclovers by Johann Sebastian Bach.” One would assume that the "theme" for these variations is the aria, and it is–sort of. The term "aria" did not exclusively connote an opera or cantata aria as it does today. It could also designate an independent instrumental piece, often in strophic form with a recurring bass line. That is the type of aria that serves as Bach’s first movement, and which he repeats in its entirety to conclude the Goldberg Variations. The Aria’s elaborate, French-style embellishments are essential to the intricate character of the melody.

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"Goldberg" Variations, BWV 988 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

The aria consists of 32 bars in binary form, in a slow triple meter like a sarabande. Some scholars have suggested that Bach borrowed the original theme from a dance by a French composer; however, the elegant ornamentation and figuration are very much his own. In any case, music has had a long history of composers adopting other composers’ themes, working magic with their creative variations: Handel’s "Harmonious Blacksmith" Variations, Beethoven’s "Diabelli" Variations, Brahms’s Variations on a Theme by Haydn all come to mind. Folk songs and popular tunes had already provided variation material for many composers for more than a century before Bach.

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succeeds it with a four-part double fugue on a new subject combined with the original subject. Not content with that, he moves to a fivepart double fugue on a third subject in combination with the original. We are left agape at his mastery, the more so since the music is so compelling.

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Piano virtuosi have long been attracted to music for organ. Two turnof-the-century masters were riveted by Bach’s “St. Anne” pair. Both Ferruccio Busoni and Max Reger transcribed BWV 552 for solo piano, undaunted by the challenge of a work Bach specified pro Organo pleno (for full organ) in his manuscript. The English pianist Leonard Borwick (1868-1925) published a transcription of the Prelude for piano solo in The theme–or aria, as Bach called it–was written substantially earlier than 1911. Mr. Lifschitz plays his own arrangement. the variations, appearing in the second Clavierbüchlein (1725) for Bach’s second wife, Anna Magdalena. Subsequent research has shown that she It is not difficult to grasp a pianist’s attraction to this dignified, lofty, probably added it to the notebook at about the same time that Bach was grand work. The second movement, in particular, is mind-boggling in working on the Goldberg Variations, in 1738 and 1739. its contrapuntal intricacy. Bach opens with a five-part fugue, and then

Bach’s thirty "different variations" are disquisitions on the bass line, rather than variants on that richly ornamented theme unfolding above. The bass line notes of the first eight measures of the piece undergird the aria above and become the governing premise for all thirty variations. When Bach writes a canon–every third variation in the Goldberg set– the two imitative voices interact above some form of that bass line. Its 36th season 2011-2012

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Program Notes presence is implicit in the duet variations (which often resemble twopart inventions) and in the more complex free structures such as the Fughetta (Variation 10), French Overture (Variation 16), and Quodlibet (Variation 30). Piano or Harpsichord?

The "performance" would have ceased when the Count dropped off to sleep. Neither is there any guarantee that Goldberg played them in the order Bach set forth in his manuscript. “Play me one of my variations,” the Count could well have said. Perhaps Goldberg plunged right in with the French Overture, or one of the three expressive G minor variations.

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Bach wrote these variations for harpsichord, the most common keyboard Bach was, however, a consummate musical architect who thought in instrument in general use during the eighteenth century. In 1741, the elaborate structures. He also had a lifelong fascination with numerology year the variations were published, the piano was in its infancy. Even and number games. These traits are readily apparent in the structure the fortepiano of Mozart’s day did not yet exist as we think of it. of the Goldberg Variations. The work has 32 movements, the first and Double-manual harpsichords were more expensive than single keyboard last of which are the Aria. The 30 variations divide into three principal instruments, because they had four sets of strings and quills for the groups: canons, duets, and "free" variations. plucking mechanism. These attributes The canons occur every third enabled the player a wider range of variation. Bach starts with a canon Forkel on the Goldbergs pitches and volume. at the unison, which means that the imitative voice enters on the same Several of the variations in the “For this [admirable work] . . . we are indebted to Count pitch as the original, leading voice. Goldberg require the crossing of the Kaiserling, formerly Russian Ambassador at the Court of The next canonic variation, No.2, is hands at some point. In some, the the Elector of Saxony, who frequently resided in Leipzig, a canon at the interval of a second. pianist must employ extensive hand and brought with him Goldberg . . . to have him instructed The imitative voice enters on A, the crossings. This challenge is particularly second degree of the G major scale, by Bach in music. The Count was often sickly, and then had evident in the duet Variations–Nos. 5, one whole step up from the home sleepless nights. At these times Goldberg, who lived in the 8, 11, 23, and 26–and in No. 16, the pitch of G. Similarly, Variation 9 is house with him, had to pass the night in an adjoining room French Overture. That means that the a canon at the third: beginning on B, to play something to him when he could not sleep. The player on a modern piano must devise the third degree of the G major scale, Count once said to Bach that he should like to have some solutions for technical difficulties that and imitating one bar later starting on are even more challenging than they clavier pieces for Goldberg, which should be of such a the home key of G. Thus we see that, would be on a harpsichord. soft and somewhat lively character that he might be a little with each canon, he is expanding the cheered up by them in his sleepless nights. Bach thought he The problem is exacerbated by Bach’s interval of the imitation. could best fulfill this wish by variations, which, on account relatively narrow keyboard range. Within this subgroup of canonic Frequently, his contrapuntal voices of the constant sameness of the fundamental harmony, he variations, he makes other changes. interact in the same register. At the most had hitherto considered as an ungrateful task. But as at this In Variation 12, a canon at the basic level, it can make for a traffic jam time all of his works were models of art, t hese variations fourth, Bach inverts the imitation, of fingers. Each player must navigate also became such under his hand.” forming a sort of mirror image of the these issues at the modern piano, while gesture. This process adds another –– From Forkel’s On Johann Sebastian Bach’s Life, Genius, and striving to preserve the clarity of Bach’s level of complexity. Then Variation Works (1802), translated in The New Bach Reader, edited by texture and the overall architecture of 15, a canon at the fifth, introduces Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel, revised and expanded by each variation and the larger whole. G minor for the first time; thus far Christoph Wolff (New York: Norton, 1998) “Music-Lovers” every variation has been in the major mode of the home key of G Major. We are all music lovers; isn’t that why There are three G minor variations we are here listening to this great music? in all. The remaining two minor-mode variations–No.21, Canon at the Bach’s term was Liebhaber. Eighteenth-century musicians and aestheticians Seventh, and No.25, an Adagio that is one of the "free" variations–occur used this word to distinguish dedicated amateurs from Kenner, those with at strategic points that add pathos and intense expressivity to the work. knowledge, i.e., composers and music theorists. Nearly every educated No. 25 is at the center of the gravitational weight of the entire work. It is person studied a musical instrument (or voice) in the 18th century. Bach one of the most tragically beautiful pieces of music ever written. assumed a certain level of musical literacy from his contemporaries, and considered music central to the educational curriculum he oversaw at the As for the intervening movements, they, too, have some symmetry as well as some surprises. The "duet" variations–for example Nos.5, 8, 11, 14, Leipzig Thomasschule. and 17–are written like two-part inventions; however, Bach specified two In the broader sense, we might think of Kenner as meaning connoisseurs manuals for most of them. This presents obvious technical challenges and Liebhaber as amateurs–but with the understanding that amateur when played on the piano with its single keyboard. They are vastly more meant something very different in the 18th century. It was common to difficult than his inventions, with the elaborate hand-crossings and other reach out to a broader audience on one’s title page, especially if a work technical demands. was not dedicated to a specific noble patron. Later in the century, between 1779 and 1787, Bach’s son Carl Philipp Emanuel published two volumes The third group of variations are the so-called "free" variations, in of keyboard sonatas designated für Kenner und Liebhaber. That phrase which Bach followed the caprice of his imagination, but generally in a continued to surface until the early years of the 19th century, including very disciplined fashion. For example, Variation 10's fughetta is a strictly worked-out three-voice contrapuntal exercise laid out in concise binary on title pages of works by Haydn and Mozart. form, with balanced halves. Bach’s Elaborate Structure If the Goldberg/Keyserlingk story is true, then Bach may not have anticipated that anyone would play all thirty variations in one sitting. the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


Program notes Landmarks It is not necessary to stay glued to the program page to follow the unfolding of the Goldberg Variations. On a sheer sensory level, they make for great listening, even for those who do not hear the pitch relationships of a canon entering at a specific interval. Lacking that ability, one may keep track by means of a few landmarks along the way that will assist in maintaining auditory moorings. One straightforward way would be to listen for the three variations in minor mode. G minor makes its first appearance at No.15, the Canon at the Fifth, whose voice leading proceeds largely in contrary motion. After that, G minor only recurs twice: in Variation 21, Canon at the Seventh, and Variation 25, an elaborate arioso with intricate ornaments. Each of the G minor movements seizes our attention because the tonal contrast is so striking.

K

onstantin Lifschitz was born December 10, 1976, in Kharkov. As a child, he became irresistibly attracted to the piano, playing by ear and improvising

with total absorption for hours on end. This aptitude for his chosen instrument was so remarkable that at age five he enrolled in the renowned Moscow Gnessin Special Middle School of Music, studying with Tatiana Zelikman. Future studies in Russia, England and Italy included work with Theodor Gutmann, Vladimir Tropp, Hamish Milne, Alfred Brendel, Fou T'song, Leon Fleisher, In the early 1990s following a Russian Culture Foundation award, Lifschitz performed in Paris, Amsterdam, the Hague, Vienna, Munich, Milan and other

Bach marks his last Variation, the penultimate movement, Quodlibet. This Latin term means “as you please.” In music, it designates a hodgepodge of familiar tunes fused together with craft and often with humor. (Peter Schickele, of P.D.Q. Bach fame, is a master at such constructs; the tradition extends back to the Middle Ages.) Bach used snippets of popular songs and a chorale melody that also resurfaces in his "Peasant" Cantata, BWV 212, written the year after the Goldberg Variations. At this point, Bach introduces his earthier, frank side, replete with bawdy humor and raucous good fun.

prominent cities in Europe. The “New Names" programme brought Konstantin

The contrast could not be greater with the return of the Aria. Having made the epic traversal of the 30 variations, we, as listeners, are changed and hear the understated elegance of the Aria differently. We are struck anew by the power of its gentle simplicity and innocence.

At 13, Konstantin presented a landmark recital in the October Hall of

Bach did not write out the repeat of the Aria that concludes the Goldbergs; he simply indicated Aria da capo. Its restatement, combined with the 30 intervening variations, makes for a total of 32 movements altogether. The aria itself consists of 32 bars of music, neatly divided into 16-bar halves –as does each of the variations. The symmetry is implicit, and complete. Perhaps he was thinking of the closing lines of the Magnificat text:

Lifschitz to the attention of renowned conductor Vladimir Spivakov, who immediately arranged for Konstantin to perform Mozart's Concerto K. 453 with the Moscow Virtuosi in Moscow and on tour in Japan doing Bach's Concerto in D minor in Tokyo, Osaka, Hiroshima and Sapporo. Following this journey, he was invited by Spivakov to Monte Carlo and Antibes for performances of Chopin 's Piano Concerto No. 1 with the Orchestre Philharmonique de Monte Carlo. the House of Unions in Moscow. The capacity crowd responded with an overwhelming enthusiasm that even back then established him as a major artist. In 1994 Konstantin Lifschitz presented his graduation recital from the Gnessin School – his program commenced with Bach’s Goldberg Variations. Denon Nippon Columbia recorded the 17-year-old in this deeply felt interpretation of his beloved Bach. The recording, when released in 1996, was nominated for a Grammy Award and moved critic Edward Rothstein of The New York Times to acclaim Lifschitz’s performance “the most powerful pianistic interpretation since Glenn Gould's.” A year before, he won the German Echo Classic Record

Sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper

Prize, as a “New Young Artist of the Year" for his Debut Recording Album

Et in saecula saeculorum.

(Bach French Overture, Schumann Papillons, works of Medtner and Scriabin).

[As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end.] – Laurie Shulman ©2011

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Rosalyn Tureck, Karl-Ulrich Schnabel and Charles Rosen.

F E S T I V A L

Variation 16 is a French overture, which bisects the work at exactly the mid-point. The authority of the opening gesture sounds like an entirely new beginning. Bach’s opening left-hand chord–the largest and most decisive we have yet heard in the entire work–announces a movement of much larger proportions and self-importance. Its introduction with its dotted rhythms is characteristic of the French overture. It creates an atmosphere of pomp and ceremony, complete with elaborate ornamentation. The second half is a brisk fugal allegro. It has the feeling of a passepied, a lively Baroque dance in 3/8 meter with an upbeat, that was popular in French harpsichord music of the era.

Konstantin Lifschitz

B A C H

Another landmark to listen for is Variation 10, the Fughetta, written in the stile antico, with fugal entries every four measures. It is a noble, upright, and compact work of great vigor. Its second half introduces a walking bass in eighth notes, adding rhythmic variety to this otherwise sedate movement.

For more information visit www.konstantinlifschitz.de

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the friends of chamber music

Konstantin Lifschitz Sunday, February 19

2:30 pm

White Recital Hall - UMKC

The Art of the Fugue A Music Alliance Production

B A C H

Die Kunst der Fuge [The Art of the Fugue], BWV 1080 I. Contrapunctus 1 II. Contrapunctus 2 III. Contrapunctus 3 IV. Contrapunctus 4 V. Contrapunctus 5 VI. Contrapunctus 6 à 4 in Stylo Francese VII. Contrapunctus 7 à 4 per Augmentationem et Diminutionem VIII. Contrapunctus 8 à 3 IX. Contrapunctus 9 à 4 alla Duodecima X. Contrapunctus 10 à 4 alla Decima XI. Contrapunctus 11 à 4

F E S T I V A L

INTERMISSION

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XII. Contrapunctus inversus 12 à 4 (a) forma inversa; (b) forma recta XIII. Contrapunctus inversus 13 à 3 (a) forma recta; (b) forma inversa XIV. Canon in Hypodiatessaron, al rovescio e per Augmentationem (perpetuus) (die ältere Fassung) XV. Canon per Augmentationem in Contrario Motu XVI. Canon in Hypodiapason (alla Ottava) XVII. Canon alla Duodecima in contrapunto alla Quinta XVIII. Canon alla Decima in Contrapunto alla Terza XIX. Contrapunctus 14 [Fuga à 4 [3] soggetti] (unfinished) Chorale: “Vor Deinen Thron tret’ich hiermit,” BWV 668a (originally set to the text: “Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein”), BWV 641

This concert is a collaboration between The Friends of Chamber Music and the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance. Please note: For tickets to this performance, please contact the Central Ticket Office at 816-235-6222. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes Die Kunst der Fuge [The Art of the Fugue], BWV 1080 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) The work that has come to be called Die Kunst der Fuge [The Art of the Fugue] is among Bach’s most mysterious and baffling creations. The title is not his; it was assigned after his death. (Bach used the more generic label Contrapunctus for the individual movements.) Because one of the constituent fugues was incomplete when Bach died in 1750, music historians long assumed that The Art of the Fugue was his last work. We now know that he composed most of BWV 1080 from about 1740 to 1742, returning to add several movements in his final year. Even so, this magnum opus from the Baroque era’s greatest practitioner of counterpoint presents more questions than it answers.

they did not always know his exact intentions. When Die Kunst der Fuge was published, Bach’s family included a couple of early versions of some Contrapuncti, as well as the organ chorale “Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein” [see sidebar] which was irrelevant in this context, but which has become associated with the larger work. They also rearranged the order of some movements, and omitted the unfinished Contrapunctus 14.

The Art of the Fugue makes very few concessions to idiomatic keyboard writing. Everything Bach composed is about the counterpoint, and not the player or the instrument. Consequently, the work is exceptionally difficult to perform. The fingerings require great care and much practice, as does the voice leading (making the various voices clear). The two mirror fugues–Contrapuncti 13 and 14–require an unusually wide hand The Art of the Fugue is a collection of fugues and canons apparently span. (Bach wrote arrangements for two players.) (See glossary on page intended to illustrate and exemplify all contrapuntal techniques. It 76-77.) comprises double, triple, and stretto fugues, many using invertible counterpoint. Bach even wrote some mirror fugues, the strictest form of inversion. Most of the fugues are in four parts; however, the collection About the Music also includes four two-part canons, which are technically the strictest (and A detailed analysis of each Contrapunctus lies beyond the scope of these paradoxically, the simplest) form of counterpoint. One remarkable aspect notes. However, The Art of the Fugue has a general trajectory that may of The Art of the Fugue is that the same basic fugue subject—its main help listeners in parsing its architecture. Essentially, Bach starts with the theme—recurs in each movement, in different guises. Bach ornaments first Contrapunctus written in old style [Stile antico] counterpoint at the the theme, changes its meter, and alters the rhythmic emphasis of the beginning, then gradually “ups the ante” as he uses more dazzling and pitches, among other musical devices. Thus on one level the entire series complex compositional techniques. constitutes a giant set of variations. He opens with a pair of fugues that state the subject in its pure form (the

Contrapuncti 6 and 7 are also both double fugues (employing two subjects or themes) with stretto elements. For No.6, Bach adds the designation Stylo Francese, adopting the rhythm and gestures of a French overture— the noble gesture of the dotted rhythm. He also uses diminution (making the value of the notes smaller), essentially playing the fugue subject twice as fast. By Contrapuncti 9 and 10, he has added invertible counterpoint to his mix; this essentially transposes voices from a high register to a low one (or vice versa). (Fans of the Swingle Singers will recognize Contrapunctus 9 from their 1960s vocal version on the “Bach’s Greatest Hits” LP.)

Bach did not specify the order in which he intended the movements to be performed. Consequently, the individual movements are numbered differently in various editions. Nor did he specify what instrument or instruments he had in mind. The first published editions, in 1751 and 1752, showed each fugal voice on its own staff, which would have added to its pedagogical value: students of the work would have had a formidable exercise in sight reading just by navigating four clefs in open Contrapuncti 8 and 11 are triple fugues, and longer than the other score. Scholars now concur that Bach conceived The Art of the Fugue for Contrapuncti. This is logical, because the exposition and working out of harpsichord. the three fugue subjects takes longer to achieve. Contrapunctus 11 inverts Modern editions present the music in keyboard score, that is with two the three subjects of Contrapunctus 10–which you may not hear, but staves, one in treble clef and the other in bass clef. Nevertheless, The Bach fully anticipated that the diligent student would note his clever and Art of the Fugue is available as printed music not only for solo keyboard virtuoso manipulation of material. (including organ), but also for brass quintet and many other instrumental Contrapuncti 12 and 13 are mirror fugues, in which the notes can combinations, including for chamber orchestra. Mr. Lifschitz performs basically be reversed from beginning to end. This is a complex and the complete work on the modern piano. unforgiving contrapuntal technique and, again, exceptionally difficult to We are not certain how much more Bach intended to add to this work. The last movement that we have was incomplete when Bach died. His manuscript breaks off after measure 243. Although several reconstructions exist, many performances break off in midair, on the downbeat of bar 243.

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In Contrapunctus 5, Bach starts to vary the rhythm of his fugue subject; also, he starts with an inversion, then follows it with a rectus statement. Throughout the movement, each statement of the subject is an inversion of what preceded it. This Contrapunctus is both a counterfugue and a stretto fugue [see Glossary].

F E S T I V A L

Bach appears to have focused on The Art of the Fugue right on the heels of having completed The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II and the Goldberg Variations; however, the ethos of The Art of the Fugue is even more systematic and rigorous. All its movements are in D minor; there is no tonal “relief ” as in the three minor mode variations of the otherwise all-G major Goldberg set. Bach was single-minded in his goal to present an exhaustive manifesto regarding contrapuntal art and technique.

technical term is rectus, or straightforward), followed by two Contrapuncti that use the inverted form. Contrapunctus 2 is distinguished by its persistent dotted rhythms.

B A C H

As with other works we have explored over the course of this Festival, however, the composer had an underlying didactic mission: to teach the student how to perform and to write fugues at the highest artistic level possible.

write. In four voices, the task is even more formidable. By definition, any Contrapunctus that is a mirror fugue contains two versions of the subject: the rectus (or the “upright” version of the subject) and the inversus (or the inverted/mirrored) form. Each performer must decide which one comes first.

Bach’s eyesight failed badly in his last years. By mid-1749, he was essentially Contrapunctus 14 is the one that was unfinished at Bach’s death. We blind. Nevertheless, he was adamant about working via what must have do not know for certain whether it was his last composition, but it is been a cumbersome method of dictation. His youngest sons assisted, but certainly quite late. We do know that it is one of the pieces that he added

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Program Notes to the fair copy of The Art of the Fugue after 1745. He introduces the manuscript, in an unidentified hand, dates from April to July 1750. signature motto B-A-C-H [in German musical spelling, B = B-flat, and (Bach died on 28 July of that year.) It consists of 45 measures of music H = B natural] as a second countersubject. appended to The Art of the Fugue, and is catalogued as BWV 668a. It is closer to the earlier, Weimar version. Bach’s family presumably included The Organ Chorale When The Art of the Fugue was first published in 1751, a notice appeared on the back of the title page: The late Author of this work was prevented by his disease of the eyes and by his death, which followed shortly upon it, from bringing the last Fugue, in which at the entrance of the third subject he mentions himself by name, to conclusion; accordingly it was wished to compensate the friends of his muse by including the four-part church chorale added at the end, which the deceased man in his blindness dictated on the spur of the moment to the pen of a friend.

