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The Friends of Chamber Music

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1200 Main Street Suite 3910 KanSaS City, MO 64105 KarbanK.COM

816.221.4488 Main 816.221.4494 fax

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11



The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

The Friend s of C h a m ber Mu sic

Table of Contents 6 2010|11 Concert Schedule 8 Welcome from Cynthia Siebert 9 A Letter from the Board Chairman 13 The Live Concert Experience 19 Ticket Information 20 Soirée 2010 22 FORTE Film Series 102 Special Thanks 104 Contributors 109 Glossary 122 Advertising Index

Concert Programs and Notes 24 Vladimir Feltsman 30 Ivan Moravec 34 Sphinx Chamber Orchestra with Harlem Quartet

Cover Art Perrier, Francois (1590-1650) “Acis and Galathea hiding before Polyphemus” Location: Louvre, Paris, France Photo Credit: Eric Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Program Book Credits Publisher: Sunflower Publishing Editor-in-Chief: Cynthia Siebert Editor: Eileen Terril Associate Editors: Jeremy Lillig, Tricia Davenport, Mikaela Garrett & Caity Lothamer Program Annotator: Laurie Shulman Advertising Sales: Sunflower Publishing Design & Layout: Jeremy Lillig & Mikaela Garrett

36 Kopelman String Quartet 40 Rob Kapilow & “What Makes It Great?” 42 Pinchas Zukerman and Yefim Bronfman 48 Leon Fleisher 50 Sequentia 56 Parker String Quartet 58 Radu Lupu 64 Chanticleer 72 Rafał Blechacz 76 Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin 82 Rob Kapilow & “What Makes It Great?” 84 Garrick Ohlsson 90 Trio Mediæval 94 Acis and Galatea

The Friends of Chamber Music Staff Cynthia Siebert Founder and President Tricia Davenport Director of Development Jeremy Lillig Director of Marketing & Public Relations Eileen Terril Artist Services & Community Relations Manager Mikaela Garrett Marketing & Box Office Manager

Contact The Friends The Friends of Chamber Music 4635 Wyandotte, Suite 201 Kansas City, Missouri 64112 Telephone: 816-561-9999 Fax: 816-561-8810

The Friends of Chamber Music

Where the intimate voice becomes the conversation ... International Chamber Music Series Kopelman String Quartet Nov. 6 | 8 p.m. Pinchas Zukerman, violin/viola Nov. 19 | 8 p.m. & Yefim Bronfman, piano Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin Mar. 11 | 8 p.m. Acis and Galatea Apr. 1 | 8 p.m. A Baroque opera by Handel

master pianists series Vladimir Feltsman Oct. 1 | 8 p.m. Ivan Moravec Oct. 16 | 8 p.m. Radu Lupu Jan. 29 | 8 p.m. Rafał Blechacz Feb. 18 | 8 p.m. Garrick Ohlsson Mar. 19 | 8 p.m.

early music series Sequentia Jan. 21 | 8 p.m. Chanticleer Feb. 5 | 8 p.m. Trio Mediæval Mar. 26 | 8 p.m.

what makes it great? with rob kapilow Miró String Quartet Nov. 13 | 11 a.m. Debussy String Quartet Nov. 14 | 2 p.m. Claire Huangci, piano Mar. 12 | 11 a.m. Schumann Fantasy Mar. 13 | 2 p.m. music alliance Presented with UMKC Sphinx Chamber Orchestra and Oct. 24 | 2:30 p.m. The Harlem String Quartet Leon Fleisher, piano Dec. 2 | 7:30 p.m. Parker String Quartet Jan. 22 | 7:30 p.m.

Many thanks to the Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund, the ArtsKC Fund, the Missouri Arts Council, and the National Endowment for the Arts for providing critical local, state, and national funding to The Friends of Chamber Music.

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has become on both the Kansas City and the national classical stage. We proudly support this 35-year heritage and look forward to its exciting future.

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her entire staff for making The Friends of Chamber Music the artistic institution it



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from our


“Where the intimate voice of classical music become the conversation”

Dear Friends,

Welcome to The Friends of Chamber Music’s 35th Anniversary season! For over three decades The Friends has provided concerts of unrivalled beauty. Artistic excellence has always been the guiding principle behind every creative choice. We also constantly strive to find new ways to enhance your experience. With carefullychosen, complimentary programs such as the FORTE Film Series, panel discussions, lectures and exhibits, The Friends adds value to the music you enjoy. We provide more than beautiful concerts; we provide fullyenriched, concert-going experiences. This season, we invite you again to create your own personal experience by expanding the meaning of “the intimate voice of classical music.” We want you to engage in a conversation with us and the music, so that “the intimate voice of classical music-chamber music-becomes the conversation,” where the music becomes part of you and lives on in your own personal conversations and thoughts. To get us started, we open the season with the great Russian pianist, Vladimir Feltsman. Feltsman will be one of five renowned pianists that comprise this year’s Master Pianists Series, the most breath-taking piano series this city has ever heard. Other pianists who will grace The Folly Theater’s stage will be the Czech pianist Ivan Moravec in his farewell tour; the legendary Romanian Radu Lupu; the first American to win the Chopin Competition, Garrick Ohlsson; and the Chopin Competition’s most recent winner, Rafał Blechacz, in his Kansas City debut. The International Chamber Music Series will showcase diverse ensembles: musical titans Pinchas Zukerman and Yefim Bronfman joining forces for the first time, the Russian Kopelman String Quartet, and the Baroque orchestra Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin. To close its 35th Anniversary season, The Friends presents Handel’s opera Acis and Galatea in an historically-informed, semi-staged production of the original 1718 chamber version-a first for The Friends and for Kansas City. In the Early Music Series, our audience will experience the impeccable artistry of some of the world’s premier á cappella ensembles: Chanticleer, with the 16th-century music of Orlando di Lasso; the Scandinavian vocal sensation, trio mediæval, in a beautiful, 13th-century Lady Mass; and Sequentia, performing works from 12th-century Notre Dame Cathedral. Lastly, I am pleased to unveil a new concert series co-presented by The Friends of Chamber Music and the University of Missour-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance: Music Alliance. This exciting partnership brings together two respected Kansas City music organizations to present renowned musicians and to foster student and community access to these musicians through residencies, master classes, lessons and rehearsals. In Music Alliance’s first season, we will showcase the great pianist Leon Fleisher; the rising young string quartet, the Parker; and the dynamic chamber orchestra Sphinx which showcases outstanding young musicians of color together with the Harlem String Quartet. As you can see there’s a lot to celebrate in our 35th Anniversary Season. Join us for all of the excitement and be a part of the conversation. Come and see “where the intimate voice become the conversation”!

Warmest regards,

Cynthia Siebert President & Founder 8

The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

Chairman of the Board Dear Friends, Welcome to The Friends of Chamber Music’s 2010-11 season. This season we celebrate The Friend’s 35th Anniversary. The theme for this milestone season is “Where the intimate voice becomes the conversation,” as we celebrate the committed, knowledgeable audience that has grown with us through the years, and highlight the many new supplemental programs enhancing our enjoyment of great music. In addition to presenting the world’s finest chamber music and musicians, The Friends also provides visual, intellectual and informational programs to enhance the concert-going experience, including the second season of the free FORTE Film Series at the Tivoli Cinemas where we’ll present four films – The Pianist, The Passion of Joan of Arc, Goya’s Ghosts, and Farinelli. Additionally, The Friends of Chamber Music continues to provide panel discussions, pre-concert lectures, and the free educational program, “What Makes It Great?”. One of the highlights of this unique anniversary concert season, for me, will be the presentation of one of the most exciting piano series The Friends has ever compiled. The extraordinary prestige of the upcoming pianists (the immortals Feltsman, Moravec, Lupu, Blechacz, and Ohlsson) reminds us of the impact The Friends has made on the Kansas City music landscape for 35 beautiful years: a commitment to our community that endures. I’m equally excited about breaking new ground with the presentation of Handel’s one-act opera Acis and Galatea. While The Friends of Chamber Music has presented early music for many years, including many scenes from Baroque Operas, this will be our first presentation of a complete Baroque Opera and the first presentation in Kansas City of a historically-informed Baroque Opera, fully costumed and partially staged. Finally, we are also proud to announce a new collaborative effort between The Friends of Chamber Music and The Universtiy of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance called Music Alliance. These two esteemed music organizations bring together their combined energies with an exciting new series that will enrich both the Kansas City community as well as faculty and students of the university. On a personal note, I am indebted to The Friends for having given me some of the most profound and intimate musical experiences of my life. I hope that you, too, can have your life enriched by the great music we bring you.

Very truly yours,

Jerome T. Wolf Chairman of the Board of Directors Board of Directors

finance committee

Jerome T. Wolf Chairman

David M. Eisenberg, chair

David M. Eisenberg Vice Chairman and Treasurer Cynthia Siebert President J. Scott Francis Secretary

Joseph T. Fahey Harold J. Nicholson Jennifer R. Plackemeier Dale W. Young

Endowment Oversight Committee William Coughlin Janice Newberry Gary Smith Joshua Sosland Jerome T. Wolf

Mary Biber Nancy Lee Kemper Patricia Miller Janet Miller 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


youthsymphony of Kansas City

Five Orchestras for Young Musicians

from Fourth through Twelfth Grades

Where Young Musicians Flourish for more information visit

It takes great audiences to Your Guide to Concert Enjoyment Welcome to today’s live performance. No matter the quality of a compact disc, and make great artists. of opportunities to hear “virtual” concerts on the Internet, nothing can replace - Walt Whitman regardless the exhilaration of experiencing a live performance. Chamber music concerts, especially, provide audiences the opportunity to participate in a unique musical event, where the energy is unpredictable and largely affected by those in attendance. We hope the following notes, reminders and rules of etiquette help make today’s concert one you’ll remember for a lifetime. Enjoy!

What if I arrive late? Latecomers are asked to remain in the lobby and not enter the hall until the first work is completely finished and the audience is clapping. There are no exceptions to this rule. The ushers will prompt you when it is time to enter, and you may then quietly enter the hall and take a seat nearest the door. What if I need to leave during the performance? When possible, please wait for the end of a piece to leave the concert hall. Of course, if you need to leave the hall at once due to an emergency or an incessant cough, please do so as quietly as possible. Pinchas Zukerman

Other Notes and Reminders If you wish to receive future mailings from The Friends of Chamber Music, please leave your name and address at the box office, call our offices during business hours (9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday) or visit our website at Patrons needing wheelchair seating or other assistance are asked to notify the box office when ordering tickets. Smoking is prohibited at all concert venues. Food and drink, including bottled water, are not permitted in the concert hall. Lost articles may be claimed at the box office, or at the offices of The Friends of Chamber Music. Programs and artists are subject to change.

Is it okay to cough? Extraneous noise does affect the musicians on stage and those around you. The Friends of Chamber Music provides free cough drops in an effort to keep distractions to a minimum. These are available in the lobby by the doors; please take only what you expect to use during the concert. It is advisable to unwrap the cough drop before the work begins. No matter how quietly you attempt to remove the wrapper, it will cause some annoying rustlings that are sure to distract those seated around you. When should I clap? Most musical works consist of a series of movements, and it is at the end of the last movement that audiences applaud the musicians. Still unsure? Follow along in your program, watch for the musicians to completely lower their instruments, or wait until others around you begin clapping. Are children welcome at concerts? If you are using this concert to introduce a young person to fine music, Bravo! We welcome young people to our concerts and have many students in our audience. However, as a general rule, we ask that children 12 years and younger be accompanied by an adult. It is a good idea to talk about concert etiquette before the performance begins, ensuring the best experience for all. Please note that infants and children less that six years old are not allowed at concerts. What if there is an emergency? Should a medical emergency arise, please contact an usher or a Friends of Chamber Music staff person. May I photograph the performance? No. Cameras (including cell phone cameras), recording equipment and flashlights all are prohibited in the concert hall. What about cell phones, watches and other electronic devices? For the enjoyment of all, please ensure that all electronic devices are turned off. I’m on call and must keep my pager with me at all times. If your pager or mobile phone can be placed on vibrator mode, please do so before the concert begins. However, if you have an audio pager and are on call, please check your pager with the box office. Your pager will be monitored during the performance, and you’ll be notified immediately of any pages. Please note that your seating assignment may be changed to accommodate such an emergency.

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816-753-7111 e-mail: Store hourS 9:30 to 5:30 Monday - Friday 9:30 to 5:00 Saturday Closed on Sunday

BOX OFFICE SCHEDULE You may purchase your tickets online until 12:00 midnight the night before a performance or by phone during office hours. Ticket orders that do not meet these criteria cannot be confirmed or guaranteed. You may also purchase tickets the night of the performance at the Box Office beginning 90 minutes before each performance. Student rush tickets (see explanation of discounts below) are sold 30 minutes before each performance. DISCOUNTS Subscriptions are available at significant savings to you! You may: Enjoy the entire season with a Combo Series subscription; purchase a sub-series with selected concerts, such as the International Chamber Music Series, International Chamber Music Series + Master Pianists Series, Master Pianists Series, or Early Music Series; create your own mini-series with myFRIENDS sampler packages (Trio, Quartet, and Sextet sampler packages available). Please request a season brochure for a complete list of concerts. Free Student Tickets: We offer FREE tickets to students 18 and younger to concerts on the International Chamber Music and Early Music Series! (Master Pianists Series concert tickets for students 18 and under are only $15 each.) This is a fantastic way to encourage the next generation of chamber music lovers to attend live performances. Don’t miss this opportunity to introduce a young person to classical music. To take advantage of these tickets: Please reserve in advance by calling 816-561-9999 or visit Free tickets are based on availability. Each person must be 18 years old or younger. Youth Subscriptions: The Friends offers a special opportunity for budding music lovers to subscribe to the entire season or the Master Pianists Series for just $75! (International Chamber Music Series and Early Music Series tickets are free for students 18 and under.) Subscribing gives a young person* priority seating and discounted season tickets. Parents, grandparents, and friends: Want to instill the joy of discovering great music, stimulate imagination, raise better listeners, and create active arts conversations? Buy your aspiring musician or concert-goer a season subscription! *We ask that children under the age of 12 years be accompanied by an adult. Infants and children under six years old are not allowed at concerts. Senior/Student/Educator Discount: $3 off advanced single ticket purchases. You must call for tickets or visit and mention the discounts at time of ticket purchase in order to receive them. Group Discount: Groups of 10 or more attending the same concert may purchase single tickets for $15 each. Rush Tickets: $12 tickets may be purchased 30 minutes before each performance for students with a valid I.D. and seniors 60 and older (one rush ticket per person). At the Folly Theater, seating may be limited to specific sections, depending on availability. Employee Share Discounts: If your employer participates in our Employee Share Program, you may pay as little as half of the total single ticket price (your employer pays the balance). Call The Friends of Chamber Music or check our website for a current list of participating companies. Ask for information on how your company can become part of our Employee Share Program! EXCHANGES/REFUNDS Tickets are non-refundable. If you are unable to attend a concert and would like to release your tickets for resale, we will mail you an acknowledgement of a tax-deductible contribution for the amount you paid for your tickets. To release your seats, please call The Friends of Chamber Music at least 48 hours before the performance. Exchange privileges: If you are a subscriber and are unable to attend a performance on your subscription series, you may exchange your tickets for a different performance. All exchanges must be within the same season and you must call The Friends of Chamber Music at least 48 hours before the performance. Lost tickets: If you have lost your tickets, please contact us at least 48 hours before the performance. We will hold reprinted tickets for you in Will Call. If you forget your tickets on a performance night, please see the Box Office Manager in the box office to reprint your ticket.

TICKET INFORMATION The Friends of Chamber Music Administrative Office/Box Office 4635 Wyandotte, Suite 201 Kansas City, MO 64112 Ph: 816-561-9999 Fax: 816-561-8810 Season Hours: Monday—Friday, 9 am–5 pm Summer Hours: Monday—Thursday, 9 am–5 pm

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Click on the “Buy Tickets” link. You may purchase either single or series tickets.

Call us at 816-561-9999

Callers from outside the KC metropolitan area may call toll-free at 877-MY SEATS (877-697-3287).

Mail Your Order to the address above. For information on performance venues, please visit and click on Performances/Tickets/Venues.

The Kansas City Downtown Marriott Celebrates The ArtsFriends of Chamber Music Rate

$99 You are demonstrating your support for The Friends’ outstanding contribution to the community. We at the Kansas City Marriott Downtown are demonstrating our support for the Friends of Chamber Music and our thanks to you– by offering you a special Celebrate the KC Arts Friends of Chamber Music Room Rate of just $99! Your stay will be complete with the elegant amenities you expect, and the totally luxurious Marriott Revive bedding program with cotton rich linens, down comforter and fluffy feather pillows. Other Friends of Chamber Music Benefits 10% off dinner at Lilly’s (Night of Show) when you show your tickets. This special rate is offered on performance dates only; you must show your ticket to receive music rate and any discount. Call 800-228-9290 and ask for the Kansas City Friends of Chamber Music Rate (Booking code FOCO) Or book on-line at 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


The Friends of chamber music Benefit & Wine Auction

Soirée 2010 Soirée, The Friends of Chamber Music’s annual benefit and wine auction, was held on May 8, 2010, in the rooftop bar and ballroom of the InterContinental Hotel on the Plaza. A distinctive group of arts patrons and wine lovers enjoyed an elegant evening of fine wines, a four-course dinner, and a charming performance by the chamber music group, Duo Gelato. Event chairs Robert and Prudence True and honorary chairs Michael and Ginger Frost welcomed the guests and thanked them for supporting The Friends’ mission of bringing world-class chamber music to our community. Master of Wine and Master Sommelier Doug Frost and wine consultant Lucille Windsor conducted the live auction with panache. Thank you to the event’s attendees who helped make Soirée 2010 The Friends’ most successful benefit to date. Proceeds from Soirée support The Friends’ concert series and its educational music program, “What Makes It Great?”, with Rob Kapilow. Top: Soirée 2010 Honorary Chairs Dr. Michael and Ginger Frost Bottom: Soirée 2010 Event Chairs Robert and Prudence True Photography: Stu Nowlin Imaging

Soirée 20

The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music


More scenes from Soirée 2010 (photos by Stu Nowlin Imaging)

Phil & Patty Love, Cynthia Siebert, Connie & Phil Mangiaracina

Jerry & Ellen Wolf

Jean O’Brien & Scott Francis

Mary & Robert Biber

Save the date! Soirée 2011 will take place on Saturday, May 21 at the InterContinental Hotel on the Country Club Plaza. Visit for more information.

Landon & Sarah Rowland, Nancy Lee & Jonathan Kemper

Cynthia Siebert, Tom & Judy Bowser

Soirée Wine. Music. Dinner.


35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


The Pianist, 2001 Thurs., October 14 | 7:30 p.m. | Tivoli Cinemas

The Passion of Joan of Arc, 1928 Thurs., January 13 | 7:30 p.m. | Tivoli Cinemas

The Friends proudly presents the second season of the FORTE film series presented at the Tivoli Cinemas. This season, we explore intimate of relationships and their influence on the music. The series includes four stunning films from the classic to the contemporary featuring beloved masterpieces and new works. We will view some of the historical context of this year’s concert programming as well as enjoy music and musicians that we present in concert.

Second in the series is the silent film, The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928). This cinematic masterpiece was directed by Carl Theodor Dreyer. Inspired by the canonization of Joan of Arc in 1920, Dreyer began researching the “young shepherd girl” and became determined to recreate her life on film. Theyer utilized progressive cinematography, having all the sets built before shooting the entire film in sequential order. The film proved to be the largest production in history at the time (think Transformers 3). The film stars the stunning Renée Falconetti as Joan in what was hailed by legendary film critic Pauline Kael as “what may be the finest performance ever recorded on film.” Theatrical icon, actor, and founder of the Theatre of Cruelty movement Antonin Artaud appears in the film as Jean Massieu.

First in the series is The Pianist (2002) starring Adrien Brody and directed by Roman Polanski. Brody delivers an astounding biographic portrayal of Wladyslaw Szpilman whose performing career was halted by the Nazi occupation of Poland in WWII. Polanski provides a graphic, accurate representation of the atrocities of the Holocaust, drawing in part from his own experiences escaping the Krakow Ghetto and hiding from Nazi persecution in a nearby barn. Polanski’s own father barely escaped death in the camps. This haunting tale of the Holocaust features the music of Chopin where we experience the fiery sounds of the Romantic composer’s music. Adrien Brody won the Oscar for Best Actor and Roman Polanski for Best Director for this story of courage and triumph. Presented in conjunction with Ivan Moravec featuring the piano music of Polish composer Chopin.


The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

We are pleased to feature the remastered edition complete with Richard Einhorn’s composition “Voices of Light” which underscores the film. The piece features a libretto of medieval text and is performed by Anonymous 4 (singing on behalf of Joan of Arc) and the Radio Netherlands Choir (singing on behalf of the other characters). This score offers a haunting accompaniment to a tale of persecution and religious struggle. Presented in conjunction with Sequentia. Features Friends artists Anonymous 4, and medieval music.

Goya’s Ghosts, 2006 Thurs., March 10 | 7:30 p.m. | Tivoli Cinemas

Third in the series is Goya’s Ghosts (2006) starring Javier Bardem, Natalie Portman, and Stellan Skarsgård, and directed by Milos Forman. The film—a fiction based on historical events—focuses on the muse of the famous 18th-century Spanish painter, Francisco Goya, and her traumatic journey through the Spanish inquisition. Goya’s Ghosts offers a fantastically written script full of suspense, shock, and reflection, and contains some disturbing content. Portman offers a stunning performance as Ines the young muse, accompanied by the arresting Javier Bardem and the consistently brilliant Stellan Skarsgård. Presented in conjunction with Garrick Olssohn who will play movements from Granados’ piece Goyescas inspired by Francisco Goya.

Farinelli, 1994 Thurs., March 24 | 7:30 p.m. | Tivoli Cinemas

Closing out the series is Farinelli (1994) starring Stefano Dionisi and directed by Gérard Corbiau. A fictional account based on actual events, Farinelli was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1995. This biopic tells the story of famed Italian castrati Farinelli, considered by some to be the greatest castrati of all time. The movie features a rather seething portrayal of Handel whose theatre was in competition with the theatre in which Farinelli performed. Farinelli’s performances are accompanied by Les Talens Lyriques with musical direction by Christophe Rousset. This film features magnificent representations of Baroque theatre as well as fine performances. Farinelli contains adult themes and will be shown in French with English subtitles. Features scenes of Baroque opera performance as well as music by Handel and Pergolesi. Presented in conjunction with Acis and Galatea. This season’s FORTE film series is again presented FREE of charge at the Tivoli Cinemas. Each film will be preceded by a brief introduction. These films provide an entertaining respite from a busy work week and offer a unique contextual experience to our fine concert series. We look forward to discovering great cinematic moments with you this season. FORTE Film Notes by Jeremy Lillig All shows presented 7:30 pm, Tivoli Cinemas. All tickets are FREE and can be reserved by phoning 816-561-9999. 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Vladimir Feltsman Friday, October 1 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater


Fantasia in D Minor, K. 397


Four Impromptus, Op. 90 D. 899 No. 1 in C minor No. 2 in E-flat Major No. 3 in G-flat Major No. 4 in A-flat Major


Sonata in B Minor, S. 178 Lento Assai; Allegro energico; Grandioso; Dolce con grazia; Allegro energico; Recitativo; Andante sostenuto; Dolcissimo con intimo sentimento; Allegro quasi Adagio; Allegro energico; Stretta quasi presto; Allegro moderato; Lento assai

This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Irvine O. & Ellen Hockaday Music Fund.. This The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 24

The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

Fantasia in D minor, K.397 Wolfgang Amadè Mozart (1756-1791) When we think of Mozart and the piano, the first repertoire that springs to mind is his magnificent piano concerti. Among the solo keyboard works, sonatas and sets of variations dominate. Both categories conform to the standard musical structures prevalent in the late eighteenth century. Mozart’s piano sonatas and variations are deservedly popular with pianists. Virtually all serious students play them at some point. Mozart’s most interesting solo keyboard writing, however, falls arguably into the so-called miscellaneous works, including the Fantasia in D minor that opens Mr. Feltsman’s recital this evening.

Program Notes

in Magdeburg and Weimar who admired Mozart greatly. At about six minutes, K.397 is the shortest of Mozart’s keyboard fantasias. The opening arpeggiated idea relies on pedal effects. The central section alternates between two textures, with emotional outbursts consistent with the inherent instability of the fantasia as a musical genre. This Fantasia concludes with an upbeat D major Allegretto section that puts a positive spin on the moodiness that has preceded. LISZT’S SONATA AND PROGRAMME MUSIC Is the Sonata in B minor really a work of absolute music, or does it have a programmatic subtext? Recent scholarship has been all over the map on this question.

