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tutti (or concerto grosso) sections, as opposed to the solo (or concertino) group. ritardando [It., abbr. rit.] Gradual slowing of tempo; same as rallentando. ritornello prelude material for full orchestra, stated at outset and recurring at periodic intervals throughout the movement. Ritornello are always present in first movements of Baroque concertos and frequently play a part in last movements. rococo a term from art used to describe the graceful and ornamented music of the 18th century. Romanticism a period in European music history, usually considered to have spanned from the early to late 19th century. rondeau one of the three standard poetic forms used for chansons in the 14th and 15th centuries. rondo form prominent in the Classical period in which a main theme alternates with contrasting episodes; one of the most common rondo patterns is ABACABA. sarabande a slow, highly ornamented Baroque dance whose historical origin is Spanish, usually in triple meter* and part of an instrumental suite consisting of several movements.* scale a schematic arrangement of notes in ascending and descending order of pitch which are regularly used in the music of a particular period or culture. scherzo [It., ‘joke,’ ‘game’] movement of a sonata*, symphony* or quartet* that replaced the minuet in the 19th century; usually written in a light, rapid style often with a contrasting trio* section. schnell, schneller [Ger.], ‘fast’, ‘faster’ sehr [Ger.], ‘slow’ semitones see half steps. semplice [It.] simple, without ornament. serenade a vocal or instrumental work intended for performance in the evening, and usually addressed to a lover, friend, or person of rank, and composed for a specific occasion. serialism compositional technique in which the 12 notes of the chromatic* scale are arranged in a fixed order; the “series,” can be manipulated in a variety of ways to generate melodies and harmonies, and which normally remains binding for an entire work. sforzando [It., “forcing” pl. sforzandi ] an indication for a strong accent on a note or chord.* siciliano, siciliana a dance of Sicilian origin, usually in a minor key, in compound duple or quadruple time with a swaying rhythm. sonata composition for one or more instruments, usually in several movements;* takes on different forms in different periods of history. Most sonatas written in the 18th and 19th centuries contained at least one movement in sonata-allegro form. sonata-allegro a large-form movement in three parts: exposition, development and recapitulation. symbolized ABA’ (see diagram on next page). Most commonly employed in sonatas, quartets, concertos and symphonies. sonatina [Fr. sonatine] a work with the formal characteristics

of a sonata (see Sonata-Allegro diagram below), but on a smaller scale and often less technically demanding for the performer. sordino [It.] see mute.* sostenuto [It.] sustained, sometimes with the implication of a slowing tempo. sotto voce [It.] under the breath, in lowered tones, softly, as an aside. spiccato [It.] a fast, detached stroke in which the bow is dropped on the string and lifted again after each note. staccato literally “detached”; a manner of performance in which each note is shortened and separated from the notes that follow. The opposite of legato.* staff, stave (pl. staves) a group of horizontal lines, on which notes are placed to indicate pitch. The number of lines in a staff varied throughout many centuries, until a five-line staff was adopted to create a standard common to all composers and countries in the west. stop (pl. stops) refers to a string technique wherein a performer “stops” a string by pressing his finger on it at different places to produce a specific pitch. A string player may “stop” several strings at a time to produce a chord or cluster of sounds simultaneously. stretto [It., ‘squeezed together’] in a fugue, the imitative treatment in which the subjects follow so closely in succession that each overlaps with the next creating greater stress or tension. string quartet (1) an ensemble comprised of two violins, a viola, and a cello, (2) a composition written for this combination of instruments. strophe (adj., strophic) units of text set to music and characterized by repetition of the same music for all strophes. Sturm und Drang [Ger., “storm and stress”] A movement in late 18th-century German music that aimed to produce a powerful, even violent expression of emotion. style gallant refers to an 18th-century style that was written in a more free, homophonic* style as opposed to the older, more strict style of employing counterpoint.* stücklein [Ger.], little pieces subdominant the fourth scale degree of a major or minor scale.* subject a melody or melodic fragment on which a fugue* is based. submediant the sixth scale degree. suite a series of different instrumental movements* with some element of unity, often performed as a single work. The piece’s unity may be derived from a common key, or from some thematic connections and overall form. A partita* is a particular kind of suite. sul ponticello [It. “near”] marking which indicates to play near the bridge of a stringed instrument. suspension a dissonance* which is created by holding a note from a previous chord, while the other notes of the chord* change to create a new chord in which the held note no longer belongs. The suspended note creates tension or dissonance*, until it is resolved by moving to a harmonic pitch or note that is part of the new chord. symphony 1) a large-scale, public composition usually based 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11 115

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011  

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011  

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011