Johann Nikolaus Forkel’s 1802 biography provides the following explanation: To make up for what is wanting to the last fugue, there was added to the end of the work [in the original edition] the four-part Chorale: Wenn wir in höchsten Nöthen seyn &c. Bach dictated it a few days before his death to his son-in-law, Altnikol. Of the art displayed in this Chorale, I will say nothing; it was so familiar to the author that he could exercise it even in his illness. But the expression of pious resignation and devotion in it has always affected me whenever I have played it; so that I can hardly say which I would rather miss—this Chorale, or the end of the last fugue. - translated in The New Bach Reader (Mendel/David/Wolff), ©1998

B A C H

Well, not exactly. The chorale in question has a complex history. Bach first set the 16th-century melody to the text, “Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein” [When we are in greatest distress], BWV 641, decades earlier. It probably dates from 1713, during his years at the Weimar court. That version is one of three elaborately ornamental chorales in the collection known as the Orgelbüchlein [Little Organ Book], a collection of 46 organ chorales that is a landmark in the instrument’s literature.

F E S T I V A L

Bach subsequently excited the embellishments from the uppermost voice and added imitative passages, refashioning the piece into a chorale motet, BWV 668. That is its best known version, included in Bach’s “Great Eighteen” Chorales for organ. It is associated with a different text: Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiermit Before your throne I now appear O Gott, und dich demütig bitt O God, and bid you humbly

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wenn dein genädig Angesicht turn not your gracious face von mir, dem armen Sünder nicht. from me, a poor sinner.

Closeup on Canons The four canons of The Art of the Fugue all derive from the same subject as the Contrapuncti. Like the fugues that precede them, they grow increasingly complex in texture. We do not know where Bach intended them to be placed within the full work. Mr. Lifschitz plays them after Contrapunctus 13, and follows them with the unfinished Contrapunctus 14 and the chorale. The first canon is at the interval of an octave and in the style of a gigue. It is one of the few times that Bach employs triple meter in this work. (Among the Contrapuncti, only No.12 has triple meter, although No.13 has triplets, which of course affect the way the player “feels” the work and the way we hear it.) Next, the Canon alla Duodecima in Contrapunto alla Quinta, uses a chromatic sextuplet variant of the fugue subject. Bach’s Latin titles indicate the harmonic interval between the first voice and the second. Duodecima indicates a fugue at the twelfth, which in musical counting means that the entrances are initially twelve steps apart, in this case an octave plus a fifth. Since this canon is not in the main autograph score from 1742, scholars have concluded that it was one of the last movements Bach added to the group. Canon alla Decima, Contrapuncto alla Terza uses a syncopated variant of the fugue subject that surfaced in Contrapunctus 3. Bach inverts it, and writes his canon at the tenth (an octave plus a third). The perpetual canon at a fourth below has the unwieldy Latin title Canon per Augmentationem in Contrario Motu. It is a more extended essay. The second voice enters augmented (that is, with the note values “stretched out”) and in contrary motion (for each interval travelling upward stated by the right hand, the left hand plays the same interval downward, at least in the opening statement). This movement represents one of the high points in Bach’s imitative writing. He left two versions, both characterized by greater chromaticism and more vocal gestures. This canon becomes an introspective slow movement that explores remarkable expression, especially considering the bare texture of only two lines. – Laurie Shulman ©2011

Ein selig Ende mir bescher, Confer on me a blessed end

it because both chorale texts are appropriate to a man bidding farewell to this world.

am jüngsten Tag erwecke mich on the last day awaken me

Glossary for The Art of the Fugue

– Laurie Shulman ©2011

Herr, daß ich dich schau ewiglich: Lord, that I may see you eternally;

Answer – The answer is the second statement of the fugue subject. It occurs as a response or reply (hence its name) after the initial statement of that subject but beginning on a different pitch. Most of the time, Amen, amen, erhöre ich. the answer starts on a pitch other than the original pitch, i.e. not at the Amen, amen, hear me. unison or on the octave. Also, the composer may adjust the intervals within the answer in order to make harmonic sense in combination with Almost all of the “Great Eighteen” exist in earlier versions. This one has the initial voice. This type of adjustment is called a “tonal answer.” If become known as Bach’s “deathbed chorale” because of its association the composer preserves the exact intervallic relationship of the original with The Art of the Fugue and the master’s last days. The autograph subject, the answer is called “real.” the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


Program notes Augmentation - statement of a fugue subject in longer note values, for it is called double counterpoint. If it pertains to three voices, it is called example, in whole and half notes instead of in quarter notes and eighth triple counterpoint. If for four voices, it is quadruple counterpoint. This notes. most complex level is exceptionally difficult to write in part because the Canon - imitation of a musical subject [theme] at specific intervals of composer risks the incidence of parallel perfect intervals, which music theory forbids. both pitch and time. Mirror fugue - a fugue whose parts may be played in inversion with respect to the intervals in each part, as if the notated music were held up to a mirror. The term also applies to a piece that may be performed in retrograde (i.e. backwards), as if a “mirror” were reflecting from the end of the piece. Bach’s Contrapuncti 12 and 13 are mirror fugues. In Contrary motion [It. Moto contrario] - describes musical technique Contrapunctus 13, Bach also shuffles which of the three voices is on top, wherein one voice moves up while another moves down. This in the middle, and on the bottom of the fugal texture. phenomenon occurs in The Art of the Fugue when Bach combines straightforward statements of his subject combined with, or answered by, He specifies rectus [forward] and inversus [inverted] versions of his subjects. a statement in its inverted form. Contrapunctus - Latin for counterpoint. In Baroque music, the term designates a contrapuntal composition, especially one using imitative techniques. Bach used this term for all the individual movements of The Art of the Fugue except for the four canons.

Counterfugue - also called inverted fugue; a fugue in which the answer inverts the subject. Bach employs this technique in Contrapuncti 4, 5, and 6 early on in The Art of the Fugue, after he has gotten the “sound” of his subject firmly entrenched in our ears. These straightforward methods of contrapuntal variety and development allow us to hear his elaboration of the fugue subject in a way that is relatively simple to perceive. His methods grow more complex as the work proceeds.

Stile antico - Italian for “old style.” This term designated classic high Renaissance polyphony in the style of Palestrina. In the 17th century, musicians regarded Palestrina’s music as the pinnacle of purity in its balance, voice leading, and controlled dissonance. The Baroque theorist Johann Joseph Fux cited Palestrina as a model for counterpoint in his theoretical treatise Gradus ad Parnassum [Steps to Parnassus] of 1725. Bach observed stile antico in his first five Contrapuncti.

Stretto - an Italian term meaning squeezed together, narrow, close-fitting, or pressed (also as in pressed for time); in a fugue, the term stretto refers to an imitative statement of the subject at a shorter temporal interval than in the initial separation of entrances. Stretto passages tend to occur at significant dramatic points toward the end of a fugue, and can sound Diminution - statement of a fugue subject in shorter note values than like multiple voices piling up on one another. those in which it was originally stated. Contrapunctus 6 uses diminution; Contrapunctus 7 includes simultaneous use of augmentation and Stylo francese – “French style.” Bach uses this term for Contrapunctus 6, referring to its insistent use of the dotted rhythm associated with the diminution. French ouverture. Double fugue - a fugue in which two independent subjects receive complete polyphonic treatment in succession, then in combination Subject [It., soggetto] - the principal melodic gesture forming the basic with each other. Contrapuncti 5 and 6 are double fugues. A triple fugue DNA of a musical composition. In a fugue, it is the main theme. accomplishes this with three independent subjects. Bach’s Contrapunctus The opening voice, unaccompanied, states the subject. Subsequent 8 is a triple fugue in three parts; Contrapunctus 11 is a triple fugue in four statements may be a complementary melody (called a countersubject), a straightforward restatement (called “real”) or, more likely, a tonal answer. parts. The subject may also recur later on in augmentation, diminution, or Episode - When all of the voices have entered, the counterpoint continues inversion. either with something new or with material based on a motive or motives already heard, this passage is called an episode. It is generally used to – Definitions adapted from The New Harvard Dictionary of Music unless otherwise noted. affect a modulation to some related key in which one or more voices enter again with the subject. (The New Oxford Companion to Music)

F E S T I V A L B A C H

Fugue [Lat. Fuga] - Literally "flight." A fugue is the most fully developed form of imitative counterpoint, with all voices taking part in the polyphonic texture. Fugue also pertains to a composition written observing this process. Bach used the term Contrapunctus for the fugues of The Art of the Fugue. Most of his fugues in BWV 1080 are in four parts; however, Contrapuncti 8, 13, and 19 (the unfinished one at the end) are in three parts.

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Countersubject - In fugues, the continuation of the subject serves as a counterpoint to the other voices with the subject/answer. If this counterpoint is identical when it appears with the other voices, the figure is then said to be a countersubject. (The New Oxford Companion to Music)

Inversion - to invert something is to turn it upside down. In music, this means something similar in terms of melodic contour; however, composers often make adjustments to accommodate a specific tonality, in order to avoid dissonance and achieve a more satisfactory harmony. Contrapuncti 3 and Contrapunctus 4 are the first in The Art of the Fugue to invert the subject. Invertible counterpoint - Depending on the order of the entry of the voices, the countersubject maybe set above or below the subject/answer. If the countersubject fits both above and below the subject and its answer, the counterpoint is said to be invertible. (The New Oxford Companion to Music) If this technique pertains to two voices, as in Bach’s canons, 36th season 2011-2012

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the muriel mcbrien kauffman master pianists series

Richard Goode Friday, March 09

MOZART

8 pm

The Folly Theater

Fantasia in C minor, K. 475

MOZART Sonata in B-flat Major, K. 281 Allegro Andante amoroso Rondo: Allegro BEETHOVEN Piano Sonata No.18 in E-flat, Opus 31, No. 3 Allegro Scherzo: Allegretto vivace Menuetto: Moderato e grazioso; Trio Presto con fuoco INTERMISSION CHOPIN Sonata No. 2 in B-flat minor, Opus 35 ("Funeral March") Grave: Doppio movimento Scherzo: Piu lento Marche funèbre Finale: Presto CHOPIN

TBA

The Master Pianists Series is underwritten, in part, by the Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation. The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible through a grant from the Richard J. Stern Foundation for the Arts.

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes fussier –than the clean contours of the later sonatas and concertos. One writer calls the first movement a “Haydnesque experiment in motivic This Fantasia [pronounced fahn-tah-ZEE-uh] is one of two works in permutation.” C minor–the other being the Sonata, K.457−that Mozart apparently Mozart gave his slow movement the unusual designation Andante considered to be companion pieces, despite the fact that he composed amoroso. Cast in sonata form, it shows him in his most galant mode. If them in different years. Both were written for Frau Thérèse von Trattner, there is an amorous quality, it is related to the traditional serenade. The a piano student of Wolfgang's who was married to a prominent Viennese first theme, with its elegant descending parallel thirds, feels like a clarinet bookseller and music publisher, Johann Thomas von Trattner. (Von or basset horn duet from one of the woodwind serenades. Trattner was godfather to Mozart and Constanze’s two surviving sons, The finale is the only Rondeau among the early sonatas. (Throughout his Karl Thomas and Franz Xaver, and Thérèse was godmother to a daughter adult life, Mozart favored the French spelling.) It has several cadenza-like who died in infancy.) The sonata dates from 1783 or 1784, the Fantasia passages that foreshadow his later, more ambitious keyboard writing. He from 1785. Vienna’s Artaria & Comp. engraved them for publication undoubtedly used this sonata as teaching material for his more advanced together in 1785, reinforcing the idea of companion pieces. By pupils. Nearly two and a half centuries later, amateur pianists still struggle sanctioning their issuance in one publication, Mozart evidently endorsed to achieve the smooth runs and immaculate technique that this music the idea that the Fantasia served as a large-scale prelude to the sonata. demands. The pair, Mozart's only solo keyboard pieces in C minor, are among his finest piano works. They are sometimes performed together; however, each functions superbly as an independent composition. Fantasia in C minor, K.475 Wolfgang Amadè Mozart (1756-1791)

Mozart's Fantasia draws on the free structure and modulatory wanderings characteristic of C.P.E. Bach's keyboard fantasias. It divides into five sections: Adagio, Allegro, Andantino, Più allegro, Tempo primo. Collectively, they constitute a sort of prototypic arch form, in which the last section restates the somber material of the opening. Along the way, passionate interruptions alternate with lyrical intermezzi. Perhaps this is how Mozart improvised–but we also know that he performed this piece himself in public performances at least until 1789. Sonata in B-flat major, K.281 Wolfgang Amadè Mozart From the mature Mozart of the mid-1780s, we take a look back over the shoulder to the teenage Mozart of nearly a decade before, when he was still finding his personal voice as a composer. In 1774, young Wolfgang received a commission for a new opera from Maximilian Joseph, the Elector of Bavaria. Mozart traveled with his father to Munich to oversee rehearsals of the work, La finta giardiniera, leaving Salzburg on 6 December. The premiere was originally scheduled for the last week in December, but was postponed twice in order to allow sufficient time for the singers to learn their parts more thoroughly. The first performance took place in Munich’s Salvatortheater on 13 January 1775; two more performances followed.

Wanda Landowska

Cynthia Siebert, The Friends of Chamber Music’s President and Founder, has this to say about the B-flat Sonata K. 333: In the 1950s, Wanda Landowska, who is credited with the revival of the harpsichord by virtue of her force as a personality and performer, recorded this piece on the piano. This recording was revelatory to me. It demonstrated how effective and beautiful this music could be without changing dynamic levels. Landowska was legendary for her numerous recordings on the harpsichord; she rarely recorded on the piano. In the instance of this B-flat Sonata, she imposed the “limitation” of the harpsichord, which cannot change dynamic levels, as opposed to the piano that was created and flourished as a new instrument in large part because it could change dynamics. When I first heard Landowska’s recording of the Mozart Sonata, I listened to it several times for its beauty, gentle playfulness and charm before I even realized that she never changed dynamics!

Mozart liked Munich and was in no hurry to return to the employ of Archbishop Colloredo in Salzburg. He lingered in Munich for nearly two months, staying busy writing several wind divertimenti and six sonatas for clavier. They are his earliest solo keyboard sonatas to survive. The six key centers–C major, F major, B-flat major, E-flat major, G major, and D major–suggest that he conceived them as a set, possibly for publication; however, only the D major work, K.284, was published in Mozart’s lifetime. These six works display astonishing variety that indicates Mozart was experimenting with form, technique, and the capability of the instrument. His frequent, detailed dynamic markings indicate that he already had regular access to the still-new fortepiano, but it is quite likely that these works were played on harpsichords as well. Like its companion pieces, the Sonata in B-flat that Mr. Goode performs cannot be dated more precisely than between January and March 1775. The piece shows a surprising stylistic connection to Haydn’s clavier sonatas of the 1770s, with an emphasis on clear, precise fingerwork, frequent triplets in both melody and accompaniment, and an abundance of melodic ideas. The melodic outlines are more complicated–sometimes

Photograph of Wanda Landowska, 1907

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Program Notes Piano Sonata No. 18 in E-flat, Opus 31, No. 3 Ludwig van Beethoven No better musical biography exists of Beethoven than his piano sonatas. They trace his development as a composer through every phase of his career, more thoroughly than the symphonies and the strings quartets. Because Beethoven was a pianist, most of his early keyboard compositions –solo, chamber, and concerted works–reflect his personal technique and, in many cases, his improvisatory style. Beethoven’s evolution as a composer–stretching the boundaries of form, tonal progressions, and musical philosophy–was first forged in the piano sonatas. It was not until later that he explored similar ideas in other genres. For example, the slow movements of the early piano sonatas are profound statements. Beethoven did not achieve this same depth of expression in his other instrumental compositions until much later.

exceptionally difficult, yet it is tempered by the gentle sway of 3/4 time and by the hesitating question posed by the opening phrase, with its tonal uncertainty. Not until the eighth measure does Beethoven give us a firm cadence in E-flat major. Dramatic pauses and elaborate, fantasylike figuration in the right hand add to the dazzling impression of this beginning movement. A madcap scherzo in A-flat major follows. Staccato sixteenth notes hammer away in the left hand like a distant woodpecker, at once delicate and insistent. The composer, who often thought in orchestral terms in his compositions, might have been thinking of a perky orchestral bassoon. Other Beethovenian touches add interest: momentary fortissimo outbursts, unexpected accents, sudden and momentary shifts to distant key centers. After this delicious romp, we would be justified in anticipating a leisurely slow movement that provides some relaxation before the finale. One of the curious things about this sonata is that it has no real slow movement. The Menuetto is certainly more restrained than any other movement in the sonata, and actually seems to cast a glance over Beethoven's shoulder back to the 18th century. (In 1874, the French composer Camille SaintSaëns borrowed its trio theme for his Variations on a Theme of Beethoven, Op.35. That work is one of the prizes of the 19th-century duo-piano literature.) Beethoven's finale returns to the triple meter of the opening movement, but this time accelerating the triplets set in a rollicking 6/8 time. The galloping pace has given rise to the nickname occasionally used of "The Hunt" for the sonata–La chasse to the French, and Jagd-Sonate to the Germans. Echoes of the hunt dominate Beethoven's horn-like themes and arpeggiated accompaniment. Here is Beethoven with his wits sharpened, playing practical jokes on his friends. The spirit of Mozart and Haydn informs the movement, but the musical language is pure Beethoven. Misplaced accents hint that the slightly lopsided left hand figuration is intentional. The musical process that takes place in this sonata-rondo is a working through of the lopsidedness, as bit by bit the ideas come into focus to make for a convincing and exuberant finish. Sonata No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op.35 ("Funeral March") Frédéric-François Chopin (1810-1849)

A portrait of the 13-year-old Beethoven by an unknown Bonn master (c. 1783). At this tender age, Beethoven had already mastered Bach's Well-Tempered Klavier.

The sonata Mr. Goode has chosen this evening is one of a set of three that Beethoven composed in 1802 and published in Zurich and London in 1803 and 1804. He was in the early stages of what we now call his middle period. What does this mean in a piano sonata? There is nothing specifically heroic about this sonata, although it is certainly a large-scale work, and E-flat is a key often associated with nobility and heroism in Beethoven's music. Rather, Opus 31, No.3 is an experimental work, sprinkled with witticisms and inquisitiveness. It beckons us with its grace, and then startles us with its brilliance. In her biography of Beethoven, author Marion Scott calls the opening motive of the first movement "a wonderful soft call to attention–as if the Evening Star tapped on the casement." This very demanding Allegro deceives by its gentle opening. Beethoven's piano writing is precise and

The slow movement of Chopin's Second Sonata, the inspiration for its nickname, is as well known as any keyboard work in the classical repertoire. Actually, he composed the famous second movement fully two years prior to the other three movements. It is apparent that Chopin recognized its musical significance, for he withheld its publication as an independent movement, waiting until he had composed three additional movements to give the funeral march added weight by virtue of its inclusion in a large-scale sonata. The March dates from 1837. Chopin's long liaison with the writer George Sand began the following year, in 1838. Chopin spent the summer at Nohant, Sand's summer house. It was a calm time in his often-troubled life; it was a time uninterrupted by crisis and spiritually inspiring for him. Because he was emotionally stable, and relatively free of physical ailments (he would die of consumption in 1849), he was very productive. In 1840 he published not only this Sonata, but also the Op.37 Nocturnes and the Op.41 Mazurkas. Each movement of the Sonata has a unique character. The first movement opens with a question in brooding chords, before both hands launch into storm and passion to answer that question. A characteristic lyrical melody serves as tranquil contrast to the agitated first section. Always a master of dramatic contrast, Chopin keeps us riveted by the emotional sweep of the music in this fine example of sonata form.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


Program notes His Scherzo movement is aggressive and brilliant, demanding superlative technique from the pianist; it is arguably the most difficult of the four movements. Once again, the slower middle section momentarily shows us the tender, dreamy side of Chopin's personality. Psychologically, the famous slow movement is the core of the work. Within this somber framework, Chopin the melodist manages to insert yet another soaring, memorable melody, raising the movement from the serious to the sublime. Ironically enough, the great composer and critic Robert Schumann thought this movement

T

Richard Goode hrough regular performances with major orchestras, recitals in the world’s music capitals, and acclaimed Nonesuch recordings, pianist Richard Goode

has won a large and devoted following. The New Yorker has said, "What one remembers most from Goode’s playing is not its beauty—exceptional as it is—but his way of coming to grips with the composer’s central thought, so that a work tends to make sense beyond one’s previous perception of it … The spontaneous formulating process of the creator [becomes] tangible in the concert hall.” And according to the New York Times, “It is virtually impossible to walk away from one of Mr. Goode’s recitals without the sense of having gained some new insight, subtly or otherwise, into the works he played or about pianism itself." In 2005-06, Goode curated an eight-event Carnegie Hall Perspectives series hailed by the New York Times. That same year, Goode was invited to hold master classes at the City’s three leading conservatories—Juilliard, Manhattan, and Mannes. This series included two illustrated talks given at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on his Carnegie Hall Perspectives series. In addition to his most recent release of Mozart solo works, Richard Goode

Porträt der George Sand (1838) by Eugene Delacroix, oil on canvas

"repellent; in its place an adagio, perhaps in D-flat, would certainly be more effective." Even genius has its lapses in judgment! Brief and compressed, the finale is original and mysterious, unlike anything else that Chopin ever composed. The 19th-century Russian pianist Anton Rubinstein was reminded of "night winds sweeping over churchyard graves." The two hands play in unison, in perpetual motion, dancing wildly all over the keyboard with no firm establishment of a key center until the closing dramatic chord. – Laurie Shulman ©2011

has made more than two-dozen recordings, including Mozart concerti with the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, the complete Beethoven Piano Sonatas, the complete Partitas by J.S. Bach, the complete Beethoven Concertos with Ivan Fischer and the Budapest Festival Orchestra, and solo and chamber works of Brahms, Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, Busoni, and George Perle. Goode is the first American-born pianist to have recorded the complete Beethoven sonatas, which were nominated for a Grammy Award and have been universally acclaimed. With soprano Dawn Upshaw, he has recorded the Goethe Lieder of Schubert, Schumann, and Hugo Wolf for Nonesuch. The four recordings of Mozart concerti with the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra have received many "Best of the Year” nominations and his long-awaited Chopin recording was chosen Best of the Month by Stereo Review and described as “absolutely magical ... glorious playing.”