What exactly is a fantasia? For starters, it is not pronounced fanTAY-zhuh, like the Walt Disney film or Vaughan Williams’s Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis, but in the Italian manner: fahn-tah-ZEE-ah; the German – Fantasie or Phantasie – is pronounced Fahn-tah-ZEE. Works labeled fantasia first emerged as a popular form of instrumental composition in the late Renaissance. They have traditionally been associated with improvisation. Eighteenth-century composers employing the title Fantasia removed themselves from the expectations of strict forms, whether the Baroque fugue or the classical sonata. Instead, they responded to the whim of the moment, moving capriciously from slow sections to faster ones, with sudden stops and starts and equally abrupt changes of dynamics. Even the meter could change. In Mozart’s hands, the works titled Fantasia give us precious insight into his improvisatory style. The closest analogues we have are his written-out cadenzas for the piano concerti, which we only hear in the context of a performance with soloist and orchestra. These independent piano pieces allow us to imagine Mozart playing a private recital in the home of one of his Viennese patrons. Among the D minor Fantasia’s curiosities is that Mozart left the manuscript unfinished. The last ten bars are in another hand, possibly that of August Eberhard Müller, an organist active

One theory links the Sonata to Goethe’s Faust, finding a direct parallel to Liszt’s musical treatment of its themes in his orchestral portraits of Faust, Gretchen, and Mephistopheles in the Faust Symphony. Another hears in the Sonata a direct analogue to the Creation, the fall of mankind and expulsion from Paradise, and mankind’s redemption through Christ’s crucifixion. A third camp perceives the Sonata as an autobiographical work, Liszt’s selfportrait in music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Liszt would likely have repudiated these interpretations, despite the fact that he was a staunch advocate of programme music. Neither he nor the students who studied this work with him wrote about any programme for it. The Sonata in B minor is a rare, abstract composition that is more a study of Liszt’s individual approach to adapting traditional forms that would accommodate his own ideas of thematic treatment while fully pushing the boundaries of piano technique. Writing in 1965, John Gillespie called it “incredibly disciplined, molded with meticulous attention to detail.” As listeners, we may marvel at its micro and macro qualities. No note is wasted, yet Liszt keeps us grounded in a sense of narrative sweep and inevitability. His music is its own story. – L.S. ©2010

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Impromptus, D.899, Op.90 Franz Schubert (1797-1828) The year 1827 was both annus mirabilis and annus tragicus for Franz Schubert. Increasingly ill with the syphilis that would take his life the following year, he vacillated between psychological highs and lows. Some weeks he participated in jovial gatherings with his friends. When the symptoms of his disease worsened, he withdrew from society, experiencing serious bouts of depression. Remarkably, he continued to compose prolifically. The quality of his new works was extraordinarily high. They included two sets of piano Impromptus (published as Op. 90 and Op.142) and the song cycle Die Winterreise, which is generally regarded as Schubert’s acknowledgment of his impending death. Ironically, his reputation was beginning to solidify after years of relative neglect by his contemporaries. This change occurred in large part because of Tobias Haslinger, who assumed the directorship of the Steiner publishing house in May 1826 and quickly entered into a contractual relationship with Schubert. During the last year of Schubert’s life, Haslinger published a dozen of his new pieces, including the G Major Piano Sonata, Die Winterreise, and the first two Impromptus of Opus 90. (For reasons that remain obscure, the third and fourth Impromptus were not published until 1857.)

Haslinger was also responsible for giving the Impromptus their name, which was less formal than the traditional (and stodgy) “sonata” and appears to have been intended to appeal to the new generation of keyboard players. There was precedent in the works of two Bohemian composers, Jan Vořišek (1791-1825) and Jan Tomášek (1774-1850), who both published Impromptus in the early 1820s. Tomášek also used the titles Eclogue, Rhapsody, and Dithyramb for his smaller piano pieces. Even Beethoven published two sets of Bagatelles. These works set the stage for the Romantic piano miniature, which would dominate keyboard literature for the next several decades. Schubert’s Impromptus are larger in scale and superior in musical quality than those of his Bohemian contemporaries. The first one hints at sonata form, alternating a stern, march-like opening with a more lyrical second theme of similar rhythmic contour. The second Impromptu is a study in evenness of touch. After the silvery cascade of triplets, the middle section’s rhythmic insistence provides a startling shift. Schubert brings back that angry music for his coda, in an astounding ending in E-flat minor that was very daring for its day. (It also foreshadows the conclusion of Brahms’s great Rhapsody, Op.119 No.4.) The G-flat major Impromptu is atmospheric and songful, a precursor both to Mendelssohn’s Songs without Words and Chopin’s Aeolian Harp étude. When Haslinger published it, he transposed it to G major, presumably so that it would be easier to play and thereby improve sales. Mr. Feltsman performs it in Schubert’s original key. The final Impromptu opens in A-flat minor, but eventually settles into major mode. Its joyous, outgoing character provides a suitable conclusion to the set. Sonata in B minor Franz Liszt (1811-1886) The 19th century’s Brahms/Wagner divide hung on the merits of absolute music and programme music. Brahms was a champion of absolute music: the art form for its own sake, abstract works cast in the traditional forms and genres of sonata, symphony, variations. Wagner believed that Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony had sounded the death knell of the symphony. In his view, the future of music lay in multi-sensory artistic packages that embraced other arts such as literature. The ultimate artistic creation was opera: a Gesamtkunstwerk (complete art work) that combined music and libretto along with the visual arts of costume, lighting, and set design. Franz Liszt was firmly in the Wagnerian camp. Though Liszt did not compose operas, most of his original works are somehow linked to an extramusical source. Indeed, Liszt effectively invented the symphonic poem, and he was the first to employ that term (in 1854, for a performance of the orchestral work Tasso). His piano music abounds in programmatic references, ranging from concert fantasies based on operatic themes to travelogues memorializing his years abroad (Années de pèlerinage).

Tobias Haslinger


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Thus the Sonata in B Minor seems something of an aberration. Why would Liszt tackle a sonata, that most revered and intellectual of solo vehicles? The answer is complex, and has close connections to another significant contribution that Liszt made to music: the concept of thematic transformation. Among Liszt’s hundreds of piano works, there are only two sonatas: the Dante Sonata (a programmatic work, related to both Dante’s Inferno and a poem about Dante by the French author Victor Hugo) and the Sonata in B minor. Both works date from the early 1850s and employ sonata principles within the framework of a large, one-movement form. Thereafter the similarities diminish. Whereas the Dante Sonata is part of the Années de pèlerinage, the B minor Sonata stands as an independent work. While the Dante Sonata has extramusical associations, the B minor Sonata is a brilliant experiment in form. For the Sonata in B minor, Liszt took two icons of absolute music as his points of departure: Beethoven and Schubert. He had studied the bold experiments in form in Beethoven’s late piano sonatas, and particularly admired the mighty sectional finale to the Ninth Symphony. Among Schubert’s piano works, his principal model was the Wanderer-Fantasie, which Liszt played frequently in recital and also arranged for piano and orchestra. The melodic material in Liszt’s Sonata is amorphous. He waits a while before he gives us something to hold onto, yet the quiet opening measures contain a motive that will recur in various

guises throughout the sonata. This motive, a descending scale in the lower register, resembles Wagner’s Leitmotif for Wotan’s sword in the Ring cycle. Liszt employs it as a unifying device. Then comes the first explosion: a sharp, angular burst in double octaves, answered by a sinister rumble in the bass. The repeated notes, the fits and starts, the stark contrasts have their roots in both Beethoven’s Appassionata Sonata and his late C minor Sonata, Op.111. In the first fifteen measures, Liszt has put nearly all his thematic cards on the table – but he has barely begun to shuffle or recombine those cards. This man was an expert poker player. He takes us on a spectacular journey of big chords and dazzling passage work, crossed hands, and fearsome cascades of double octaves. We hardly know what key we are in through the tumult. This “music of gesture” and “music of mood” has ample precedent in the romantic era, and Liszt was a master of romantic keyboard technique. The bravura segment ushers in the next big theme, marked Grandioso, and initially stated in D major. Remarkably, for a work that is so tonally unstable at its start, Liszt has landed us in the relative major, precisely where we would expect to be at this point in a conventional sonata. The Grandioso music is the last major new idea that Liszt introduces. Now begins the thematic transformation – a process of extended development through which the newly evolved themes become the form itself. Liszt adheres to the structural ideas he set forth and explored in his symphonic poems, many of which date from the same period of the early 1850s. His transformation maintains the overall shape of each melodic unit and, in many cases, the actual pitches, but he alters the harmony, mood, rhythm, and character as well as tempo. The pianist and writer Charles Rosen has written: Even more profound is the tendency of all the themes of the sonata to turn into one another. This fluidity of thematic identity is perhaps the greatest sign of Liszt’s mastery. . . . Three different themes . . . [spring] clearly from a common source: one motif slips easily into the others. Just as Liszt blurs the contours and distinctiveness of his melodic material, so does he erase the boundaries between sections of music. The Sonata contains no distinct movements, and musicians have long debated whether it consists of three or four principal sections. Passages of recitativo, mini-cadenzas, and the momentary silence of a fermata (pause) all serve as transitions. The music includes intimate passages that seem like eavesdropping on a confessional, such as the central Andante sostenuto that is sometimes cited as the sonata’s “slow movement.” Some listeners perceive the brilliant fugato – whose 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


subject combines two of the motives introduced on the sonata’s first page – as a scherzo. The seamless narrative flow argues otherwise, however, transporting us back to more double octaves, a reacquaintance with the descending scale motive introduced at the beginning, and two more transcendent statements of the grandioso theme. Liszst’s original conclusion was big, bold, and loud, marked triple forte. He reconsidered that ending, ultimately realizing that the heroism and grandiosity had already occurred. The Sonata ends with a final statement of the three ideas on its opening page, now in radiant B major. The first is piano, sotto voce (quiet, subdued, “under” the voice), gradually dissipating to triple piano. If one listens to surface detail, the B minor Sonata sounds free, improvisatory, and episodic. Liszt’s use of Phrygian mode and Central European Gypsy scales enriches the harmonic palette. His larger scheme is dazzling in its complexity and discipline. The complexity arises from the sophistication of Liszt’s thematic metamorphosis. The discipline is inherent in the composer’s simultaneous attention to detail and to the architecture of large structure. With the Sonata in B minor, Liszt was trying to move the venerable, prestigious sonata form forward to the next era, to give this traditional vessel a future that he regarded as inevitable. When the Sonata was published in 1854, admirers heralded it as a masterpiece. Detractors scorned it as an ill-conceived, overwrought exercise in virtuosity. Posterity’s judgment has been generous. Kenneth Hamilton has written that, if Liszt had composed nothing else, the Sonata alone “would still be enough to rank him as one of the greatest Romantic composers.” By any measure, the Sonata is incomparably original and one of musical romanticism’s defining leaps forward. Program notes by Laurie Shulman © 2010

Franz Liszt


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Vladimir Feltsman Pianist and conductor Vladimir Feltsman is one of the most versatile musicians of our time. His vast repertoire encompasses music from the Baroque to the 20th-century. A regular guest soloist with leading symphony orchestras in the United States and abroad, he appears in the most prestigious concert series and music festivals all over the world. Born in Moscow in 1952, Mr. Feltsman debuted with the Moscow Philharmonic at age 11. In 1969, he entered the Moscow Tchaikovsky State Conservatory of Music to study piano under the guidance of Professor Jacob Flier. He also studied conducting at both the Moscow and Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) Conservatories. In 1971, Mr. Feltsman won the Grand Prix at the Marguerite Long International Piano Competition in Paris; extensive touring throughout the former Soviet Union, Europe and Japan followed this. In 1979, because of his growing discontent with the restrictions on artistic freedom under the Soviet regime, Mr. Feltsman signaled his intention to emigrate by applying for an exit visa. In response, his visa was rejected, he was immediately banned from performing in public and his recordings were suppressed. After eight years of virtual artistic exile, he was finally granted permission to leave the Soviet Union. Upon his arrival in the United States in 1987, Mr. Feltsman was warmly greeted at the White House, where he performed his first recital in North America. That same year, his debut at Carnegie Hall established him as a major pianist on the American and international scene. Since then Mr. Feltsman has performed across the world in all the major music venues, both as pianist and conductor. Feltsman has dedicated a major portion of his life to the music of J.S. Bach. In four consecutive seasons, from

1992-96, he performed a cycle of concerts which presented the major clavier works of the composer at the 92nd Street Y in New York. A more recent project, Masterpieces of the Russian Underground, gave a panoramic view of Russian contemporary music through an unprecedented survey of piano and chamber works by fourteen different composers from Shostakovich to the present day, and was presented by the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center in January 2003. Mr. Feltsman served as Artistic Director for this project and performed in most of the pieces presented during this three-concert cycle. The programs included a number of world and North American premieres and were also presented in Portland, Oregon and in Tucson, Arizona at the University of Arizona. In the fall of 2006, Mr. Feltsman performed all of the Mozart Piano Sonatas in New York at the Mannes School of Music and NYU’s Tisch Center presented by New School on a specially built replica of the Walter fortepiano. A dedicated educator of young musicians, Mr. Feltsman holds the Distinguished Chair of Professor of Piano at the State University of New York, New Paltz, and is a member of the piano faculty at the Mannes College of Music in New York City. He is the founder and Artistic Director of the International Festival-Institute PianoSummer at SUNY New Paltz, a three-week-long, intensive training program for advanced piano students that attracts major young talent from all over the world. For more information visit Vladimir Feltsman appears by arrangement with Arts Management Group.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Ivan Moravec Saturday, October 16 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater


Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in D minor, BWV 903


Intermezzo in B-flat minor, Op. 117, No. 2 Intermezzo in A Major, Op. 118, No. 2


Thirty-two Variations on an Original Theme in C minor, WoO 80


Nocturne in E minor, Op. 72, No. 1, Op. Posth. Polonaise-fantaisie in A-flat Major, Op. 61 Scherzo No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op. 31

The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation. This concert is underwritten, in part, by an anonymous donor. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 30

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Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

Program Notes Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in D minor, BWV903 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

instrumental variety that afforded him maximum rhythmic and expressive latitude.

Most of Bach’s solo keyboard works are parts of collections: the 48 preludes and fugues of the Well Tempered Clavier; the English Suites, French Suites, and Partitas; the two-part Inventions and three-part Sinfonias. The Italian Concerto is part of the Clavier-Übung, Book II; and the Goldberg Variations were in all likelihood intended as Book IV of the same collection.

Bach completed the Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in 1721, while he was working for Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen. Some scholars have hypothesized that it may have been a memorial for his first wife, Maria Barbara, who died in 1720; however, two earlier versions of the Fantasia survive from Bach’s years in Weimar, sometime after 1714.

The Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue is thus sui generis: arguably Bach’s best known solo keyboard composition outside the collections. It holds the further distinction of having been widely played and disseminated in Bach’s lifetime. An impressive number of manuscript copies—thirty-eight— have survived, about thirty of which date from the 18th century. At least two dozen additional handwritten copies that have not survived are known to have existed. This large quantity reflects how much the Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue was admired and played in Bach’s lifetime and after his death. What makes it so special? Its first movement is Bach’s finest keyboard toccata, requiring exceptional keyboard skills. More important, however, is its freedom of form and expression. Indeed, the juxtaposition of the subjective and objective—between the Fantasy and Fugue movements—gives the work its rhetorical power and balance. In the Fantasy, Bach lets the spirit and imagination rule. The Fugue imposes discipline, rigor, and objectivity. Intellect prevails over emotion. The term “chromatic” may be applied to both movements – the fugue subject is undeniably chromatic – but the adjective really describes the Fantasia. Its sudden shifts of tempo, mood, and texture enclose a chromatic labyrinth that abounds in deceptive cadences, enharmonic changes [a musical “spelling” duplication, for example F# and G-flat, which are the same on the keyboard; in an enharmonic change, the composer uses that pitch as a pivot point for an unexpected harmonic shift], and harmonic digressions of great expressive power. Contemporary theorists were nearly stymied in their attempts to analyze this movement. They referred to the Fantasia as “the Devil’s Mill.” One writer has compared Bach’s systematic journey through every key in the chromatic scale as a compressed version of his Well-Tempered Clavier. The Fantasia movement is also noteworthy for its second half, which is marked recitativo in the score. Bach was not referring to operatic or other vocal recitative, but to a freer

The fugue is also a remarkable piece of writing, inexorable in its working out of the contrapuntal web. At the end, Bach writes uncharacteristic, ponderous octaves to remind us of the fugue subject and herald a majestic close.

Johann Sebastian Bach

His Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue effectively established a new genre. The solo keyboard fantasy remained popular throughout the 18th century, not only in the works of Bach’s sons Carl Philipp Emanuel and Wilhelm Friedemann, but also in Mozart and his contemporaries. Beethoven’s two Opus 27 Sonatas, the A-flat major and the “Moonlight,” are both outgrowths of this tradition, as are subsequent Fantasies by Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, and others.

Intermezzo in B-flat minor, Op.117, No.2 Intermezzo in A major, Op.118, No.2 Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) Brahms composed for the piano his entire life. His first ten works published with opus numbers included six for solo piano. Three of these are large sonatas that he wrote for himself when he was building a career as a concert pianist. They are infrequently played today because of their enormous scale and technical demands. His middle-period piano works include several challenging sets of variations and a series of virtuoso études based on Paganini’s 24th Caprice. From the late 1870s on, Brahms was more interested in smaller, independent pieces. His Klavierstücke tend to be modest in proportion – between three and six minutes in length – and simple in form. Most are ternary structures with a contrasting middle section. They bear various titles, including Capriccio, Rhapsody, Romanze, and Ballade, but the label Brahms employed most frequently was Intermezzo. The designation is ambiguous, since it implies something lighter, insubstantial, perhaps less important than its companion pieces. That is hardly 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


the case with Brahms’s Intermezzi, which are soulful explorations that lift the 19th-century miniature out of the salon and into the realm of the sublime. Both Intermezzi that Mr. Moravec plays come from Brahms’s last solo piano pieces, four collections composed in 1892 and published as his Opp.116-119. The B-flat minor work, Op.117 No.2, is a shadowy and wistful affair. Its mysteries unfold in a series of restless arpeggiated figures that meander the breadth of the keyboard. A tender middle section modulates to D-flat major, transforming the motivic gesture of the opening segment. The texture shifts to richly harmonized chords. They only stave off the chromatic arpeggios for a short while. Darker music returns, leading to a bleak conclusion. At the end, Brahms reminds us briefly of the central section’s psychological reprieve, but it is the somber recesses of B-flat minor that prevail. The A major Intermezzo, Op.118 No.2 provides a welcome foil. This is among the most beloved of Brahms’s piano works: warm and lyrical, with subtle imitation in its outer sections and a more discernible canon in the middle section. Here again, Brahms links his thematic material, using the same contour throughout, and inverting the opening motive for a “second theme.” Poetic and tender, this Intermezzo shows us Brahms at his most gentle. 32 Variations in C minor on an Original Theme, WoO 80 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Thirty-two variations may sound like a lot. Make no mistake about it: it is. But don’t be looking at your watch nervously thinking that you’ll be here until midnight. This is an elevenminute work that packs a wallop. You won’t be counting variations, wondering when it will be over. Your heart may be tightening, however, as the tension and momentum build. Beethoven’s theme is short, a mere eight bars that elapse in a matter of seconds. That theme is noteworthy: simple and dignified, in moderate triple meter, with a descending bass line that links it strongly to the Baroque chaconne or passacaglia. The structural resemblance is surely intentional. Beethoven took a decidedly old-fashioned approach, making a conscious salute to the older, sequential variation form. Yet his piano technique approach is aggressive and forwardlooking. Before you have registered that the theme is over, Beethoven launches into the first variation: arpeggios and repeated notes with chordal accompaniment. He groups the variations in back-to-back pairs, or occasionally in clumps of three, linking these mini-units with a common textural or rhythmic figure. These figurations vary widely. Beethoven retains interest, and raises the technical bar, by consistently making matters more complex. He might double the figuration in both hands, or extend it through different registers. He interpolates two pairs of C major variations (Nos. 13-16, for those who are keeping track) in the middle, for temporary relief from the taut, C minor atmosphere.


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The cumulative effect, however, is anything but a reduction in tension. Beethoven’s gift for dramatic impetus may not have extended to the stage; however, in the realm of instrumental music, he had no peer. These variations are a consummate example of that gift at its most effective. The single-mindedness of his obsession with this simple theme pervades the entire work, all the way through to its spine-tingling coda. Beethoven’s biographer Lewis Lockwood relates these variations to the improvisational tradition. He calls them “a parade of short, brilliant pianistic transformations in the same rigorously maintained length and form.” Beethoven composed the C minor variations in late 1805 or early 1806, about the time he was completing the third of the “Rasoumovsky” String Quartets, Opus 59. Sketches for the variations occupy the same pages as those for the famous fugal finale of Op.59 No.3. Curiously, Beethoven declined to assign an opus number to this work, allocating publication rights to the Bureau des Arts et d’Industrie, which issued the Variations in April 1807, without a dedication. Because of that decision, scholars have surmised that Beethoven did not think highly of this work. Pianists and posterity have opined differently. Perhaps even more important, both Schubert and Mendelssohn studied these variations. The proof of that pudding, so to speak, is in Schubert’s late C minor Piano Sonata [first movement] and in Mendelssohn’s Variations sérieuses. Both of those masterpieces are undeniably indebted to Beethoven’s disciplined and extraordinary Variations on an Original Theme, WoO 80. Nocturne in E minor, Op.72 No.1, Op. Posth. Polonaise-Fantaisie in A-flat Major, Op.61 Scherzo No.2 in B-flat minor, Op. 31 Frédéric François Chopin (1810-1849) In keeping with this Chopin Bicentennial year, Mr. Moravec devotes the entire second half of the program to Chopin’s music. He has chosen examples from three different genres, and from early, middle, and late Chopin, concluding with one of the best known showpieces. *** The late opus number for the Nocturne in E minor, Op.72 is misleading because the piece was published posthumously. It first appeared in Berlin in 1855, then was issued in Paris the following year. It probably dates from 1829, and reflects the influence of John Field, the Irish composer who first used the term Nocturne for a short piano piece. The triplet figuration in the left hand lends a simple elegance to the texture, and the singing melody and occasional flourishes in the right hand are unmistakably Chopinesque. The subtle, momentary harmonic clashes that Chopin sets up in the interaction of his two hands hint at the bold exploration he would make in later works. The Polonaise-Fantaisie is an excellent example of a late work that may well have heralded a new phase in Chopin’s evolution as a composer. Alas, that phase was never to flower. Chopin’s

health was declining in 1845 and 1846 when he composed his Opus 61. The consumption that would claim his life in 1849 compromised his productivity during his final years. This work’s ambiguous title is the key to its structure. Chopin refused to cubbyhole himself. The distinctive polonaise rhythm is sometimes present, elsewhere conspicuous by its absence, almost as if we focus in and out of an awareness of the dance. The concept is quite original, with an extended introduction that traverses a remarkable span of harmony. Cadenzas and improvisatory passages give vent to Chopin’s lyric impulses, supporting the idea of a fantasy. The triumphant conclusion bursts through the earlier moodiness and melancholy. The Polonaise-Fantaisie was misunderstood by Chopin’s contemporaries. One reviewer observed that its “pathological contents” caused it to “stand outside the realm of art.” Even Liszt felt that it was “overshadowed by a feverish apprehension.” He wrote: “An elegiac sadness reigns here, broken by startled movements, melancholy smiles, and sudden gasps.” The piece was slow to achieve popularity and acceptance. Yet it has a peculiar unity and persuasiveness that has won over connoisseurs. Today the Polonaise-Fantaisie is regarded as one of Chopin’s mature masterpieces. *** Chopin’s four Scherzi span about a dozen years, from approximately 1830 or 1831 to 1843. (The origins of the Scherzo No.1 are murky; the first version may be from his Warsaw period, but he definitely revised the piece after he arrived in Paris.) Each one alternates passages of passion and intensity with sections of melting lyricism. The switch can be jarring – but in places the transition between these two states is so subtle that we do not quite realize how Chopin is manipulating us, psychologically and emotionally. The Second Scherzo, composed and published in 1837, is the best known of the four. Chopin cast it in a free sonata form, with a contrasting intermezzo preceding the development of the ideas set forth at the beginning. The first eight measures encapsulate the entire ten-minute work: a mysterious, sinister rumble, answered by an explosive outburst. Balancing this dark thesis and antithesis is a glorious cantilena melody in D-flat that is one of Chopin’s loveliest. Silences – single bar and even 2 bar rests – are important to the stark drama of the outer sections of this scherzo. Swooping figures leap and swirl, seemingly all over the keyboard. The central trio section in A major provides temporary respite and some lovely inner voice writing. The development of this section and its gradual transition back to the tension of B-flat minor and the thesis/antithesis eruption is masterful. Ultimately, D-flat major prevails in a brilliant coda that is one of Chopin’s flashiest conclusions.