For more information visit www.franksalomon.com Richard Goode appears by arrangement with Frank Salomon Associates.

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Music Alliance Series

the friends of chamber music

The Morgenstern Trio Friday, March 16

8 pm

The Folly Theater

A Music Alliance Production Catherine Klipfel Stefan Hempel Emanuel Wehse

piano violin cello

DEBUSSY Trio in G Major, L.3 Andantino con moto allegro Scherzo - Intermezzo: Moderato con allegro Andante espressivo Finale: Appassionato MOZART Trio in G Major, K. 564 Allegro Andante Allegretto INTERMISSION BRAHMS Trio No. 1 in B Major, Op. 8 Allegro con brio Scherzo: Allegro molto Adagio Allegro

This concert is a collaboration between The Friends of Chamber Music and the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance. The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible through a grant from the Richard J. Stern Foundation for the Arts. Please note: For tickets to this performance, please contact the Central Ticket Office at 816-235-6222. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes

The Morgenstern Trio

T

he three musicians of the Morgenstern Trio (Stefan Hempel, violin, Catherine Klipfel, piano, Emanuel Wehse, cello) joined forces in 2005

at the Folkwang Academy in Essen. In 2007, after only two years of intensive

Note of interest. . . Music Alliance is a concert series founded and co-presented by The Friends of Chamber Music and the UMKC Conservatory of Music and Dance. The series is designed to bring the world’s finest artists to Kansas City, highlighting masterworks and new music, building bridges between emerging and established artists, and fostering student and community access to professional musicians through concerts, residencies and master classes.

collaboration, the trio was awarded several important prizes: first prize at the International Joseph Haydn Competition in Vienna, second prize at the Fifth Melbourne International Chamber Music Competition, and the second prize as well as the audience prize at the prestigious ARD Competition in Munich. The previous year they had already won a much sought-after scholarship at the German Music Competition. Most recently, the trio was named "ensemble in residence" for 2008 and 2009 at the Folkwang Academy in Essen. For the 2009-10 Season, The Morgenstern Trio was chosen to participate in the ECHO (European Concert Hall Organization), “Rising Star” program which introduced the trio to audiences in many of the most important European music capitals including those in Paris, Vienna, Amsterdam, Cologne, Brussels, Birmingham, Stockholm and others. Other invitations have taken the Trio to such festivals as the Pablo Casals in Prades, France; the Festpiele Mecklenburg-Vorommern, the Sommets Musicaux Gstaad; and the Kuhno Chamber Music Festival in Finland. The Trio’s work can be heard on their numerous radio recordings (including BR, SWR, HR, ORF, ABC Classic / Australia). Important artistic training with other imminent piano trio musicians such as Vladimir Mendelssohn, Menahem Pressler, Vesselin Paraschkevov, and Dirk Mommertz has given them polish. Postgraduate studies took place with the Alban Berg Quartet in Cologne and the ECMA (European Chamber Music Academy).

For more information visit www.morgensterntrio.de Mortenstern Trio appears by arrangement with Marianne Schmocker Artists International.

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the friends of cha mber music endowment early music series

Piffaro & King's Noyse with Ellen Hargis, soprano Saturday, March 24

8 pm

Grace & Holy Trinity Cathedral

Ferrara: New Waves, Two Bands PIFFARO

Joan Kimball and Robert Wiemken, co-directors Grant Herreid lute, guitar, recorder, percussion Greg Ingles sackbut, recorder Joan Kimball shawm, dulcian, recorder, bagpipe Christa Patton shawm, harp, recorder, bagpipe Priscilla Smith shawm, dulcian, recorder, bagpipe Robert Wiemken dulcian, recorder, percussion Tom Zajac sackbut, recorder, bagpipe, pipe, tabor, percussion

KING'S NOYSE

David Douglass, director Julie Andrijeski violin David Douglass violin Ellen Hargis soprano Shira Kammen violin Robert Mealy violin David Morris violin

ANONYMOUS Courtly Entertainment I Phalese, pub. Pavana & Gagliarda “Ferrareze” (violins, shawms, sackbut, dulcian, percussion, guitar) DE RORE Maestro di capella Descendi in hortum meum Anchor che col partire Calami sonum ferentes Sine nomine Alla dolce ombra (violins, recorders, soprano, lute, harp, sackbuts, dulcians) ANONYMOUS Courtly Entertainment II ( mid 16th c.) Gagliarda: La Rocha el Fuso Gagliarda: El desperato Gagliarda: La Lavandara (shawms, sackbut, dulcian, pipe & tabor, bagpipes, guitar) AGOSTINI Un mal è rende afflitto e mesto All’ arm’ all’ arm’ Tristo, chi si ritrova (soprano, shawms, cornetto, sackbuts, dulcian, violins)

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes

ANONYMOUS Courtly Entertainment III – publ. (1578) Mainerio, pub. Pass’e mezzo antico Ungarescha Schiarazula Marazula (violins, bagpipes, shawm, sackbut, dulcian, guitar) INTERMISSION LUZZASCHI Non guardar Canzon Decima Itene, mie querele Dolorosi martir Ricercar Terzo Aura soave (soprano, violins, recorders, sackbuts, dulcians, harp, lute) GESUALDO Maestro di capella Gagliarda del Principe di Venosa All’ ombra degl’ allori O vos omnes Itene, o miei Come vivi cor mio (violins, soprano, recorders, sackbut, dulcian, lute, harp) ANONYMOUS Courtly Entertainment IV Zanetti, pub. Aria del Gran Duca La Sartorella-Il Gabonano-La Balloria-La Montagnura-Saltarello della Battaglia (violins, shawms, sackbut, dulcian, recorders, guitar, percussion)

Ferrara: New Waves, Two Bands t was a brave, new world, Ferrara in the second half of the 16th century. Cipriano Rore set composition on a shocking new path, with his bold experiments in chromaticism and the madrigalist’s attention to text painting. He almost single handedly ushered in the last great flowering of music in Ferrara, under the patronage of Alonso II (1559-1597) whose own musicians included Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Francesco della Viola, Lodovico Agostini and, a frequent guest from Mantua, Giaches de Wert. The musical reputation of Alonso’s court spread widely with the “new music” exercised in the court’s musica secreta, exhibiting an increased importance of instrumental music, a thriving tradition of madrigal compositions for virtuosi and theater music that foreshadowed the rise of opera in Florence. Emblematic of this flourishing musical culture at court was the publication of Giardino de’ musici ferraresi (Venice, 1591), which contained works by no fewer than 21 composers resident in the city. A fitting climax to the crescendo of musical activity at court occurred with the celebrated wedding of Alonso’s niece, Leonora d’Este, to the composer Carlo Gesualdo, whose radical ventures into chromaticism fittingly capped the early efforts of his mentor, Rore, without which the colorful compositions of the Baroque would have been unthinkable, especially those of J. S. Bach. This concert will highlight all the great composers and trends that made Ferrara of the late 16th century such a remarkable and successful hot bed of musical activity.

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Program Notes he celebrated town of Ferrara, in the Emilia region of northern Italy, played a prominent role in the cultural life of the country throughout the centuries spanning the late middle ages into the early baroque. But it was particularly the musical establishments that garnered most of the city’s reputation. The Este family actually held political rule of Ferrara continuously from 1240 to 1598, but Ercole I d’Este, duke from 1471 – 1505, first catapulted the court’s musical establishments into the forefront, a position they held throughout the Renaissance. For our purposes this evening, the story begins with Ercole II d’Este (grandson of Erole I) who was the duke of Ferrara from 1534 – 1559, and continues under with his successor, Alphonso II, the duke from 1559 – 1598. During this time the musical activities of Ferrara and its notable composers set the standards for innovation, experimentation, quality and quantity throughout Italy and influenced composition across the continent.

given composition by another composer) as a worthy source for further ornamental enhancement. Rore's motet Descendi in hortum meum is a seven-voice liturgical piece based on an antiphon and written in imitative polyphony throughout, in this case with a triple-canon imbedded in its rich texture.

He also made daring experiments in chromaticism, all the rage in Ferrara among the circles of the learned and those with a highly refined musical education at the time, as in the Calami sonum ferentes, written for four bass voices, and less so, but still remarkably for the time, in the instrumental work, Sine nomine, simply a piece without a title of text. Otherwise, he created a style that was intensely expressive of text and pivotally important for subsequent developments in the madrigal and a precursor to the rise of opera. In fact, the progressive aspects of his later works garnered the Ferrara, walled and moated, ca 1600 rapt admiration of subsequent generations of composers, including Monteverdi himself.

During the early 16th century, Ferrara rivaled both the French and papal But upon the death of Ercole II, after 10 years in the service of the courts in musical patronage. The Dukes also imported a great deal od d’Estes, Ercole’s successor Alfonso II refused to renew Rore’s contract. He was forced to look elsewhere French music to Italy during this time. for his livelihood. With Alfonso The Pavana & Gagliarda Ferrareze that II, Ferrara witnessed its last great open the program were published by a flowering of music. Rore’s legacy Frenchman, Pierre Phalese in the 1550’s. established a foundation upon This French connection was cemented which other composers soon by the marriage of Alfonso I’s son and built, including such famous successor, Ercole II to Princess Renée of Ferrara notables as Lodovico France in 1528. He re-established the Agostini, Luzzasco Luzzaschi and Chapel choir and appointed Cipriano Carlo Gesualdo. Rore its maestro in 1546. Under Rore, the prestige of the arts in Ferrara grew substantially. Rore was born in Ronse (Renaix), a small town in Flanders just west of Brussles, though he spent the better part of his life in Italy. His works brought him great fame for his ability to fuse northern polyphonic style to Italian lyricism in his much-admired collections of Italian madrigals, with works such as the sublime Anchor che co’l partir. His Alla dolce ombra, based on a sonnet by Petrarch, achieved wide fame and was adopted by the Italian diminutionists (composers and arrangers who wrote ornamented and decorated variations on a

Detail of a miniature of Cipriano de Rore by Hans Müelich, probably 1558 or 1559

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Agostini was born in Ferrara in 1534, into a strong musical family, and at an early age pursued a musical and religious career. The variety of styles in his music exemplifies the rich musical life of Ferrara at the time, as promulgated and supported by Alphonso II himself. He showed a propensity for startling, amusing and witty effects, such as the chromatic curiosities in the Tristo, chi di ritrova, and the canonic voice in Un mal è rende afflitto e mesto, with its puns and playful incorporation of solmization into the text.


Program notes Another native-born composer was Luzzasco Luzzaschi, the leading figure in the musical circles of Ferrara in general and particular at the court of Alfonso II in the later 16th century. Born around 1545, he spent his entire life in the city, studied with Cipriano Rore and quickly became a noted teacher, organist, madrigalist and composer of instrumental music. At some point before 1570, Luzzaschi took charge of Duke Alfonso’s private musica da camera, or music of the court chamber, to which the composer contributed some of his own works. The composer was required to play keyboard for the private concerts. These performances were part of a musica secreta, a secret repertory jealously guarded by the duke, became particularly well known throughout the continent during Alfonso’s reign. The

Ellen Hargis, soprano

S

oprano Ellen Hargis is one of America's premier early music singers, specializing in repertoire ranging from ballads to opera and oratorio. She

has worked with many of the foremost period music conductors of the world, including Andrew Parrott, Gustav Leonhardt, Daniel Harding, Paul Goodwin, John Scott, Monica Huggett, Jane Glover, Nicholas Kraemer, Harry Bickett, Simon Preston, Paul Hillier, Craig Smith, and Jeffery Thomas. Ellen Hargis has performed at many of the world's leading festivals including the Adelaide Festival (Australia), Utrecht Festival (Holland), Resonanzen Festival (Vienna), Tanglewood, the New Music America Festival, Festival Vancouver, the Berkeley Festival (California), and is a frequent guest at the Boston Early Music Festival. Her discography embraces repertoire from medieval to contemporary music. She has recently recorded the leading role of Aeglé in Lully's Thésée for CPO, nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording in 2008, as well as Conradi's opera Ariadne, also nominated for a Grammy Award. She is featured on a dozen Harmonia Mundi recordings including a critically acclaimed solo recital disc of music by Jacopo Peri, and in Arvo Pärt's Berlin Mass with Theatre of Voices, and two recital discs with Paul O'Dette on Noyse Productions. Ellen Hargis teaches voice at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, and is Artist-in-Residence with the Newberry Consort at the University of Chicago and Northwestern University. Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa (Artist unknown)

For more information visit www.ellenhargis.com

Aura soave, for soprano voice and string accompaniment, is one example, marked by the virtuosic displays of vocal artistry, typical of this private repertory. Luzzaschi was very highly regarded by his contemporaries, both in Ferrara and thoughout Italy and the continent. His instrumental style set standards in Naples and Rome, and his madrigals, such as the masterpieces Non guardar, the Itene, mie querele, and the Dolorosi martir. These were lauded, and imitated widely, including by the next, and final, major composer at the d’Este court in the late 16th century, Carlo Gesualdo.

Ferrara a musical genius of towering stature. It also brought to Ferrara the perpetrator of one of the most notorious scandals of the late 16th century. Only three years earlier, Gesualdo had murdered his former wife and her lover in flagrante delicto. Due to the aristocratic standing of the victims, the double murder was news that was widely disseminated, even in works by the best-known poets of the day. Regardless of the events in his personal life, Gesualdo’s music was unprecedented in its innovations and its depth of An important political event with strong musical implications was expression. the marriage of Leonora d’Este, niece of Alfonso II, to the Neapolitan Ferrara offered Gesualdo not only the chance to rehabilitate his reputation composer Carlo Gesualdo in 1594. Gesualdo’s arrival brought to through his illustrious marriage, but also tto give the composer a chance for 36th season 2011-2012

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Program Notes

King's Noyse

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he King's Noyse was founded in 1988 by director David Douglass, and is one of this country’s premier early music ensembles. As the Los Angeles

Piffaro

W

orld-renowned for its highly polished performances as the pied-pipers of Early Music, Piffaro, The Renaissance Band has delighted audiences

Times has noted, "The King's Noyse has established a mighty reputation in the

throughout the United States, Europe, Canada and South America. The ensemble,

early-instrument movement." Modeled on the most popular of Renaissance

founded in 1980, recreates the elegant sounds of the official, professional wind

ensembles, this violin band brings into the 21st century spirited programs of

bands of the late Medieval and Renaissance periods, as well as the rustic music of

fantasias and dances from 16th and 17th century Europe. The King’s Noyse has

the peasantry. Piffaro’s ever-expanding collection of shawms, sackbuts, dulcians,

performed to critical acclaim throughout North America and Europe, including

recorders, krumhorns, bagpipes, lutes, guitars, harps, and a variety of percussion

performances in Spain, France, Germany, The Netherlands, England and the

instruments, are careful reconstructions of instruments from the period.

former Yugoslavia, Canada and Mexico. In London the ensemble appeared at the prestigious Wigmore Hall. Festival appearances have included the Utrecht, Regensburg, Berkeley and Vancouver Early Music Festivals. At the Boston Early Music Festival, this country’s largest and oldest, the group has given several solo appearances as well as forming the core ensemble for the festival’s opera orchestra. Also a member of the ensemble is renowned early music soprano Ellen Hargis. Various guest artists on plucked string instruments (cittern, theorbo, harp, harpsichord and organ) help to provide a wide range of colors. Frequent collaborators with The King’s Noyse include lutenist Paul O'Dette and harpist Andrew Lawrence-King.

Under the direction of Joan Kimball and Bob Wiemken, Piffaro tours extensively in the United States and Europe, and has performed for all the major early music series and festivals, as well as many college and community series, in the US. In addition to its concert and recording efforts, Piffaro is active in the field of education. Members of the ensemble perform regularly throughout the year for elementary, middle and high school students, and hold master classes and workshops for college students and adult amateurs. The group has been involved in week-long residencies, working with small groups of students on recorders, or their modern band instruments, and teaching Renaissance dance. For these efforts, Piffaro was awarded Early Music America’s annual “Early Music brings

The King's Noyse performs on a set (or noyse) of Renaissance-style violins of

history alive” Award in 2003, and the Lorette Goldberg Lifetime Achievement

all sizes (the only set of its kind in North America). The instruments were built

Award for Outreach and Education in 2011.

especially for the ensemble by Robert Young and Jason Viseltear of New York City. For more information visit www.piffaro.com

his musical genius to flourish.. While on a visit to Venice, Gesualdo highly praised the musicians of Ferrara while heaping scorn on those of Venice, including the otherwise preeminent Giovanni Gabrieli. Gesualdo’s presence in Ferrara contributed significantly to the final floweringthere not only of the musical arts, but of arts in general. He was renowned for a marked passionate dedication to music – a certain contemporary document offered that he “delighted in nothing but music” – interpreted by some as a “madness”, Gesualdo also suffered from a melancholy that characterized his entire life and only grew deeper in his latter years.

substantial entertainment to the court followers. And it was the duty of the instrumentalists, piffari and violinists alike, to provide music for those occasions. This program offers examples from collections that represent almost one hundred years of dance types and styles practiced in the courts of northern Italian towns, including Ferrara. These became available in published form for the consumption of the burdgeoning world of amateur music-making well into the 17th century.

Throughout the d’Este family’s hold on Ferrara, dance at court provided the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

©2011 Bob Wiemken and David Douglass


t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s

Anchor che co’l partire Anchor che co’l partire Io mi sento morire Partir vorrei ogn’hor ogni momento, Tant’ è il piacer ch’io sento De la vita ch’acquisto nel ritorno Et così mill’ e mille volte il giorno Partir da voi vorrei Tanto son dolci gli ritorni miei. Alla dolce ombra

Anchor che co’l partire Whenever we part again I feel near death I wish to part every moment, Such is the pleasure I feel In the life I gain on returning, And thus a thousand times each day I would part from you, So sweet are my returnings. A la dolce ombra

A la dolc’ ombra delle belle frondi Cors, fuggend’ und dispietato lume, Che’n fin qua giù m’ardea dal terzo cielo; E disgombrava gia di neve i poggi L’aur’ amorosa che rinova ‘l tempo, E fiorian per le piagge l’erb’ e i rami.

In the gentle shade of the beautiful leaves I ran, fleeing from a pitiless light, Which here below scorched me from the third heaven And already the snow was melting from the hills In the love-laden breeze which renews the time, And on the slopes flourished herbs and branches.

Non vidde’l mondo si leggiadri rami, Ne mosse ‘l vento mai si verdi frondi Come a me si mostrar quel primo tempo; Tal che, temendo de l’ardente lume, Non volsi al mio refuggio ombra di poggi, Ma de la pianta più gradita in cielo.

The world never sw such graceful branches, Nor did wind ever move such green leaves, As appeared to me in that first time; So much so that, feaing the burning light, I did not cover my refuge with the shadow of the hills, But with the tree most favoured by heaven.

U lauro mi diffese all’ hor dal cielo; Onde più volte, vago de’ bei rami, Dapo’ son gito per selv’ e per poggi; Nè giamai ritrovai tronco nè frondi Tant’ honorate dal superno lume, Che non cangiasser qualitate a tempo.

A laurel sheltered me then from heaven; Wherefore often, fond of the fair branches, I later wandered through woods and hills; Nor ever did I find a trunk of leaves So honoured by the supernal light, As not to change their quality with time.

Però più ferm’ ogn’ hor di tempo in tempo Seguend’ ove chiamar m’udia dal cielo, E scorto d’un soave et chairo lume Tornai sempre devoto ai primi rami, E quand’ a terra son sparte le frondi, E quando ‘l sol fa verdeggiar i poggi.

But more firmly from time to time Following where I heard the call from heaven, And accompanied by a gentle, shining light, I returned devoutly to the first branches, Both when on earth lie scatttered the leaves And when the sun makes green the hills.

Selve, sassi, campagne, fiumi e poggi, Quant’ è creato, vince e cangia ‘l tempo; Ond’ io chieggio perdono a queste frondi, Se, rivolgendo poi molt’ anni il cielo, Fuggir disposi gl’invescati rami, Tosto ch’incominiciai di veder lume.

Woods, rocks, fields, rivers and hills, Whatever is created, is conquered and changed by time, Wherefore I ask pardon of these leaves, If, in the yearly revolutions of the heaven, I decided to flee from the ensnaring branches, As soon as I begn to see the light.

Tanto mi piacque prima il dolce lume, Ch’io passai con dilett’assai gran poggi Per poter appressar gl’amati rami; Hora la vita breve e’l loc’ e’l tempo Mostramm’ altro sentier di gir’ al cielo E di far frutto, non pur fiori e frondi.

So much was I pleased by the gentle light, That I passed with delight over mighty hills In order to approach the beloved branches; Now short life and place and time Shows me another path to go to heaven And to bear fruit, not just flowers and leaves.

All’ arm’ all’ arm’

All’ arm’ all’ arm’

All’arm’ all’ arm o fidi miei pensieri, Correte tutt’ in guardia del mio core: Che s’avvicina’l mio nemic’ amore.

To arms, to arms, my faithful thoughts Run, all of you, in defense of my heart For my enemy Love is approaching.

Armatine di ghiaccio e di disdegno, Alzate il ponte e state alla difesa Accio che ‘l traditor perda l’impresa.

Arm yourselves with cold and disdain, Raise the bridge and stand ready, Lest you lose the battle to the traitor.

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t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s Pur combattete ognor fino alla morte E si ve buttera le mura a terra. Rendetevi gridando a buona guerra.