Ivan Moravec Long recognized as one of the century’s great pianists, Ivan Moravec’s performances and recordings alike have prompted critics in search of parallels to call up such names as Gieseking and Richter. Yet his musicianship, while it challenges comparison with these masters, is riveting and penetratingly individual in style. Born in Prague in 1930, Mr. Moravec made his American debut in January 1964 with The Cleveland Orchestra and George Szell at Severance Hall; the following month he made his New York debut at Carnegie Hall during Cleveland’s annual week of appearances there. Since then he has performed with all the world’s major orchestras and, as one of the most acclaimed recitalists, in recital in every major venues of the globe. In October 2000, Vaclav Havel, then President of the Czech Republic, awarded Ivan Moravec the Medal of Merit for Outstanding Artistic Achievement. That same month, Mr. Moravec was also awarded the Prize of Charles the Fourth, the Czech Republic’s most prestigious acknowledgement of outstanding service to humanity. In January 2002, he was honored with a Cannes Classical Award for Lifetime Achievement, an award given by several international music magazines to recognize the universal appeal of classical music. For more information visit Ivan Moravec appears by arrangement with C/M Artists New York. Recordings available on the Supraphon, Nonesuch, Vox Music Group, Hännsler, Philips and Dorian labels.

Chopin dedicated his Opus 31 Scherzo to his student Comtesse Adèle de Fürstenstein. Program notes by Laurie Shulman © 2010 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Music Alliance

Sphinx Chamber Orchestra with the Harlem String Quartet Sunday, October 24 | 2:30 pm | White Recital Hall at UMKC


Quartet for Strings “Andante festivo”


Sonata for 2 Violins in C Major, Op. 56


Leyendas: An Andean Walkabout


Lyric for Strings


La oración del torero, Op. 34


Spiritual Fantasy for String Quartet


Symphony for Strings No. 7 in D minor


Sinfonietta for Strings No. 1

This concert is a collaboration between The Friends of Chamber Music and the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance. 34

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Sphinx Chamber Orchestra Founded in 1996 by Aaron Dworkin, the Sphinx Organization has grown from an annual competition for young Black and Latino string players, into a national arts and youth development organization. The Sphinx Chamber Orchestra works to develop a world in which classical music reflects cultural diversity and plays a role in the everyday lives of youth. As the organization has grown, so has its acclaim. Sphinx has been featured in The New York Times, Newsweek, People Magazine, The Detroit Free Press, and on National Public Radio and NBC’s The Today Show.

The Harlem Quartet

Celebrating 14 years of building diversity in classical music, Sphinx programs now reach more than 30,000 students, as well as live and broadcast audiences of over two million annually.

The Harlem Quartet, comprised of First Place Laureates of the Sphinx Competition, has a unique and challenging mission: to advance diversity in classical music while engaging young and new audiences through the discovery and presentation of varied repertoire, highlighting works by minority composers. Dedicated to education and community engagement, as well as to superb classical performance, this innovative and daring all-Black and Latino string quartet serves as Principal Faculty at the Sphinx Performance Academy at Walnut Hill School in Massachusetts, one of the premier independent arts preparatory schools in the world, and as Visiting Faculty at the Sphinx Preparatory Music Institute at Wayne State University in Detroit. The Harlem Quartet made their acclaimed debut in the fall of 2006 at the Sphinx Organization’s Gala Concert at Carnegie Hall, earning rave reviews from The New York Times, as well as at the legendary Apollo Theatre in Harlem. In addition to being avid chamber musicians, each member of the Harlem Quartet is a seasoned solo artist, having appeared with the New York Philharmonic, the Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Sinaloa de las Artes (Mexico) and Baltimore Symphonies and the Boston Pops, among others. They are comanaged by Sciolino Artist Management (SAM) of New York City and the Sphinx Organization. For more information visit

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Kopelman String Quartet Saturday, November 6 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater Mikhail Kopelman, violin Boris Kuschnir, violin Igor Sulyga, viola Mikhail Milman, cello


String Quartet No. 1 in A Major Moderato; Allegro Andante con moto Scherzo: Prestissimo Andante; Allegro risoluto


Two Pieces for String Quartet Elegy Polka


String Quartet in A minor, Op. 51, No. 2 Allegro non troppo Andante moderato Quasi minuetto, moderato; Allegretto vivace Finale: Allegro non assai

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 36

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Quartet No.1 in A major (1884) Alexander Borodin (1833-1887) Russia does not have a strong tradition of chamber music. To be sure, Shostakovich is arguably the greatest string quartet composer since Beethoven – but he was more a Soviet composer than a specifically Russian one. The same argument could be made about Prokofiev, despite his international wanderings between 1917 and 1935. Where does Alexander Borodin fit into this? The nationalist tradition in Russian music is rightfully associated with the group known as the kuchka, or ‘mighty handful,’ also called the ‘Russian Five.’ This group, consisting of Mily Balakirev, Modest Musorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Cesar Cui, and Borodin, identified their spiritual father as Mikhail Glinka. They revered Glinka because he had embraced Russian culture in his music, embedding Russian folk music in his original works and basing his operas, Ruslan and Ludmila and A Life for the Tsar, on Russian topics. Glinka’s disciples, led by Balakirev, embraced his approach. They eschewed the western traditional forms like the symphony and sonata that were taught in the major conservatories. Instead, they sought inspiration in the hymnody and chant of the Russian Orthodox Church as well as Russia’s rich folk tradition. Balakirev and Musorgsky, in particular, disdained chamber music as an obsolete, old-fashioned genre.

Upon his return to St. Petersburg in 1862, Borodin resumed a career teaching chemistry at both the Academy of Medicine and the Institute of Forestry. Music was a sideline for him, but he continued to compose as time permitted, generally during the summers. Balakirev became his mentor in the 1860s and encouraged Borodin with his first symphony, some songs, and an early stage work. Despite disapproval from his colleagues, Borodin persisted with chamber music, writing two string quartets in the 1870s and 1880s of singular beauty and quality. This first Quartet in A major took a long time to complete, not only because of Borodin’s day job, but also because he was working simultaneously on the opera Prince Igor. The premiere took place in St. Petersburg on 30 December 1880, played by the quartet of the Russian Musical Society. When the First Quartet was published in Hamburg in 1884, it bore the inscription Angeregt durch ein Thema von Beethoven, which translates not exactly to ‘inspired by,’ but rather ‘animated’ or ‘prompted by’ a theme of Beethoven. Borodin’s point of departure was a snippet of the finale to the quartet in B-flat, Op.130, the movement that Beethoven composed to replace the Grosse Fuge. The melody in question occurs during an interlude in A-flat major in Beethoven’s finale. Borodin’s principal theme in the opening Allegro shares its contours. His treatment of the theme, however, is not so much Beethovenian as an amalgam of Germanic and Russian techniques. Borodin was a first rank melodist (remember all those themes from the Polovtsian Dances and Prince Igor that found their way into the 1950s musical Kismet?) and his gift for memorable tunes graces all four movements of this quartet. The first movement, which consists of a slow introduction followed by a sonata/allegro, is tender, comfortable, and genial. Most of the time, the two violins and the cello have the melody. Borodin employs typical Russian-style variations, altering the accompaniment each time he restates the theme. Yet his development section includes a fugato, perhaps another salute to Beethoven’s mastery of counterpoint.

Mikhail Glinka

Borodin was exceptional among the ‘Russian Five’ because he loved chamber music. He played flute and piano as a child, then learned both violin and cello. He became an accomplished cellist and pursued music avidly even during his medical training in St. Petersburg. Eventually he earned a doctorate in chemistry, then went to Germany and, later, Italy for post-doctoral study. During two years in Heidelberg from 1859 to 1861, Borodin was able to cultivate his passion for playing chamber music. His first completed chamber works – a string sextet, a cello sonata, and a piano quintet – date from these years.

The Andante con moto adapts a Russian folk song, “On the Sparrow Hills,” which Borodin discovered in Vasily Prokunin’s collection Russian National Songs. It opens as a duet for first violin and viola. The most interesting aspect of the movement is another fugato passage, this time originating in the cello and viola. It is a surprisingly traditional ploy in a folk-based movement, and constitutes the entire central section. The outer segments of this ternary structure foreshadow the quartets of both Debussy and Ravel.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


The Scherzo is a whirlwind affair whose rapid triplet motive bounces like a ping-pong ball among the four players, as fast as championship table tennis doubles. The central trio section features harmonics in cello and first violin, and some left hand pizzicato; the other two strings are muted. This is an enormously successful movement in the great tradition of Mendelssohnian scherzos. A slow introduction precedes the finale, but once Borodin moves to his Allegro risoluto, it is all about rhythm, energy, and the spirit of Russian dance - yet it is another sonata structure, that most traditional form of Western European music. Two Pieces for String Quartet Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975)

unpublished until 1985, when it was sent from the USSR to Britain’s Fitzwilliam Quartet. The Fitzwilliam was the first quartet to record the complete cycle of Shostakovich quartets. In addition to their obvious historical value as a foretaste of Shostakovich’s quartet writing, the Two Pieces are a microcosm of his musical personality. The Elegy adapts an aria sung by Katerina Ismailova, who is bored, miserable, and unfulfilled in her marriage. Her music, deeply human and heartfelt, reflects despair and frustration. The Polka is a boisterous send-up of the Viennese polkas cultivated by the Strauss family. Satirical and irreverent, it shows Shostakovich thumbing his nose at the establishment. Quartet in A minor, Op. 51 No. 2 Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)

Given that Shostakovich composed fifteen string quartets, it seems logical that this body of work would comprise an overview of his musical development. Logic does not always prevail, however, in assessing a composer’s output. The First String Quartet dates from 1938 and was Shostakovich’s Opus 49. That means that he had published nearly fifty works before a string quartet saw the light of day. And that’s not even including unfinished compositions or those without an opus number. To place this in perspective, five of Shostakovich’s fifteen symphonies preceded the First Quartet. Thus these two early pieces for string quartet pique one’s curiosity just by their date: 1931, when Shostakovich was in his mid-twenties. He had written little chamber music at this point, focusing his energy more on stage works, film scores, solo piano pieces, and symphonies. Throughout his life, chamber music would provide Shostakovich with an intensely personal, even private, expression of his musical soul. That adds to the curiosity of these two pieces, each of which he arranged from another composition. The occasion was happenstance. In October, 1931, Shostakovich was in the southern Caucusus – today’s Republic of Georgia – working on his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District. By month’s end he was in Batumi, on the Black Sea near the Turkish border. Staying in the same hotel were the members of the J. Vuillaume Quartet. Taking a break from the opera’s orchestration, Shostakovich made two quick arrangements for the quartet: an aria from the new opera, and the popular Polka from his ballet L’age d’or [The Age of Gold], which had been premiered the previous year. The Vuillaume Quartet, of course, was delighted, and soon began playing both the Elegy (as it was retitled) and the Polka as encore pieces. Curiously, the manuscript of the two arrangements remained 38

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Dmitri Shostakovich

symphonic canon.

Johannes Brahms left no excess baggage behind when he died in April 1897. Unlike Beethoven, who hoarded all his musical sketches and conversation notebooks, Brahms preserved no record of his creative and thought processes. If a composition did not satisfy him after revision, he destroyed it. Occasionally he reworked one composition into another; the Piano Concerto No.1 in D minor, Op. 15, for example, was originally intended to be a symphony. But Brahms took the legacy of Beethoven very seriously, and it is not without reason that the Symphony No.1 in C minor, Op. 68, was hailed as “the Beethoven Tenth” when it was premiered in 1876. The composer had waited until the age of 43 to contribute to the

He held the genre of the string quartet in much the same reverence, for many of the same reasons. Brahms’s reluctance to publish any quartets until these is a tacit acknowledgment of his heritage: not only Beethoven, but also Haydn, Mozart, and Schubert in the realm of the string quartet. Cumulatively, the body of literature left by these four titans was a formidable psychological obstacle to the young Brahms. We know this because Brahms revealed to a friend that he had composed, and subsequently destroyed, more than twenty string quartets in his youth. None of these early efforts met the exceptionally high standards he set for himself. He had brought the first of the lost quartets to Robert Schumann, who had enthusiastically approved the work and encouraged his protégé to publish. In spite of Schumann’s endorsement, Brahms withdrew the work and the music is lost, presumably burnt by the composer. The loss to musical posterity of that quartet and its successors is incalculable: at once tantalizing to the imagination and tragic to the music lover. That makes the surviving three quartets – the two of Opus 51, and Opus 67 in

B-flat – all the more precious. Brahms worked on the Opus 51 quartets intermittently between 1865 and 1873, completing them during the summer of 1873. He dedicated them to his friend Dr. Theodor Billroth, an accomplished amateur violist who enjoyed playing chamber music. Of the two quartets, the A minor is less aggressive and more intimate, yet it is governed by discipline and airtight compositional technique. Brahms’s biographer Malcolm MacDonald refers to “the remorseless logic of [its] construction, the derivation of so much from basic motifs.” The dominant motif in the first movement consists of the three pitches F, A, and E, which occur in the first violin’s opening gesture (in the order A-F-A-E). F-A-E is an acronym for the phrase Frei aber einsam [Free but lonely], the motto of violinist Joseph Joachim. (Brahms would use a similar musical motif in his Third Symphony, whose opening gesture F-A-F denotes his own motto, Frei aber froh [Free but happy].) Joachim’s F-A-E recurs throughout the Allegro non troppo in various guises. The overall scope of the movement is broad because of an extended exposition and recapitulation. The development is actually fairly brief, but the first movement still clocks in at about fourteen minutes. This quartet is unusual in its singular focus on the home tonality. All four movements are in A major or A minor. In the A major slow movement, a minore passage has a quasi-Hungarian flavor with the first violin and cello in a canon while the inner voices thrum away in agitated tremolo. Elsewhere, Brahms distributes his melodies and accompaniments with judicious balance among the four players. The Quasi Minuetto, moderato is distinguished by open fifths and sixths in the cello part. Its rustic bagpipe drone underpins the gentle musings of the upper strings. The trio section switches to a skittish Allegretto vivace in duple meter, with a sly six-bar interpolation of the Minuetto in its midst. The return to the Minuetto is at once seamless and surprising. Brahms’s recurrent attraction to Hungarian flavors manifests itself in the Gypsy-like finale, which lurches forward slightly off balance. Contrasts abound, in cross-rhythms, modulations, and switches from forceful gestures to lyrical sweep and back again. Dense textures never compromise the variety or the persuasiveness of Brahms’s rhetoric.

Program Notes by Laurie Shulman ©2010

Kopelman String Quartet One of the major string quartets of the world, the Kopelman Quartet bears an extraordinary legacy in chamber music. Founded by remarkable musicians steeped in the standards and style of the classic Russian school, the Kopelman Quartet carries forward a rich inheritance of technical excellence, lyricism, grace and musical integrity. Mikhail Kopelman, Boris Kuschnir, Igor Sulyga and Mikhail Milman each graduated from the Moscow Conservatoire in the 1970’s, the “golden age” of this institution, when the students regularly worked with musicians and teachers such as Dmitri Shostakovich, Mstislav Rostropovich and Natalia Gutman. These strong musical influences have remained with the members of the Kopelman Quartet, even as they pursued individual careers for twenty-five years before founding the quartet in 2002. In a very short time the Kopelman Quartet has earned acclaim throughout the world on the most distinguished concert stages. Mikhail Kopelman, first violin, was the renowned leader of the Borodin Quartet for twenty years, and first violinist of the Tokyo String Quartet for seven years. He was awarded the Royal Philharmonic Society Award and the Concertgebouw Silver Medal of Honour. Boris Kuschnir, second violin, is a distinguished professor at the Conservatoire in Vienna, whose pupils include Julian Rachlin and Nikolai Znaider. He won numerous prizes at international violin and chamber music competitions (Paris, Belgrade, Sion, Trapani, Bratislava, Florence, Trieste, Hamburg, Lockenhaus). Igor Sulyga, viola, played for twenty years with Vladimir Spivakov, in the Moscow Virtuosi Chamber Orchestra and in his string quartet. As founding members of the Moscow String Quartet, both Boris Kuschnir and Igor Sulyga worked with Dmitri Shostakovich on his late quartets. Mikhail Milman, cello, was principal cellist of the Moscow Virtuosi was for twenty years and collaborated frequently with the Borodin Quartet in concerts and recordings. Now established as a significant chamber ensemble, the quartet has played at major venues all over the world. For more information visit The Kopelman String Quartet appears by arrangement with California Artists Management. 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


“What Makes It Great?” with Rob Kapilow & the Miró Quartet

Claude Debussy

(1862 –1918)

String Quartet in G Minor (1893)

Saturday, November 13 | 11 am | The Pavilion at John Knox Village Sunday, November 14 | 2 pm | Country Club Congregational United Church of Christ

The “What Makes It Great?” series is underwritten, in part, by The Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation The William T. Kemper Foundation The Oppenstein Brothers Foundation DST Systems, Inc. The RLS Illumination Fund 40

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Radio’s prestigious Composers In America series and is a recipient of an Exxon “Meet-the-Composer” grant and numerous ASCAP awards. He was the first composer ever to be granted the rights to set Dr. Seuss’s words Green Eggs and Ham to music, and has written a book All You Have To Do Is Listen. His music is published exclusively by G. Schirmer. Kapilow lives in River Vale, NJ, with his wife and three children.

Rob Kapilow

As the Boston Globe said, “It’s a cheering thought that this kind of missionary enterprise did not pass from this earth with Leonard Bernstein. Rob Kapilow is awfully good at what he does. We need him.” For more information visit Rob Kapilow appears by arrangement of IMG Artists.

For more than 15 years, Rob Kapilow has brought the joy and wonder of classical music to audiences of all ages and backgrounds. Kapilow’s What Makes It Great? made its auspicious debut on NPR’s Performance Today over 15 years ago. What Makes It Great? now sells out regular subscription series in Kansas City; Cerritos, CA; New York’s Lincoln Center; Boston’s Celebrity Series; and the Washington Performing Arts Society. In 2008 PBS’s Live From Lincoln Center broadcast a special What Makes It Great? show, bringing it to TV screens throughout the US; worldwide audiences were also able to see and experience Kapilow’s trademarked presentations when Lincoln Center inaugurated a series of WMIG video podcasts. Kapilow, affectionately nicknamed America’s “pied piper of classical music,” has found many new young fans through his family compositions and presentations. He has also conducted many new works of musical theater, ranging from the Tony Award-winning Nine on Broadway to the premiere of Frida for the opening of the Brooklyn Academy of Music’s “Next Wave Festival,” and premieres of works for the American Repertory Theater. He is the conductor/creative director of FamilyMusik for the Boston Celebrity Series and at New York’s Lincoln Center, and has been conductor/director of FamilyMusik for New York’s 92nd Street Y, co-director of the Rutgers SummerFest Festival, assistant conductor of the Opera Company of Boston, music director of the touring company Opera New England, and conductor of the Kansas City Symphony’s summer FamilyFare program. He was also music director of the Yale Symphony Orchestra for five seasons. At the age of 19, Kapilow interrupted his academic work at Yale University to study with the legendary Nadia Boulanger. Two years later, after graduating Phi Beta Kappa from Yale, he continued his studies at the Eastman School of Music. After graduating from Eastman, he returned to Yale, where he was assistant professor for six years at the university. Kapilow’s career has been marked by numerous major awards and grants. He won first place in the Fontainebleau Casadesus Piano Competition and was the second-place winner of the Antal Dorati Conductor’s Competition with the Detroit Symphony. Kapilow was a featured composer on Chicago Public

Miró Quartet

Daniel Ching, violin Sandy Yamamoto, violin John Largess, viola Joshua Gindele, cello

The Miró Quartet, one of America’s highest‐profile chamber groups, enjoys its place at the top of the international chamber music scene garnering praise from audiences and critics alike. Founded in 1995 at the Oberlin Conservatory, the Miró Quartet met with immediate success winning first prizes at the Coleman, Fischoff, and Banff competitions as well as the prestigious Naumburg Chamber Music Award. The Miró Quartet was also a recipient of the Cleveland Quartet Award and was the first ensemble ever to be awarded the Avery Fisher Career Grant. Regularly invited to perform at the world’s most celebrated concert halls, the Miró Quartet has performed at Carnegie Hall, the Berlin Philharmonic’s Kammermusiksaal, and Amersterdam’s Concertgebouw among many others. A favorite of summer music festivals, the Quartet has frequently appeared at the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival, Chamber Music Northwest, and the Orcas Island Chamber Music Festival. Deeply committed to music education, the Miró Quartet is currently the Faculty String Quartet‐in‐Residence at the Sarah and Ernest Butler School of Music at the University of Texas at Austin. For more information, please visit 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Pinchas Zukerman, violin/viola Yefim Bronfman, piano Friday, November 19 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater


Sonata in B-flat Major for Violin and Piano, K. 454 Largo; Allegro Andante Allegretto


Sonata No. 5 in F Major for Violin and Piano, Op. 24, “Spring” Allegro Adagio molto espressivo Scherzo: Allegro molto Rondo: Allegro ma non troppo


Sonata in E-flat Major for Viola and Piano, Op. 120, No. 2 Allegro amabile Allegro appassionato Andante con moto; Allegro non troppo Allegro non troppo

The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 42

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Program Notes Sonata No. 32 in B-flat, K.454 Wolfgang Amadè Mozart (1756-1791) We now have here the famous Strinasacchi from Mantua, a very good violinist. She has a great deal of taste and feeling in her playing. I am this moment composing a sonata which we are going to play together on Thursday at her concert in the theatre. Writing from Vienna in late April 1784, the 28-year-old Mozart reported this news to his father Leopold in Salzburg. Regina Strinasacchi (1764-1839) had been educated in Venice and is now believed to have studied in Paris as well. She toured widely through Italy in the early 1780s, and created a sensation with two concerts in Vienna in 1784. Strinasacchi later married a cellist from the court orchestra at Gotha, where she also played and additionally learned guitar quite creditably. Her Viennese concerts took place at the height of her performing fame and success. The collaboration with Mozart was fortuitous. He was enjoying the crest of his own renown and prestige in imperial Vienna, composing astonishing music at an astonishing rate, and pursuing a life of commitments that are dizzying to read about, let alone to have lived. In light of what we know of the whirlwind pace of Mozart’s life during this time, the story associated with the Sonata in B-flat, K.454, is entirely believable. Mozart and Strinasacchi were scheduled to perform at Vienna’s Burgtheater on 29 April. The Emperor was to be in attendance. But time was so tight, and Mozart so overbooked with teaching and other responsibilities, that he had not completed the autograph by the time of the performance. The violin part existed in its entirety; the piano part did not. One version of the story says that Strinasacchi played from the handwritten autograph of the violin line, and Mozart played with a blank sheet of music paper in front of him. The other version says that he worked from a bare-bones sketch of his own part. The stories concur that the two performers played the concert without rehearsal, and that the Emperor and all others were suitably impressed (as well they should have been, for K.454 is one of Mozart’s finest violin sonatas). The autograph score turned up in a private Swedish collection two centuries later. The violin part had evidently been written down on music paper first, with the piano part added at a later date, and in a different color ink, wherever the notes would fit in. The sonata was eventually published as part of Opus VII, Trois Sonates dédiés à Son Excellence Madame la Comtesse Terese de Kobenzl. What is unusual about the publication is that it combined two solo piano sonatas with this violin/piano sonata. In Mozart’s day, the violin work would have been considered

a piano sonata with violin accompaniment. That is hardly the case in the music, which is one of the most inspired examples of its kind from the late 18th century. Mozart clearly delighted in the possibilities of dialogue implicit in the combination, and responded to the challenge and privilege of his own collaboration with an artist whose musicianship he so admired. The music of K.454 is indisputably on a higher level than any of his piano trios. As Mozart’s biographer Alfred Einstein has observed: One cannot conceive of any more perfect alternation of the two instruments than that in the first Allegro, into which one enters through a proud Largo as through a triumphal arch. The musical spotlight shifts back and forth, alternately featuring one or the other player, with the duo playing as equal partners at either end of this impressive first movement. Mozart gives the violin its prima donna moments in the slow movement, which bears a more than passing relationship to the Italian opera arias of which he had already proved himself such a consummate master. The truly outstanding feature of this Andante is the probing harmonic exploration that takes place in minor mode. Sometimes it hints almost menacingly at a darker world, though always with superb manners. One grasps in this movement that Mozart had pressing thoughts and deep cares even during this comparatively joyous and exhilarating time in his life. The sonata concludes with a splendid rondo, whose seamless, smooth synthesis of both instrumental parts makes it virtually impossible to distinguish who has the melody and who has the harmony. A delightful duel at the end between violin triplets and piano sixteenth notes brings the sonata to a goodnatured close.

“The Violinist” by Edward John Poynter

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Sonata in F for Violin & Piano, Op. 24 (“Spring”) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Eight of Beethoven’s ten violin sonatas were composed by 1802 and fall into Beethoven’s early period. The three sonatas of Op.30 (1801-02) are on the cusp of the so-called “heroic decade,” but only the “Kreutzer” sonata, Op.47 (1803) and the Sonata in G, Op.96 (1812, rev. ca.1815) can be considered true middle period compositions. By comparison, seven of the nine symphonies are middle-period works. Thus these ten sonatas for violin and piano do not provide a complete chronological overview of Beethoven’s compositional development that one can obtain through consideration of the complete piano sonatas or string quartets. What they do provide is an extraordinary, in-depth view of a genius at work for the first two-thirds of his career. As a youth in Bonn, Beethoven played violin as well as piano. After his arrival in Vienna in 1792, he established himself as a keyboard virtuoso; however, he continued violin study for a while. Consequently his violin writing is idiomatic and fluid. Beethoven’s violin sonatas reflect his comfort level with the medium of violin and piano. The treatment of the piano as a virtuoso instrument, the exchange of melodic material between the two players, the depth and variety of slow movements, and the command of formal structure: all these elements are richly fertilized by Beethoven’s imagination. The process of expansion and growth is a joy to perceive, for Beethoven was already a secure master when he wrote his first violin sonatas. The Op.24 sonata is one of only two Beethoven violin sonatas in four movements. Its length feels spacious and untroubled. The nickname “Spring” derives from the music’s sunny aspect,

from its setting in the pastoral key of F major, and from the sense of limitless optimism that characterizes this amiable work. This is a beautifully proportioned, even-tempered sonata. Its first movement provides a double statement of each principal theme, with both players getting a stab at the new musical ideas as they appear. The structure emphasizes the equal partnership between the instruments. However, that partnership risks imbalance. Resolution of that problem interested Beethoven keenly. The violin is essentially a treble instrument with some presence in the middle range. The piano has a tonal range from high treble to low bass. Beethoven’s opening violin theme spans nearly an octave and a half. He takes pains to explore the complete violin tessitura and to balance the two instruments. The slow movement is as Mozartean as Beethoven gets: arialike, in five sections. In the sprightly scherzo Beethoven’s humor and rhythmic imagination shine forth. This marked the first time he employed a scherzo (rather than the old-style minuet/trio) in a violin sonata. This scherzo uses rhythmic displacement with great effect. The piano introduces the skipping, main idea; the violin adds an echo effect, as if it cannot quite keep up. In actuality, maintaining rhythmic precision at this pace requires great skill. Similarly, the trio in the middle section of the scherzo slides past in fleet phrases of rapid eighth notes, finished before we know it. The entire movement whooshes by in little more than a minute. Beethoven’s finale is the most adventuresome of the four movements, keeping our ears engaged as it wanders into unexpected keys. He returns to the spacious lyricism of the first movement in a lovely opening theme whose rhythmic contour

Bonn, Germany


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recurs in the next theme. Using ornaments, triplets, and simple variation technique, Beethoven carries us on a relatively smooth journey. Even when he inserts episodes in minor modes, the atmosphere is less stormy than agitated, as if a smoothly flowing river had hit a short patch of rapids, but nothing dangerous. Or perhaps a light spring shower has fallen, but not so long as to spoil a lovely day. Good humor and optimism prevail throughout. Originally intended to be published in 1801 as a companion piece to the Op.23 sonata in A minor as Op.23, No.2, the “Spring” Sonata was issued with its own opus number Op.24 the same year and has borne that number ever since. Beethoven dedicated both sonatas to Count Moritz Fries, a wealthy Viennese industrialist and banker who was also a generous patron of the arts. Throughout its four movements, the “Spring” Sonata is relatively free of the turbulence and struggle we associate with Beethoven’s more aggressive works. Its pleasing, entertaining, even ingratiating mood verges on the Schubertian. These qualities have made it an audience favorite for more than two centuries. Sonata in E-flat for Viola and Piano, Op.120, No.2 Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) In December 1890, at the age of 57, Johannes Brahms announced to his publisher, Fritz Simrock, that he was retiring as a composer. Simrock had published the so-called Double Concerto, Op.102, two years before. That proved to be Brahms’s final orchestral work. Shortly after the publication of the Double Concerto, Brahms had published the three unaccompanied choral Motets, Op. 110. His String Quintet No.2 in G had received its premiere in Vienna in November 1890; Simrock would publish it the following year as Op.111. With that Quintet, Brahms appeared to have bid adieu to his beloved chamber music as well. That changed the following summer, when he renewed his acquaintance with Richard Mühlfeld, principal clarinetist of the renowned Meiningen court orchestra. Inspired by Mühlfeld’s rich clarinet tone, his expressive playing, and superb musicianship, Brahms took pen to paper and resumed writing. Before his inspiration flagged, he had completed a Trio for clarinet, cello, and piano, Op.114 (1891); a Quintet for clarinet and string quartet, Op. 115 (1891), and two sonatas for clarinet and piano, Op.120 (1894, published 1895). These four works proved to be Brahms’s swan song in chamber music, containing his last movements in sonata form, his last intermezzo, scherzo, and set of variations. Collectively, they represent one of the most bountiful late harvests in any composer’s output. Music historians refer to them as Brahms’s Indian summer, citing a shared gentle nostalgia among them. The clarinet pieces also demonstrate superb craftsmanship and a tight, disciplined structure. Mostly, they are beautiful and moving music.

The clarinet pieces also prompted Brahms to resume a more public role in music-making. He performed the Trio and both of the clarinet Sonatas with Mühlfeld, and actually delayed the Sonatas’ publication so that Mühlfeld could introduce them to various cities on tour. The violinist Joseph Joachim participated in some of these performances, too. That likely prompted Brahms to transcribe the two clarinet sonatas for viola (Joachim had begun to play a lot of viola), a process that necessitated some adjustments in octave registers. Clarinetists and violists have hotly debated the respective merits of the two versions ever since. Both lay claim to the Opus 120 Sonatas as late romantic masterpieces of their instrument’s literature. For tonight’s concert Mr. Zukerman plays the viola version. The E-flat Sonata is the more gemütlich of the two: winsome and melodious, in contrast to the Sturm und Drang of its companion piece. From the opening theme of the Allegro amabile, the viola envelops the listener in a welcoming embrace. Brahms was too good a musician, however, to forego drama altogether. Occasional shadows flicker across the musical landscape, but the overall mood is benign and nostalgic. It encapsulates the autumnal aspect of these works. Listeners who know Brahms’s piano pieces of Opus 116-119 will recognize similar textures and harmonic gestures in the sonata’s piano part. In this context, they are all the more wondrous for being interwoven so gently with the viola line. The central Allegro appassionato is the repository of Brahms’s angst in this sonata. It was the last scherzo he composed and bristles with all the edginess of his earlier examples. The piano writing is particularly virtuosic, requiring both power and subtlety. The central trio section, in glorious B major, favors both instruments’ central and low register. The viola often plays lower than the piano. Again, the intertwining of voices is masterful. The finale was Brahms’s last set of variations, and a wonderful swan song it is. The theme is simple, noble, and pregnant with possibility, as all good variation subjects are. We are not certain what our key center is until the full cadence is heard after fourteen measures of music. One would expect “sentences” of four or eight-bar increments. Instead, Brahms establishes a hint of lopsidedness with his famously long and irregular phrase lengths. Transparency prevails in the first four variations, yielding to a passionate outburst in the fifth, which switches to a minor mode. Demanding cross-rhythms, especially in the piano part, remind us that Brahms was still a formidable pianist. A graceful coda restores the major mode and the lyrical warmth that is this lovely sonata’s calling card. A burst of energy concludes the work in bravura style. Program notes by Laurie Shulman © 2010

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Pinchas Zukerman Pinchas Zukerman has been recognized as a phenomenon for nearly four decades. His musical genius and prodigious technique have long been a marvel to critics and audiences, and his exceptional artistic standards continue to earn him the highest acclaim. His devotion to younger generations of musicians who are inspired by his magnetism has been applauded worldwide. Equally respected as a violinist, violist, conductor, pedagogue and chamber musician, Pinchas Zukerman is indeed a master of our time. Pinchas Zukerman performs regularly with the world’s finest orchestras and has held numerous artistic positions. Appointed Music Director of Canada’s National Arts Centre Orchestra in 1998, Pinchas Zukerman is the fifth conductor to lead the classical-sized ensemble. From 1980 to 1987, he was Music Director of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, and became instrumental in bringing that ensemble to international prominence. He recently formed the Zukerman ChamberPlayers, an ensemble which has performed for the past four seasons at many prestigious venues. Mr. Zukerman chairs the Pinchas Zukerman Performance Program at the Manhattan School of Music. To maintain close relationships with his students while fulfilling the travel demands of his concert engagements, Mr. Zukerman has pioneered the use of distancelearning technology in the arts. Through the use of the school’s videoconferencing system, his students are able to receive regular string instruction. A frequent chamber music performer, Pinchas Zukerman has appeared regularly with such luminaries of the music world as Daniel Barenboim, Vladmir Ashkenazy, Itzhak Perlman, the Orion and Tokyo String Quartets, the Kalichstein-LaredoRobinson Trio, Ralph Kirshbaum, Yefim Bronfman, Lynn Harrell, Marc Neikrug and the late Jacqueline du Pré. Pinchas 46

The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

Zukerman’s extensive discography contains over 100 titles, and has earned him 21 Grammy nominations and two awards: “Best Chamber Music Performance” in 1980 and “Best Classical Performance, Instrumental Soloist with Orchestra” in 1981. Born in Tel Aviv in 1948, Pinchas Zukerman studied music with his father, first on the recorder and clarinet, and later on the violin. He soon began lessons with Ilona Feher and came to America in 1962 with the support of Isaac Stern, Pablo Casals and the America-Israel and Helena Rubenstein Foundations. He began his studies at The Juilliard School with Ivan Galamian and, in 1967, was named first-prize winner of the 25th Leventritt Competition. He holds an honorary doctorate from Brown University and an Achievement Award from the International Center in New York. He was presented with the King Solomon Award by the America-Israel Cultural Foundation and, in 1983, President Reagan awarded him the Medal of Arts for his leadership in the musical world. In 2002 he became the first recipient of the Isaac Stern Award for Artistic Excellence at the National Arts Awards Gala in New York City, and in May 2006 was appointed as the Rolex Mentor and Protégé Arts Initiative’s first instrumentalist mentor in the music discipline. Pinchas Zukerman is married to cellist Amanda Forsyth and is father to two daughters, Arianna and Natalia. For more information visit Pinchas Zukerman appears by arrangement of Kirshbaum Demler & Associates. Mr. Zukerman has recorded for CBS Masterworks, Philips, Angel, Deutsche Grammophon, CBC Records, Altara, Biddulph Recordings, Sony and BMG Classics/RCA Victor Red Seal.”

New York Philharmonic; they performed together in Barcelona, Cologne, Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Paris, and Zurich. Bronfman was a “Perspectives” artist at Carnegie Hall in 200708, giving seven concerts in all, and appearing with the Vienna Philharmonic under Valery Gergiev, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and Mariss Jansons, the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra with James Levine, and Orpheus Chamber Orchestra. A recital disc was produced complementing the Carnegie Hall Series. Bronfman and Emanual Ax played Mozart’s Concerto for Two Pianos for the New York Philharmonic’s opening night in 2006, with live national TV coverage. Bronfman later gave the world premiere of Esa-Pekka Salonen’s Piano Concerto, written for him and commisioned by the New York Philharmonic, and now available on a Deutsche Grammophon CD with the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Maestro Salonen. He participated in the Israel Philharmonic’s 70th birthday celebrations in concerts conducted by Zubin Mehta and Valery Gergiev. Bronfman’s discography is large and varied, with abounding solo recitals, concertos, and chamber music. He won a 1997 Grammy for the three Bartók Piano Concertos with Esa-Pekka Salonen and the Los Angeles Philharmonic.

Yefim Bronfman

With the late Isaac Stern, Bronfman recorded Brahms’s and Bartók’s violin sonatas, and a cycle of Mozart sonatas for violin and piano. In addition to performing with the Los Angeles Philharmonic on the Fantasia 2000 soundtrack, Bronfman recorded Shostakovich’s Piano Quintet and his two piano concertos with the orchestra under Salonen. Bronfman and Emanuel Ax have recorded two-piano works by Rachmaninoff and Brahms for Sony Classical. Fima’s 2008 release of Tchaikovsky’s Trio in A minor with Gil Shaham and Truls Mork earned high praise.

Grammy Award-winning pianist Yefim (“Fima”) Bronfman is among the most talented virtuosos performing today. His commanding technique and exceptional lyrical gifts have won consistent critical acclaim and enthusiastic audiences worldwide for his solo recitals, prestigious orchestral engagements, and expanding catalogue of recordings.

A devoted chamber music performer, Fima has collaborated with the Emerson, Cleveland, Guarneri, and Juilliard String Quartets, as well as with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. He has also played chamber music with Yo-Yo Ma, Joshua Bell, Lynn Harrell, Shlomo Mintz, Jean-Pierre Rampal, Pinchas Zukerman, and many other artists.

Fima Bronfman regularly appears with the world’s major music festivals and with its finest ensembles, orchestras, and conductors. He has given frequent solo recitals in the foremost halls of North America, Europe, and the Far East, including acclaimed debuts at Carnegie Hall in 1989 and Avery Fisher Hall in 1993. In 1991, he gave a series of joint recitals with Isaac Stern in Russia, marking his first public performances there since his emigration to Israel with his family at age 15. Also in 1991, he was awarded the prestigious Avery Fisher Prize, one of the highest honors given to American instrumentalists.

Yefim Bronfman was born in Tashkent in the Soviet Union, on April 10, 1958, and moved to Israel with his family in 1973. He studied with pianist Arie Vardi, head of the Rubin Academy of Music at Tel Aviv University, and made his international debut with Zubin Mehta and the Montreal Symphony. Moving with his family to the US in 1973, he studied at the Juilliard School, Marlboro, and the Curtis Institute, with Rudolf Firkusny, Leon Fleisher, and Rudolf Serkin. He made his New York Philharmonic debut in May 1978, his Washington recital debut in March 1981 at the Kennedy Center, and his New York recital debut in January 1982 at 92nd Street Y.

Bronfman performs an annual solo performance at Carnegie Hall. A major event of early 2010 was his participation in Maestro Gilbert’s first European tour as music director of the

For more information visit Yefim Bronfman appears by arrangement of Opus 3 Artists.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Music Alliance

Leon Fleisher Katherine Jacobson Fleisher Thursday, December 2 | 7:30 pm | White Recital Hall


Ländler, D. 790 (op. Posth. 171)


Waltzes (16) for Piano, Op. 39


Valses nobles et sentimentales for Piano


Slavonic Dances for Piano Four-Hands


La Valse (poèm choréographique) for Piano Four Hands

No. 6 in A-flat Major, Op. 46 No. 10 in E minor, Op. 72 No. 8 in G minor, Op. 46

This concert is a collaboration between The Friends of Chamber Music and the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance. 48

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piano greats as André Watts, Lorin Hollander, Yefim Bronfman, and Louis Lortie. When limited to performing with the left hand alone, Fleisher championed that repertory and created definitive interpretations of Ravel and Britten. He also encouraged and inspired composers to create new works for the left hand, a mission that so far has resulted in what is perhaps the most original American work of that genre: William Bolcom’s Concerto for Two Pianos Left Hand, composed for Fleisher and his friend Gary Graffman, who also suffered neurological problems with his right hand. Curtis Curtis-Smith’s Concerto for the Left Hand was composed for Fleisher, as have been major works by Lukas Foss and Gunter Schuller.

Leon Fleisher Leon Fleisher’s musicianship is the stuff of legend, and his personal story is as heartbreaking as it is life affirming. Leon Fleisher was well on his way to conquering the music world at 16, singled out as “one of the most gifted of the younger generation of keyboard artists” by Olin Downes in The New York Times and soon hailed quite simply as “the pianistic find of the century” by the great conductor Pierre Monteux. He was cruelly sidelined at the height of his powers by a rare neurological disease that lost him the use of his right hand. Undeterred, while being told by his doctors that he would never play again, he became an inspirational teacher and an inspired conductor, all the while playing— and in fact revitalizing–the left–handed repertory, determined not to be defeated. Fleisher was, as the Times dubbed him, “a pianist for whom never was never an option. “He underwent brain surgery, grueling experimental treatments, and years of trials that certainly would have discouraged any ordinary mortal. Then, against all odds and baffling medical experts, he returned. “His comeback,” wrote Holly Brubach in The New York Times in 2007, “has catapulted him up next to Lance Armstrong as a symbol of the indomitable human spirit and an inspiration to a broader public.” Even before the loss of his right hand in 1965 forced a radical change in his musical life, Fleisher already had gravitated towards education as well as towards conducting, which he studied with Monteux. As confounder and director of the Kennedy Center’s Theater Chamber Players, Fleisher has been an energizing powerhouse behind that most delicate and personal of musical fields. As a conductor, his accomplishments have included tenures as associate conductor of the Baltimore Symphony and as music director of the Annapolis Symphony Orchestra and of the Tanglewood Music Center. His associations with the Peabody Conservatory of Music—where he has been on the faculty since 1959—as well as with Curtis Institute of Music and the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto have turned Fleisher’s generosity of spirit into an exhilarating wave of influence over new generations of pianists, with his students so far including such

Katherine Jacobson Fleisher A native of Minnesota, Katherine Jacobson Fleisher’s performing career as soloist, duo pianist and chamber musician has received international critical acclaim. Her Carnegie Hall debut in 2004 with piano duo partner Leon Fleisher was praised in the New York Times for its “abundant musicality and refined technique.” Orchestras with which she has performed as soloist include the Philadelphia Orchestra, Chicago Symphony Orchestra at Ravinia, Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, Orchestre National d’Ile de France, Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra, Gulbenkian Orchestra of Portugal, Irish Chamber Orchestra, Aspen Festival Chamber Orchestra, Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra and Orquestra Sinfonica Brasileira. Together with Leon Fleisher, she recorded the Concerto for Two Pianos, K.242 by W.A. Mozart with the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra (Sony Records, 2009). Ms. Jacobson Fleisher has concertized in Norway, Ireland, Germany, France, Portugal, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Mexico, Brazil and Canada as well as the United States. Highlights of 2011 include a return to Japan for concert engagements in Tokyo, as well as an invitation to perform at the Artur Schnabel Conference in Italy. As the Fleisher Duo, Katherine Jacobson Fleisher and her husband Leon Fleisher perform concerts worldwide. Ms. Jacobson Fleisher obtained her Bachelor of Music degree from St. Olaf College and subsequently worked with Vitya Vronsky and Victor Babin at The Cleveland Institute of Music, where she received her Master of Music degree. Her most profound musical influence was Leon Fleisher, with whom she studied at the Peabody Conservatory of Music. Ms. Jacobson Fleisher is an active supporter of animal rights, and regularly gives benefit concerts for animal rescue organizations. Currently she serves as Director of Piano Ensemble at the Peabody Conservatory of Music.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


The Friends of Chamber Music Endowment


Friday, January 21 | 8 pm | Grace and Holy Trinity Cathedral Benjamin Bagby, voice, harp Justin Bonnet, voice Josep Cabre, voice Vincent Pislar, voice Wolodymyr Smishkewych, voice, organistrum Michael Loughton Smith, voice

Voices from the Island Sanctuary: Ecclesiastical Singers in Paris (1180-1230) Ave gloriosa virginum regina (1v sequentia)

Philippe le Chancelier (d. 1236)

Passionate Young Urban Males

New Sounds in Parisian Churches

Aurelianis civitas (1v conductus) O varium fortune lubricum (2v conductus) Curritur ad vocem nummi (3v conductus) Anglia planctus itera (1v conductus/planctus) Bulla fulminante (3v conductus trope)

Descendit de celis (2v organum on responsory chant) Minor natu filius (1v conductus) Zima vetus expurgetur (1v sequence)

Eros and Ambition

Veneris prosperis (2v conductus) Vitam duxi (1v conductus) Procurans odium (3v conductus) Olim sudor Herculis (1v sequence, with refrain)

Annus renascitur (1v conductus) Novus annus hodie (3v conductus)

Paris, Notre-Dame (ca.1200) Philippe le Chancelier Paris, St. Victor (mid-12th century)

Pierre de Blois (d. 1212)

New Year’s Day

This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Miller-Mellor Association. This concert is underwritten, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 50

The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

Program Notes Voices from the Island Sanctuary: Ecclesiastical Singers in Paris (1180-1230) For centuries, Parisians and visitors to Paris have been thrilled by the imposing Cathedral of Notre Dame, whose massive towers and elegant flying buttresses dominate the Ile de la Cité. We perceive the cathedral as a large church, a single building surrounded by city streets, kitschy souvenir shops, overpriced cafés, a park with romantic benches for lovers, and the long lines of tourists waiting to climb the towers. But in the 12th century, the cathedral of Notre Dame was situated within its own “campus”, a vast complex of interconnected buildings (including several smaller churches) surrounding the cathedral itself, all encircled by a wall and enclosing almost one third of the island. Within these walls (the “close” of the cathedral precinct), there existed an autonomous mini-state, with its own laws free from the secular power wielded by the French king residing nearby. This mini-state housed hundreds of clerics who worked and lived there, an army of servants to keep the whole place operating smoothly, students from many countries following lectures in theology and philosophy, and aristocratic churchmen called canons, managing their vast estates and political intrigues from comfortable dwellings within the close. There was a school for the choirboys, a private port on the Seine, and the palace of the archbishop himself, where important guests were entertained and where the brightest, most ambitious spirits of learning and the arts were able to demonstrate their virtuosity. Latin – spoken and sung in a variety of accents and with varying degrees of elegance – was the official language of the community, but courtly French could also be heard, and the rude dialect of the city was heard among servants and workmen. Construction on the new cathedral began in the 1160s and continued throughout this period. The towers were not finished until at least 1250. The dust and noise of the masons was omnipresent on the island. The cathedral itself was at the heart of this city within a city, and deep within the cathedral was yet another walled precinct: the choir before the high altar, where the singing of the mass and offices was carried out night and day by a large number of canons and lesser clergy who were rewarded in return for this service. It was also in this enclosed space that the best young male vocalists in Europe were to be heard on important feast-days. It was here that the most innovative musical minds gave expression to new ideas in thrilling sonic structures which echoed the dynamic new architecture taking shape around them. Ave, gloriosa virginum regina Philippe le Chancelier (d. 1236) At the intersection of courtly secular and ecclesiastical song, this Latin lai in praise of Maria is a quintessential 12th-century musical and poetical structure: constant repetition of themes set

within an ever-varying form. This lai melody is found in later medieval sources with French texts and was obviously widely popular throughout the period in both secular and sacred contexts. Philippe - the illegitimate son of an archdeacon and a noblewoman, born and educated within the close of Notre-Dame – was a brilliant church politician, writer, poet and administrator. He was a legend in his time, who fought for justice for the students of Paris, and left behind at least 70 magnificent Latin songs. Passionate Young Urban Males The creators of these songs, young clerical intellectuals but also some established courtly poets, were the “angry young men” of their time, deeply concerned with justice (for their own class, that is) and decrying corruption in the Church and at court. At the confluence of Notre-Dame, the schools of the Left Bank, and the courtly aristocracy, we feel even today the immense creative energy of these young men. In 1236, riots in the city of Orleans resulted in the deaths of more than 100 students. The outraged scholars of Paris were soon hearing the anonymous Latin song Aurelianis civitas intoned within the safety of the Latin Quarter and the precincts of Notre Dame. Ambitious young Parisian clerics were fascinated by Fortuna, the goddess who turns the mysterious wheel which randomly brings the weak to the height of power, and the powerful to a humiliating fall. In the two-voice conductus, O varium fortune lubricum, we are reminded that even the great societies of Troy, Carthage, the Romans and the Greeks were not immune to her power. How could the illustrious Parisian clerics and noblemen be otherwise? This was a period of profound disgust at how money had come to rule the world and the Church; positions of power – especially in Rome – were openly for sale, leading young Parisian poets to protest in vehement, virtuosic song. In a nod to a well-known conductus exhorting Christians to crusade in the Holy Lands, a new text, Curritur ad vocem nummi, instead cynically exhorts the listener to perfect the art of usury and bribery, ignore the law, and do whatever it takes to get rich as fast as possible, without a care for others. Texts of praise and lamentation were also heard in Paris. In the planctus (lament) Anglia planctus itera, probably created upon the death of the English king Henri II Plantagenet in 1189, we hear the high art of rhetoric in song, as the imagery of a solar eclypse is used to express the darkness and confusion of “renewed loss”: Henri’s son Geoffroy de Bretagne had died 3 just years earlier.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Program Notes Finally, the text to Bulla fulminante (“a fulminating Papal Bull” – perhaps in reference to the divorced French king Philippe Auguste, who had been excommunicated by the pope?), was set to the final melisma of a famous conductus about the search for justice and truth. Here, a new song is created which sarcastically declares that the deaf papal courtiers in Rome are completely corrupt and will only respond to bribery. New Sounds in Parisian Churches Beginning in the early 12th century, the city of Paris was the European center for new trends in philosophy and the arts, especially music and Latin poetry. The intellectual center of Paris was on the island of Île de la Cité, in and around Notre Dame, at the royal court just a stone’s throw away, in the schools which were rapidly expanding on the Left Bank, and in nearby monastic churches where the best and brightest gathered. We present here some of the most remarkable “new music” of the Parisian scene. Grounded in the extemporized oral tradition of the Magister Leoninus and the organistae of Notre Dame in the period around 1200 (a tradition which gave birth to the romantic myth of an École de Notre-Dame [musical college of Notre Dame]), this notated organum duplum of the responsory Descendit de celis attests to the powerful new hybrid genre heard in late 12th-century Paris: 2-voice organum purum, copula and clausula build upon the venerable chant, revealing a metamorphosis in both time and vertical sonority. In keeping with the improvisational roots of this music, the singers of Sequentia draw on a 12th-century French organum treatise (Vatican, Ottob. lat. 3025) to make their own versions of some of the organum purum sections, while singing the rhythmic clausulae from the manuscript source. The chant sections are sung from a 13th-century Parisian chant book. Another dynamic aspect of intellectual life in Paris was the art of rhetoric, during a time which saw the rise of virtuoso sermons (Philippe le Chancelier!) and the power of the word in political and spiritual life. In Minor natu filius we hear a concise re-telling of the parable of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32), a completely new manner of “vocalizing” a well-known Gospel story, in which musical language and rhetoric shape the simple tale with an intensity that no mere reading could ever approach. During a particularly turbulent period of ecclesiastical politics and intrigue at Notre Dame in the early 12th century, William of Champeaux (himself an archdeacon at the cathedral) founded an Augustinian monastery on the Left Bank, naming it St. Victor. It was to serve as a calm place of refuge, meditation, spiritual study and teaching for the clergy of Notre Dame, far from the urbanity and distraction of the busy cathedral on the island. (If you search the Left Bank today, looking for a trace of St. Victor, you will only find 19th century buildings and the unfortunate modern constructions at Jussieu.) Many of the most illustrious men in Notre Dame’s history chose to live within the wealthy and comfortable walls of St. Victor, including a venerable 12th century Cantor of Notre Dame named Adam (often referred to 52