Then fight to the death, And if you bring the walls down to the earth Return crying that it was a worthy war. (trans. Ellen Hargis) Un mal è rende afflitto e mesto

Un mal è rende afflitto e mesto Un mal è che mi rende arfflitto, e mesto, un remedio può sol farmi contento, un Re mi tien oppresso, et m’è molesto, un Re mi fa gir fuori di tormento, un Re mi fa sol lieto a tutte l’hore, un Re mi fa sol lasso, e quest’è Amore.

One sickness is what nakes me afflicted and sad, one remedy only can make me content, one King holds me oppressed and is vexatious to me, one King banishes me from torment, one King only makes me happy all the time, one King only makes me wretches, and this is Love. Non guardar

Non guardar Non guardar, che se guardi L’Idolo del mio core Ti struggerai d’Amore; Non mirar, che se miri Quanta dolcezza in me dagli occhi ei spiri Ti struggerai d’invidia. Ah, perché tardi? Fuggi mentre ti lice; Troppo egl’é bello, i’ son’ troppo felice.

So not look, for if you look at The idol of my heart You will be consumed by Love; Do not look, for if you see How much sweetness his eyes breathe into me? You will be consumed by envy. Ah, why do you tarry? Flee while you can; He is too beautiful, I am too happy! (trans. Anthony Newcomb) Dolorosi martir

Dolorosi martir Doloris martis, fieri tormenti, Duri ceppi empi lacci, aspre catene, O-v’io le nott’e i giorni, hor’e momenti, Misero piango il mio perduto bene; Triste voci, querele, urli, e lamenti, Lagrime spese e sempiterne ne pene Son il mio cibo e la quiete cara De la mia vita, oltre ogni assenz’amara.

Grievous martyrdoms, fierce torments, Harsh fetters, evil snares, rough chains, Where I night and day, every hour, every moment Miserable lament my lost well-being; Sad voices, complaints, cries and laments, tears shed and eternal afflictions Are my nourishment and the treasured tranquility Of my life, more bitter than any wormwood. (trans. Anthony Newcomb) Aura soave

Aura soave Aura soave di segreti accenti Che penetrando per l'orecchie al core

Sweet breeze of secret words, Which, penetrating through my ears to my heart

Svegliasti la dove dormiva Amore Per te respiro e vivo Da che nel petto mio Spirasti tu d'Amor vital desio Vissi di vita privo Mentre amorosa cura in me fu spenta Hor vien che l'alma senta Virtu di quel tuo spirto gentile

Woke Love, who was sleeping there: For you I breathe and live Ever since into my bosom You breathed Love's living desire. I lived without life While love's caring was exhausted in me. Now come, so that my soul may feel, Thanks to your gentle spirit,

Felice vita oltre l'usato stile.

Life that is happy beyond the usual.

(trans. John Glenn Paton) All’ombra degl’allori

All’ombra degl’allori All’ombre degl’allori Viddi mesta seder la mia Licori Quand’io gridai non suole Seder all’ombra il Sole.

In the shade of the laurels I saw my Licori sadly seated When I cried out Never does the sun sit in the shade.

Io la rividdi poi Pianto amaro versar dagl’occhi suoi Quand’io gridai non suolo Pioggia cader dal Sole.

I saw her then Bitter tears falling from her eyes When I cried out Never does rain fall from the sun.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


t e xt s a n d t r a n s l at i on s All’hor gli fiso il volto Tutto nel vagheggiar l’occchio raccolto Quand’io gridai non suole Fiso mirarsi il Sole

Then I looked into her face My eye intent with admiration When I cried out Never does one fixedly stare at the sun.

All’hor nel dolce aspetto Sentomi freddo io core gelarsi in petto Quand’io gridai non suole Alcun gelarsi al Sole.

Then in her sweet mien I felt cold, my heart freezing in my breast When I cried out Never does one freeze in the sun.

Come vivi cor mio

Come vivi cor mio

Come vivi cor mio Hor mai che tu sei privo Del ben’che ti tien vivo? Miracolo d’Amore Che fa che viva senze vita un Core.

How do you live, my heart, Now that you are deprived Of that which makes you live? Miracle of love That causes a heart without life to live.

E tù cruda ten’vai: E tù sei pur’ sparita Spirito della mia vita? Miracolo d’Amore Che fà che viva, e non hà spirito, un’Core

And you, cruel one, are leaving me: Have you really vanished, Spirit of my life? Miracle of love That causes a heart without spirit to live.

Folle che tù dovevi Non lasciarla partire: Ben merti di morire Miracolo d’Amore Che fa che viva all hor’ch’è morto il Core.

Mad one, who should not Have let her leave: You well deserve to die Miracle of love That causes life now that the heart is dead.

Che parlo, e che vaneggio Col Cor, che non è meco. Ella portollo seco: Miracolo d’Amore Ch’io vivo, e spiro, e parlo e non hò Core.

What do I say, and why do I rave To my heart, which is not with me. She took it with her: Miracle of love That I live, and breathe, and speak without a heart.

Corso Ercole I d'Este, Street in the Rennaissance town center of Ferrara, Italy

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the muriel mcbrien kauffman master pianists series

Jonathan Biss Friday, April 13

8 pm

The Folly Theater

BEETHOVEN Sonata No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 10, No. 1 Allegro molto e con brio Adagio molto Finale: Prestissimo JANÁČEK V mlhach (In the Mists), JW VIII/22 Andante Molto adagio Andantino BEETHOVEN Sonata quasi una Fantasia in C-sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (“Moonlight”) Adagio sostenuto Allegretto Presto agitato INTERMISSION JANÁČEK 1.X.1905 (Z ulice dne 1. rijna 1905) (From the Street, 1 October 1905), JW VIII/19, “Sonata” Predtucha (Foreboding) Smrt (Death) BEETHOVEN Sonata No. 26 in E-flat, Op. 81a (“Les Adieux”) Adagio; Allegro Andante espressivo Vivacissimamente

The Master Pianists Series is underwritten, in part, by the Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation. The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible through a grant from the Richard J. Stern Foundation for the Arts.

This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund of Kansas City, Missouri.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


program notes Jonathan Biss has given a great deal of thought to this evening’s program. “The question of which composers work well together (and which don’t) is particularly alchemical,” he has written. “The success of Beethoven and Janáček as a pairing relies in part on the terrific intensity that characterizes both. The intensity may be similar, but the language is utterly different. Beethoven’s sonatas are tightly–one might say relentlessly–argued, giving the listener the feeling that from the first note, he is being inexorably led toward the last.

to hear. The opening motive in both sonatas is a dramatic ascent that late 18th-century musicians called a “Mannheim rocket.” The gesture– sometimes arpeggiated, sometimes scalar–originated with composers based in and around the court of Mannheim, Germany. Beethoven also followed Mozart’s lead in the stark contrast of his two themes: a strong, assertive first theme and a lyrical, “feminine” second theme. Both development sections in the first movements start in C major, though Beethoven hardly stayed there an instant. There are similar parallels in the “Janáček, by contrast, is perhaps the greatest master of the musical overall structure of the slow movements. non-sequitur. (These non-sequiturs are connected to the material they What then, are the differences? Precisely what you would expect from surround on a deep level. On the surface, however, they seem to come out Beethoven. His sonata is more rash, ungoverned, and impulsive. of the blue.) The building blocks in Beethoven and Janáček could not be Ironically, one French critic evaluated Mozart’s sonata as “Beethovenisme more different, which makes the similarities in temperament between the d’avant la lettre” [Beethoven before the fact]. Beethoven could not have two all the more fascinating.” achieved this level of drama and intensity had Mozart not paved the way. Biss frames the evening in sonatas from three distinct stylistic segments in Beethoven’s evolution as a composer. They are not precisely early, middle, and late works, though the first, Op.10, is definitely early. The second Beethoven sonata, “Moonlight,” falls on the cusp of the early and middle periods, while “Les Adieux” emanates from his high middle period, during the so-called "heroic" decade.

Opus 10, No.1 was the first piano sonata in which Beethoven abandoned the minuet/trio and limited the work to three movements. Two other movements in C minor survive that may have been intended for this sonata. One is an Allegretto that was published posthumously; the other is a Presto that appeared independently in 1798. Beethoven chose wisely. The compression in the sonata heightens the drama inherent in his music.

Both Janáček works are overtly programmatic. While each is intensely personal, one is a political statement reacting to a shocking current event, while the other is more reflective and nostalgic. In every piece on this recital, the composer’s voice emerges with stunning individuality and clarity. Mr. Biss comments, “In playing this program, I become the conduit through which a conversation between two great masters takes place: a very exciting notion.”

The three sonatas of Opus 10 date from 1796 to 1798, by which time Beethoven was firmly established as a composer and receiving regular commissions. Publication of the Opus 10 sonatas was announced in late September 1798. The first edition was published by J. Eder, who would also publish the "Pathétique" Sonata the following year. Beethoven dedicated the set to Countess Anna Margarethe von Browne, the wife of the Imperial Count Johann Georg Browne. The Brownes were among Beethoven’s earliest patrons in Vienna.

Sonata No.5 in C minor, Op.10, No.1 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) One cannot fully understand Beethoven’s first sonata in the key of C minor without an awareness of his context. His indebtedness to Haydn and Mozart as heir to the Viennese classical tradition is widely recognized. In the case of piano music, Mozart was on the higher pedestal. Specifically, Beethoven revered Mozart’s C minor Sonata, K.457, and was in awe of the great Piano Concerto in C minor, K.491. Thus it comes as no surprise that Beethoven modeled this piano sonata closely on Mozart’ prior works. K.457 was composed in 1784 and published in 1785, thus Beethoven likely played it as a teenager.

In the Mists (1912) Leoš Janáček (1854-1928) Janáček is certainly not among the first names that come to mind when one thinks about the virtuoso keyboard repertoire. Both In the Mists and the Sonata on this evening's program are a refreshing surprise, especially flanked by three of Beethoven’s keyboard masterpieces. Pianist Jonathan Biss observes, “What is wonderful in juxtaposing Beethoven and Janáček is that Beethoven becomes not only the foundation– as he nearly always is, when combined with a composer who came after him–but also the respondent. The deep nostalgia in Janáček’s In the Mists is, I feel sure, a longing for a lost musical world–the very world that Beethoven inhabited.”

Janáček was the most important Czech composer in the generation that succeeded Beethoven returned to the key of C Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904). He considered minor twice in his piano sonatas: the his operas to be his greatest works, but he earned very next one, the "Pathétique," Op.13, his reputation with instrumental compositions. and the last of the 32 sonatas, Op.111, In the Mists was his last solo piano composition in 1822. Both of those works have and the largest-scale piece of his mature Leoš Janáček with his wife in 1881 become firmly entrenched in the canon of keyboard works. Although its four-movement musical masterpieces, overshadowing this earlier effort. Yet C minor was structure suggests a sonata, each segment is a self-contained ternary form. always a significant tonality for Beethoven throughout his career. Think They are linked by shared motives and “misty” tonal centers (Janáček of the Fifth Symphony, the Third Piano Concerto, and the "Coriolan" liked D-flat major, which has five flats). One of its prominent themes is Overture, for starters; there are plenty of other examples. a Moravian melody that he also used in the opera Jenůfa (the so-called Beethoven emulated Mozart’s K.457 in several specifics that are easy “guilt” motive), in his Suite for Orchestra, and in the late Sinfonietta. 36th season 2011-2012

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program notes Biographer Jaroslav Vogel describes In the Mists as “one long struggle between resignation and newly felt pain–pain which gains the upper hand at the end.” The composer was depressed and frustrated in 1912. He had been unable to secure a performance of Jenůfa in Prague. Little professional recognition was coming his way outside the regional center of Brno. He was approaching sixty, his marriage was strained, and he was experiencing health problems.

“Va pensiero” in Nabucco became an anti-Austrian rallying cry during the Italian risorgimento. Shostakovich used many of his symphonies as a platform for political expression–but his are 20th-century works. The relationship between art and politics–and what was acceptable to express in music, literature, or art–changed dramatically after World War I.

How does one infuse a piano sonata with a political message? How did one do so in 1905, years before the Great War tore Europe apart? The melancholy mood of In the Mists embodies his state of mind: Devising a solution to that problem is one of the ways that Janáček was a regretful rather than sentimental, with an occasional outburst lashing pioneer in this remarkable sonata. out. In places, these movements sound impressionistic, suggesting that, I.X.1905 takes its title from a violent event that occurred in October by 1912, Janáček may have become acquainted with music by his French 1905. The Moravian capital of Brno, where Janáček lived and worked, contemporaries Debussy and Ravel. The music has a metric elasticity was under Hapsburg rule. The monarchy was based in Vienna, therefore reminiscent of speech rhythms. This quality is most evident in the the official language was German. A movement was afoot to establish finale. One is struck by how completely different Janáček’s music is from a Czech-language university. The Austrian Emperor dispatched troops anything that his contemporaries were writing for piano. to suppress demonstrations. In the ensuing mêlée, a 20-year-old

woodworker named František Pavlík suffered a bayonet wound at the hands of an Austrian soldier. Days later, Pavlík died. The incident had a profound effect on Janáček, who rapidly composed three movements as a memorial to the young man.

Sonata quasi una Fantasia [No.14] in C-sharp minor, Op.27, No.2 “Moonlight” Ludwig van Beethoven Few sonatas are so well known as the “Moonlight,”— or so misunderstood. Schoolchildren and adults alike too often think of this extraordinary work as synonymous with the ethereal first movement. The sonata consists of three movements, each of which breaks from tradition and builds tension, culminating in the veritable explosion of the finale. The famous opening Adagio sostenuto is a mood piece that is entirely different from what audiences of 1801 would have expected at the beginning of a sonata. It makes melody of accompaniment, and places odd emphasis on the unfolding of arpeggiated chords. The sobriquet “Moonlight” is not Beethoven’s, but is attributed to Ludwig Rellstab, the German music critic and poet. (What he purportedly likened it to was “a boat visiting, by moonlight, the primitive landscapes of Vierwaldstättersee in Switzerland.”) Beethoven assigned this sonata the subtitle “quasi una fantasia,” indicating a freedom of approach and an improvisatory quality that was, effectively, an emancipation proclamation from the structural demands of the classical sonata.

Lithograph of Ludwig Rellstab (1860 or earlier) (German music critic and poet Ludwig Rellstab is credited with nicknaming Beethoven's sonata, "Moonlight".)

Janáček had already revised the sonata prior to its premiere by pianist Ludmila Tucková in January 1906. Shortly afterward, he burned the last movement. Shocked, Tucková had the first two movements secretly copied. It was fortunate for music history that she did, for in another fit of self-criticism, Janáček later threw his manuscript for the two remaining movements into the Vltava River. Not until the composer was 70 did Tucková reveal the existence of her secret copies. Fortunately Janáček felt more kindly toward the work then, and allowed its publication. Even though he had been more than 50 years old when he composed the sonata, today it is regarded as relatively early, because Janáček's gifts flowered so richly in his later years.

The “Moonlight” sonata is dedicated to Giulietta Guicciardi, a beautiful young Italian woman who came to Vienna in 1800 and studied with Beethoven. The 30-year-old composer fell hopelessly in love with her. He seems to have felt that his feelings were reciprocated, but ultimately the difference in their societal standing precluded any alliance. Those of a romantic persuasion may infer that the melancholy of the famous first movement and the turbulent rage of the last are expressions of a rejected lover’s frustration and grief. Certainly Beethoven explores a wide gamut of emotions in this sonata, but he does so with a subtle unity. The mournful slow arpeggios of the opening, accelerated and telescoped, become the frenetic rockets of the finale.

In its early version, the sonata was known as "From the Street" or "Street Scene," with the movement subtitles "Presentiment" and "Death." At publication, the composer simplified the title to the date alone: I.X.1905. As the movement subtitles imply, the piece has a narrative feel, with an early outburst in "Presentiment" depicting the eruption of violence in the streets. Although it does not adhere strictly to principles of sonata form, the musical material of both movements is closely related. Attentive listening to the opening measures will help illuminate the entire fourteen minutes of music. Janáček's sonata is evocative, romantic, rhapsodic. It is also vocal, emulating the rhythms of speech, as if it were an operatic recitative.

Sonata, "I.X.1905" Leoš Janáček

Piano Sonata No.26 in E-flat, Op.81a ("Les Adieux") Ludwig van Beethoven

Music as political commentary is a provocative concept. Beethoven made "Les adieux" means "the farewells" or "the goodbyes." In Beethoven's an anti-Napoleon statement with the "Eroica" Symphony. Verdi’s chorus mother tongue, German, the term is Lebewohl. The nickname assigned the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


program notes w

to Beethoven's 26th piano sonata makes more sense when the subtitles of the latter two movements are considered: translating (from either French or German) to "Absence" and "Return" or “Meeting again.” Thus, in a way, the sonata tells a story about separation from someone the composer cared for, the longing and sadness he experienced during this separation, and finally the joy experienced when they are reunited. In Beethoven's sonata, the music is not so much a narrative as it is an evocation of the feelings that each sequential state instilled in him. By extension we, as listeners, experience vicariously these emotions elicited by the music. One might logically assume that Beethoven was in love, and temporarily separated by circumstance from the object of his desire. Such an assumption is, in this case, untrue (though Beethoven's love life was sufficiently stormy that he no doubt was in love at the same time). The departure that occasioned the E-flat piano sonata took place in May 1809, when Beethoven's royal student, the Archduke Rudolph, fled Vienna in anticipation of Napoleon's invasion. "Les adieux" is dedicated to Rudolph, who is also the namesake of the famous "Archduke" Trio, Op.97, as well as the dedicatee of the "Emperor" Concerto, Op.73, and the Missa Solemnis, among other superb works. Born in 1788, he was the youngest son of Emperor Leopold II. He began to study composition, music theory, and piano with Beethoven during the winter of 180304. Their relationship developed into a strong friendship, and eventually the young Archduke became Beethoven's greatest and most influential patron. Rudolph's accomplishments as composer and connoisseur are substantial enough to have earned him his own article in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.

A

Jonathan Biss merican pianist Jonathan Biss is widely regarded for his artistry, musical intelligence and deeply felt interpretations, winning international recognition

for his orchestral, recital, and chamber music performances and award-winning recordings. He performs a diverse repertoire ranging from Mozart and Beethoven, through the Romantics to Janácek and Schoenberg as well as works by contemporary composers such as György Kurtág and commissions from Leon Kirchner, Lewis Spratlan and Bernard Rands. Jonathan Biss, whom The New Yorker describes as playing with “unerring sophistication”, made his New York Philharmonic debut in 2001, and since then has appeared with the foremost orchestras of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. He is a frequent

Beethoven chose to remain in the city during the French bombardment. His sketches for the sonata are inscribed: "The Farewell–on May 4–dedicated to, and written from the heart for, His Imperial Highness." His sonata, universally acknowledged to be one of the greatest miracles from a miraculous composer, is touching testimony as to Beethoven's genuine affection for Rudolph.

performer at leading international music festivals and gives recitals in major music

While the sonata has no story line per se, its opening motive consists of three descending notes that are labelled in the score with the German syllables Le-be-wohl, or farewell. That motive figures prominently throughout the first movement. The slow movement and finale are convincing as emotional pictures, respectively of absence, then the joy of return. As a whole, the sonata is more a series of emotional conditions than a narrative. The words of the eminent British pianist and scholar Donald Francis Tovey, nearly three-quarters of a century after they were first published, still ring true.

Toronto Symphony Orchestra with Peter Oundjian. He will make his debut with

The music will always remain quite incomprehensible to anyone who retains vestiges of a feeling of disappointment that its basis is not a love story, and that there is no . . . feminine element in it. . . . All Beethoven's music is manly; and in this sonata, where emotion is compelled to rise to the surface, the note of manliness dominates everything. . . . Beethoven's style is rapidly approaching to the enormous concentration and not less enormous expansiveness of his third period. . . . The demands on the player's athletic staying-power seem at first moderate; but the constant occurrence of dangerous corners makes the sonata one of the severest tests Beethoven ever imposed on the muscular and spiritual steadiness of the player.

– Laurie Shulman ©2011

capitals both at home and abroad. This season Mr. Biss’s return engagements include the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra with Günther Herbig, the Boston Symphony Orchestra with Jirí Belohlávek, the Cleveland Orchestra with Fabio Luisi, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra with Robin Ticciati, the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic with Sakari Oramo and the the Dresden Staatskapelle with Sir Colin Davis and his subscription debut with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and Ludovic Morlot. Mr. Biss will begin the 2011-12 season with a two-week residency with the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra centered on programs that juxtapose Mozart concerti with works by Kurtág, directing the orchestra from the keyboard as well as performing chamber music. Mr. Biss, who last season toured the U.S. with the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields and who has recorded several Mozart concerti with the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, will perform Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 20, K466 with the Scottish Chamber Orchestra in three cities in Scotland in May. In January 2012 he will join Mitsuko Uchida in Salzburg for the Mozartwoche festival, performing Mozart’s Sonata in F major for Piano (four hands). This season Mr. Biss will perform solo recitals in Europe at London’s Southbank Centre, and in Berlin under the auspices of the Berliner Philharmoniker, with recitals in the U.S. in New York City, Washington, DC, Berkeley, Santa Barbara, Princeton, Omaha and Kansas City.

For more information visit www.jonathanbiss.com Jonathan Biss appears by arrangement with Opus 3 Artists.

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Music Alliance Series

the friends of chamber music

Jennifer Koh, violin & Shai Wosner, piano Satuday, April 21

7:30 pm

White Recital Hall - UMKC

A Music Alliance Production

JANÁČEK Sonata for Violin and Piano, JW VII/7 Con moto Ballada: Con moto Allegretto Adagio BARTÓK Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano, Op.21, BB84, Sz.75 Allegro appassionato Adagio Allegro INTERMISSION JANÁČEK

Romance in E major for Violin and Piano, JW VII/3

BRAHMS Sonata No.3 in D minor for Violin and Piano, Op.108 Allegro Adagio Un poco presto e con sentimento Presto agitato

This concert is a collaboration between The Friends of Chamber Music and the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance.