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as Adam of St. Victor) who died in 1146. To him are ascribed a large number of astonishing new compositions in sequence form (Latin: sequentia), daring in their texts and melodies, which were sung on important feasts in both churches. This sequence for Easter, Zima vetus expurgetur, with its elaborate mosaic of images drawing upon the Old Testament, would have delighted the sensibilities of the erudite Victorine brothers, within their own church or in the choir of the nearby cathedral. Eros and Ambition The clerics who worked, sang and studied on the Île de la Cité, within the close of Notre Dame and near the French royal court, were among the most accomplished and worldy men in the Europe of their time. In this society, we would expect to find the most illustrious poets and the most renowned scholars, surrounded, of course, by ambitious – and often libidinous – young men who were at the beginnings of their careers. The following songs give us a glimpse into the more worldly aspects of clerical life: the ambivalence towards physical pleasure (in a city famed for its temptations) and the need to concentrate on study, advancement and prestige. We often think of the Renaissance as being a period of revival for Classical themes. Actually, the 12th century Parisian clerics witnessed a huge output of text and song touching on the heroes of Greek Antiquity, the Trojan War, and the old gods. It would not seem strange to the singers of the conductus Veneris prosperis that it is found in a manuscript containing principally Christian texts. And how convenient that the god Jupiter might condone behaviour which the church would consider sinful. Tongue in cheek, the career-conscious young student singing Vitam duxi wants to “have it all” and does not regret the time he wasted on the pleasures of life. And since love and jealousy are never far apart, one luscious 3-voice conductus from Paris (Procurans odium) reminds us that vicious rumours about the beloved only serve to heighten the energy of eros, so that the lover can finally “harvest sweet grapes on the envious enemy’s thorns.” Although Pierre de Blois (d. 1212) was a court poet for Henri II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, his works were widely appreciated by the intelligentsia in Paris as well (he had studied there as a youth). The complex sequence Olim sudor Herculis, with its ironically moralistic refrain, would have been appreciated fully by an audience which knew the story of Hercules intimately, and that audience was in Notre Dame. Who could resist – then or now – the playful subtext about “great” men making fools of themselves in the name of Venus? And who would not identify with the singer’s plan, wanting to flee from her enticements in the name of career and prestige? New Year’s Day In the days following Christmas, a number of feasts were celebrated at Notre Dame during which various lower groups in the cathedral hierarchy (priests, deacons, subdeacons, and even the

choirboys) had their own day to assume full power in the church and control the entire operation of the liturgy. This ancient tradition, which was probably linked to pagan winter-solstice practices, was a harmless and benevolent moment of lightness in the liturgical year; but by the late 12th century the Parisian celebrations began to get out of control, with incidents of blasphemy in the church, clerics dressing as women, fighting, and indecent displays of youthful (male) energy. The Feast of the Circumcision, on New Year’s Day – which came to be known as the Festum Fatuorum (Feast of Fools) – belonged to the subdeacons, a group of underpaid, overworked young men (mostly former choirboys who were now the principal daily vocal soloists in the choir) who were particularly notorious for their naughty songs and scandalous pranks in the church (many involving the cantor’s “rod” – baculus – a symbol of authority in the choir). When a Papal legate complained about their behaviour in 1198, the Bishop of Paris finally had to issue an official reprimand, and these raucous festivities were severely curtailed, at least temporarily. In their place a number of new musical compositions were provided for the boys and young men to sing, as an attempt to channel their youthful energy into serious rehearsals and the propriety of carefullymanaged celebrations, instead of the spontaneous revels which formerly marked the New Year’s feast.

Ave, gloriosa virginum regina Philippe le Chancelier (d. 1236) Hail, glorious queen of virgins, noble vine, elixir of life, resin of mercy! Hail, abundant pool of grace, clean us of our filthy flesh in the basin of purification. Morning star, radiant in brightness…through you the Divine Law illuminates with its teaching. O rose blooming with loveliness, without a thorn of sin, with inward love incline your ear to us and save us from destruction… Aurelianis civitas O city of Orleans, filled with evil and polluted by an unimaginable crime!... You have murdered Christ’s servants, whom you should have shielded from the rage of the crowds… Weep, o city of blood, for the gravity of your crime! O blessed city of Paris, in which an impious man is instantly punished for his iniquities. It is a proper place for study, where the citizen is good to the student; a city to which one always would return if one could ever bear to leave it. O varium fortune lubricum O Fortune, changing and slippery, your tribunal and judges are unstable. You prepare huge gifts for him whom you would tickle with favors as he arrives at the top of your wheel. But your gifts are unsure, and finally everything is reversed; you raise up the poor man from his filth and the loudmouth becomes a statesman. Fortune edifies and ruins; she throws down the man she earlier honoured, and protects the one she had rejected before. She contradicts her own decrees, and her gifts cannot be kept. Hers

Texts and Translations is a fragile alliance: it oppresses the nobles and makes them poor, while making the poor noble and rich. Thanks to the meddling of deceiving Fortune in war, the brilliant city of Troy lies pitifully now in ruin and ashes. Who destroyed the authority of the Romans? Who destroyed the eloquence of the Greeks? Who destroyed the glory of Carthage? Undependable destiny has taken back what is has given and has smashed everything which is built up. Curritur ad vocem nummi Run to the sound of money calling – a pleasant invitation! We all have a secret lust for the forbidden, even though we know we shouldn’t. Learn, then, how to fool people! Just do it! Deny yourself nothing in this life and live like the rest of us. Live like the rich clerics: measure the punishment according to the bribe. When you bring in your net and see that the harvest is ripe, then at least add a little usury to your portfolio. He who hasn’t mastered the arts which will make him fit for this life, he should stand on the sidelines to watch and learn. Dare everything, even if you use trickery and fraud. Leave nothing out! That’s my credo: let the world serve you! You have no need to adhere to the law, no need to worry about justice. Let this edict be holy to you: Where virture is a crime, there is no place for God! Anglia planctus itera England, repeat your lamentations and return to grief: consider the double loss as a double star has set. Harshly death has raged in you…therefore, always inclined to grief, enter into grief. The sun of Paris has been eclypsed in Britain and is seen everywhere. 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


O day, noxious to the world! O day, announcing grief, covering the sun in darkness! O day, daughter of the night! O day, without forgiveness! O day, full of darkness! Bulla fulminante When the papal Bull fulminates, when the judge speaks a thundering verdict, when the accused makes an appeal while a false judgement weighs upon him, that’s when Truth is oppressed, picked apart, and sold, and justice becomes a whore. One appeals again and again to the Curia, but the goal isn’t reached until the last coin is spent. If you’re seeking favors from the Roman Curia, then first change your habits: do not offend the judges with your integrity, and remember that it’s useless to be well qualified. You’ll wait many months while others move past you. With a nice bribe, however, you will be noticed immediately. The gatekeepers of the pope are more deaf than Cerberus. You can howl all you want, in the mistaken hope that something will change. But even the plea of Orpheus (who moved Pluto, the god of the underworld) would remain unheard there. But they might listen if you knocked with a hammer made of silver. Descendit de celis He came down from heaven, sent from the Father’s citadel; through the maiden’s ear he entered our region, putting on a stole of purple, and he went out through the golden gate, light and glory of the whole structure of the world. V/ The Lord coming forth like a bridegroom from his pavillion; And he went out through the golden gate, light and glory of the whole world. V/ Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit… And he went out through the golden gate, light and glory of the whole world. He came down from heaven, sent from the Father’s citadel ; through the maiden’s ear he entered our region, putting on a stole of purple, and he went out through the golden gate, light and glory of the whole world. Minor natu filius The younger son is the Gentile people, blind and without faith, like the prodigal son, who became destitute, fled to the desert, and fed swine. Penitent, he returns, and the father rejoices because the young boy is back; See how the lost one, considered perished, has returned! The calf is killed and a ring is placed on his finger. The envious brother is afflicted and filled with hate because his little brother is received with love by the father. (Luke 15:11-32). Zima vetus expurgetur Let the old leaven be purged so that the new resurrection may be celebrated. This is the day of our hope: the power of this day is marvellous by the testimony of the law. This day despoiled Egypt and freed the Hebrews from the cruel kiln, established in the labour of their servitude. Now the praise of divine virtue, now of triumph, now of salvation, an unimpeded voice breaks out: this is the day which the Lord has made, this is the end of our pain, the healing day….the serpent devours the serpents 54

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of Pharaoh…Christ pierces the serpent in its jaw. … David is inspired…Samson levels a thousand with a jawbone….the whale restores the fugitive Jonah….thus from Judah the strong lion, with the gates of dire death broken, rising on the third day, as the voice of the father roared, carried back so many spoils to the bosom of the celestial mother. Life and death have fought, Christ has risen truly, and with Christ many witnesses to the glory have risen. Let the new morning, the joyful morning, wipe away the evening weeping: because life conquered death, it is time for joy. O Jesus victor, Jesus life, Jesus, common way of life, by whose death, death is put to sleep, invite us to the Paschal table with confidence; O living bread, living water, vine true and fertile, feed us, cleanse us, so that your grace may save us from a second death. Amen. Veneris prosperis Everybody should enjoy the happy arrival of Venus, when those tender flowers are budding out. Follow the ancient custom: be ready for love, and shun all other forms of vice. Pledge your dues to Venus, you tender youths…pleasure is the boy’s law! Jupiter, ruler of all things, has taught us that nothing agreeable is done basely. Thus he speaks, and thus he fulfills all his vows, living in conformity to his own edict. It pleases me, therefore, to live as a lover; to imitate Jupiter is not such a bad idea. Transfixed by the arrow of voluptuousness, I will sail under my own free will, navigating by the star of Venus! Vitam duxi I have lived a joyous life of love, caring more for pleasure than for propriety. But now I’m recovering from my former life, concentrating more on my studies than on amorous combat. Why? Only one thing compels me: that I should enjoy the favour of fame while living an easy life! It’s good that we devote some time to love, so that we know what it feels like when we want to avoid it in the future. Now, knowing what is forbidden, I will be able to resist passion when it returns. Still, we shouldn’t condemn love: it helps us to find pardon, seek grace, and it makes the inexperienced lover more courteous and gentle; otherwise, he might act boorishly while the fruit of Venus is being plucked. Procurans odium The slanderers’ plot to sow discord hasn’t worked out as planned. Evil rumors have only solidified the lovers’ hearts. And so the tables are turned on the unsuspecting enemy; he becomes a helper. Thus is confirmed the happy status of those who love truly. I know that such mean attacks by gossips can be useful; thanks to them I had the luck to avoid being fed up with love. With bad intentions, they gave me only joy, and in the end my desire is compounded. With such a remedy in hand, I can harvest grapes from the thorns of my enemies. Olim sudor Herculis Once, the labours of Hercules (crushing monsters far and wide, removing the world’s plagues) shone far and wide. But in the end, this fame withered, and he was enclosed in blind darkness

by the enticing girl Iole, the hero was made a captive. [refrain]: Love withers the merits of fame; a lover never laments the time he has lost, but rashly labours to dissipate himself under Venus. The Hydra, more savage than any plague, was not able to cause him alarm, him whom a mere girl subdued; he yielded to Venus’s yoke! [refrain] The poisoned breath of Cacus, with flaming vomit; the deceit of Nessus; Geryon of the Hesperus and the gatekeeper of Hell (each with triple form) did not terrify him. But a girl made him captive with a simple smile. [refrain] In combat with the Libyan Antheus he stood firm, and checked the fraud of a cunning fall when he kept him from falling; but he who thus unbound the tight bonds of combat is conquered and bound when he – Jove’s mighty offspring – falls into Iole’s embraces! [refrain] He had become famous by such great deeds of valour, he whom with soft chains a bland girl imprisons, and she showers him with kisses, offering him from her tiny lips the nectar of Venus. A man dissolute with the pleasures of Venus devalues the memory of great deeds and glory. [refrain] But I, stronger than Hercules, I will fight against Venus! I will flee her, and devote my full energy to study and the advancement of my career! O my dear Lycoris, farewell, and wish me well, for in this battle, flight is stronger than fighting. Annus renascitur The year is reborn! Let us be joyful now! The old is cast out, and the new Adam is born. Let us rejoice at the year renewed! The baculus is passed around… a new sun rises … the clouds depart! Let us be joyful now! Novus annus hodie Today a new year urges us to begin joyful praises… therefore, let us celebrate this annual feast, loosing the chains of sin, giving drink to the thirsty, healing the sick with this medicine, as joyfully we sing as a memorial: [refrain]: Ha! Ha! He! He who truly wishes to sing should make praise with three gifts: with his mouth, heart and good works he should labour, so that he might live and please God! He is worthy of memory whose end is joyful, worthy of great praise whose kindness is without end, who created the heavens, the earth and the sea. Thus he ruled the world with his Word, and was concerned to enrich man, to command his subjects, and according to his will give him immortality. [refrain]: Ha! Ha! He!...

Sequentia Sequentia is one of the world’s most respected and innovative ensembles for medieval music. It is an international group of singers and instrumentalists – united in Paris under the direction of the legendary performer and teacher Benjamin Bagby – for performances and recordings of Western European music from the period before 1300. Founded by Benjamin Bagby and the late Barbara Thornton, Sequentia can look back on more than 30 years of international concert tours, performing throughout Europe, North and South America, India, the Middle East, Asia, Africa and Australia. Sequentia has brought to life over seventy innovative concert programs that encompass the entire spectrum of medieval music, in addition to the creation of music-theater projects such as Hildegard von Bingen’s Ordo Virtutum, the Cividale Planctus Marie, the Bordesholmer Marienklage, and Heinrich von Meissen’s Frauenleich (several of which were filmed for television). The work of the ensemble is divided between a small touring ensemble of vocal and instrumental soloists, and a larger ensemble of men’s voices for the performance of Latin liturgical chant and polyphony. Sequentia has inspired new generations of young performers, many of whom were trained in professional courses given by Benjamin Bagby and other members of the ensemble. After 25 years based in Cologne, Germany, Sequentia’s home has been in Paris since 2002. The past years have seen a growing corpus of Sequentia recordings centered on the importance of oral tradition, storytelling, and the earliest musical documents of medieval Europe. Their most recent recording, Fragments for the End of Time, featuring apocalyptic songs from early medieval Germany, Saxony and Aquitaine, was released on the Raumklang label in 2008. For more information visit Sequentia appears by arrangement of Aaron Concert Artists.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Music Alliance

Parker String Quartet Saturday, January 22 | 7:30 pm | White Recital Hall at UMKC Daniel Chong, violin Karen Kim, violin Jessica Bodner, viola Kee-Hyun Kim, cello


Selections from Cypresses, B. 152


Hommage à Mihály András, “Twelve Microludes for String Quartet,” Op. 13


Quartet No. 3, Op. 22


Fugato: Sehr langsame Viertel Schnell Achtel: Sehr energisch Ruhige Viertel: Stets fließend Mäßig schnell Viertel Rondo: Gemächlich und mit Grazie

Quartet No. 4 in E minor, Op. 44, No. 2

Allegro assai appassionato Scherzo: Allegro di molto Andante; attacca Presto agitato

This concert is a collaboration between The Friends of Chamber Music and the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music and Dance. 56

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Parker String Quartet Hailed by the New York Times as “something extraordinary” and by the Boston Globe for their “fiercely committed performances,” the Parker Quartet has rapidly distinguished itself as one of the preeminent ensembles of its generation. The Parker Quartet began its professional touring career in 2002, and in 2005 sparked international acclaim by winning the Concert Artists Guild Competition as well as the Grand Prix and Mozart Prize at the 2005 Bordeaux International String Quartet Competition in France. Most recently, the Quartet was awarded the prestigious 2009-2011 Cleveland Quartet Award. Given biennially by Chamber Music America, this award honors and promotes a rising young string quartet whose artistry demonstrates that it is in the process of establishing a major career. Currently, The Parker Quartet serves as Quartet-in-Residence with the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra. In addition, they are the first-ever Artists-in-Residence with Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) and American Public Media (APM). This unprecedented residency includes performance and interview broadcasts on Performance Today and Classical FM, live chamber concerts in St. Paul, and live regional concerts and educational residencies as part of MPR’s Troubadour Concert Series throughout Minnesota and the surrounding states.

performances at Market Square Concerts, the Collins Center for the Arts, the Schubert Club, the Hancher Auditorium Series, the Library of Congress, the Chamber Music Society of Logan, the University of Georgia at Athens, and the Detroit Chamber Music Society. The Parker Quartet has been profiled in Time Out NY, The Boston Globe, Chamber Music Magazine, and on Musical for their pioneering performances for audiences in non-traditional venues. In addition to concerts in bars and clubs nationwide, the ensemble was the first String Quartet-inResidence at Barbes Bar and Performance Space in Brooklyn, NY, in 2007. The residency embraced a series of collaborative concerts with artists of various genres including Jazz, Folk, and World Music. For more information visit Parker String Quartet appears by arrangement of Opus 3 Artists.

Performance highlights from the Quartet’s 2009 international summer tours included appearances at the Festival Internacional de Inverno de Campos do Jordao in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the Festival du Perigord Noir in France, and the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Festspiele in Germany. Domestic concert appearances for the 2009-2010 season include 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Radu Lupu

Saturday, January 29 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater SCHUMANN

Papillons, Op. 2


Bunte Blätter, Op. 99 Drei Stücklein 1. Nicht Schnell, mit Innigkeit 2. Sehr Rasch 3. Frisch Albumblätter, 5 Klavierstücke 4. Ziemlich langsan 5. Schnell 6. Ziemlich langsam, sehr gesangvoll 7. Sehr langsam 8. Langsam 9. Novellette: Lebhaft 10. Praludium: Energisch 11. Marsch: Sehr getragen 12. Abendmusik: In menuett tempo 13. Scherzo: Lebhaft 14. Geschwindmarsch: Sehr markiert


Sonata in B-flat D. 960, Op. Posth. Molto moderato Andante sostenuto Scherzo: Allegro vivace con delicatezza Allegro, ma non troppo

The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 58

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Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

Papillons, Op.2 Robert Schumann (1810-1856) If you thought that Papillons was Robert Schumann’s musical evocation of butterflies, you would be correct – but you would only have scratched the surface of this remarkable work. The same would be true if you thought of Papillons as a “warm-up” for Carnaval, then moved on. This delightful cycle was the first of Schumann’s piano cycles rooted in literature. At this early stage of his career – he was 19 when he started sketching Papillons – music and literature were inseparable for him. His principal literary model was the novelist Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, who wrote under the pen name Jean Paul. Schumann’s favorite novel was Jean Paul’s Flegeljahre [see sidebar], the tale of a poetic soul in search of life’s meaning. Its penultimate chapter takes place at a masked ball. Schumann’s original concept was a linked series of ten small pieces inspired in part by that scene in Jean Paul’s novel. Eventually he expanded to twelve movements, incorporating an allusion to the opening waltz in the finale. In one letter to his mother, Schumann declared that he had brought JeanPaul’s novel to life in sounds. The traditional view of Papillons is a musical evocation of Flegeljahre’s masked ball scene. (The chiming of the clock in the last section supports that interpretation.) Ultimately, however, Schumann was ambivalent about his references to the novel. Much of Papillons’ music is reworked from earlier pieces that grow out of the salon tradition. The influence of Schubert, who also wrote dozens of short dance movements, manifests itself in both the preponderance of waltz and polonaise rhythms and in the lighthearted, pleasing quality of the music.

Program Notes

fragmentary and lacking unity. Gottfried Weber, writing in the journal Caecilia, referred to Papillons as “thought splinters.” Others were quick to acknowledge Schumann’s innovative approach. The Viennese dramatist and poet Franz Grillparzer gave it a good review in the Wiener musikalische Zeitung; Ludwig Rellstab also praised it in the Berlin press. Schumann was keenly aware of the disorienting quality of his fragments. He wanted the listener to experience a jumble – but he also sought to anchor the piece. He accomplished this by using the key of D major as an overall tonal center, and by cyclic references to themes stated early in the piece. The complete work is an amalgam of dances and individual fanciful miniatures, each with its own character. Schumann was less concerned with form and more with texture, mood, the immediacy of the moment and, above all, emotional appeal. His finale uses the Grossvatertanz [“Grandfather’s Dance”], a 17thcentury folk dance traditionally played at German weddings. (He used the same tune in the “March of the Davidsbündler against the Philistines” that concludes Carnaval; Tchaikovsky also quoted Grossvatertanz in the first act of The Nutcracker.) The title Papillons and the music of this work were clearly important to Schumann. A quotation from the first Papillon appears in the “Florestan” movement of Carnaval. Another Carnaval movement is entitled “Papillon.” He described his Op.4 Intermezzi as “longer Papillons.” This poetic, imaginative work was a harbinger of the Romantic era in piano music and warrants its own pride of place among Robert Schumann’s early masterpieces.

In Jean-Paul’s writings, butterflies usually symbolize the soul, capable of transfiguration and transformation. This concept – the metamorphosis from caterpillar to butterfly – resonated with Schumann, who seized on its transference to musical metamorphosis. He also took advantage of the more literal metaphor. Papillons celebrates its very departure from a traditional plan: as unpredictable as a butterfly’s flight. The amazing thing is that Papillons succeeds as music, even independent of these elaborate subtexts. Sudden shifts in mood are common, ranging from carefree and humorous to music of profound emotional resonance. Schumann changes key frequently and varies the length of the movements. His unpredictability lends an aphoristic quality to each segment, and underscores a sense of impetuosity. When it appeared in 1831, Papillons drew attention immediately for its originality of conception. Some critics found it 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


JEAN PAUL’S FLEGELJAHRE and SCHUMANN’S PAPILLONS The German novelist and aesthetician Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825), known by his pen name Jean Paul, was a major figure in German romantic literature. He is noted for his experiments in the structure of the novel, including flashbacks and interpolated philosophical digressions. His Introduction to Aesthetics, published in 1804, was one of the first treatises on the theory of the novel. Two of Richter’s best known novels are associated with musical compositions. Titan (1800-1803) served as a subtext for Gustav Mahler’s First Symphony. Flegeljahre (1804-5), usually translated as Years of Indiscretion or The Awkward Age, was Robert Schumann’s favorite novel and furnished part of the scenario for Papillons. Flegeljahre is a coming of age story about the brothers Walt and Vult. Separated as boys, they are reunited as young adults, shortly after Walt inherits a great fortune. In order to take possession of the inheritance, Walt must first perform a series of tasks (ranging from tuning pianos to gardening) emulating the life of his benefactor. The idea is that he will thereby learn how to cope with life’s vagaries. Walt embarks on this process with sincerity and good intentions, but he is awkward and clumsy. His misguided efforts give rise to some comic episodes. Vult, by contrast, is already a distinguished flutist, gifted with grace and cultivated sensibilities. Despite these differences in temperament, both brothers fall in love with Wina, a general’s daughter. She reciprocates Walt’s affections, and Vult ultimately withdraws in favor of his brother – and vanishes from their lives, playing his flute as he departs.

Bunte Blätter, Op.99 Robert Schumann Schumann is deservedly celebrated for his integrated cycles of miniatures and character pieces such as Papillons. His truest emotional expressions came through in his writing for solo piano. Couched in many titles – romances, novelettes, fables, scenes, fantasies – these works are the repositories of his soul. He fulfilled the promise of the early Papillons brilliantly with many subsequent cycles, notably Davidsbundlertänze, Op.6; Carnaval, Op.9; Fantasiestücke, Op.12; Kinderszenen, Op.15; Kreisleriana, Op.16; and the Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op.26. Along the way, Schumann composed dozens of other piano pieces, not all of which found their way into larger works. Indeed, he dismissed much of this music as insignificant. Nevertheless, some instinct prevented him from destroying them. He knew there were nuggets of value among these discarded miniatures. In December 1850, Schumann assembled a generous handful of miscellaneous trifles composed between 1832 and 1849 and sent them to his publisher, Friedrich Arnold. The original title he proposed for the group was Spreu, or chaff. Arnold persuaded him that the self-deprecating title was unwise. Instead, the collection was issued as Bunte Blätter, which has been translated as “Motley Leaves” or “Colored Pages.” (Schumann imagined different color jackets for its various component pieces. The first three Drei Stücklein [“Three Little Pieces”], for example, were to have had a green cover.) The series attracted enough interest to prompt Schumann to assemble another twenty such pieces in 1854. Assigned the title Albumblätter [“Album Leaves”], they appeared that year as Op.124.

Chapter 63 of the novel is entitled “Titanium–Black Tourmaline–Masked Ball.” (The chapter is translated in John Daverio’s Robert Schumann: Herald of a ‘New Poetic Age’ [New York: 1997].) The brothers and Wina attend a fancy dress ball, in the course of which costumes are exchanged, identities are disguised, and misunderstandings arise. The love triangle does not resolve in Walt’s favor until the last chapter. According to Daverio, Schumann initially placed an epigraph at the head of Papillons’ manuscript with Jean Paul’s final sentence in the novel, from Chapter 64. Walt, enraptured, listened to the fleeing tones [of Vult’s flute] as they resounded upward from the street, for he didn’t notice that with them his brother too was fleeing. Jean Paul left Flegeljahre unfinished. Yet Papillons’ conclusion, with its pedal effect simulating the chiming bell, has a gentle air of finality. Perhaps that is why Schumann removed the epigraph. – L.S. ©2010


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Clara Schumann

The 14 movements of Bunte Blätter are indeed a motley collection. Nearly everyone has a story. The first is a melodious little jewel only sixteen measures long. Schumann sent it to his fiancée, 17-year-old Clara Wieck, on Christmas Eve

1838, with the inscription “to my beloved bride.” No.3 was originally entitled Jagdstück [“Hunting Piece”] and No.5 Fata Morgana [“Morgan LeFay,” King Arthur’s half-sister]. No.6 is a waltz in A-flat major discarded from Carnaval; No.11 is a march originally intended for the group of marches published as Barricade, Op.76. The closing Geschwindmarsch (“Quick March”), is also associated with the Barricade set; Schumann revised one of them for this closing movement. In early 1841, Schumann’s so-called “symphonic year,” he had sketched a Symphony in C minor. It remained unfinished; however, he returned to the manuscript in September to complete its scherzo. In a solo piano version, that scherzo became No.13 of Bunte Blätter. The most celebrated of the group is indisputably No.9, a plaintive morsel in F# minor. Johannes Brahms used it as the subject for his Variations on a Theme of Robert Schumann, Op.9. Clara Schumann had also composed variations on this theme. Her set, published as her Op.20, predated Brahms’s by several months, and Brahms’s manuscript dedication makes clear that he intended his work as a tribute to both Schumanns. At Brahms’s request, Breitkopf & Härtel published his and Clara’s sets of variations simultaneously. Robert’s original piece has an eloquent simplicity that barely hints at its possibilities. For all lovers of romantic piano music and especially for the Schumann afficionado, Bunte Blätter is a wonderland of discovery. These pieces deserve to be heard and played more frequently. Sonata in B-flat Major, D.960 Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828) The opening measures of Schubert’s final piano sonata bear a startling resemblance to the beginning of Beethoven’s Archduke Trio. They share not only the key of B-flat major, but also a sense of spaciousness, serenity, and nobility that verges on the sublime. Whether consciously or not, Schubert paid homage to Beethoven in other ways in this sonata. This can be seen most obviously in Schubert’s adherence to traditional form, complete with a minuet/trio inserted between the slow movement and the finale. Schubert’s musical modus operandi is a different matter, however. Where Beethoven emphasized motivic development and architecture, Schubert’s building blocks were melodies and a startling sense of tonal migration. He was first and foremost a composer of songs. His gift for melody informs all his instrumental music. This piano sonata has an embarrassment of melodic riches that links it to Schubert’s Lieder – and it alludes to several of his songs.

The work has excellent company among Schubert’s instrumental compositions. The B-flat Major Sonata dates from September 1828. During that month, Schubert completed two other magnificent piano sonatas – the C minor, D.958 and the big A major, D.959 – and the String Quintet in C major. All four compositions are bulwarks of the repertoire that are full of gorgeous themes. This effusion of great music took place when the symptoms caused by Schubert’s syphilis were worsening and he knew he was dying. Seven weeks after he finished the B-flat Major Sonata, he was dead. Schubert originally intended to dedicate the three piano sonatas to Johan Nepomuk Hummel, one of the greatest pianists of the 19th century and an accomplished composer in his own right. Anton Diabelli – yes, that Diabelli, the same one who wrote the insipid little waltz on which Beethoven composed his splendid Diabelli Variations – had engraved the sonatas by 1831. Inexplicably, he delayed publication until 1838. Ironically, Hummel had died in October 1837. Diabelli issued the sonatas with a dedication to a composer who did more than anyone to further Schubert’s posthumous reputation in the mid-19th century: Robert Schumann. It was Schumann who coined the phrase “heavenly length” in praise of Schubert’s music. He was thinking about pieces like the “Great” C Major Symphony, the two piano trios, and this B-flat sonata. At nearly forty minutes, the sonata unfolds on a symphonic scale. With the repeat of the exposition, the opening Molto moderato is a proto-Mahlerian 14 minutes long – one of Schubert’s lengthiest movements. Yet there is not a moment of boredom. Schubert’s Anton Diabelli magical patterns of modulation, his elegiac atmosphere of calm resignation, and the profusion of themes sustain and nourish the listener. Biographer John Reed calls this “the most personal and poetic of all [piano sonatas].” One simply needs to surrender to the flow. The music is not virtuosic. Schubert was primarily a string player of both violin and viola. He also played piano his entire life and regularly accompanied singers in the salons known as Schubertiades; however, his piano writing in the solo works is often awkward. This makes them difficult rather than flashy. That stated, the music is also gorgeous, with a spiritual quality enhanced by Schubert’s fluid tonal landscape. About the music The spacious Molto moderato opens with its theme of Beethovenian “Archduke” nobility. After the initial, partial statement, a sepulchral trill interrupts in the lowest register of the piano. At first it seems like a throwaway gesture. Is it just 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


mysterious, or a trifle ominous? The lyrical theme resumes, and Schubert carries us off on the harmonic adventure of unexpected modulations that marks his music as his own. The interplay between the home tonality of B-flat major, the submediant of G-flat, and D minor recurs with some regularity. And that bass trill – “like a distant roll of thunder,” as Denis Matthews has observed – recurs at key moments during the movement. After the expanse of a fourteen-minute opening movement in relaxed tempo, Schubert was courageous to proceed with an Andante sostenuto: another eleven minutes at an even slower pace. It is a remarkable feat of musical wizardry that he succeeds. Introspective, even private, this movement vacillates between C# minor and A major in music both solemn and profound. Some listeners consider this movement the summit of Schubert’s piano writing. John Gillespie calls it “a marvel of introspection with its strains of pathos and resignation.” The Scherzo provides both contrast and welcome relief. Bright, brisk, chirpy, and short, it is the ideal tonic at this juncture. Its central trio, in minor mode, benefits from lopsided syncopations that keep us waiting for resolution. Schubert’s finale is a synthesis of a rondo and sonata form. After a clarion call on an octave sounding two Gs, he launches into a false statement that implies C minor. (Beethoven used the same ploy in the last movement of his String Quartet in B-flat, Op.130, the movement that replaced the Grosse Fuge.) Soon enough, B-flat major emerges as the principal key center. Jovial dialogue alternates with a couple of explosive outbursts, but good humor prevails. Recapturing the unhurried pace of his opening movement, Schubert ties it all together in this satisfying finale, even adding a brisk coda for an exciting close.


Program Notes by Laurie Shulman ©2010

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SCHUBERT’S SONATAS AND POSTERITY Schubert’s bread and butter were his songs. What little money he earned came almost exclusively from his Lieder. Yet he cultivated almost every instrumental genre, writing enormous quantities of music in large and small forms. For whatever reason, he returned repeatedly to the piano sonata, composing twenty-one of them between 1815 and 1828. The few that garnered any attention were compared unfavorably to Beethoven’s sonatas. Suffering from that comparison, Schubert’s piano sonatas never became fashionable. Nineteenth-century virtuoso pianists did not consider them suitable material for the concert hall. If they played Schubert at all, they chose the character pieces: the Impromptus, the Ecossaises, the Moments Musicaux. Among his larger works, only the Wanderer-Fantasie attracted the highprofile pianists. After the Schubert centennial in 1928, the piano sonatas began to draw more attention, gradually leading to their advocacy by some of the mid-century’s greatest pianists; most notable among those was Artur Schnabel, who was the first pianist to record the complete works of Schubert. Schubert’s sonatas have now worked their way into the standard repertoire. The B-flat work on this evening’s program became a signature piece for many of the 20th century’s legendary artists in addition to Schnabel, including Clifford Curzon, Wilhelm Kempff, Dame Myra Hess, and Alfred Brendel. Today, D.960 and several of the other Schubert Sonatas are central to the keyboard literature, beloved by both pianists and audiences. – L.S. ©2010

Radu Lupu Radu Lupu is firmly established as one of the most important musicians of his generation and is widely acknowledged as a leading interpreter of the works of Beethoven, Brahms, Mozart and Schubert. Since winning the prestigious Van Cliburn (1966) and Leeds Piano Competitions (1969), Mr. Lupu has regularly performed as soloist and recitalist in the musical capitals and major festivals of Europe and the United States. He has appeared many times with the Berlin Philharmonic since his debut with that orchestra at the l978 Salzburg Festival under Herbert von Karajan, and with the Vienna Philharmonic, including the opening concert of the 1986 Salzburg Festival under Riccardo Muti. He is also a frequent visitor to the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and all of the major London orchestras. Radu Lupu’s first major American appearances were in 1972 with the Cleveland Orchestra under Daniel Barenboim in New York and with the Chicago Symphony led by Carlo Maria Giulini. Concerts with the New York Philharmonic soon followed and Mr. Lupu has since appeared with all of the foremost American orchestras. Mr. Lupu’s European orchestral engagements this season include the London Symphony and Sir Colin Davis, the Berlin Philharmonic and Bernard Haitink and a tour of Germany with the Zurich Tonhalle and David Zinman. At the request of Sir Colin Davis, who celebrated his 80th birthday with the New York Philharmonic in 2007, Mr. Lupu appeared in a special series of concerts devoted to concerti of Mozart. Mr. Lupu has made more than 20 recordings for London/Decca, including the complete Beethoven concertos with the Israel Philharmonic and Zubin Mehta, the complete Mozart violin

and piano sonatas with Szymon Goldberg, and numerous solo recordings of Beethoven, Brahms and Schubert. His most recent London/Decca releases are of Schubert’s Sonatas, D. 960 and 664, which won a Grammy Award in 1995, and of Schumann’s “Kinderszenen,” “Kreisleriana” and “Humoresque,” which won an Edison Award in 1995. He has also made two records with pianist Murray Perahia (Sony Classical) and two albums of Schubert Lieder with soprano Barbara Hendricks (EMI). In 1998, for Teldec, he joined Daniel Barenboim for a disc of Schubert works for piano, four hands. In 2001 Decca re-released a 2-CD set of Schubert’s music for violin and piano, featuring Mr. Lupu together with Szymon Goldberg. Born in Romania in l945, Mr. Lupu began studying the piano at the age of 6 with Lia Busuioseanu. He made his public debut with a complete program of his own music at twelve, continuing his studies for several years with Florica Muzicescu and Cella Delavrance. In l96l he won a scholarship to the Moscow State Conservatory where he studied with Heinrich Neuhaus and his son, Stanislav Neuhaus. During his seven years at the Moscow Conservatory he won first prize in the l967 Enescu International Competition in addition to the Van Cliburn and Leeds International competitions. In 1989 and again in 2006, he was awarded the prestigious “Abbiati” prize given by the Italian Critics’ Association. He is also the recipient of the 2006 Premio Internazionale Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli award. For more information visit Radu Lupu appears by arrangement of Opus 3 Artists.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


The Friends of Chamber Music Endowment


Saturday, February 5 | 8 pm | Community of Christ Temple Casey Breves, Michael McNeil, Gregory Peebles – soprano Cortez Mitchell, Alan Reinhardt, Adam Ward – alto Matthew Curtis, Brian Hinman, Ben Johns – tenor Eric Alatorre, Michael Axtell, Jace Wittig – baritone and bass Matthew Oltman – Music Director

The Divine Orlando GOMBERT

Tous les regretz (Chanson à 6 voix)


Missa “Tous les regretz” (LV 626 à 6 voix) I. Kyrie II. Gloria III. Credo IV. Sanctus V. Agnus Dei


Psalmus Poenitentialis, “Miserere mei Deus” (LV 797 à 5 voix), Psalm 51


Laudate Dominum de caelis, Psalm 148 (LV 953, á 4 voix) Laudate Dominum in Sactis ejus, Psalm 150 (LV 953, á 4 voix)

This concert is underwritten, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund


The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

Program Notes

To his contemporaries, he was the “Prince of Music,” the “King of Musicians,” the “Divine Orlando.” His early career was sensational and meteoric: born in the French-speaking province of Hainault in present-day Belgium, Orlando di Lasso had already been abducted three times during childhood on account of the beauty of his voice. His teens were spent in southern Italy and Rome, where in 1551, at the age of twenty-one (or nineteen?— sources differ as to the year of his birth), he became choirmaster at St. John the Lateran, a position Palestrina would assume following his departure in 1554. By 1556 he had entered the service of the Bavarian court at Munich, and there he remained until his death in 1594, working first as a singer and later as court composer. A master of all the major vocal genres of his time—French chanson, Italian madrigal, German lied, as well as Latin Mass and motet—Lasso became the most published composer of the sixteenth century. According to one recent estimate, approximately one half of the music publications from the last four and a half decades of the sixteenth century contain works by him.

remain unknown, but the duke’s demands must have been satisfied, for the scribe soon returned to Munich and resumed work as a copyist.

Yet, despite the enormous size and variety of his oeuvre, early appreciation of Lasso’s achievement focused almost entirely on a single collection, his settings of the seven Penitential Psalms. To nineteenth-century historians, Lasso’s Psalms were not only his most important creation but also an epitome of sixteenthcentury music and—somewhat paradoxically given the composer’s biography—a worthy source of German national pride. A review of the first modern edition of the Psalms, published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung in 1838, identified Lasso as the leader of an early German school of composition analogous to the Italian school led by Palestrina. This view was elaborated upon the end of the century by the Austrian music historian August Wilhelm Ambros, who identified Lasso’s Psalms, along with Palestrina’s Missa Papae Marcelli, as one of the two preeminent masterpieces of the sixteenth century.

The seven psalms set by Lasso (nos. 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, and 142 in the numbering of the Latin Vulgate) were already identified as a special group of psalmi poenitentium by the sixthcentury Roman statesman Cassiodorus. Throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, countless breviaries and devotional books continued to present these Penitential Psalms as a group, associating them especially with Lent, the principal penitential season of the church year. Earlier composers had set individual members of the group to polyphony—one thinks, for example, of the exquisite setting of Miserere mei, Deus by Josquin des Prez—but Lasso seems to have been the first to set all of them as part of a unified cycle.

Ambros made clear in his discussion that his appreciation of the Psalms derived in part from their survival in what may be the most deluxe music manuscript of all time, Bavarian State Library, Mus. Ms. A. This extraordinary source consists of two large choirbooks (about 17 x 24 inches), lavishly illuminated by the Bavarian court painter Hans Mielich, and two smaller volumes, containing learned, humanistic commentary on the psalm texts and illuminations by the court librarian Samuel Quickelberg. Lasso’s employer, Duke Albrecht V, who had commissioned the Psalms and financed the production of the manuscript, also retained them for his private use. How ardently he sought to maintain this restriction is evident from a letter written on his behalf by the Augsburg banker Johann Jakob Fugger in 1563. The music scribe of Mus. Ms. A had smuggled a copy of the Psalms out of Munich and fled to the Low Countries. Writing to authorities in Brussels, Fugger conveys Duke Albrecht’s urgent request that the scribe be apprehended and his copy of the Psalms confiscated. The details of what ensued

The Penitential Psalms would not appear in print until 1584, but they were already being performed outside the ducal court within months of Albrecht’s death in October 1579. Not surprisingly, given the Bavarian court’s steadfast support of the Society of Jesus, the public premiere of Lasso’s Psalms took place at Munich’s Jesuit College. On Holy Thursday 1580, black draperies covered the walls and windows of the college’s barely illuminated assembly hall. At the front of the room could be seen the figure of Christ on the Mount of Olives, and at five o’clock in the evening, the ducal choir performed the Penitential Psalms. Whether this performance initiated annual performances remains unclear, but such a tradition was firmly in place by the end of the nineteenth century. In his memoirs, the composer Carl Orff (1895–1982) recalls being taken as a child by his grandfather each year during Holy Week to hear Lasso’s Psalms performed in the solemn darkness of the Jesuit Church.

The eighth and final piece in that cycle, the motet Laudate Dominum de caelis, differs markedly from the seven Penitential Psalms: it sets a text (Psalms 148 and 150) of joyous praise rather than contrition; it organizes that text into only four large sections rather than treating each psalm verse as a short, discrete section; and it circulated as early as 1565 in published motet collections rather than being retained for Albrecht’s private use. Quickelberg’s commentary offers no explanation for its inclusion in the cycle beyond his laconic comment that it was “customary.” Yet the Laudate is essential to the overall structure of the cycle, which Lasso conceived as a representation of the traditional eight church modes, with the first psalm in mode one, the second psalm in mode two, and so on. We would like to know what such modally ordered collections meant to contemporary listeners, but on that count, Quickelberg is silent. He is, however, more informative about Lasso’s musical treatment of texts, his skill “in expressing the force of the individual affections, and in placing the object almost alive before the eyes.” In this, Quickelberg concludes, Orlando “demonstrated to posterity the outstanding quality of his genius.” 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


A different facet of the composer’s genius emerges in the Missa Tous les regretz. This, like most settings of the Mass Ordinary from the late sixteenth century, is a so-called parody Mass, a Mass based on a preexistent polyphonic “model” composition. Lasso drew his models from his own works as well as the works of contemporaries and earlier composers; they include secular chansons and madrigals as well as sacred motets. In the case of the Missa Tous les regretz, he chose an elegant and melancholy sixvoice chanson by Nicolas Gombert, a composer of the previous generation who had served the imperial court of Charles V. To assume, as we are apt to do today, that sixteenth-century composers based Masses on preexistent compositions in order to make their task easier is to miss the essential nature of the procedure. It was not so much that the model provided a fund of melodic and contrapuntal ideas—composers like Lasso and Palestrina never lacked for those—but that it posed the challenge of wresting something new from that material. In the manner typical of the period, Lasso presents at the beginning of the Kyrie a clearly recognizable variation on Gombert’s opening gesture. But as the Mass proceeds, his reworking of the material becomes ever more inventive and fanciful. In the Sanctus and Agnus Dei, we encounter passages where the sonic surface of the derived material bears little resemblance to Gombert’s original. Had we not followed the process of development in the preceding sections of the Mass, we would not recognize them for what they are. Some sense of the way Lasso’s audiences comprehended such pieces may be gleaned from a report sent to Albrecht V in 1559 by one of his diplomatic agents, a certain Dr. Seld, who was on assignment in Vienna. In a postscript to his report, Seld describes a Mass he had heard the previous day. At first, he could not identify its “subject,” but later, as he sang it to himself, he realized that the Viennese choirmaster Jacob Vaet had composed it on Lasso’s motet Tityre, tu patulae. Knowing that such a Mass would delight Albrecht, he promises to procure a copy of the music. We could not wish for a better demonstration of the way in which a polyphonically derived Mass could engage a sixteenth-century listener’s imagination—in this case, even after the performance. For Dr. Seld the principal challenge was identification of the model. For a more informed listener—one who had just heard the motet, for example—the experience was likely far more complex, involving a kind of simultaneous hearing of the original composition and its ever-unfolding transformations in the Mass. In other words, a composition like Lasso’s Missa Tous les regretz offered sixteenth-century listeners an opportunity to hear the model anew and, guided by the “Divine Orlando,” to explore its potential. To us today, over four hundred years later, it offers the same. David Crook, Professor of Music at the University of WisconsinMadison, has written extensively on late Renaissance music. He is author of Orlando di Lasso’s Imitation Magnificats for Counter Reformation Munich (Princeton University Press, 1994) and coeditor of Orlando di Lasso, The Complete Motets (A-R Editions, 1995-2007). 66

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Orlando di Lasso

Texts and Translations Chanson Tous les regretz Chanson à 6 voix Nicolas Gombert (c1490-c1560) Tous les regretz qu’oncques furent au monde venez ver moy quelque part que je soye, prenez mon coer en sa douleur parfonde et le fendez que soudainement la voye.

All the sadness that has ever been of this world, Come hither to me, wherever I may be. Take my heart in its deep grief And cleave it in twain when suddenly I see her.

Missa “Tous les regretz” LV 626 à 6 voix Orlando di Lasso (c1530-1594) I. Kyrie Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison.

Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy, Lord have mercy.

II. Gloria Gloria in excelsis Deo. Et in terra pax hominibus bonæ voluntatis. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex cælestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. Tu solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Amen.

Glory to God in the highest. And on earth, peace to all those of good will. We praise You. We bless You. We worship You. We glorify You. We give You thanks because of Your great glory. Lord God, King of Heaven, God the omnipotent Father. Only begotten Son of the Lord, Jesus Christ. Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father. You who take away the world’s sins, have mercy on us. You who take away the world’s sins, receive our supplication. You who sit at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us. For You alone are holy. You alone are the Lord. You alone, Jesus Christ, are the Most High. With the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

III. Credo Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, Factorem cæli et terrae, visibilum omnium et invisibilium, Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, non factum,

I believe in one God, the Father almighty, make of heaven and earth, and all that is seen and unseen And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, Born of the Father before all ages. God from God, light from light, True God from true God, begotten, not made 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem, descendit de cælis. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in cælum, sedet ad dexteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos, cujus regni non erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur, qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen.

one in being with the Father By whom all things were made, Who for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven. And by the power of the Holy Spirit was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate, He suffered, died and was buried, And on the third day He rose again in fulfillment of the scriptures. He ascended into heaven, And is seated at the right hand of the Father. And He shall come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and His kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. Who with the Father and Son is worshipped and glorified, who has spoken through the Prophets. And I believe in one holy catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. And I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

IV. Sanctus Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth Pleni sunt cæli et terra gloria tua. Hosanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Hosanna in excelsis.

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts Heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

V. Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.


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Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God who takest away the sins of the world, grant us peace.

Psalmus Poenitentialis “Miserere mei Deus” LV 797 à 5 voix Orlando di Lasso Psalm 51 Miserere mei, Deus, secundum magnam misericordiam tuam.

Have Mercy on me, O God, according to Thy great mercy.

Et secundum multitudinem miserationum tuarum, dele iniquitatem meam.

And according to the multitude of Thy tender mercies, blot out my iniquity.

Amplius lava me ab iniquitate mea: et a peccato meo munda me.

Wash me yet more from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.

Quoniam iniquitatem meam ego cognosco: et peccatum meum contra me est semper.

For I know my iniquity, and my sin is always before me.

Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci: ut justificeris in sermonibus tuis, et vincas cum judicaris.

To Thee only have I sinned, and have done evil before Thee: that Thou mayst be justified in Thy words, and mayst overcome when Thou art judged.

Ecce enim in iniquitatibus conceptus sum: et in peccatis concepit me mater mea.

For behold I was conceived in iniquities: and in sins did my mother conceive me.

Ecce enim veritatem dilexisti: incerta et occulta sapientiae tuae manifestasti mihi.

For behold Thou hast loved truth: the uncertain and hidden things of Thy wisdom Thou hast made manifest to me.

Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo, et mundabor: lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor.

Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed: Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow.

Auditui meo dabis gaudium et laetitiam: et exsultabunt ossa humiliata.

To my hearing Thou shalt give joy and gladness: and the bones that have been humbled shall rejoice.

Averte faciem tuam a peccatis meis: et omnes iniquitates meas dele.

Turn away Thy face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities.

Cor mundum crea in me, Deus: et spiritum rectum innova in visceribus meis.

Create a clean heart in me, O God, and renew a right spirit within my bowels.

Ne projicias me a facie tua: et spiritum sanctum tuum ne auferas a me.

Cast me not away from Thy face, and take not Thy holy spirit from me.

Redde mihi laetitiam salutaris tui: et spiritu principali confirma me.

Restore unto me the joy of Thy salvation, and strengthen me with a perfect spirit.

Docebo iniquos vias tuas: et impii ad te convertentur.

I will teach the unjust Thy ways, and the wicked shall be converted to Thee.

Libera me de sanguinibus, Deus, Deus salutis meae: et exsultabit lingua mea justitiam tuam.

Deliver me from blood, O God, thou God of my salvation, and my tongue shall extol Thy justice.

Domine, labia mea aperies: et os meum annuntiabit laudem tuam.

O Lord, Thou wilt open my lips, and my mouth shall declare Thy praise.