Please note: For tickets to this performance, please contact the Central Ticket Office at 816-235-6222.

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes

Jennifer Koh

V

iolinist Jennifer Koh has earned a world-wide reputation for being unique in her generation for bringing her probing intellectual acuity to

Shai Wosner

S

hai Wosner continues to attract international recognition for his exceptional artistry, musical integrity and creative insight. With imaginative

contemporary and traditional repertoire in equal measure. She is beloved by

programming that communicates his intellectual curiosity, Wosner performs a

audiences and critics alike for her consummate musicianship and the daring

wide-ranging repertoire from Mozart and Beethoven to Ligeti and composers of

passion of her performances. Ms. Koh is committed to exploring connections

his own generation. Hailed by the Financial Times as "an artist to follow keenly",

between the pieces she plays, searching for similarities of voice among

Wosner’s virtuosity and perceptiveness have made him a favorite among audiences

composers, as well as within the works of a single composer. Accordingly, her

and critics alike.

programs often present rare and revealing juxtapositions, offering works by composers as divergent as Mozart and Ligeti, Schubert and Saariaho.

Wosner is widely sought after by his colleagues for his versatility and spirit of partnership. As a chamber musician, he has collaborated with numerous

A committed educator, Ms. Koh has also won high praise for her performances

esteemed artists including Pinchas Zukerman, Lynn Harrell, Ralph Kirshbaum,

in classrooms around the country under her innovative Music Messenger

Christian Tetzlaff and Cho-Liang Lin. He is a former member of Lincoln's

outreach program. Now in its seventh year, the program continues to form

Center's Chamber Music Society Two and performs regularly at various chamber

an important part of her musical activities. “The majority of children in this

music festivals, including Chamber Music Northwest in Portland, the Santa Fe

country have not been given an opportunity to learn music as a form of

Chamber Music Festival, and the Jerusalem Chamber Music Festival, among

selfexpression,” she asserts, “and I want to share the experience of creating

others. Other summer festival appearances have included the Ravinia Festival,

and listening to music with them.” Ms. Koh’s outreach efforts have taken her

Hollywood Bowl, Mostly Mozart, the Bridgehampton Chamber Music Festival,

to classrooms all over the country to perform challenging music – whether

Grand Teton Music Festival, and Bravo! Vail Valley Music Festival. Recent

it be Bach, Paganini, or Bartók – for thousands of students who have little

chamber music engagements include a performance with members of The New

opportunity to hear classical music in their daily lives. "Music is a visceral

York Philharmonic at Avery Fisher Hall; a performance of the Mozart concerto

experience which can create a positive outlet for emotions and a place for

for three pianos with Joseph Kalichstein and Alon Goldstein and the New York

inner expression that is more compelling than time spent in front of the

String Orchestra with Jaime Laredo at Carnegie Hall; and collaborations with

television or at a mall,” she adds. She is also a member of the Board of

the Tokyo, Miro and Parker string quartets, and the Georgian Chamber Players

Directors of the National Foundation for the Advancement for the Arts, a

at Spivey Hall. For several consecutive summers, Wosner was also involved in the

scholarship program for high school students in the arts.

West-Eastern Divan Workshop led by Daniel Barenboim and toured as soloist

Born in Chicago of Korean parents, Ms. Koh currently resides in New York City. Ms. Koh is a graduate of Oberlin College and an alumna of the Curtis Institute, where she worked extensively with Jaime Laredo and Felix Galimir. Ms. Koh is grateful to a private sponsor for the generous loan of the 1727 Ex Grumiaux Ex General DuPont Stradivari she uses in performance.

with the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra. Born in Israel, Mr. Wosner enjoyed a broad musical education from a very early age, studying piano with Emanuel Krasovsky as well as composition, theory and improvisation with André Hajdu. He later studied at The Juilliard School with Emanuel Ax. Shai lives in New York City with his wife and daughter.

For more information visit jenniferkoh.com and www.shaiwosner.com Jennifer Koh and Shai Wosner appear by arrangement with Opus 3 Artists.

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e d u c at i on a l p r o g r a m

Young Mozart Sunday, April 22 Monday, April 23

2 pm 10 am and 12 pm

The Folly Theater

Produced in partnership with Theatre for Young America, The Folly Theater, and The Friends of Chamber Music Gene Mackey, playwright and director CHARACTERS

Wolfgang Mozart Alice Linley Leopold Mozart Rebecca Linley

The composer, age 11 A young pianist, age 13 Mozart's father Alice's mother

Time: 1767 and 2012 and points in between Place: Salzburg, Austria; London, England; and beyond

oung Mozart is a play about Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart as a child of 11 in

Y

1776. The play is also about Alice Linley, a fictitious character who is about 13 years old in 2012. These two characters live in separate times and separate places (Mozart in Salzburg, Austria, and Alice in London, England), but they are magically transported by Mozart's music to a timeless, placeless realm which Mozart calls "The Magic Kingdom of Back." In this magical realm, the children rule and have the power to travel through time and space. Together, they visit the 21st Century and the 18th Century as well as embark on a voyage to outer space.

Please note: For tickets to this performance, please contact The Folly Theater's Box Office at 816-474-4444.

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


program notes

O

f course, much of what happens in Young Mozart is fantasy and never really happened, but the play also incorporates historical facts. One of the most amazing facts about Mozart as a child was his precociousness. He absorbed and practiced the art of music at an unbelievably early age. Born Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus (Amadeus in Latin) Mozart in Salzburg, Austria, in 1756, this extraordinary child began to pick out pleasant chords on the harpischord at age three. By the time he was five, Mozart had composed a Minuet and Trio for Piano in G Major. When he was six, he was so accomplished on the keyboard that he performed solos and duets with his older sister for the nobility in Munich and Vienna.

The Grand European Tour was a highpoint of Mozart's early life. Leopold bought the little pianist his very own portable keyboard and miniature violin for the tour. The journey included all the major cities of Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The Mozarts stayed over a year in London, England, and Wolfgang never forgot that country. All his life he wanted to return to England, but he died before that dream could be fulfilled. Mozart played for the Empress Maria Theresa in Vienna, King Louis XV in Paris, King George III and Queen Charlotte in London, and numerous other members of European nobility. He learned several languages, including English, and eagerly experienced the arts and culture of the various nations he visited. By age ten, he was a seasoned performer and traveller, a little man of the world. By age seven, Mozart had already composed several minuets and sonatas for the piano and for the piano with violin, in addition to being an accomplished performer of other composers' works. He wrote his first symphony (E-flat, K.16) when he was eight or nine. He was composing piano concerti by age eleven and opera at age twelve. In his short life of only thirty-five years, he composed over six hundred pieces. The major influence on Mozart's career and life was his father, Leopold Mozart, who was the boy's primary teacher and constant companion. Leopold threw all of his energies into managing the careers of his two prodigy children while neglecting his own career as a musician in Salzburg. Leopold remained a powerful figure in Mozart's life even after the young man had established his own life and career in Vienna. The father never approved of his son's marriage to Constanze Weber and was often disappointed that his son's worldly success didn't match up to his musical genius. Mozart as a child was physically and mentally active, talking a great deal, singing, dancing, reciting nonsense poetry. He spent so many hours at the keyboard that he had little time for friends or ordinary playing. According to his sister, Mozart often imagined a fantasy world which he called "the Magic Kingdom of Back." In this realm, Mozart was king and ruled over a strange and fanciful population. There is a mystery about the music of Mozart. In most ways it is music typical of his time, but within this framework there is a special quality that defies description. The best of his music weaves a web of unique magic, capturing listeners in a world of supernatural beauty.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Jean-Baptiste Greuze 1763-64

From 1763 (when Mozart was only seven) until 1766, the Mozart family–consisting of Leopold (father), Anna Maria (mother), and Nannerl (sister)–traveled all over Europe and England giving musical performances that featured Mozart and his sister. Little Mozart was the star of these performances. Dressed always in fine clothes and wearing a little sword, Mozart amazed audiences everywhere with his virtuosity on the keyboard. He apparently was able to play anything that was handed to him. He frequently played his own compositions or improvised brilliantly right on the spot. Mozart would perform tricks, too. For instance, he played perfectly with the keyboard covered with a black cloth. He could match notes and chords from any source–a clock, a bell, or a chime. And he was personally charming–a cute little boy with a lively mind and affectionate nature. He would frequently run up to a queen, empress, or a princess and give her a kiss after a performance.

GENE MACKEY, playwright and director, co-founded Theatre for Young America (first known as the Waldo Astoria Children's Theatre) in 1974. Before coming to Kansas City, he was Artistic Director of the Casa Manana Playhouse in Fort Worth, Texas. With a Master of Arts from the University of Illinois, Mackey also attended New York University, the University of Arkansas, Instituto Allende in Mexico, and the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York. He has taught in the Theater Department at the University of Illinois and the University of Arkansas, and was a resident director at the University of Delaware. Mackey has written over 40 plays, including Bubbylonian Encounter which has been produced in over 20 states, and a book for young people, Dear Elizabeth. He is currently on the adjunct faculty at Avila University where he teaches theater classes and has directed several productions.

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T h e W i l l i a m T. K e m p e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a m b e r M u s i c s e r i e s

Artemis String Quartet Friday, April 27

The Folly Theater

8 pm

Natalia Prischepenko Gregor Sigl Friedemann Weigle Eckart Runge

violin violin viola cello

HAYDN Quartet in D Major, Op. 76, No. 5, Hob.III: 79 Allegretto; Allegro Largo cantabile e mesto Menuetto: Allegro Finale: Presto DEBUSSY Quartet in G minor, Op. 10 Animé et très décidé Assez vif et bien rythmé Andantino doucement expressif Très modéré INTERMISSION SCHUBERT String Quartet No.13 in A minor, D. 804, "Rosamunde" Allegro ma non troppo Andante Minuetto: Allegretto - Trio Allegro moderato

The International Chamber Music Series is underwritten, in part, by the William T. Kemper Foundation. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Sosland Foundation.

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


Program notes Quartet in D major, Op.76, No.5 Hob III:79 Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

from what initially appears to have little or no importance and turning it into the driving force of an entire development section. Listen for this here.

The six quartets of Haydn's Opus 76 are the music of a great master at the height of his powers. The set was probably composed in 1797, when Haydn was 65. He had returned to Vienna in 1796 from a second, highly successful trip to London. He was financially well off and secure in the knowledge that he was the most famous and most revered living composer in Europe. Count Joseph Erdödy's commission for these works was to yield the last completed set of quartets. However, Haydn only composed two of the projected six for his Op. 77. Therefore, the two isolated movements published as Op. 103 must be considered an incomplete quartet.

When the movement finally comes to a close, the two-chord “ending” that opens the work is stated three times in quick succession. We ask: “Is this really the end?” Haydn has fooled us before by turning the expected on its head. “The end” must finally take its rightful place and will be played at the finish line–though we will never hear it again in the same

Haydn's publisher Artaria originally issued Op. 76 in two sets of three, as Op. 75 and 76. Curiously, they were not published until 1799. There is some evidence that publication may have been postponed for quite a while after the works were presented to Erdödy. A letter from Haydn to Artaria in 1799 states: I am most grateful to you for the copies of the Quartets you sent me, which are a great credit to me and – because of the legible engraving and the neat title page –to you. Herr Count Joseph Erdödy wrote me many kind things, and thanked me for having made them available to the world at last. His Excellency will have received his copy by now. In a little while I will send the 5th Quartet in D major, and then the last in E-flat.

From this we may infer that there was an unusual time lapse following composition of the works. In an era without recordings or concert life as we know it, chamber music became known via live performances in the salons of the nobility. Count Erdödy “purchased” the exclusive rights to these new works for a period of time after Haydn fulfilled the commission. The sisters to Op. 76, No. 5 include the famous "Fifths," "Emperor," and "Sunrise" quartets. The lack of a nickname for the D major quartet is no reflection of lesser musical substance, however. Throughout Op. 76, Haydn carries forth his characteristic experimentation with forms and distant key relationships. This fifth quartet in the set is a fine example on both counts. Its first movement breaks away from conventional sonata form, and the slow movement is in the astonishing key (especially for strings) of F-sharp major, most unusual for its day. The opening movement, the Allegretto, is in a graceful 6/8 time, and has the lilt of a siciliana. Its form is an A-B-A'-Coda, with the B section in the parallel minor of D minor, though the movement is in the sunny key of F Major. Not until the coda, marked Allegro, does Haydn give free rein to the allegro tempo one anticipates in a first movement. The material introduced in the stately Allegretto at the beginning of the movement now kicks up its heels in a frolic to the end. The sublime slow movement sustains and transcends the lyricism established in the opening; Haydn scholar Hans Keller calls its viola solo "the deepest in all Haydn." A key signature of six sharps makes this movement an exceptional challenge to play in tune, yet Haydn has written it masterfully for all four strings. With the Menuetto, he pushes the character and tempo of the music to the threshold of the more sprightly scherzo. The restraint of the first two movements is left behind, and a characteristic twinkle creeps back into Haydn's musical eye. By the finale, that twinkle has developed into a broad smile, and the composer is at his most fun loving and mirthful. Haydn's initial joke is to open with a series of decisive, final cadences. They say “the end” and stop, though they appear at the beginning of the movement! This is one of Haydn’s most humorous jokes. He has turned the natural order upside down. Another example of this is Haydn’s compositional technique of taking motivic material

Cataloguing Haydn: A Complex Process for a Prolific Composer Even before Johann Peter Salomon persuaded him to visit London in the 1790s, Haydn was the most famous composer of his age. With the rise of domestic music-making and public concerts, enterprising music publishers helped spread Haydn’s reputation by issuing editions of his music: quartets, solo piano pieces, trios, symphonies, and other works. The most important Viennese publisher with whom he was associated was the house of Artaria (pronounced ahr-tah-REE-uh). Their relationship started in 1780. Many others publishers throughout Europe also issued Haydn’s music: JeanGeorges Sieber and Boyer in Paris, John Bland and William Forster in London, Breitkopf in Leipzig, J.J. Hummel in Amsterdam, Johann André in Offenbach-am-Main, and other smaller houses. Not all of these editions were sanctioned by Haydn. Some of the publishers were unscrupulous and so eager to capitalize on Haydn’s reputation that they issued music by others under Haydn’s name. Another complicating factor was that different editions of the same works appeared in various cities–often with different opus numbers organized to suit each publisher’s internal system. Consequently, the study of Haydn’s music is rife with issues of authenticity, textual discrepancies between early editions and manuscripts, inconsistent opus numbers, and chronology. Starting in the 1930s, the Dutch collector and bibliographer Anthony van Hoboken (1887-1983) undertook the task of compiling a comprehensive catalogue of Haydn’s music. His magnum opus was issued in three volumes between 1957 and 1978. Hoboken’s exhaustive work documented early printed editions of Haydn’s compositions, autograph scores, and manuscript copies. The project eventually involved scholars from the Joseph Haydn Institut as well. Hoboken’s name is the source of the “Hob.” citation identifying works by Haydn. His system organizes Haydn’s works by genre (e.g., symphony, opera, mass, concerto, piano sonata), then assigns an Arabic number to individual compositions within each category, in chronological order. In the case of this evening’s quartet, the Roman numeral III designates a string quartet–of which Haydn composed more than 80. One starts to understand why a cataloguing system is useful! We generally identify Haydn’s quartets with both an opus number and a Hoboken number. Most of the quartets were published in sets of three or six. They often pinpoint significant developments in Haydn’s style. Also, the opus numbers assigned to his quartets are more or less chronological, unlike the opus numbers for some of the other Haydn works. Thus, the Op. 1 and Op. 3 quartets are early works from the 1760s; the Op. 9, Op. 17, and Op. 20 quartets are from the 1770s; Op.33, 50, 54, and 55 from the 1780s; and so forth. Haydn’s last quartet was unfinished: two movements were composed in 1803 which were published in 1806 as his Op.103. Their catalogue number is Hob.III:83. – Laurie Shulman ©2011

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Program Notes way. If Haydn were suppressing any energy in the earlier movements, he which is the one section where Debussy chooses not to apply the cyclic lets it all loose here in this delightful, joyous conclusion. composing technique. In this movement, Debussy paints one of the most a delicate and intimate moments in all of music; the listener almost feels as if he must hold his breath so as not to destroy the fragile beauty Premier Quatuor [First Quartet] in G minor, Opus 10 of this moment. Claude Debussy (1862-1918) The finale, Très modéré, makes specific reference to the first two movements, This quartet is unique in Debussy's oeuvre. Widely regarded as his finest quoting the germinal motive in inversion and in syncopation, as melody piece of chamber music, it is his sole completed effort in the realm of the and as accompaniment. Debussy's contrapuntal technique in this last string quartet (despite the label “Premier Quatuor” [First Quartet]). It is movement is as disciplined and traditional as in any piece he wrote. also the only composition to which he assigned a key and an opus number His admiration and study of the works of Bach and Mozart make their as part of its title, and appears as a rare example of absolute music among impact felt in this writing. Passages with double stops for all four players his compositions. Most of his works have specific references such as a result in a lush, rich sonority with the color range of a small orchestra. As poem (most often in his songs) or a descriptive phrase, place, or painting in all of his finer works, Debussy paints for us in this quartet a brilliant, (as in his preludes for solo piano). evocative canvas in sound. Debussy dedicated the piece to the Belgian violin virtuoso Eugène Ysaÿe String Quartet No.13 in A minor, (1858-1931), whose quartet gave the D.804 “Rosamunde” work its première in Brussels in 1893. Franz Peter Schubert (1797The initial reaction was poor. People 1828) did not understand the music, and accused the composer of being vague Schubert was a frustrated opera and incoherent. In fact, Debussy was composer. While he tossed out not an experienced contrapuntalist and songs with amazing ease and tended to eschew the traditional forms rapidity—songs that often became of music–such as the string quartet. He the "top 40" of his day—he had established a modest reputation as craved success in Vienna’s popular a composer, with art songs, some choral opera houses. That success eluded music, and a few salon pieces for piano. him, however. Plagued with poor libretti, he suffered one resounding Debussy's biographer, Edward failure after another. Still, he was Lockspeiser, argues strongly that drawn to the stage, and when Debussy was most successful when his he was approached in 1823 to music had an extra-musical association: compose incidental music for a The songs show him to be the poet's four-act play entitled Rosamunde, musician; the best of the piano pieces, the Fürstin von Zypern ("Rosamunde, painter's musician. With his abhorrence Princess of Cyprus"), he seized the for professionalism, he did more than any other composer to bring music out of its opportunity. own isolated world into a wider world where art, literature, and music interacted on each other freely. Is it, then, surprising that, with one exception, his examples of absolute music are failures? But that one exception is a masterpiece: it is the String Quartet.

The project went the way of Schubert's other dramatic endeavors. Vienna's press Debussy, by Marcel Baschet, 1884 dismissed Helmina von Chézy’s drama (which has been lost) as The quartet is unmistakably cyclic in its thematic organization. Between improbable and silly. It closed after only two performances, despite 1892 and 1894, Debussy was very close to the composer Ernest some kinder critical words for Schubert’s score. The incidental music has Chausson. Chausson's famous teacher, César Franck, had achieved great become a staple of the orchestral repertoire. Rosamunde’s theme from renown with his cyclic Symphony in D minor (1888). This pioneering the well-known entr’acte is the theme of Schubert’s second movement in work–and Franck's innovative technique–exerted enormous influence on this quartet, hence the nickname. both of the younger composers. Schubert often borrowed from himself; this quartet’s third movement In a series of letters to Chausson from 1893, Debussy wrote of difficulties takes its opening motive from his 1819 song “Die Götter Griechenlands” with the incomplete quartet. On 2 July, he complained, "As for the last (“The Gods of Greece”), also known as Strophe von Schiller (“Verses of movement of the Quartet, I can't get it into the shape I want, and that's Schiller”), D.677. Scholars now believe that the Rosamunde string quartet the third time of trying. It's a hard slog!" Even after its completion, he theme may also predate the incidental music. Schubert was comfortable expressed dissatisfaction with its formal structure. Struggling with the writing for strings and composed many quartets for family musicales as exigencies of sonata form, he seized upon the technique of stating a a youth. It is quite plausible that he expanded this theme to the larger germinal motive in the opening measures of the first movement, which instrumentation for Rosamunde’s incidental music. then figured prominently throughout the entire work. Debussy reworks the motive with great rhythmic and textural ingenuity in the scherzo Schubert completed the A minor quartet in early 1824 with a dedication to (Assez vif et bien rythmé). Vivid pizzicato writing evokes both mandolin Ignaz Schuppanzigh, the Viennese violinist and conductor whose quartet premiered many of Beethoven’s works. The Schuppanzigh Quartet and guitar. played the first performance of Schubert’s A minor Quartet in Vienna on Emotionally, the climax of the quartet occurs in its slow movement, 14 March, 1824. The Rosamunde Quartet has been overshadowed by the

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


Program notes fierce, dramatic Death and the Maiden Quartet. Two works farther apart in temperament cannot be imagined. As Alfred Einstein has noted: . . . the A-minor quartet was as far removed in style and character from Beethoven as it could be–as far removed from the ‘Unfinished’ in the symphonic field, and the chamber-music counterpart to the latter.

Yet both quartets strain the confines of the chamber idiom, occasionally approaching symphonic textures. We know from Schubert’s letters and contemporary reports that he was profoundly depressed during this period. As his syphilis advanced, his sense of mortality intensified. In late March 1823, he wrote to Leopold Kupelweiser: Imagine a man whose health will never be sound again and who in despair only makes it worse and not better; imagine a man, I say, whose most shining hopes have come to naught, for whom the bliss of love and friendship offers nothing but the greatest pain, for whom the passion for beauty threatens to die away, and ask yourself then if that isn’t one wretched, unhappy man? ‘My peace is gone, heavy is my heart, find it again shall I never, never again,’ this I can certainly sing now every day, for every night when I go to bed I hope I’ll never wake up....