Quoniam si voluisses sacrificium, dedissem utique: holocaustis non delectaberis.

For if Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it: with burnt offerings Thou wilt not be delighted.

Sacrificium Deo spiritus contribulatus: cor contritum, et humiliatum, Deus, non despicies.

A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit: a contrite and humbled heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise.

Benigne fac, Domine, in bona voluntate tua Sion: ut aedificentur muri Jerusalem.

Deal favorably, O Lord, in Thy good will with Sion; that the walls of Jerusalem may be built up.

Tunc acceptabis sacrificium justitiae, oblationes, et holocausta: tunc imponent super altare tuum vitulos.

Then shalt Thou accept the sacrifice of justice, oblations and whole burnt offerings: then shall they lay calves upon Thy altar. 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritu Sancto. Sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper. Et in saecula saeculorum, Amen.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning for now and ever shall be. World without end. Amen.

Laudate Dominum de caelis LV 953 Ă 4 voix Orlando di Lasso Psalm 148 Laudate Dominum de caelis: laudate eum in excelsis

Praise ye the Lord from the heavens: praise ye him in the high places.

Laudate eum omnes Angeli ejus: laudate eum omnes virtutes ejus

Praise ye him, all his angels: praise ye him, all his hosts.

Laudate eum sol et luna: laudate eum omnes stellae et lumen

Praise ye him, O sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars and light.

Laudate eum caeli caelorum: et aquae [omnes] quae super caelos sunt laudent nomen Domini

Praise him, ye heavens of heavens: and let [all] the waters that are above the heavens praise the name of the Lord.

Quia ipse dixit, et facta sunt: ipse mandavit, et creata sunt.

For he spoke, and they were made: he commanded, and they were created.

Statuit ea in aeternum et in saeculum saeculi: praeceptum posuit, et non praeteribit

He hath established them for ever, and for ages of ages: he hath made a decree, and it shall not pass away.

Laudate Dominum de terra, dracones et omnes abyssi.

Praise the Lord from the earth, ye dragons, and all ye deeps:

Ignis, grando, nix, glacies, spiritus procellarum, quae faciunt verbum ejus:

Fire, hail snow, ice, stormy winds, which fulfil [sic] his word:

Montes et omnes colles, ligna fructifera et omnes cedri:

Mountains and all hills, fruitful trees and all cedars:

Bestiae et universa pecora, serpentes et volucres pennatae:

Beasts and all cattle: serpents and feathered fowls:

Reges terrae et omnes populi, principes et omnes judices terrae.

Kings of the earth and all people: princes and all judges of the earth:

Juvenes et virgines, sense cum junioribus laudent nomen Domini: quia exaltatum est nomen ejus solius.

Young men and maidens: let the old with the younger, praise the name of the Lord: for his name alone is exalted.

[Confessio ejus super caelum et terram: et exaltavit cornu populi sui.]

[The praise of him is above heaven and earth: and he hath exalted the horn of his people.]

Hymnus omnibus sanctis ejus: filiis Israel, ppulo appropinquanti sibi.

A hymn to all his saints: to the children of Israel, a people appraching to him.


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Psalm 150 Laudate Dominum in sactis ejus: laudate eum in firmamento virtutis ejus.

Praise ye the Lord in his holy places: praise ye him in the firmament of his power.

Laudate eum in virtutibus ejus: laudate eum secundum multitudinem magnitudinis ejus.

Praise ye him for his mighty acts: praise ye him according to the multitude of his greatness.

Laudate eum in sono tubae: laudate eum in psalterio, et cithara.

Praise him with sound of trumpet: praise him with psaltery and harp.

Laudate eum in tympano, et choro: laudate eum in chordis, et organo.

Praise him with timbrel and choir: praise him with strings and organs.

Laudate eum in cymbalis benesonantibus: laudate eum in cymbalis jubilationis: omnis spiritus laudet Dominum.

Praise him on high sounding cymbals: praise him on cymbals of joy: let every spirit praise the Lord. includes in-school clinics and workshops, Chanticleer Youth Choral Festivals™ in the Bay Area, the National Youth Choral Festival, master classes for university students nationwide, and the Chanticleer in Sonoma summer workshops for adult choral singers. The Singing Life—a documentary about Chanticleer’s work with young people—was released in 2008. In 2010 Chanticleer’s education program was recognized with the Chorus America Education Outreach Award.

Chanticleer Called “the world’s reigning male chorus,” by the New Yorker magazine, and named Ensemble of the Year by Musical America in 2008, Chanticleer will perform more than 100 concerts in 2010-11, the GRAMMY Award-winning ensemble’s 33rd Season. Chanticleer—based in San Francisco—is known around the world as “an orchestra of voices” for the seamless blend of its twelve male voices ranging from countertenor to bass and its original interpretations of vocal literature, from Renaissance to jazz, and from gospel to venturesome new music. Chanticleer’s recordings are distributed by Chanticleer, Rhino Records, I-tunes among others, and are available on Chanticleer’s website, New this season will be A Chanticleer Christmas – favorite Christmas music from live performances as broadcast on American Public Media.

Named for the “clear-singing” rooster in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, Chanticleer was founded in 1978 by tenor Louis Botto, who sang in the Ensemble until 1989 and served as Artistic Director until his death in 1997. In 1999, Christine Bullin joined Chanticleer as President & General Director. Music Director Emeritus Joseph Jennings joined the ensemble as a countertenor in 1983, and shortly thereafter assumed the title of Music Director which he held until his retirement in 2008. Mr. Jennings has arranged some of Chanticleer’s most popular repertoire, most notably spirituals, gospel music, and jazz standards. In 2008, tenor Matthew D. Oltman was named Music Director. Chanticleer is the current recipient of major grants from The Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation, The William & Flora Hewlett Foundation, The James Irvine Foundation, The Bernard Osher Foundation, The Bob Ross Foundation, Wells Fargo Bank, Grants for the Arts/San Francisco Hotel Tax Fund, and The National Endowment for the Arts. Chanticleer’s activities as a not-for-profit corporation are supported by its administrative staff and Board of Trustees. For more information visit

With the help of individual contributions and foundation and corporate support, the Ensemble involves over 5000 young people annually in its extensive education program which 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Rafał Blechacz

Friday, February 18 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater


Variations in C Major, KV 264


L’isle joyeuse


Sonata No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 8 Allegro moderato Adagio Tempo di minuetto Finale


Ballade No. 1 in G minor, Op. 23 Two Polonaises, Op. 26 No. 1 in C-sharp minor No. 2 in E-flat minor Four Mazurkas, Op. 41 No. 1 in C-sharp minor No. 2 in E minor No. 3 in B Major No. 4 in A-flat Major Ballade No. 2 in F Major, Op. 38

The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 72

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Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

Variations in C major, K.264 Wolfgang Amadè Mozart (1756-1791) In September 1772, the Comédie-Italienne in Paris presented the premiere of Julie, a comédie mêlée d’ariettes [literally, a comedy made up of ariettas, meaning an opera with spoken dialogue]. The composer was Nicolas Dezède (ca.1740-1792), a musician of uncertain origin who had completed his musical education in Paris. The work, Dezède’s first collaboration with the librettist Jacques Marie Boutet de Monvel, was a great success. Dezède went on to compose 18 more operas for various Paris theatres over the course of the next twenty years. His music was especially fashionable in the 1770s. Julie was revived in August 1778, toward the end of Mozart’s ill-fated six month stay in Paris. He probably heard Dezède’s opera, and apparently liked his music, for he composed two sets of piano variations on themes from Dezède’s work. From Julie, Mozart selected “Lison dormait dans un bocage,” a simple song for baritone that had become popular enough to be published separately. Mozart knew his prospects were dubious in Paris. No offer of permanent employment was forthcoming. His mother had died in early July and his father Leopold was exhorting him to return to Salzburg. His sole method of supporting himself in the French capital was performing his own compositions. Variations on popular opera arias were fashionable. In composing these variations, he was capitalizing on that trend and furnishing himself with fresh material to play in the aristocratic Parisian salons. On one level, K.264 is conventional. The first several variations grow progressively more brilliant in their finger work. Mozart includes one variation in minor mode, another in an Adagio tempo, and a finale that changes the meter, then adds a cadenza and a brief coda in which he does a reprise of Dezède’s tune. What makes this work unusual is its structure. Rather than maintaining a mathematical balance of measures and phrases, Mozart expands the theme in several variations, extending their scope. The chromaticism is often surprising, particularly against the sunny background of C major. Extended trills occur in several variations, along with aggressive broken octave passage work. The most astounding variation is the Adagio. At 65 bars, it is the longest variation. Mozart’s intricate ornamentation, rhythmic variety, and dramatic swoops up and down the keyboard are riveting. The brief cadenza just before the end is equally exciting. L’isle joyeuse Claude Debussy (1862-1918) Early in 1904, Claude Debussy became involved in a passionate affair with Emma Bardac, an amateur singer who was the wife of the banker Sigismond Bardac. Debussy had met her the

previous autumn. He had been married to Rosalie [Lilly] Texier since 1899, but the union was shallow, and he found Bardac intoxicating. In June 1904 Debussy left Lilly permanently to move in with Emma, whose husband traveled extensively. The lovers slipped out of Paris in mid-July to spend three glorious weeks on the British isle of Jersey. L’isle joyeuse [“The joyous island”] mirrors the delirious passion of Debussy’s first extended holiday with Emma, who eventually became his second wife. Debussy had drafted the score to L’isle joyeuse during the summer of 1903 while still in Paris. He initially thought to include it in the Suite Bergamasque. While on the isle of Jersey, he revised the piece extensively, adding final touches in Dieppe in August, on his way back to Paris. In that version it is one of his lengthiest solo piano compositions (only Masques rivals L’isle joyeuse in duration), and differs markedly from the delicate understatement of many of his other piano works. As Marcel Dietschy has noted: Voluble, passionate joy runs through L’isle joyeuse, like a flock of birds dazzled by the dawn and drunk on the freshness of the morning. The past was buried when Debussy finished this piece with its strong and flexible muscles. . . . [it testifies] to Debussy’s uncontrollable feeling for Emma Bardac. The piece is intensely virtuosic, placing technical demands on the pianist analogous to those in the dazzling showpieces of Franz Liszt. The composer wrote to his publisher Jacques Durand: “But God! How difficult it is to perform. . . . seems to assemble all the ways to attack a piano since it unites force and grace.” Debussy uses the piano as if it were a full orchestra, drawing forth a variety of colors as infinite as the play of light on the sea. (Evidently recognizing its symphonic potential, the composer planned to orchestrate it in 1915, but did not complete the project before his death.) Harmonically, L’isle joyesue dances between folk-like tunes and vivid whole-tone passages. There are also some sections in which Debussy writes in two keys simultaneously. Rhythmically, the piece alternates between impetuosity and unpredictability to measured delicacy. Throughout, the composer’s spirit emerges exultant, even ecstatic. Sonata No.1 in C minor, Op.8 Karol Szymanowski (1882-1937) Karol Szymanowski, the most important Polish composer in the first half of the twentieth century, was the direct heir to Frédéric Chopin. In Szymanowski, Poland found a proud outlet for a strong nationalist tradition in music. The composer’s biographer, Jim Samson, has written: Ultimately Chopin’s significance for Szymanowski in his later development was of an ideological rather than a purely musical nature. He was after all consciously attempting to lead Polish music out of provincialism into 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


the arena of contemporary European music. Chopin had done much the same for 19th-century Polish music, however ephemerally, and that achievement remained for Szymanowski a constant source of inspiration. Today, when Krzysztof Penderecki, Witold Lutosławski, and Henryk Mikolaj Gorecki have done so much to give Poland a central role in new music, the importance of a figure like Szymanowski may not be immediately apparent. Without his pioneering work, none of their achievements might have taken place. Szymanowski is not only a key transitional figure, but also a marvelous composer whose music is beginning to achieve the recognition and performances it richly deserves. Szymanowski was born into a region of Poland that had been annexed to the Czarist Russian empire. His father, a member of the Polish landed gentry, was ardently patriotic, and encouraged his five children to cultivate their national heritage. The entire family was artistic. Young Karol was sent to Vienna at age 13, where he heard Wagner operas, an experience that wrought a profound influence on his early development. Later on, he found inspiration in the works of Stravinsky and Debussy. Ultimately, he found his truest voice in the music of his native land. Szymanowski’s early compositions reveal a fascinating mix of stylistic ingredients absorbed from others. Foremost among his models were Chopin and Scriabin. Szymanowski’s friend Ludomir Różycki later recalled: Above all he loved and revered Chopin, and immediately after Chopin’s music came the piano works of Scriabin in his preferences. When he wrote his [First] Piano Sonata, I found Szymanowski many times sitting at the piano, studying in great detail the structure of piano passages by Chopin and Scriabin. In terms of pianistic figuration and heavy chromaticism, both those composers’ imprints are clear in the First Sonata. Structurally, however, it shows Szymanowski reaching farther afield. The sonata is a big, sprawling romantic affair, clocking in at just under half an hour. Cyclic elements link it to Liszt. This large scale work – four movements culminating in a fugue – also relates to Beethoven and Brahms. Where is Szymanowski in all this? The First Sonata was a student work, composed in 1903 and 1904 while Szymanowski was studying composition and counterpoint with Zygmunt Noskowski at the Music Institute in Warsaw. At this stage, Szymanowski was writing primarily songs and solo piano pieces. His works were completely tonal, 74

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employing the harmonic vocabulary of the late 19th century and favoring classical forms. That stated, he had a unique sense of harmony. Extensive used of diminished seventh chords as pivots gave him maximum opportunity for tonal wandering. The main theme of the opening Allegro contains the seed for the first fugue subject in the finale (this complex fugue actually has two subjects). Similarly, the Allegro’s second theme generates the melody of the slow movement and the trio section of his third movement. Szymanowski takes the greatest harmonic risks in his introduction to the finale, which feels like a fantasy preceding the fugue. The finale reflects his rigorous training with Noskowski; it is an undisguised attempt to show off Szymanowski’s newly-acquired expertise in counterpoint. Midway through the fugue, he interrupts the contrapuntal fabric to restate the spacious main theme of the opening Allegro moderato, thereby strengthening the connection between the outer movements.

Karol Szymanowski

The First Sonata won first prize in 1910 in a competition sponsored by the Chopin Birth Centenary Committee at Lwów. Considering that Szymanowski was barely 21 when he started it, the Sonata is an ambitious and impressive achievement. It leaves one thirsty for more of this composer’s music.

CHOPIN, POLAND, AND NATIONALISM Ballade No.1 in G minor, Op.23 Deux Polonaises, Op.26 Mazurkas, Op.41 Ballade No.2 in F major, Op.38 Fryderyk Franciszek [Frédéric-François] Chopin (1810-1849) Mr. Blechacz devotes the second half of his program to Chopin, with selections from the three genres in Chopin’s music that have the strongest Polish accent. He frames his choices with two of the Ballades, beloved works that are well known to pianists and aficionados of piano music. Loosely inspired by the poetry of Chopin’s countryman Adam Mickiewicz, the four Ballades are presumed to have a nationalist subtext. HISTORY LESSON Throughout the 18th century, the vast country we know as Poland was divided among Austria, Prussia, and Czarist Russia. Partitions took place in 1772 and 1793, followed by an unsuccessful uprising led by Tadeusz Kósciuszko in 1794. A final partition took place in 1795, at which point Poland ceased to exist as an independent state. The country remained divided after the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, which reapportioned parts of Europe to the allies who had defeated Napoleon. The lion’s share of Polish lands fell under Russian rule. When revolution swept through France and Belgium in July

1830, Poland was caught in an indecisive vise. Some of the wealthy Polish aristocracy favored reform, but they also wanted to preserve aspects of the status quo, specifically the system of serfs that extended back to the middle ages. The movement for Polish independence was led by forward-thinking advocates of democracy who lacked resources and political skills. By January 1831, the unrest that was roiling western Europe erupted in Poland. Russia diverted forces countering insurrections in Belgium and France in order to suppress the Polish rebellion. Resistance was strong, but Russia ultimately prevailed, and Warsaw fell in September 1831. CHOPIN IN THE MIDST OF REVOLUTION Chopin left Warsaw in early November 1830 for his first European concert tour, which began in Vienna and was to eventually proceed to Paris. He arrived in Vienna just before the Polish insurrection erupted. Chopin’s Vienna compositions from this time include the first Mazurkas intended for publication. It was a courageous gesture, for Imperial Austria was chilly to the Polish rebellion and with the Mazurkas, Chopin was putting forward those compositions most associated with the Polish Nationalist movement. Poles were now unwelcome in Vienna.

emphasis was on the characteristic rhythmic patterns of each dance. The later works are more extended in form with personal and poetic digressions that reflect a deep and probing persona. Particularly in the Mazurkas, Chopin drew on the modal scales of peasant music, and did not shy away from the strange harmonies they often imply. The Polonaises show Chopin at his most virile. The Polonaise was the dance of the Polish aristocracy as opposed to the Mazurkas, that represented the Polish peasant. However, as Chopin matured, his Polonaises became further removed from polite salon pieces; the later Polonaises, starting with Opus 26, are aggressive, sometimes belligerent works with a virtuosic edge. This increased complexity in Chopin’s writing mirrors the overriding trends in Romantic piano music elsewhere in Europe. His genius flowered in an era that sought a more brilliant and expressive style, one less reliant on traditional forms and methods. Some of the genres in which he wrote were abstract: sonata, scherzo, prelude, etude. Others grew out of the salon: waltz, nocturne, impromptu. His Polish heritage and national pride manifested themselves most strongly in Mazurkas, Polonaises, and the four Ballades. They are, arguably, his most personal music.

- Program notes by Laurie Shulman ©2010

Months later, in September 1831, Chopin was in Stuttgart, en route to the French capital, when he heard the news that the Russians had sacked Warsaw. He was devastated – and understandably concerned for his family and friends in the city. (His “Revolutionary” Etude, Op.10, No.12, purportedly dates from this month.) Barely a week later, he arrived in Paris to find the French exulting in their newfound freedom from Charles X, the last of the Bourbon kings. After Charles abdicated the throne, his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc d’Orléans was installed as a ‘citizen-king.’ The atmosphere in Paris was rife with intellectual and cultural activity. Sympathy for the Polish cause ran high, and Chopin felt at home because there were many other Polish emigrés in the city. In this teeming hive of ideas and debates, concerts and opera, poetry and plays, exhibitions, and salons, the 20-year-old Chopin would come of age as a composer. POLISH IDENTITY Parisian audiences grasped that the young pianist from Warsaw was using some of his compositions to assert his Polish national identity. One way for him to do this was to plumb the folk music of his homeland. His most overt expressions of Polish culture occurs in the Mazurkas and Polonaises. Both dances appear among his earliest works. He continued to write in both genres through the 1840s; however, the character of these pieces changed as he matured. Examples from the 1820s are short, straightforward exemplars of a simple folk variety. The 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Akademie fĂźr Alte Musik Berlin Friday, March 11 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater


Ouverture (Suite) in C Major, TWV 55:C6

Ouverture: Grave; Allegro; Grave Harlequinade Espagniol BourĂŠe en trompette Sommeille Rondeau Menuet I - II Gigue


Brandenburg Concerto No.5, in D Major, BWV 1050 Allegro Affettuoso Allegro


Violin Concerto in E Major, BWV 1042 Allegro Adagio Allegro assai


Concerto Grosso in B-flat Major Op. 3, No. 2, HWV 313 Vivace Largo Allegro Menuett Gavotte


Concerto in e minor for Recorder and Flute, TWV 52:e1 Largo Allegro Largo Presto Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.


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Program Notes

Ouverture [Suite] in C major, TWV 55:C6 Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1757) Posterity views Bach and Handel as the greatest musical geniuses of the Baroque era. It doesn’t hurt that they were born in the same year, and in central German towns – Eisenach and Halle, respectively – little more than 100 kilometers apart. Such neat coincidence makes their vastly different careers all the more striking. During their lifetimes, Georg Philipp Telemann all but eclipsed them both. He was regarded as the finest German composer of his day, and he was unquestionably the most successful commercially. Telemann’s career followed a dizzying path, starting with the direction of the Leipzig Opera one year after he matriculated at Leipzig University. Subsequent appointments included organist at Leipzig’s Neue Kirche, Kapellmeister to the court of Count Erdmann II of Promnitz at Sorau, Kapellmeister in Eisenach (Bach’s home town), director of music in Frankfurt, and Kapellmeister at Gotha. In all these places, he wrote staggering amounts of sacred and secular music. Telemann’s longest and most significant professional position was in the northern city of Hamburg. From 1721 until his death, he was the guiding light of Hamburg’s musical life. His official title was Kantor of the Johanneum. In that capacity, he directed musical activity for the city’s five principal churches as well as civic music events for ceremonies, holidays, and festive occasions. He also oversaw weekly public concerts by the Collegium Musicum and, from 1722 to 1738, served as music director of the Hamburg Opera. With a finger in every conceivable musical pie, Telemann was Hamburg’s de facto concert manager for an extraordinary tenure of 46 years. Telemann was a master of both the Italian and French styles. He composed more than 200 Ouverturen – multi-movement instrumental suites modeled after French tastes. The one that opens this evening’s program is probably from 1721, his first year in Hamburg. He opens with a traditional French overture: a slow introduction with dotted rhythms (a rhythm that moves from a very quick, short note to a long note) moving to a brisker central allegro in fugal texture before a brief return to the Grave at the close.

The succeeding seven movements are mostly bipartite dances that repeat each half. Telemann frequently assigned fanciful French titles to his suite movements, indicating its character. Thus Harlequinade is a brisk 3/8 number suggesting the lighthearted buffoonery of commedia dell’arte, and Espagniol is a dignified sarabande whose title refers to that dance’s Spanish roots. Bourée en trompette spotlights the concertante oboes, inviting comparison to Handel’s “Entrance of the Queen of Sheba” from Solomon. (That is hardly surprising, given that a Telemann concerto has been identified as one of Handel’s sources for the “Sheba” music.) Even without actual trumpets, the effect of the oboes is fanfare-like and ceremonial. Sommeil refers to the slumber scene common in French Baroque operas and ballets. Telemann’s subdued atmosphere and gestures of lamentation imply the metaphorical eternal sleep of death, and perhaps the Crucifixion. His music, now in C minor, has the heart-rending pathos of a Baroque Passion.

Georg Philipp Telemann

In Telemann’s day, the French rondeau indicated a simple refrain form, associated with dance movements but not with a particular tempo or meter. This one is a mood lifter, with a walking bass in duple time underpinning Telemann’s attractive melody. The final three movements of the suite rely on two conventional dance forms: a pair of Minuets and a sprightly Gigue.

The three oboes are an unusual concertante group. While they tend to introduce and dominate the melodic material, Telemann was too good a musician not to alternate statements with the string complement. Antiphonal exchanges between oboes and violins pepper the score. His reinforcement of the continuo line by bassoon adds color and interest to the texture. Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, BWV 1050 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) From 1717 to 1723, Bach was employed by Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen, a music-loving prince who maintained one of the largest and finest orchestras in Europe. Early in 1719, the prince sent Bach to Berlin, probably to negotiate the purchase of a new harpsichord. That is almost certainly when Bach met Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg, uncle to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I. Apparently the Margrave was a connoisseur of concertos. At his death in 1734, his library 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


contained nearly 200. After hearing Bach play, the Margrave requested some new concertos. Bach complied with six works that he sent to Christian Ludwig in 1721. At this stage, Bach had composed primarily for solo keyboard and for small ensemble. Lacking experience in the type of compositions the Margrave requested, Bach wrote for his court orchestra at Cöthen, experimenting with different concertino groups. No two Brandenburg concerti have the same instrumentation. Bach’s score for the Fifth Brandenburg specifies three soloists: flauto traverso [transverse flute, as opposed to recorder], violino principale [solo violin], and cembalo concertato [harpsichord in the manner of a concerto, rather than a continuo style]. All three instruments have prominent roles, but the solo keyboard has the edge.

Violin Concerto in E major, BWV 1042 Johann Sebastian Bach Bach’s E major Violin Concerto is a companion piece to the well-known A minor Violin Concerto, BWV 1041. Both works date from the years during which Bach was in service to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen. Their technical challenges attest to the skilled performers he had at his disposal in the Cöthen court orchestra. E major is an extremely bright key for the violin, a factor that Bach exploited fully in his jubilant outer movements. An assertive ascending triad anchors the opening Allegro, introducing eleven measures of material rich enough to provide the motivic basis for the entire movement. The structure parallels the da capo aria, with an identical repeat of the opening section after a contrasting middle episode of unrelated melodic material.