The text he quotes is the incipit to “Gretchen am Spinnrade,” one of Schubert’s greatest songs. The quartet’s first movement has both a pyschological and musical connection to the song. The slow movement is a hybrid form based on the lovely Rosamunde theme. Listeners who know the piano sonatas will hear echoes of those works as well. Those familiar with the complete incidental music from Rosamunde may be disappointed that Schubert did not grace us with a characteristic set of variations. As listeners, we acquiesce to his mournful mood; in an agitated passage near the end, he reminds us of his turmoil. Wistfulness and melancholy shadow the third movement. The minuet’s motive comes from Schubert’s setting of the Schiller line, “Schöne Welt, wo bist du?” (“Beautiful world, where are you?”). The questioning, tentative motive sets the tone: this is hesitant, probing, private music. Only in the finale does Schubert emerge from the gloomy atmosphere. Indeed, the closing Allegro moderato has the “Hail good fellow, well met!” jollity of the Trout Quintet finale. (It shares the key of A major with that finale as well.) Was Schubert trying to make amends for a quartet cloaked in douleur?

Artemis String Quartet

T

he Artemis Quartet’s meteoric rise to renown throughout Europe began with its sweep of the top awards at the German Music Competition in 1995,

the Munich Competition in 1996, and the Borciani Competition in 1997. On its fourth North American tour, in the spring of 2002, the Artemis Quartet confirmed its preeminence among the world’s young string quartets, winning extraordinary praise from critics and the public across the continent from Boston to Los Angeles. The New York Times’ Anthony Tommasini declared that “the Berlin-based Artemis Quartet increasingly seems the most impressive quartet among the new generation.” Formed at the Musikhochschule in Lübeck, Germany, where its members studied with Walter Levin, formerly of the LaSalle Quartet, the Quartet also worked with the Alban Berg Quartet in Cologne, and in master classes with the Emerson and Juilliard Quartets. In spite of its immediate success, the Artemis focuses constantly on the quality of its musicianship. The Artemis Quartet was honored with the 2001 Rheingau Music Award, and was the first quartet ever to be awarded the Music Prize of the Association of

In the finale, several elements of Hungarian style are present: the drones, the emphasis on second beats, the quasi-improvisatory passages, dotted rhythms, and violinistic flourishes reminiscent of Gypsy fiddling. Schubert’s flexible rhythms, his switches from major to minor mode and back again, and his occasional momentary stops remind the listener that the quartet is, at its heart, the mirror of a tormented soul.

German Critics. In recognition of the Quartet’s contribution to the interpretation

– Laurie Shulman ©2011

Virgin Classics/EMI label, a venture that will ultimately generate at least ten

of Beethoven’s music, the Verein des Beethoven-Hauses Bonn granted the ensemble honorary membership in 2003. The following year, the Quartet was awarded the 23rd Premio Internazionale Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, Italy. In 2005, the Artemis Quartet signed an exclusive recording contract with the recordings over five years. The Quartet’s first recording for Virgin Classics, of Beethoven String Quartets Op. 95 and 59/1, won Germany’s 2006 Echo Klassik award for “Chamber Music Recording of the Year.” The Artemis Quartet appeared in a motion picture early in its career, Bruno Monsaingeon’s 1996 film Death and the Maiden, at the invitation of the Alban Berg Quartet. Five years later, the ensemble was featured in Monsaingeon’s Strings Attached, a documentary on Beethoven’s Grosse Fuge, Op. 133.

For more information visit www.artemisquartet.com Artemis Quartet appears by arrangement of Melvin Kaplan, Inc.

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special thanks

Folly Theater Staff and Volunteers Sincere appreciation goes to Gale Tallis, Stephanie SpatzOrnburn, Joan Hubbard, Greg Hulme, Kathy StipekNehls, Khalid Johnson, Brandy Hersch, David Tebow, Doc Watson, Bryant Stoll, Linda Bowlen, and Steve Irwin of the Folly Theater; and to all the friendly and helpful Folly volunteers who make The Friends’ Folly concert experiences enjoyable. Church Venue Staff and Volunteers Special thanks to the staff and volunteers at the churches who allowed us to present our concerts and “What Makes It Great?” programs in their beautiful buildings last season: John and Leona Schaefer, and Mary Ann Mansfield at Grace and Holy Trinity Cathedral; Reverend Monsignor Robert Gregory, Mario Pearson, and Gail Monaco at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception; Jan Kraybill, Pam Robison and Cara Casey at the Community of Christ Temple; and Rev. Doug Roberts and Mike Minor at the Country Club Congregational United Church of Christ. Thanks also to John Kimball who tirelessly and professionally provides the staging, lighting, and technical assistance for our programs at these churches. The Friends Volunteers Our heart-felt thanks to some of our favorite people—our invaluable volunteers, the “friends of The Friends”! Last season this hard-working, enthusiastic, and knowledgeable group of chamber music aficionados performed innumerable tasks from selling CDs to transporting artists, tearing tickets and helping out in the office. We literally couldn’t have produced the season without them! Thanks goes to Hugo Becker, Audrey Brattain, Julia Brettle, Nancy and Mike Bruno, Ashley Carlson, Marcia Cooper, Nancy Corwin, Liz Craig, Diane Fukunaga, Beverly Fuqua, Mikaela Garrett, Brenda Hill, Carmen Hostiuc, Lyn and Jim Jandt, Jessica and Jack Jarsulic, Richard Keith, Margaret Lange, Virginia Long, Deb and Jack McLaren, George Moss, Larry Probst, Carol Quigg, Rick Stephenson, Jim Terril, Marita Wessley, and Mary Kay Ziegler. Bon Appetit A big thank-you goes to those who so generously hosted pre- and post-concert dinners and receptions for our artists and patrons last season: Bob and Mary Biber; Scott Francis and Susan Gordon; Vera Isenberg; Steve and Jeannette Karbank; Jonathan and Nancy Lee Kemper; Marshall and Janet Miller; James and Patricia Miller; Cynthia Schwab; and Cynthia Siebert and Larry Hicks.

Sweet Intermission André’s Confiserie Suisse and the Bollier family add a sweet note to every concert by kindly allowing our sale of their delicious chocolates. Proceeds from the sale of these delectable treats benefit The Friends of Chamber Music.

Firm Financial and Legal Footing A special thank you goes to our fantastic accountant, Jennifer Plackemeier, CPA, her assistant Betsy Bowman, and Harold J. Nicholson, CPA, for donating time and resources in performing our annual audit and preparing our tax returns. Special thanks to the law firm of SNR Denton for legal advice. Page Turner A special thanks to John Schaefer who has been an avid, long-time supporter of The Friends, including artfully turning pages (yes – there is an art to it!) when needed. Harpsichords With extreme generosity, Oliver Finney makes his harpsichords available for The Friends’ artists to play, including the transportation, maintenance, and tuning of these beautiful instruments. We appreciate his liberal kindness. Music Teachers Many area school and private music teachers wisely provide their students a deeper foundation for their studies by encouraging them and their families to attend Friends’ concerts. Experiencing some of the world’s most renowned musicians playing the world’s finest music not only gives young people a vision of what their own music can become, but encourages a life-long pattern of attendance at excellent cultural activities. To assist in these efforts to encourage young artists, The Friends provides special low pricing for the Master Pianists Series for piano teachers, their students and families. In addition, single tickets to International Chamber Music and Early Music concerts are always free for youth 18 and under, and $15 for Master Pianists Series concerts. Our Friends in the Legislature Thank you to Missouri Governor Jay Nixon and the legislature for supporting the arts in our state.

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition


special thanks

Beyond the Concert Experience The Friends provides complementary programming to enhance the concert-going experience. Special thanks to those who have shared their vast expertise in supporting our efforts: William Everett, Bill Ashworth, Bruce Bradley, Nancy Cervetti, Bob Powell, John Hess, and Nolan Gasser of Pandora. com. Thanks also to Beth Titterington, Vicki Olson, and Jackie Lee for providing preconcert ensembles showcasing student musicians; and to Jerry Harrington for his generosity in providing the Tivoli Cinemas for FORTE Film Series.

Soirée 2011 Benefit and Wine Auction Our utmost thanks to the Soirée 2011 contributors, table hosts, attendees, and auction items donors. Thanks also to Doug Frost, Lucille Windsor, Stu Nowlin of Stu Nowlin Imaging, Debera Nichols of the InterContinental Hotel, Marquee Selections, and Boelte-Hall for their invaluable help with Soirée. Further Thanks Sincere thanks also to our expert piano-tuner, Greg Hulme; Annette Luyben and Luyben Music; Carol Pecoraro and Penny Van Bebber at Kansas City Marriott Downtown; Sheraton Suites Country Club Plaza; Rene’ York of Leader Chauffeured Services; Dee Dee Adams, Ellen Porter, John Hamann, and Elly Miles at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art; Richard Leslie and David Chase of The Pavilion at John Knox Village; Todd Boyer and Chris Nielson of the Kansas City Public Library—Plaza Branch; André’s Confiserie Suisse; Frank Gazella of Pieroguys Pierogies; Kasama Kasemvudhi; Jake Narverud; Amy Hull of the KC Police Department; Jamie Deets of Schmitt Music for the generous use of a Steinway concert grand piano; and Leslie Lerner, Kathy Oldham, and Barney and Cheryl White for graciously hosting artists last season.

Become a volunteer. . . The Friends depends heavily on its corps of volunteers-especially to perform important duties at our concerts. From selling luscious Andre’s chocolates, CDs by our renowned performers, or concert tickets, to setting up receptions and transporting artists, The Friends of Chamber Music's magnificent volunteers are integral to our success. In appreciation, our volunteers attend our gorgeous concerts for free! For additional information, please contact Eileen Terril at 816.561.9999.

Volunteers Beverly Fuqua and Carmen Hostiuc with The Friends of Chamber Music's General Manager and Director of Artist Services, Eileen Terril, at Soirée 2011, © Stu Nowlin Imaging

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contributors

Why Give?

The Friends of Chamber Music is loyal to its mission of presenting worldclass artists for affordable ticket prices (our tickets are usually a fraction of what other major cities would charge for the same artists, and most of our concerts are free to students 18 and under). As ticket sales cover only one-third of our expenses, we rely on the generosity of individuals, foundations, corporations, and government funders for the remaining twothirds of our budget. Your generous financial support of our concerts and educational activities allows you to share in the joy of bringing outstanding music to our community. If you have not yet made a donation to The Friends, we invite you to join our donor family. Please call Kate Beebe, Director of Development, at 816-561-9999 to learn more about making a contribution.

VISIONARIES ($50,000 and above) Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation William T. Kemper Foundation GUARDIANS ($25,000 - $49,000) Stanley H. Durwood Foundation The Friends of Chamber Music Endowment Funds SUSTAINERS ($15,000 - $24,999) The H & R Block Foundation Charles & Virginia Clark Francis Family Foundation Hall Family Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Irvine O. Hockaday, Jr. Missouri Arts Council National Endowment for the Arts Patricia Rivette MAJOR BENEFACTORS ($10,000 - $14,999) J. S cott Francis/Francis Family Foundation Discretionary Fund Irv& Ellen Hockaday Fund for The Friends of Chamber Music David Woods Kemper Foundation Missouri Arts Council Cultural Trust Fund Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund Oppenstein Brothers Foundation Cynthia H. Schwab Sosland Foundation Michael Waterford BENEFACTORS ($5,000 - $9,999) ArtsKC Fund of the Arts Council of Metropolitan Kansas City Dick & Jane Bruening Chamber Music America Commerce Bank of Kansas City Mr. & Mrs. Jonathan M. Kemper Master Craftsmen Foundation Dr. & Mrs. Douglas McNair Miller-Mellor Association RLS Illumination Fund Ever Glades Fund/Sarah & Landon Rowland, in memory of Jane Neale Havens Ten Ten Foundation Sanders & Blanche Sosland Music Fund PATRONS ($1,000 - $4,999) Hugo & Sharon Becker Dr. & Mrs. Robert Biber Eugene Bileski & Diane Krizek

Contributors

We gratefully acknowledge the kindness of our many contributors who have given their financial support on behalf of our concerts and our educational activities. This list of contributors represents donations and pledges received between July 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. The Friends of Chamber Music’s fiscal year is July 1 – June 30. Special thanks to the Richard J. Stern Foundation for the Arts for underwriting the Hamburg Steinway piano.

BlackRock Matching Gift Program Copaken Family Foundation Jay & Kit Culver David M. & Sandy Eisenberg Mr. & Mrs. Joseph T. Fahey J.M. Fahey Construction Company Fike Corporation Joyce Fox Mr. & Mrs. Daniel J. Frank John R. & Ellen R. Goheen Karen & Michael Herman Vera Isenberg Steven & Jeannette Karbank Ian Kennedy Donald B. Marquis Marshall & Janet Miller Mr. & Mrs. Mark O'Connell Dr. & Mrs. Edward J. Prostic Jane Ratcliffe & Jack Coakley Cynthia Siebert & Lawrence Hicks Morton & Estelle Sosland Martha Lee Cain Tranby Music Enrichment Fund Marc & Elizabeth Wilson Ellen and Jerome Wolf DONORS ($500 - $999) Anonymous Lennie and Jerry Berkowitz Leonard & Irene Bettinger Philanthropic Fund of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City Anne Fraser Alan Grimes Monica Jeffries Hazangeles & John Peter Hazangeles Mr. & Mrs. James B. Hebenstreit Pamela A. Hoelzel Honeywell Hometown Solutions David H. Hughes Linda Lighton & Lynn Adkins Thomas Lucero Dr. David G. Meyers Ann & Whitney Miller Nan Muchnic Neil & Jeanne Lillig Patterson A. Rae Price Lisa & Charles Schellhorn Julia Scherer SUPPORTERS ($250 - $499) Adelman Family Anonymous

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Mrs. Wayne Barnes Dr. & Mrs. Lance G. Beshore Bruce Campbell & Cynthia Clark Campbell William H. & Jill J. Coughlin Joan F. Curran Don & Patricia Dagenais Jon & Juli Ellis Fred D. Fowler, M.D. Mr. Jerome Harrington Neil & Lona Harris Rita & Lamar Hunt, Jr. Bill & Peggy Lyons Robert P. Lyons P. Alan McDermott Andrews McMeel Universal Foundation Ken & Elizabeth Meisinger Diane & Ernest Neighbor June & Cal Padgett Debra & Allen Parmet Stanley S. & Ardyce H. Pearson Jana E. Pinker Memorial Foundation Drs. Charles & Susan Porter George & Wendy Powell Barbara & Amos Roberts Naoma & Webster Schott Joshua & Jane Sosland Philanthropic Fund of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City Arthur & Barbara Stern Gerald & Marilyn Uppman Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C. Weary Heinz K. Wehner SPONSORS ($100 - $249) Anonymous Bill & Kristin Amend Dwight & Naomi Arn Mr. & Mrs. Russell W. Baker, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Richard O. Ballentine Thomas & Susan Bamford William Barstow & Laurie Shulman Robert Basolo, Jr. Mark & Kathy Berger Dan Bernstein James & Betty Jean Bingham Rita & Irwin Blitt Curtis & Sharon Bock Sandra Bowlby Dorothy Burggraaff & Tim Scott Karen L. Christiansen Cliff & Pennie Cohn Dr. & Mrs. Ivan Damjanov


contributors Robert Delisle Mr. John E. Dieter III Roger Dirks & Cindy Capellari Marles S. Dudley, NCTM Dr. & Mrs. Robert H. Easterday Dr.Gustave & Elinor Eisemann Philanthropic Fund of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City, in honor of Vera Isenberg Gerard Eisterhold & Kate Garland Carter Enyeart William Everett & Lynda Payne Geraldine E. Fowle Jerry Fry Norman E. & Marilyn A.W. Gaar Joan Gallos & Lee Bolman William R. Gann Melvin & Meta George Nicholas Good Peter & Lynda Goulet Klaus & Claudia Grunewald Dr. Richard K. Gutknecht Drs. James & Linda Hamilton Caroline & George Helmkamp John F. Herbst Charles & Leslie Herman Walter & Jean Hiersteiner Emily M. Hodges, in memory of Harriet M. (Haku) Snyder Ann & Jim Hotchkiss Mr. & Mrs. George S. Huff Margaret Jackson Joseph T. Jensen Ann & Ed Kander Jerry & Joy Kaplan Duane & Cosette Kelly John & Sangeetha Kelly Drs. John & Ann Kenney Pamela D. Kingsbury Donna & Parker LaBach Mr. & Mrs. Art Lafex Susan Lawlor Dr. N. J. Lindsey, in memory of Dr. Elizabeth Wilson Wayne Lippman John & Kathy MacDonald Lindsay & Lee Major Daniel C. Marcus James & Eileen Marshall Rev. Mike & Judy May Robert & Heather Maynard The Honorable Patrick & Patricia McAnany Dr. William McCollum Dr. & Mrs. H. Richard McFarland C. Stephen Metzler Virginia Miller Richard Morgan Sara V. Newman Carol M. Owen Richard & Louise Parizek Mr. & Mrs. William E. Quirk Susanne Roeder, in memory of Arnold Ellery Greene Mr. & Mrs. John Schaefer Mark Schonwetter William O. Scott Uri & Marlene Seiden Shalon Fund

Sigma Alpha Iota - Kansas City Coordinating Council Shirley Spiegel, in memory of Marshall Spiegel Alice Statland Barney Goodman Donor Advised Fund of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City Gary Tegtmeier Benjamin & Marilyn Tilghman Virginia & Edwin Trainor Robert Weirich & Karen Kushner Paul & Meta Ann White John Wilkinson Bruce J. Williams Murray & Elsie Winicov E. David & Judith Frame Wiseman FRIENDS (Up to $99) Anonymous Tandy & Janet Allen Gary N. Anderson Donald & Jeanne Andrade Bruce Appel Edna Atkisson Jane Anne Beachner Beckmann Violin Shop Joseph & Francoise Bien Marilyn T. Bradt Betty Brand Dorothy Brandwein Sanna Cass Alietia Caughron Michael Chamberlain Sally Chapple Ken & Mary Chung Tara Ciaramitaro Nancy Cramer Consuelo Cruz Marilyn Curtis Mrs. Ray W. Dunn Phyllis Holter Dunn Julie Elfving Rob & Melissa Falkner Russell Ferguson, in memory of Paul Sebben Gary & Marilyn George Baila Goldstein Sue Gordon Dobroslawa Grzymala-Busse Gayle Hathorne Luann Heacock Mr. & Mrs. B. Spencer Heddens III, in memory of Bettie M. Smith Pablo Hernandez Duane & Kathy Holloway Sonja & Louis Joline Lisa Keeter Patrick Keller David Kinne Natasa Letherman Barry Little William L. Lowenstein Mark Lowry & Tammie Kresse-Lowry Susan McAlister Ethel McCoun Jay & Symie Menitove Tad Messenger Mu Phi Epsilon Henry Mudge-Lisk

Dr. & Mrs. Jorge C. Paradelo Dick & Audre Patel David & Beth Pener, in memory of Bettie M. Smith Steve & Kathy Peters Scott Pinkerton James L. Poulson Richard I. Preis Ann T. Reed, in memory of Catharine Gardner Dr. & Mrs. Lewis H. Roht George & Goldie Sakoulas Wayne & Lou Ann Sangster Shirley Schnell, in memory of Titania Walter & Sally Sedelow Wayne X. Shandera, M.D. Dale & Anne Shipley Jack & Norma Jean Sigler Richard & Karin Smith Tom & Vicki Smith Mr. & Mrs. Glenn Spillman Egon Stammler Clyde D. Stoltenberg Anthony & Diane Stolz Melody D. Stroth, NCTM, in memory of Richard Cass Howard & Gail Sturdevant Mr. & Mrs. Perry Toll Steven Wall Ron Williams Paula Winchester/Twelve Winds Tea Company

Every effort has been made to ensure an accurate list of contributors. If we have made an inadvertent mistake, please bring it to the attention of Kate Beebe, Director of Development, by calling 816-561-9999. The lists printed here represent donations and pledges received between July 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011.

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endowment donors

Endowment Donors

In addition to their annual gifts, endowment donors have given to The Friends of Chamber Music’s future. The Friends’ endowments are permanent funds from which earnings may be used at the Board’s discretion for special initiatives, concerts, or operations. We thank the following donors for recognizing the need to strengthen The Friends’ endowments for the sake of future audiences. Amounts shown are cumulative, often reflecting multiple gifts over the years.

$100,000 and above William T. Kemper Foundation National Endowment for the Arts Challenge Grant Sanders & Blanche Sosland Music Fund $10,000 - $99,999 Anonymous Anonymous, in memory of James W. & Ruth T. Evans Commerce Bank of Kansas City Mr. & Mrs. George C. Dillon David M. & Sandy Eisenberg Steven & Jeanette Karbank David Woods Kemper Memorial Foundation Mr. & Mrs. William G. Levi Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Lyons Vera Patton William Quirk Mr. & Mrs. Lamson Rheinfrank, Jr. Cynthia H. Schwab Cynthia Siebert & Lawrence Hicks Sosland Foundation Lester T. Sunderland Foundation Sutherland Lumber Courtney S. Turner Charitable Trust, Daniel C. Weary and Bank of America, Trustees Mark & Nancy Viets $5,000 - $9,999 Nancy Martin Barnes Vera Isenberg Isaac (Jack) & Rena Jonathan Douglas McNair & Cecelia Stadler McNair Patricia Y. & Gerald B. Rivette

$2,500 - $4,999 Mr. & Mrs. Richard O. Ballentine Charles & Virginia Clark Mr. William G. Levi Robert Loyd Whitney F. & Ann Miller Jane E. Ratcliffe Beth K. Smith $1,000 - $2,499 Leonard & Irene Bettinger Julie A. Burgess Jack Coakley Mr. & Mrs. Charles French Tom & Ann Gill Dr. & Mrs. John R. Goheen Mr. & Mrs. William Greiner Mr. & Mrs. Irvine O. Hockaday Mrs. G.M. Mulhern Janice Newberry Julia Scherer Claudia Scognamiglio-Pasini Mr. & Mrs. Barney White Marc & Elizabeth Wilson $500 - $999 Sally Chapple, in memory of Charles Culloden Chapple Ruth Evans $250 - $499 Joan Gallos & Lee Bolman Jon & Janet Henderson Kathleen A. Markham Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Parks Mr. & Mrs. Glenn R. Spillman

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

Special thanks to those who remember The Friends of Chamber Music or The Friends of Chamber Music Endowment Funds in their wills or estate plans: Anonymous (3) Nancy Martin Barnes Mr. & Mrs. Charles Abbott Carter, Jr. Sally Chapple Victor (Vic) Contoski Dorothy Dreher Marsha L. Enterline Adele Levi Sally Verburg Livengood Jane E. Ratcliffe Julia Scherer Cynthia H. Schwab Cynthia Siebert & Lawrence Hicks Joshua & Jane Sosland Dr. Harry & Alice Statland, in memory of Suzanne Statland Kaleen Tiber Michael Waterford


soirée 2011 acknowledgements

Soirée 2011 Acknowledgements For more information on Soirée, The Friends of Chamber Music’s annual benefit and wine auction, please see pages 20 and 21.

In-Kind Sponsors Doug Frost Marquee Selections Stu Nowlin, Stu Nowlin Imaging Printing Sponsor Boelte-Hall Wine Auction Consultant Doug Frost Auctioneer Lucille Windsor CONTRIBUTORS $10,000 and Above Commerce Bank of Kansas City Patricia Rivette $5,000 - $9,999 DST Systems, Inc. Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation $1,000 - $4,999 BlackRock Matching Gift Program Tom & Judy Bowser Scott Francis Steve Karbank Benny & Edith Lee Marshall & Janet Miller Sprint Foundation Stinson Morrison Hecker $100 - $999 Michael & Marie Rubis Bauer Christopher Beal Bruce & Cynthia Campbell John R. & Ellen R. Goheen Gourley Family Foundation Fund Delores Hsu John & Ann Kenney Adele Levi Jack & Barbara Spilker Gale Tallis

Table Hosts Bob & Mary Biber DST Systems, Inc. David M. & Sandy Eisenberg/Baker Sterchi Cowden & Rice LLC Scott Francis Daniel & Kristina Frank Vera Isenberg Jonathan & Nancy Lee Kemper/ Commerce Bank of Kansas City Benny & Edith Lee Scott Lindsay James & Patricia Miller Cynthia Siebert & Larry Hicks Jerry & Ellen Wolf/SNR Denton US LLP Auction Item Donors Ambience Furs André’s Confiserie Suisse Arrow Rock Lyceum Theatre Asiatica Black Bamboo Café Sebastienne Commerce Bank of Kansas City David M. & Sandy Eisenberg Jerry Eisterhold Doug Frost Function Junction Susan Gordon Jewelry Halls InterContinental Kansas City at the Plaza Steve Karbank Julia Irene Kauffman Jennifer Lillig Lon Lane’s Inspired Occasions Phil & Patty Love Major Brands Steve Metzler & Brian Williams Mark & Lynne O’Connell Scott & Kim Penning Pryde’s Room 39 Scandia Down Scott Fitness Renée Siebert & John Olichney

Michael Smith Restaurant Josh & Jane Sosland Morton & Estelle Sosland Neil & Blanche Sosland Theater League, Inc. Robert & Prudence True Paula Winchester, HerbGathering.com Lucille Windsor Thank you to the following Soirée 2011 Fund-A-Need Donors who helped support The Darwin Project: Alexandr Arakelov & Manana Elia Jerry & Lennie Berkowitz Joyce Fox Eugene Bileski & Diane Krizek Ellen D'Amato Jonathan & Nancy Lee Kemper Adele Levi Dennis & Susan Marker James & Patricia Miller Cynthia Siebert & Larry Hicks David & Lisa Skolnick Jerry & Ellen Wolf

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glossary A abendmusik [Ger.] evening music. accompaniment the musical background for a principal part or parts. adagio very slow tempo. adagio ma non tanto a slow tempo, but not too much. affettuoso affectionate, tender. air a tune, vocal or instrumental. aleatory [adj. aleatoric] music which leaves certain creative decisions to the performer, perhaps concerning the ordering of composed fragments, or specific pitches or durations used. allegro fast tempo; merry or lively. allegro non troppo merry and lively, but not overly so. allegretto moderately fast tempo; often lighter in texture or character than allegro. allemande a German dance of the mid16th century in a moderate 2/4 or 4/4 time which eventually became incorporated into instrumental suites in the 18th century alta capella term referring to the town wind bands found throughout Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, usually consisting of shawms, slide trumpets and sackbuts. andante moderately slow; a walking tempo. andantino slightly faster than andante. animé [animando or animato, It.] Animated. In common use since the 19th century to indicate either a quickening of the tempo or a more excited expression. antiphon brief Latin liturgical chant sung as the refrain or response to the verses of a psalm. antiphony [adj. antiphonal] the use of two or more performers or ensembles that are spatially separated, and that alternate or oppose one another in a musical piece. aperto [It.] “open”. The first of two endings for a section of a piece. appassionato impassioned. appoggiatura meaning a “leaning,” this term describes a dissonant pitch that is in a strong metrical position as if “leaning” against a note or notes, that is resolved or ceases to “lean” by moving to a consonant* pitch in a relatively weaker position by ascending or descending a step. archlute a small six-or seven-course* lute with an extended pegbox that holds unfretted bass courses. Archlutes were commonly used as part of the basso continuo* in Italian music of the 17th and 18th centuries.

arco bow; often seen in music following pizzicato* sections (where the strings are plucked with the fingers); “arco” indicates the performer is to play with the bow. aria elaborate solo song found primarily in operas*, oratorios* and cantatas*. arietta a small aria or song, usually sung by a secondary character in an opera*. articulation the characteristics of attack and decay of tones and the means by which these characteristics are produced. Staccato* and legato* are types of articulation. arpeggio a chord whose pitches are sounded successively, usually from the lowest note to the highest rather than simultaneously. assai [It.] much, very much. atonal the absence or opposite of tonality, or the absence of a key center. attacca attack immediately. When placed at the end of a movement, it serves as an instruction to begin the next movement without pause. augmentation the reappearance of a musical theme in notes of longer value than those in the original statement. The opposite of diminution. B barcarolle [Fr.] music modeled on the song of the Venetian gondoliers, usually in 6/8 or 12/8 time with accompaniment* suggesting the rocking of a boat. bariolage a virtuoso string technique requiring rapid shifting back and forth between two or more strings to produce a tremolo effect. ballade In the 19th century, a long, dramatic type of piano piece; musical equivalent of a poetic ballad, such as the Chopin Ballades. bar line in musical notation, a line drawn vertically through one or more staves to mark off a measure.* Baroque period period or style in Western music extending from roughly 16001750, during which J. S. Bach and Handel composed. bassa capella term referring to music groups found throughout Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, usually consisting of soft instruments such as strings. (As opposed to alta capella). basso continuo [It.] “thoroughbass.” Also called simply “continuo.” Independent, continuous bass line throughout a piece that serves as an accompaniment to instruments or voices performing the melody. At a minimum, it consisted of a keyboard instrument (harpsichord, organ, clavichord) and a bass instrument (viola

the friends of chamber music | transcend tradition

da gamba, violoncello, bassoon). In earlier Baroque works, a lute, guitar, or theorbo* participates as part of the continuo. In late Baroque concertos the continuo most often comprises harpsichord and cello; however, period instrument ensembles frequently call on the other continuo instruments. bel canto bel canto singing characteristically focuses on evenness throughout the voice, skillful legato*, a light upper register, flexibility, and a lyric, “sweet” timbre. It also refers to the art and science of that vocal technique which originated in Italy during the late seventeenth century and reached its pinnacle in the early part of the nineteenth century. binary form describes a piece comprised of two sections, each usually repeated. The first section generally modulates* to a related key, and the second generally progresses back to the original key. Symbolized AA’. breve [Lat.] short, brief. brio [It.] vivacity; spirit. buffo [It.] comic. C cadence harmonic formula that concludes a musical phrase, section or piece. cadenza elaborate passage for the soloist in a concerto, during which all other instruments are silent; usually near the end of a movement and often not written out by the composer but left to the performer to improvise. canon [adj. canonic] piece, or moment in a piece, in which a subject or musical idea is imitated by one or more voices playing the same musical idea, but beginning after the first voice states the subject and overlapping with it. A well-known example is “Row, Row, Row Your Boat.” The voices which follow the first statement of the subject may or may not begin on the same note or pitch as the first voice. This was a technique commonly employed in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. cantabile to be performed in a melodious, singing manner. cantata vocal composition developed in the Baroque period for chorus and/or solo voice(s), based on secular or religious texts, generally with several movements* and accompanied* by an instrumental ensemble. canticle song from a book of the Bible other than Psalms. cantilena [Lat.] 1) In the Middle Ages, melody or song, including liturgical chant as well as secular songs; 2) In the 13th – 15th centuries, polyphonic* song, especially the French chanson*; 3) In the 19th century


glossary to present, a lyrical vocal or instrumental melody. cantiones sacred songs. cantus firmus a “fixed” song or melody, commonly used as a basis for contrapuntal treatment. canzona [It., ‘song’] instrumental arrangement of French chansons* popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. canzonetta [It.] a light vocal piece popular in Italy from the 1560’s, in England in the late 16th century, and in Germany in the early 17th century. capella [Ger. “Chapel”]; usually refers to a church or court musical ensemble. However, in Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries, the term came to be used to describe any musical group. capriccio [It.: ‘whim, fancy’; Fr. ‘caprice’] it does not signify a specific musical technique or structure, but rather a general disposition toward the exceptional, the whimsical, the fantastic and the arbitrary, “wherein the force of imagination has better success than the observation of the rules of art.” (Furetière, 1690) cassation an informal instrumental genre of the Classical period, usually intended for performance outdoors as a kind of street serenade. cauda a textless passage that often appears at the end of lines in medieval sacred songs. cavatina in 18th- and 19th- century opera, a short solo song, simple in style and without a da capo or repeat. Usually consists of a short, instrumental introduction followed by a single statement set to music. chaconne a form of variations based on a basic chord progression of a dance in triple meter and major mode which originated in Latin America and spread across Europe in the17th century. chamber concerto works for chamber orchestra in which all instrumentalists participate in both the orchestral tutti as well as sharing the solo sections. chamber music music written for small ensembles or soloists, for either private or domestic performance, or before an audience in a relatively small hall. chanson [Fr.] song. chant see plainsong. chiavette in 16th-century vocal polyphony, a coordination of clefs that locates the staves of individual parts, or the ten-line staff used by composers and theorists. chitarrone [It.] 1) In 16th-century Italy, a large bass lute whose strings were tuned similarly to the descant* (soprano) lute, but with the first two courses* an octave lower.

2) In the17th century, the theorbo. chorale the congregational song or hymn of the German Protestant Church. chord (adj., chordal) three or more tones played simultaneously. The most commonly used chord is built on intervals of thirds, such as a C major chord comprised of the notes C, E and G. chromatic scale scale which includes all 12 tones of the octave; moving in half steps.* chromaticism the addition of at least some pitches of the chromatic scale, which is the scale that includes all 12 pitches (half steps* or semitones) contained in an octave. This may result simply from the filling in of whole steps with half steps. Classical 1) in Western music, the period or style extending from the early 18th century through the early 19th century; 2) art music, as opposed to folk or popular music forms. claveciniste referring to an era of 18thcentury French harpsichord compositions. clef sign placed at the beginning of a staff to indicate the position of pitches. coda concluding section of a composition or movement,* usually reinforcing the final cadence. compound meter a meter* that includes a triple subdivision within the beat; i.e., 6/8 time. con brio [It.] with vivacity, spirited. concertante in the 18th century, works for two or more performers (including orchestral works) in which one or more performers is called upon for soloistic display. Mozart’s Concertante for violin and viola soloists plus orchestra is an example. concertino (1) the soloists in a concerto grosso,* (2) in the 18th century, a multimovement work for orchestra or chamber music ensemble. concerto a work for one or more solo instruments accompanied by orchestra, often in three movements. concerto grosso a concerto for a small group of soloists (the concertino), and larger orchestra (the tutti* or ripieno*). con moto literally “with motion”; to be played more rapidly. consort [Eng.] a group of instruments for playing music composed before about 1700. A broken consort consists of instruments from different families using different methods of producing sound. A whole consort consists of instruments all belonging to the same family. continuo see basso continuo. cornetto [It.] a wooden or ivory instrument of the brass family, with a wide conical bore and side holes for a thumb and six fingers. It was used in church and chamber

music from about 1550 to 1700. corrente [It. courante, Fr.: running, flowing] a dance and instrumental form which flourished in Europe from the late 16th century to the mid 18th century, often as a movement* of a suite in 3/8 or 3/4 time. countermelody an accompanying part with distinct, though subordinate, melodic interest, in a piece with a clear melody and accompaniment. counterpoint contrapuntal texture in which two or more melodic voices proceed simultaneously and relatively independently. Renaissance and Baroque works are particularly rich in contrapuntal writing. couplet two successive lines of poetry forming a pair, often within a larger form. courses in a string instrument, the term refers to a pair of strings tuned to the same note and sounded as one, producing a stronger, more ringing sound. An example is the four-course* mandolin, strong in four double courses. crescendo [It.] gradually increasing in loudness. cross rhythm a rhythm in which the regular pattern of accents of the prevailing meter is contradicted or challenged. csárdás a Hungarian dance in duple time. Slow (lassu) sections alternate with fast (friss) ones. D da capo to repeat a composition by returning to the beginning and playing until the word “fine” (“the end”) appears in the music. decrescendo [It.] gradually becoming softer. descant [discant] (from medieval Latin, discantus, ‘sounding part’), term first used in the 12th century , a technique of composition where one voice is added to a plainchant* (or single-voiced song), usually note against note and usually in contrary motion. descant lute a high-pitched member of the lute family, played in the soprano clef. development growth of a musical idea or ideas through variations or transformation; middle section in a sonata* form. diatonic a scale with seven different pitches, made-up of five whole* and two half* steps such as a major* or minor* scale. diminished seventh chord a chord composed of four tones, each a minor third above the next. It is often used to modulate* to another key. diminution in counterpoint, the repetition of a subject or figure in notes of shorter value than those of its original statement. The opposite of augmentation. 36th season 2011-2012

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glossary dissonance musical sounds that create a feeling of tension, as opposed to consonance. All music consists of the play between dissonance and consonance. divertimento in the second half of the 18th century, especially in Austria, typically, a light, secular instrumental work for a chamber music ensemble or soloist. dodecaphony twelve-tone* technique for musical composition that ensures that all 12 notes of the chromatic* scale are of equal importance, thus creating music with no key center. The technique was tremendously influential on composers of the midtwentieth century. dominant the fifth scale degree (note) of a major or minor scale.* doppio [It.], double the speed double canon a piece in which two melodic subjects, or ideas, are employed in canonical style (see canon*). double counterpoint A method of counterpoint that consists of adding to an existing melody a second melody which will fit well either above or below the first. double fugue fugue in which two subjects* are first given full and independent treatment, and then are combined contrapuntally with one another. drone an instrument that plays only a constant pitch or pitches; sustained tone in a piece of music. dumky (pl. dumka) literally “to ponder.” (1) A Slavonic folk ballad from the Ukraine, alternating between moods of elation or despair. (2) Instrumental music involving sudden changes of mood between melancholy and despair. duple meter any meter in which there are two basic beats in a measure, such as 2/2 or 2/4. dynamics the aspect of music relating to degrees of loudness; dynamic markings. E étude literally “study”; instrumental piece designed to improve a player’s technique. equal temperament a musical temperament or system of tuning in which the octave is divided into 12 semitones* of equal size and every pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio. exposition first section in a fugue*, sonata*, symphony or concerto* movement, where a subject* or musical ideas/themes are first heard or exposed. F fandango [Sp.] a lively spanish dance for a single couple, in a quick triple meter* originating in the 18th century and accompanied by guitars and castanets and alternating with sung couplets. A striking

characteristic is the abrupt stopping of the music with the dancers frozen in place. fantasy, fantasia composition in no fixed form wherein a composer may follow freely his or her imagination; may consist of multiple styles, moods, keys,* meters,* tempi* or forms. Fauxbourdon [Fr.] a technique of singing improvised polyphony associated particularly with 15-century FrancoBurgundian sacred music. Only two of three vocal parts were notated: a decorated plainchant melody and the lowest voice in parallel motion. The middle part was improvised by the singer. fermata a performance indication sign used in a composition directing the performer to stop or hold for an unspecified time, to be determined by the performer. figured bass a bass part in which numbers provide the harmonic guidelines within which the performer is expected to improvise. finale the final movement of a sonata,* symphony,* concerto* or string quartet;* usually in a fast tempo.* fine the end. fioriture ornamental passages that are improvised or written out. flautino [It.] a small flute which is played vertically; similar to a recorder rather than a piccolo. Folia A wild and noisy sung dance from the Baroque period. forte loud. fortissimo very loud. fragmentation a compositional technique using only a part orfragment of a musical idea/motif.* fret a piece of material placed across the fingerboard or neck of some string instruments, limiting the strings to be played at a specific pitch. frisch [Ger.], fresh, new. fughetta [It.] a short fugue. fugue (adj. fugal) literally “flight”; in music, a composition in which three or more voices enter imitatively one after another, each giving chase to the previous voice which “flies” before it. A double fugue refers to a fugue with two themes or subjects often developed simulataneously. A triple fugue has three subjects. fugato a fugue-like passage occurring in a larger work or movement that is not in itself a fugue.* fuoco [It.] fire. furiant a quick, exhilarating Bohemian

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dance in ¾ time with shifting accents. G galante term used in 18th-century French music to describe free or homophonic style, as opposed to the strict, learned, contrapuntal style. gavotte [Fr.] a French dance of the 16thcentury court of moderate tempo* in duple meter* usually danced in a line or a circle. gesangvoll, gesang [Ger.], songfully, song geschwind [Ger.], quick, swift. gigue a fast and usually final dance movement of a suite* of English origin and using some rhythmic multiple of triplets. giusto [It.] just, precise; an appropriate or usual tempo* for the type of piece at hand, or return to regular tempo after passage of a flexible tempo. glissando a continuous movement from one pitch to another. This may be produced by a sliding movement on string or wind instruments, with all of the micro-intervals (smaller than half* steps) contained in between the beginning and ending notes of the slide. On the piano, it is produced by a rapid succession of half and/or whole* steps. grave slow or solemn. grazioso graceful. Gregorian Chant named for Pope Gregory I, unaccompanied, monophonic* music cells, codified in the 8th and 9th centuries and used as the basis for compositions for the Catholic Church for several centuries. ground bass a pattern of notes, most often a melodic phrase with a consistent harmonic progression set in the bass, repeated over and over again with changing upper parts. Grounds are basically a series of continuous variations. In Italy, grounds were called basso ostinato, or “obstinate bass.” H half steps the smallest interval in use in western music tradition. There are twelve such intervals contained in the octave. harmonics a tone produced on a stringed instrument by lightly touching a vibrating string at a given fraction of its length so that both segments vibrate. harmonic minor scale a type of minor scale in which the third and sixth degrees of the scale are each lowered a half step from the major scale. harmony the relationship of tones when they sound simultaneously; also, any number of pitches sounded simultaneously, or a chord. harpsichord stringed keyboard instrument in prominent use from the 16th to 18th


glossary centuries, and revived since the 1880’s. Similar in shape to a grand piano, but in the harpsichord, strings are plucked by a plectrum as opposed to being struck by felt-covered hammers. homophony (adj. homophonic) music in which one voice, carrying the melody, is supported by an accompaniment which is far less important than the melody; as opposed to monophony and polyphony. hymn a song in praise of god(s) or heroes. hymnodist composer of hymns. I Impressionism an artistic movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries represented in music chiefly by Debussy and Ravel. impromptu a title of a single-movement composition, characterized by an off-hand style, as if the result of sudden inspiration, but not necessarily of an improvisatory nature. The most famous of these were composed by Schubert and Chopin. innig, innigkeit [Ger.], heartfelt, intimacy. intermezzo (1) a 19th-century character piece; the term suggests the casual origin of the composition; (2) same as “interlude” or “entr’acte.” A movement that comes in between two movements, and is usually meant to serve as a lighter refreshment to those movements*. interval distance between two pitches. invertible counterpoint a technique of contrapuntal* writing that allows the voices to change places (the higher becoming the lower and vice versa). invention the name given by J.S. Bach to 15 short keyboard pieces, each in two parts and each developing from a single idea. The 15 companion three-part pieces are now known also as “inventions.” The term also appears in earlier music, implying creativity but with no particular musical charateristics. K Kapellmeister the leader of a musical chapel, or court ensemble, which might provide both sacred and secular music. (Bach held this position at the court at Cöthen from 1717-1723.) key in tonal* music, the pitch relationships that establish a single pitch as a tonal center or tonic.* klavierstücke [Ger.], keyboard pieces L ländler an 18th-century folk dance from Austria and southern Germany in slow ¾ time. langsam, langsamer [Ger.], slow, slower

larghetto slightly less slow than largo. largo very slow tempo; considered the slowest tempo by some theorists. laude nonliturgical religious song, of greatest importance in the 13th through 16th centuries, but in continual use through the 19th century. Usually composed in Italian or Latin, these songs were anonymous, monophonic*, and simple in style. legato, [It., from legare,‘to bind’] a directive indicating that notes should be played smoothly, without noticeable breaks between them. The opposite of legato is staccato. lento [It.] slow tempo. libretto the text of an opera or oratorio, originally and more specifically the small book containing the text. Lied [Ger., pl. Lieder] (1) a poem, usually lyrical and often strophic (2) a song having such a poem for its text, usually written for solo voice and piano accompaniment during the Classical and Romantic periods. Commonly known as “art song.” lirone [It.] a bass bowed string instrument developed in the 16th century. Held between the legs and usually fretted, with 9-14 melody strings and 2 drone strings. lute a European, plucked, string instrument with an oblong, rounded body, a flat soundboard featuring a rosette, and a short, fretted* neck with an angled pegbox,* sometimes even perpendicular to the neck. Six-course* lutes were standard after about 1600, but later Italian instruments had as many as fourteen courses.* M macaronic a mixture of vernacular words jumbled together with Latin words or Latinized words or with words from one or more other foreign languages madrigal popular in the 16th and early 17th centuries, a secular vocal work written for four to five voices,* usually unaccompanied,* set to verses, most commonly by Petrarch. Magnificat the canticle* of the Virgin, Luke 1:46-55, which begins “My soul doth magnify the Lord.” The Magnificat is part of the Office of the Vespers. Marian having to do with the Virgin Mary. marsch [Ger.] forward, march, off with you Mass the central service of the Roman Catholic rites, deriving from a ritual commemoration of the sacrifice of Christ, usually made up of several sections that fall into two categories: the Proper* and the Ordinary*.

measure a way of dividing music into specific units of time set off by bar lines*; most often, with the same number of “beats.” mediant the third degree of the scale*, so called because it is midway between the first degree of the scale (the tonic)* and the fifth degree of the scale* (the dominant)*. Medieval music from the period of the Middle Ages, from about 500 until about 1430. melody succession of musical tones forming a line of individual significance and expressive value, as opposed to harmony (tones sounded simultaneously); thus, melody and harmony represent the horizontal and vertical elements of music. menuetto minuet mesto [It.] sad, mournful. meter in a given composition or section, the basic pattern of regular pulses and accents found in each measure* and indicated by a time signature.* Middle Ages period of history from about 500-1430 A.D. Musical notation began in Western Europe during this time (9th century). Some forms of music from this period include plainsong,* the Mass,* motets,* and liturgical dramas. minimalism school or mode of contemporary music marked by extreme simplification of rhythms, patterns, and harmonies; prolonged chordal or melodic repetitions; often creating a trance-like effect. minor key a key which has a minor interval* between its first and third degree or notes. minuet [Fr. menuet, It. menuetto] a stately French dance of the 17th and 18th centuries, in triple meter* and moderate tempo*; often paired with a another section of music called a trio*, and is most often the third movement of a Classical symphony, sonata or quartet. mit [Ger.] ‘with’. mode (adj. modal) scale; usually used to denote scales* used by churches in the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Each mode is based on a series of pitches, with different patterns of intervals. moderato [Fr. modéré] moderate tempo. modulate to change from one key to another. molto much or very; used with such musical terms as allegro molto (very fast). monophony (adj; monophonic) music consisting of a single voice* or line, for either one performer or an ensemble performing in unison*, such as in chant.* mosso moving, animated. 36th season 2011-2012

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glossary motet (1) prominent type of composition of the 13th century, usually for three voices, often combining religious and secular texts; (2) an unaccompanied choral composition of the 15th and 16th centuries, contrapuntal*, usually for four or five voices*, generally with a religious text. motive [Fr. motif; Gr. Motiv] a brief melodic figure, too short to be called a theme, and often a fragment of a theme, which may become the basis for an entire composition. moto ‘motion;’ con moto, ‘with motion,’ i.e. quickly movement a complete and relatively independent part of a larger composition such as a sonata*, quartet*, concerto* or symphony.* mute, or sordino* a device for reducing the volume and/or altering the tone color of an instrument. N nocturne [Fr. “of the night”; It. notturno]. Title used for certain instrumental works of the 19th and 20th centuries, suggesting night and usually quiet and meditative in quality. non not. notturno (see nocturne). novellette [Fr.; Ger.] a title given by Schumann to some of his character pieces. O obbligato [It., ‘obligated’] an accompanying* part that is of integral importance. It is not as important as the subject or melody, but has more independent character than accompaniment.* octave the interval* made up of the first and eighth tones of a minor or major scale.* Office distinct from the Mass*, these are the daily services of the Western Christian rites. opera a drama set to music, which consists of singing with arias and recitatives with orchestral accompaniment, and usually also comprising an orchestral overture* and intermezzo.* opera buffa [It.] comic opera. opera seria [It.] serious opera. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the chief operatic genre. opus (abbr. op.) literally “work”; numbers used to indicate the order in which a composer’s works were published; not necessarily an indication of the order in which they were written. oratorio an extended musical drama with a text based on religious subject

matter. Usually performed without scenery, costume, or action; instead, it emphasizes narration, and uses a chorus. orchestra see symphony. Ordinary refers to the five Mass* texts, which remain the same for every liturgical service (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus,Agnus Dei). ostinato a melodic and/or rhythmic motive or phrase that is repeated persistently, often in the bass. overtone in acoustics, a faint higher tone contained within every musical tone. A body producing a musical pitch such as a taut string or a column of air within the tubular body of a wind instrument-vibrates not only as a unit but simultaneously also in sections, resulting in the presence of a series of overtones within the fundamental tone (i.e., the one identified as the actual pitch). overture a composition intended as an introduction to a suite*, opera* or other dramatic work. Sometimes designated as a sinfonia or an introduzione (“introduction”). P pantonic (pantonality) synonym for atonality*, Schoenberg preferred this term as indicating the combination of all keys rather than the absence of any key, but it is rarely used. partita (1) in the late 16th and 17th centuries, a variation, usually on a traditional melody, (2) in the late Baroque period, and early Classical period, a type of multi-movement* instrumental suite*, whose movements* are based on dances that have become stylized and suitable only for listening. The most common movements in a partita are prelude*, allemande*, bourrée, sarabande*, minuet*, and gigue*, though other lighter movements may be included. passacaglia a continuous variation form, mostly from the Baroque, whose basso ostinato* formulas are originally derived from ritornellos.* passepied [Fr.] a French dance of the 17th and 18th centuries resembling a fast minuet.* It was usually in binary* form and in 3/8 or 6/8 time with continuous running movement. It became part of the18thcentury suite* as one of the optional dances. passamezzo antico an Italian dance in duple meter based on a specific Renaissance choral scheme popular from the mid-16th century to about 1650 passion music form that began in the Medieval period which depicts the Passion of the Christ (his crucifixion and resurrection).

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pastorale a work of music or literature that represents or evokes life in the countryside. pathétique with great emotion. pedal point a sustained tone in the lower register, occurring under changing harmonies in the upper parts. pegbox a boxlike construction at the far end of the neck of a stringed instrument which houses ‘pegs’ or screws to which the strings are attached and which can be turned to tune the strings, wither by tightening or lessening them. perpetuum mobile a composition in which rhythmic motion, often in a single notevalue in a rapid tempo, is continuous from beginning to end. pianissimo very soft. piano (1) the instrument; (2) a directive found within a score to indicate playing quietly. (The first pianos were called ‘fortepianos’ meaning ‘loudsoft’ because a performer could affect the volume of the note by altering the way the keys are struck. Neither the harpsichord nor the organ had this capability.) piano trio (1) a trio consisting of piano, violin, and cello, (2) a work for such a trio. più more. pizzicato in music for bowed and stringed instruments, a directive to pluck, with the fingers or thumb, the strings for certain notes or passages of notes. plainsong (plainchant or chant) unaccompanied poco little. poco adagio a little slower tempo. polka a moderately fast Bohemian dance that originated inEurope around 1830, and was popular throughout the 19thcentury. polonaise a festive aristocratic Polish dance in triple meter,* in a moderate tempo with a strong emphasis on the first beat, usually performed as a processional with couples. polyphony music that simultaneously combines several lines of equal or almost equal importance; as opposed to monophony* and homophony.* polytonality simultaneous use of two or more tonalities or keys. praembulum [Lat.] prelude. prelude a piece or movement that precedes other movements of a larger work, such as in a partita* or suite.* prestissimo a tempo marking indicating a piece or section of a piece is to be played as fast as possible. presto a tempo marking indicating a piece or section of a piece is to be played very fast.


glossary programmatic music intended to express or depict specific images or stories, as opposed to representing abstract ideas. Proper the sections of the Mass* whose texts change according to occasions in the Church calendar. Q quartet (1) an ensemble comprised of four instruments or vocalists, or some combination of the two. The most common combination consists of two violins, a viola and a cello, which is known as a string quartet, a form founded by Haydn (2) a composition written for such instrumental/vocal combinations. quodlibet [Lat.] “What you please.” A composition in which well-known melodies or texts are presented simultaneously or successively, the result being humorous and displaying technical virtuosity. R rallentando [It., abbr., rall.] gradually slowing down; same as ritardando.* rasch, rascher [Ger.], quick, quicker, sehr rasch, very quick recapitulation section of thematic restatement; usually the third and final section in a movement* of a sonata* form work. recitative [It.] a vocal style designed for the speech-like declamation of narrative episodes in operas*, oratorios* or cantatas.* relative key has to do with the number of pitches two keys or scales* share in common, e.g., relative major/minor keys. Renaissance period in Western music, the period extending from approximately 1425 to 1600. ricercar [It., ‘to seek’] a type of late Renaissance and early Baroque instrumental composition. It usually refers to an early kind of fugue*, particularly one of a serious character in which the subject uses long note values. In the 16th century, the word ricercar could refer to several types of compositions, which mostly fell into two general types a predominantly improvisatory work and a sectional work in which each section begins imitatively, usually in a variation form. ripieno [It., ‘filled’] term used in Baroque music to denote the tutti (or concerto grosso) sections, as opposed to the solo (or concertino) group. ritardando [It., abbr. rit.] Gradual slowing of tempo; same as rallentando. ritornello prelude material for full orchestra, stated at outset and recurring at periodic intervals throughout the movement. Ritornello are always present in first movements of Baroque concertos and frequently play a part in last movements. rococo a term from art used to describe

the graceful and ornamented music of the 18th century. romanesca a song form popular in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, usually in triple meter, composed of a sequence of four chords with a simple, repeating bass providing the groundwork for variations and improvisation. Originating in Spain, it was most popular with Italian composers of the early Baroque period. Romanticism a period in European music history, usually considered to have spanned from the early to late 19th century. rondeau one of the three standard poetic forms used for chansons in the 14th and 15th centuries. rondo form prominent in the Classical period in which a main theme alternates with contrasting episodes; one of the most common rondo patterns is ABACABA. S sarabande a slow, highly ornamented Baroque dance whose historical origin is Spanish, usually in triple meter* and part of an instrumental suite consisting of several movements.* SATB initialism for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass designating the voice ranges required to perform a particular piece of choral music. scale a schematic arrangement of notes in ascending and descending order of pitch which are regularly used in the music of a particular period or culture. scherzo [It., ‘joke,’ ‘game’] movement of a sonata*, symphony* or quartet* that replaced the minuet in the 19th century; usually written in a light, rapid style often with a contrasting trio* section. schnell, schneller [Ger.], ‘fast’, ‘faster’ sehr [Ger.], ‘slow’ semitones see half steps. semplice [It.] simple, without ornament. serenade a vocal or instrumental work intended for performance in the evening, and usually addressed to a lover, friend, or person of rank, and composed for a specific occasion. serialism compositional technique in which the 12 notes of the chromatic* scale are arranged in a fixed order; the “series,” can be manipulated in a variety of ways to generate melodies and harmonies, and which normally remains binding for an entire work. sforzando [It., “forcing” pl. sforzandi ] an indication for a strong accent on a note or chord.* siciliano, siciliana a dance of Sicilian origin, usually in a minor key, in compound duple or quadruple time with a swaying rhythm.

sonata composition for one or more instruments, usually in several movements;* takes on different forms in different periods of history. Most sonatas written in the 18th and 19th centuries contained at least one movement in sonata-allegro form. sonata-allegro a large-form movement in three parts: exposition, development and recapitulation. symbolized ABA’ (see diagram on next page). Most commonly employed in sonatas, quartets, concertos and symphonies. sonatina [Fr. sonatine] a work with the formal characteristics of a sonata (see Sonata-Allegro diagram below), but on a smaller scale and often less technically demanding for the performer. sordino [It.] see mute.* sostenuto [It.] sustained, sometimes with the implication of a slowing tempo. sotto voce [It.] under the breath, in lowered tones, softly, as an aside. spiccato [It.] a fast, detached stroke in which the bow is dropped on the string and lifted again after each note. staccato literally “detached”; a manner of performance in which each note is shortened and separated from the notes that follow. The opposite of legato.* staff, stave (pl. staves) a group of horizontal lines, on which notes are placed to indicate pitch. The number of lines in a staff varied throughout many centuries, until a five-line staff was adopted to create a standard common to all composers and countries in the West. stile antico a term most frequently used to describe church music written after 1600 in an archaic style that imitated Palestrina, with controlled dissonance and modal effects, and avoiding overtly instrumental textures and lavish ornamentation. stop (pl. stops) refers to a string technique wherein a performer “stops” a string by pressing his finger on it at different places to produce a specific pitch. A string player may “stop” several strings at a time to produce a chord or cluster of sounds simultaneously. stretto [It., ‘squeezed together’] in a fugue, the imitative treatment in which the subjects follow so closely in succession that each overlaps with the next creating greater stress or tension. string quartet (1) an ensemble comprised of two violins, a viola, and a cello, (2) a composition written for this combination of instruments. strophe (adj., strophic) units of text set to music and characterized by repetition of the same music for all strophes. Sturm und Drang [Ger., “storm and stress”] 36th season 2011-2012

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glossary A movement in late 18th-century German music that aimed to produce a powerful, even violent expression of emotion. style gallant refers to an 18th-century style that was written in a more free, homophonic* style as opposed to the older, more strict style of employing counterpoint.* stücklein [Ger.], little pieces subdominant the fourth scale degree of a major or minor scale.* subject a melody or melodic fragment on which a fugue* is based. submediant the sixth scale degree. suite a series of different instrumental movements* with some element of unity, often performed as a single work. The piece’s unity may be derived from a common key, or from some thematic connections and overall form. A partita* is a particular kind of suite. sul ponticello [It. “near”] marking which indicates to play near the bridge of a stringed instrument. suspension a dissonance* which is created by holding a note from a previous chord, while the other notes of the chord* change to create a new chord in which the held note no longer belongs. The suspended note creates tension or dissonance*, until it is resolved by moving to a harmonic pitch or note that is part of the new chord. symphony (1) a large-scale, public composition usually based on sonata* form, usually in multiple movements* written for orchestra; (2) a largescale instrumental ensemble intended for public performance. syncopation displacement of the normal accent by transferring it from a strong to a weak beat. Used throughout all classical music periods, it has been employed more aggressively in the 20th century by musicians in the “classical” and jazz fields. T tanto [It.] so much, too much. tardamente [It.] slow, slowly; slowing down. tempo (pl. tempi) speed at which a composition is performed; common tempo markings include (listed from slow to fast): largo, lento, adagio, andante, allegretto, allegro, vivace, presto, prestissimo. ternary form describes a movement with three sections. The first and third sections are identical or closely related, and the second is contrasting. ABA form. terrace dynamics a technique applied when performing a sequence wherein the dynamic or volume level is louder for each statement of a sequence that usually

rises in volume when the pitch rises and decreases in volume if the sequence is going down. theme principal melody in a composition. theorbo a large bass lute, which was developed in the late 16th century especially for playing basso continuo. It will have six courses* and seven or eight contrabass courses in a second pegbox attached to the first. timbre tone color. time signature the sign placed at the beginning of a composition or during the course of it to indicate its meter.* It normally consists of two numbers: the top number indicates how many beats are in each measure*, and the bottom number indicates what type of note value is worth one beat. tiorba [It.] see theorbo. toccata [It., “touch”] An instrumental composition, often featuring several virtuosic sections, designed to show off the player’s technical capabilities. tonal in Western music, the organized relationship of tones with reference to a definite key center or tonic, and generally, a work written in a specific scale or key. tonic first degree, or pitch, of a major or minor diatonic scale. tranquillo tranquil. transposition the rewriting or performance of music at a pitch other than the one in which it was originally written. transverse flute [It. traverso, Fr. traversière, Ger. Traversflöte] a term used until the middle of the 18th century to distinguish a side-blown flute from the endblown recorder. tremolando or tremolo the fast, unmeasured repetition of a single note or alternation of two notes. triad a chord* consisting of three pitches, each pitch usually separated by the interval of a third or fourth (see chord). trill (1) a fluttering or tremulous sound; warble; (2) in music, the rapid alternation of two tones either a whole or half step apart. triple counterpoint Counterpoint into which a third melody is written. trio (1) composition for three performers; (2) The B section of an ABA form of a minuet or scherzo, usually in two parts, each of which is repeated. trio-sonata a sonata written for three instruments, usually two upper voices and one basso continuo*. triple meter any meter* in which there are three basic beats in a measure*, such as 3/4 or 3/8.

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triplet three notes of the same rhythmic value to be played/sung in the time normally occupied by one or two note(s) of the same value, thus making them faster. tromba [It.] trumpet. troppo too much (as in non troppo, ‘not too much’). tutti literally, “all”; in orchestral works, particularly concertos, a passage where the entire orchestral force resumes playing after a passage in which only a soloist or small group of soloists (concertante*) are playing (see also concerto grosso* and ripieno*). twelve tone music music in which all twelve notes of the scale* have equal importance; i.e., music which is not in any key or mode*, and which is often described as atonal.* U unison (1) the interval formed by two statements of the same pitch; (2) simultaneous performance at the same pitch, or sometimes at one or more octaves.* V valse [Ger.] see waltz.* variation compositional technique in which musical ideas or themes are manipulated and repeated many times with various changes. Vespers [Lat., evening] a devotional service, part of the Divine Office, usually performed in monasteries and convents in the early evening. viola da braccia a 16th- and 17thcentury bowed, string instrument played on the arm as distinct from one played on or between the legs (da gamba). viola da gamba a 16th and 17th-century bowed stringed instrument played on-or between the legs. virtuosic a term used to describe music that requires great technical capability on the part of the performer. vivace lively; indicates a tempo equivalent to or faster than allegro. voice (1) the human voice; (2) a single part or line in an instrumental composition. votive antiphon normally refers to the great antiphons of the Blessed Virgin sung at the close of Compline, which developed together with the Saturday Lady Mass. They became popular as the basis for polyphonic compositions with the chant serving as the cantus firmus. W walking bass a bass accompaniment that moves steadily in a rhythm contrasting to that of the parts played in the upper


glossary registers. It consists of unsyncopated* notes of equal value, using a mixture of scale tones, arpeggios*, and passing tones to outline the chord progression, often with a melodic shape that alternately rises and falls in pitch over several bars. waltz a ballroom dance, always in triple meter*, but the tempo may range from slow to moderately fast; one of the best known of the 19th century Austrian/German dances. whole step an interval consisting of two half steps or semitones.* Z ziemlich [Ger.], ‘rather,’ ziemlich schnell ‘rather fast’. * denotes words that are defined in this glossary. Note: These definitions are taken from The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, edited by Don Randel; The New Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Denis Arnold; and The New Groves Dictionary of Music, edited by Stanley Sadie; with additional edits by The Friends of Chamber Music staff.

Abbreviations: AV. abbreviation for Asow Verzeichnis,the thematic catalog of Richard Strauss’s works by E.H. Mueller von Asow BWV. abbreviation for Bach Werke Verzeichnis, the catalog of the works of J.S. Bach, developed by Wolfgang Schmieder. D. abbreviation for Otto Erich Deutsch’s thematic catalog of the works of Schubert. Hob. abbreviation for catalogue of Haydn’s works compiled by Anthony van Hoboken. The number after Hob. indicates the musical form, and the number after the colon indicates the numbering within that type of work. HWV. Abbreviation for Händel-WerkeVerzeichnis, the modern-day thematic catalog of Handel’s works compiled by Bernd Baselt. K. or KV. abbreviation for Köchel-Verzeichnis, the thematic catalog for the works of Mozart first prepared by Ludwig von Köchel. K. abbreviation for Ralph Kirkpatrick’s chronological system of cataloging the works of Domenico Scarlatti. RV. abbreviation for Peter Ryom’s Verzeichnis, the definitive catalog for the works of Antonio Vivaldi. TWV. abbreviation for Telemann Werke Verzeichnis (Telemann Work Catalogue). The first number after TWV indicates the general type of medium, the letter after the colon is the key of the particular work, and the following number is the numbering within that type of work WoO abbreviation for Werk ohne Opuszahl (work without opus number), in the thematic category of Beethoven’s works.

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University of Missouri-Kansas City

CONSERVATORY

OF MUSIC AND DANCE

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Diane Petrella

Jane Solose

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Piano Study At The Conservatory The piano performance degrees at the bachelors, masters and doctoral levels offer a variety of experiences to students, including pedagogy, literature, collaborative piano and chamber music, all taught by world-class faculty. Full and partial scholarships and graduate assistantships are available. Conservatory admissions UMKC, 816-235-2900 cadmissions@umkc.edu http://conservatory.umkc.edu Relay Missouri: 1-800-735-2966 (TT)

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