Playing the new double-manual harpsichord that Prince Leopold had sent him to Berlin to purchase, Bach himself was likely to have been the keyboard soloist when these works were first performed. Whereas the other five Brandenburg concertos limit the harpsichord’s role to that of the continuo, the D major concerto specifies a prominent and aggressive role for the keyboard. It has a dramatic, dazzling cadenza in the first movement and another, briefer cadenza in the finale. Only in the lovely, expressive slow movement do the violin and flute seem on equal footing with harpsichord. The balance of the orchestra is silent for this movement, rejoining with gusto for the spirited closing Allegro, which skillfully combines aspects of several national styles. As Robert Marshall has written: . . . the movement is not only a manifestation of the (Italian) concerto principle. It is, at literally the same time, a (German) fugue—in its texture; a (French) dance (a gigue)— in its rhythm, meter, and tempo; and a dacapo aria (and thus indebted to the vocal as well as to the instrumental realm)— in its form. Partly because of its large scale and unprecedented emphasis on harpsichord, the Fifth Brandenburg is believed to be the last of the six to be composed, and probably dates from early 1721. It is the first work in which Bach specified transverse flute, and has traditionally been regarded as the first solo keyboard concerto.


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George Frederic Handel

The slow movement is the most melodically elaborate. Bach anchors it by use of a repeated, chaconnelike figure in the lower strings. This rhythmic steadiness finds a foil in the capricious, ornate, and expressive violin line. The simultaneous precision and grace of his writing takes one’s breath away. The finale is a concerto grosso movement with a French accent, pointing to the later eighteenth-century rondeau. Solo violin dominates the episodes between the full orchestra ritornello passages. A lively 3/8 meter keeps our feet tapping, and the introduction of rapid triplets, thirty-second notes, and virtuosic passage work gives the soloist a final opportunity to shine.

Bach’s score calls for solo violin, strings and continuo. Concerto Grosso in B-flat major, Op.3 No.2, HWV 313 George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) What’s not to like in a concerto grosso by Handel? There are plenty from which to choose, including six in the Op. 3 group, a round dozen from Op. 6, and several other individual concerti. Many of these works stand proudly beside Bach’s Brandenburg Concerti as masterpieces of the genre. Handel’s twelve from Op. 6 are the best known, but the half-dozen published as Op. 3 in 1734 should not be dismissed, and deserve to be performed more frequently.

Don’t let the publication date misguide you. In Handel’s case, publication rarely coincided with composition. These six concerti probably date from the period from 1716 to 1722; however, they have come to be linked with the royal wedding festivities in March 1734 between Willem IV Prince of Orange and the English Princess Anne, daughter of George II and Queen Caroline. Handel composed Il Parnasso in Festa for the nuptials. Royal weddings sold, then as now (remember Charles and Diana?) and Handel’s publisher John Walsh was quick to take advantage of his star composer’s association with the big event. Early engravings of the title page for Opus 3 indicate that some of the music was performed at the celebration – probably as entertainment before or after, rather than during the actual ceremony. Handel established his reputation writing Italian operas, oratorios, and Latin sacred music, not instrumental works. Later in his career, he became expert in English theatre pieces and Biblical oratorios. His most familiar instrumental pieces – Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks – are exceptional within his output, rather than representative. Most of his instrumental compositions for large ensemble were intended for inclusion in larger works, particularly oratorios.

The concerto’s structure is unusual: five movements in the order fast, slow, fugue, followed by two dances (a minuet and a gavotte). The scoring adheres to the standard delineation of concertino [the small soloist group] and ripieno [full ensemble, the “reinforcing” section of the group]. The Vivace opens with unison octaves; the solo violin is the first to show its virtuosity, soon joined by another violin. The tutti sections have passage work for the violas as well. The second movement Largo switches from B-flat major to G minor, focusing on the harmonic movement alternating between the two cellos. The oboe is soloist in a long-breathed line above the cello accompaniment. For the fugue, Handel combines a violin and oboe in

Handel’s Minuet opens as a duet for two oboes and continuo, with string accompaniment and an occasional solo phrase for violin. The texture is pleasantly transparent. The concluding Gavotte highlights the full ensemble, with a more prominent role for bassoon. The second statement varies the bass line with a rapid “walking bass.” In the third and final statement, Handel adds another element of virtuosity with dancing triplets in the violins. The score calls for two oboes, two violins, viola, violoncello, and continuo. Concerto in E minor for Recorder, Flute, and Strings, TWV 52:e1 Georg Philipp Telemann This evening’s program opened with a work from Telemann’s prime: an Ouverture in the French style that is an important precursor to the symphony. The other large ensemble instrumental genre that Telemann cultivated was the concerto. In a famous autobiographical statement written in 1718, the composer commented:

The Op. 3 concerto collection is a hodgepodge. No.1 may have been written as early as Handel’s Hanover days; No.4 was composed as additional music for an English revival of his Italian opera Amadigi in June 1716. Nos.3 and 5 share music with the Chandos Anthems. Handel’s biographer Donald Burrows believes that Op. 3, No.2 in B-flat was probably written for the musicians in London’s Haymarket Opera Orchestra, and points out some shared music expanded from the overture to Handel’s Brockes Passion, HWV 48. About the music

each of two upper voices, allotting the lower two parts to violas and basso continuo, respectively.

I also tried my hand at concertos. About this I must confess that they have never come from my heart, although I have already written a considerable quantity of them. In the same essay, he also acknowledged that his concertos “mostly smell of France.” This double concerto is an exception to that generalization. It harks back to an earlier period, and a different nationality, in Telemann’s life. From 1705 to 1708, he was in service to Count Erdmann II of Promnitz, in an area that is now Zary, a city in western Poland northwest of Wroclaw [Breslau]. Although he composed dozens of suites in the French style during this period, he also absorbed

The Castle in Pszczyna where the Promnitz family resided when Telemann was in their employ.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


the Polish folk music he heard in the region. Telemann spoke admiringly of Polish musical culture for the rest of his life. This concerto, particularly its Presto finale, breathes the fiery spirit of Poland. The combination of recorder and flute was a bold stroke. Germany was slower than France to adopt the newer transverse flute as a replacement instrument for the recorder, which had been used since the Middle Ages [see sidebar]. Technically, the two instruments were similar, but their tone color differed. Telemann took pains to contrast this subtlety of timbre, especially in his two slow movements. Unlike most of his German contemporaries, he did not adopt the Italian concerto form of fast-slow-fast that was popularized by Torelli, Albinoni, and Vivaldi. Instead, he favored four movement structures [slow-fast-slow-fast] like the old sonata da chiesa [church sonata].There is nothing old-fashioned about his writing, however. He alternates between the polyphonic textures we associate with Baroque music and the newer homophonic style of melody plus accompaniment. In the third movement, for example, the soloists converse and compete, with support coming from pizzicato strings. The finale is the concerto’s standout movement. A cross between a country polonaise and a French rondeau, this Presto captures the bright colors and crisp rhythms of Telemann’s beloved Polish folk music, complete with bagpipe drone. Such a lively conclusion also demonstrates that, in the Baroque era, minor mode did not necessarily connote sadness. Program notes by Laurie Shulman © 2010

Recorder and Flute The flute is one of the most ancient instruments; think of Pan and Syrinx, and other mythological references. Flutes exist in virtually every global culture, made of reeds, wood, bone, ivory, and other materials. During the Middle Ages, Europeans played a wooden duct flute known in Germany as a Blockflöte and in England as a recorder. By the Renaissance, most recorders were soprano instruments consisting of a single bored piece of wood with a fipple mouthpiece, seven finger holes on the front, and a thumb hole on the back. Larger recorders (producing lower pitches) consisted of sections that fit together. Recorders became a popular domestic instrument. They were relatively inexpensive and, because they existed in various sizes and ranges, they could be played as a group (or consort), which made them suitable for what we would call chamber music. On a recorder, one produces sound by blowing straight into the instrument. A transverse flute [flauto traverso] is held perpendicular to the player, rather than pointing forward. The player directs the air stream across the length of the instrument through an embouchure hole. (This is the same principle as the modern silver flute, which has a more complex mechanism.) The earliest transverse flutes date from the 12th century, but recorders remained more popular until the early 18th century – just about the time that Telemann became active as a composer. During those first decades of the new century, innovations were taking place with all woodwind instruments. A significant improvement on the transverse flute came with the addition of a key that made it possible to play a D#, a pitch that was difficult to play on flutes without keys. Eventually other keys were added, and transverse flutes began to comprise four interlocking sections whose adjustments permitted better intonation. These advances hastened the instrument’s ascendancy. Still, recorders had plenty of advocates. In writing his concerto for recorder, flauto traverso, and strings, Telemann embraced both the old and the new. – L.S. ©2010


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Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin Founded in 1982 in East Berlin, the Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin began as a courageous display of musical sovereignty against the East German socialist regime, and now, almost thirty years later, they enjoy recognition as one of Europe’s greatest musical success stories. In May 2005, the Akademie made its US debut tour to exuberant critical acclaim and to sold-out houses at New York’s Carnegie Hall, in Chicago, Boston, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, Berkeley, CA, among others. The ensemble has received numerous awards for their recordings including the Cannes Festival Award, the French Diapason d’or, the Dutch Edison Award, the British Gramophone Award, and The Telemann Prize, as well as a Grammy Award in the US. Under the direction of René Jacobs, in addition to their annual sold-out series at the Berlin Konzerthaus, they regularly perform in all the musical centers of Europe including Vienna, Paris, Amsterdam, Zurich, London and well as Asia, North and South America. The Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin has sold over one million CDs and records exclusively for Harmonia Mundi France. For more information visit Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin appears by arrangement of International Arts Foundation, Inc.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


“What Makes It Great?” with Rob Kapilow & Claire Huangci, piano

Robert Schumann

(1810 –1856)

Fantasy in C Major (1836)

Saturday, March 12 | 11 am | TBA Sunday, March 13 | 2 pm | Atkins Auditorium at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art Rob Kapilow’s biography is located on page 41.

The “What Makes It Great?” series is underwritten, in part, by The Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation The William T. Kemper Foundation The Oppenstein Brothers Foundation DST Systems, Inc. The RLS Illumination Fund 82

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Claire Huangci Born in Rochester, New York, 20-year-old pianist Claire Huangci astonishes all who hear her perform. Coming from a family of scientists, Claire received a grand piano for her 6th birthday. After exploring the instrument herself in the first year, she started taking lessons when she was 7. In the same year, she was featured on FOX News as a child prodigy with “the skills of a professional pianist.” During her studies, Claire was awarded with a number of scholarships and won many competitions, including the Grand Prize at the 1999 World Piano Competition. As a result, she performed in the gala concert with the World Festival Orchestra in Cincinnati, Ohio and in a winner’s concert at Carnegie Hall. Continuing her studies at the Curtis Institute of Music, she went on to win the Philadelphia Orchestra Competition and performed with the Philadelphia Orchestra under the baton of Wolfgang Sawallisch. In April 2006, Claire won the first prize in the 57th Kosciuszko Chopin International Piano Competition in New York City. The 2006 Hamamatsu International Piano Competition introduced Claire to the Japanese audiences; she was awarded the Diploma of Outstanding Merit and was the favorite for many spectators.

Claire has appeared in solo and concerto performances in venues and festivals in Europe, Africa, Asia, and America. Amongst these are the Vienna Konzerthaus, Mozarteum Salzburg, Carnegie Hall, Kimmel Center, Aspen Festival, Chopin Duszniki Festival, Kissinger Klavier Olympiade, and Yokohama Music Festival. She toured China with the Radio-Sinfonieorchester Stuttgart under Sir Roger Norrington, during which she performed Prokofiev’s Piano Concerto No. 3 at the opening of the Shanghai Expo. After winning the International Chopin-Competition in Darmstadt/Germany in October 2009, she was awarded the first prize at the National Chopin Piano Competition of the United States in March 2010. Claire Huangci currently continues her music education in Germany at the Hannover Hochschule für Musik with Arie Vardi and Karl-Heinz Kämmerling. For more information visit

In 2007, she made her first appearances in Europe with solo performances in Munich (Herkulessaal), Frankfurt, Leipzig (Gewandhaus), and Paris (Salle Cortot). In addition, Claire gave her debut with the China Philharmonic. In April, she toured Switzerland and Germany, performing Prokofiev’s Piano Concerto No. 2 with Südwestdeutsche Philharmonie.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


Garrick Ohlsson Saturday, March 19 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater


Polonaise in F-sharp minor, Op. 44 Four Mazurkas, Op. 41 No. 2 in E minor No. 3 in B Major No. 4 in A-flat Major No. 1 in C-sharp minor Allegro de Concert, Op. 46 Nocturne in C minor, Op. 48, No. 1 Ballade No. 1 in G minor, Op. 23


Movements from Goyescas: Los majos enamorados Los Requiebros El Fandango de Candil Quéjas, ó la Maja y el Ruiseñor El Pelele: Scena Goyesca

The Hamburg Steinway for tonight’s concert was made possible by the Richard J. Stern Foundation. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 84

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Financial assistance for this project has been provided, in part, by The Missouri Arts Council, a state agency.

Program Notes Polonaise in F# minor, Op.44 Frédéric-François Chopin (1810-1849) Among the genres that Chopin favored, the polonaise is arguably the most powerful and masculine. First cultivated by the Polish aristocracy and then by the upper classes throughout Europe, the dance became a vessel for Chopin’s patriotism, an overt clarion cry of his nationalist sentiments. Each one was a tone poem for a discussion of his homeland, its beauties, struggles, joys, and its hope for a future as an independent nation. For most listeners, the Polonaise in A-flat, Op.53 (“Heroic”) holds pride of place among Chopin’s examples. This F# minor work, however, has its advocates, and connoisseurs consider it the greatest of his Polonaises. As early as 1900, James Gibbons Huneker wrote, “There is no greater test for the poet-pianist than the F-sharp minor Polonaise.” Its challenges start with length and breadth. At approximately eleven minutes, Op. 44 is one of the largest-scale Polonaises, and the first of Chopin’s so-called Grandes Polonaises. In substance, it matches – even exceeds – the Ballades and the Scherzi. Comparison to the four Scherzi is particularly apt, because the overall structure is so similar. The dramatic flow and rhetoric of this Polonaise, however, are unique. While all Chopin’s Polonaises are ternary in form, this one has elements more in common with the free-form fantasy. The theme is symmetrical and conforms to the traditional polonaise rhythm – once we finally hear it. Chopin does not reveal his hand immediately. His opening is positively reckless, a series of nervous gestures that seem on the verge of explosion. We do not know for certain what key we are in. Everything implies instability, a temper ready to blow. Chopin asserts order with the introduction of the principal theme, with its martial rhythms and classic polonaise contour. Everything communicates power, strength, and passion. Presently, a transition to A major introduces a poetic voice. This is startling on the heels of passages where he seems to be possessed by a demon. Most surprising is the central section, marked Doppio movimento - Tempo di mazurka. Chopin’s switch to another Polish dance is

bold and inclusive. Whereas polonaises were the province of the aristocracy, mazurkas were the dance of the people. In merging the two within this astonishing work, Chopin was embracing both social classes in his country. Throughout the Op. 44 Polonaise, the modulations veer in crazy directions, yet Chopin never loses his way in the complexity of key changes. He develops his material with skill and assurance, presenting themes in single lines, thirds, sixths, and octaves, and punctuating transitions with electrifying trills. Four Mazurkas, Op.41 Nocturne in C minor, Op.48 No.1 Frédéric-François Chopin Nocturnes and mazurkas, two genres associated closely with Chopin, typify the defining sources of his music: song and dance. Most of his nocturnes and mazurkas share a more introspective character than the other, more “public” genres – the waltz, etude, and polonaise. Chopin’s genius allowed him to expand his harmonic and expressive vocabulary regardless of the vessel enclosing his ideas.

Couple dancing a mazurka

The mazurka is a folk dance in triple meter, often with the principal emphasis on the second or third beat, rather than the first. Several types exist. The mazur or mazurek, from the province of Mazovia, is spirited and aggressive, with a second beat accent. Obertas or oberek are also from Mazovia. They are even faster, usually buoyant, and accent the first beats, but not necessarily in every bar. A third type is Kujawiak from the Kujawy region, which is a slower, languorous cousin to the mazurka, generally displacing the accent to the second beat. Chopin adapted all three types, sometimes within one piece.

His mazurkas are both an expression of Polish nationalism and a laboratory for harmonic experimentation. He published eleven sets of Mazurkas in the 1830s and 1840s. Nearly sixty examples survive, more than any other genre in Chopin’s works. He was probably encouraged by the dance’s growing popularity in aristocratic Parisian circles. In these works, Chopin’s imagination and structural variety were limitless. Some draw their inspiration from rustic energy, while others pursue an elegiac path. Nearly all of them employ modal scales, used so much in Polish folk music, which lends them a wistful, exotic character. 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


The four mazurkas of Op. 41 may cause listeners to rethink this miniature form. The E minor seesaws between conventional cadences and ambiguous ones in Phrygian mode. (Phrygian mode has a flatted second pitch above the home key. In this case, that means an F natural instead of F#, as the key signature of E minor specifies.) Each time he uses that startling F natural, Chopin writes in spare octaves, emphasizing the scale’s foreignness. After the chordal opening, it warms up in the central section, expanding to a quasi-symphonic climax, before closing with a return to Phrygian mode. The B major mazurka is a vigorous dance whose opening gesture has a pronounced emphasis on the second beat. Later, after Chopin introduces a triplet figure, he emphasizes the third beat. Here, his aspect is more public, with a dash of humor. The A-flat mazurka is the closest to salon music in this set. It breathes some of the same air as Chopin’s concert waltzes, but the quirky accents, unexpected harmonies, and cadences that stop in midair are a dead giveaway that it is a mazurka. The C# minor mazurka opens with a meandering, unaccompanied right melody that is tonally ambiguous until Chopin starts to harmonize it. This is the largest of the Op.41 set. Rhythmically, Chopin’s ideas are all related, but his melodies are subtle and sophisticated, with no fewer than a half dozen principal phrases making an appearance, sharing the keyboard. They build to a dramatic climax in octaves and thick chords, restating the opening gesture. With energy exhausted but spirit intact, Chopin decompresses with a coda that comes as a complete surprise. Allegro de Concert, Op.46 Frédéric-François Chopin Chopin composed two piano concerti, right? One in F minor, one in E minor, both early, both gorgeous, both standard repertoire. Except there was almost a third.

It turns out that Chopin not only sketched another concerto for piano and orchestra, shortly after his arrival in Paris in 1830, but that it is mentioned in correspondence with his father as late as 1834. By then he was involved in numerous other projects, including a growing teaching studio and a busy social life frequenting the fashionable salons of the French capital. Fast forward to 1841, when Chopin advised his copyist Julian Fontana that he had several new works ready, including a Maestoso or Allegro de Concert in A major. While there is no documentary evidence to prove that it is the same piece as the incomplete Third Concerto, this Allegro de Concert is likely what survives of that earlier work. It was published simultaneously with the Polonaise, Op.44 that opened this evening’s program, the Ballade No.3 in A-flat, Op.47, and the Fantasy in F minor, Op.49. So why have we never heard this work? The Allegro de Concert does not fall into a specific compartment or genre, like the Scherzos, Waltzes, Nocturnes, Polonaises, Ballades, Impromptus, Mazurkas, or even the Sonatas. Nor can it lay claim to the pianistic celebrity of the two late masterpieces, the Berceuse and the Barcarolle, each of which is sui generis. Chopin’s Op.47 keeps company with other under-the-radar pieces such as the Variations, Op.12, the Bolero, Op.19, and the Tarantella, Op.43. These works are uneven, not ascending to the level of inspiration of Chopin at his best. That stated, the work of a genius – even a genius not at the top of his form – warrants attention. Chopin apparently salvaged his sketches from the projected Third Concerto and reworked them into this movement. Not surprisingly, given the eleven year gap, there are stylistic inconsistencies. Furthermore, the extended opening – more than 80 measures of music – bears the unmistakable sound of a piano reduction; it feels and sounds like the orchestral tutti that ushers in a solo concerto. Inevitably that extended opening statement weakens the piece because it does not immediately evince the hallmarks of Chopin’s pianistic style. All that changes when the piano part opens up with its initial mini-cadenza; we can practically hear the soloist’s entrance. The texture becomes more spontaneous and free, and less beholden to concerto/sonata form. Chopin treats his material in the manner of a fantasy, preserving broad gestures and the rhetoric of the concerto argument while indulging his matchless sense of texture. Nocturne in C minor, Op.48, No. 1 Frédéric-François Chopin The term “nocturne” shares the same root as the 18th-century notturno, a cousin of the multi-movement instrumental serenade and divertimento. In the 19th century, nocturnes evolved into romantic character pieces for piano. The Irish composer John Field (1782-1837) composed the earliest known piano Nocturnes. In Chopin’s hands, this variety of miniature flourished more richly.

John Field


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Chopin’s Nocturnes favor a cantabile theme over an elegant, broken chord accompaniment, rarely in regular arpeggios. He develops his melodies through chromaticism and ornamentation, as opposed to a Beethovenian motivic approach. Mini-cadenzas provide a springboard for flights of fancy: coloratura outbursts that captivate the ear and the soul, never exceeding the boundaries of good taste. The most ambitious of his Nocturnes seethe with virtuosic passion in their middle sections. The Nocturne in C minor, Op.48, No.1 falls into this category, but retains dignity and composure even in its most impassioned moments. The nocturne opens with a curiously off-balance melody. Melodic pitches sound on the offbeats, soon subdividing to the irregular groupings so characteristic of Chopin. Each time Chopin repeats the melody, he alters the harmony. The steady rhythm of the left hand anchors the piece. The middle section begins as a sedate chorale in C major. Soon Chopin adds in march elements and a murmur of triplets. As their agitation increases, they explode into octaves that seem to leap off the pages of a Liszt showpiece. The turmoil carries over to the restatement of the initial section, now in a more complex and more thickly-textured variation. Chopin thus infuses the grandeur of the opening with urgency. His wisp of recitative at the end is pure poetry. Ballade No.1 in G minor, Op.23 Frédéric Chopin The ballade is an ancient form in both music and poetry, with origins extending back to the late Middle Ages. In German romantic literature, a ballade was a narrative poem or song. Instrumental works with the title generally had some association with a literary model. Chopin’s four Ballades are thought to be responses to the poetry of his older countryman Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855).

halt on a jarring ninth, ushering in the waltz theme. Recurrences of that theme are a bit like a stanzaic refrain, linking the overall structure to that of a rondo, but the flow of melody remains constant. In a completely un-Wagnerian sense, Chopin presents us with endless melody. Chopin introduces his second theme with a left hand “horn call” in open fifths and fourths. Surprisingly, he moves to E-flat, rather than the expected relative major of B-flat. Further harmonic surprises lie ahead, including a theme in the distant key of A major. The coda, marked Presto con fuoco, switches to brisk duple meter, increasing agitation and tension. The American pianist and scholar Charles Rosen calls the closing theme “an operatic sob” and likens the coda to an opera stretto – the concluding section of a dramatic ensemble. Chopin’s turbulent closing pages are orchestral in concept, stretching the piano to its utmost. Los Requiebros El Fandango de Candil Quéjas, ó la Maja y el Ruiseñor from Goyescas: Los majos enamorados El Pelele, Scena Goyesca Enrique Granados (1867-1916) I have composed a collection of ‘goyescas’ of great sweep and difficulty. They are the reward of my efforts to arrive. They say I have arrived. I fell in love with Goya’s psychology, with his palette. With him and with the Duchess of Alba; with his lady maja, with his models, with his quarrels, his loves and his flirtations. Granados reported this news to the Catalan pianist Joaquín Malats in 1911. The source of his inspiration was the great Spanish painter Francisco Goya (1746-1828). Granados’s Goyainspired pieces, subtitled Los majos enamorados [“The Majos in Love”], were published in two books that appeared in Barcelona in 1912 and 1913. The composer himself played the premiere of

Both Schumann and Liszt admired the G minor Ballade, Op.23. Schumann thought it one of Chopin’s “wildest, most characteristic” compositions; Liszt was particularly taken by its savagery. It was the longest of the Ballades to gestate, occupying Chopin on and off from 1831 to 1835. The opening arpeggio is tonally ambiguous, suggesting A-flat major but soon undermining that sense. It functions as a recitative. Operatic gestures recur throughout this Ballade, though the music of the introduction does not return. A sighing bridge figure comes to a

“La Maja Vestida” (The Clothes Maja) by Francisco Goya

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Book I in Barcelona on 9 March 1911. A French premiere soon followed at the Salle Pleyel in Paris. Goyescas was so well received there that the Paris Opera suggested that Granados adapted them into an opera. Because of the outbreak of war, the première did not take place in New York until January 1916. Los Requiebros [“Flatteries” or “Gallant Compliments”] opens the piano cycle. Granados based its motives on an Andalusian tonadilla – a popular Spanish stage work – by Blas de Laserna. By turns graceful, capricious, gallant, and indulgent, Los Requiebros encapsulates Spanish variation technique. Its pianistic technique is influenced by Chopin; indeed, the character and style of Los Requiebros recall that of Chopin’s magnificent Barcarolle. Granados dedicated the movement to the German pianist Emil von Sauer. Fandango is one of the most characteristic Spanish dances. It originated in the 18th century; both Scarlatti and Soler wrote examples for keyboard. Most fandangos are in moderately fast triple meter. The basic harmonic pattern is a steady alternation of tonic and dominant (the first and fifth degrees of the scale), in predominantly minor mode. Above this foundation, the melody wanders in an improvisatory manner. Granados’s El Fandango de Candil [“Fandango by Lamplight”] is a little on the slow side, with forward momentum provided by insistent triplets that provide rhythmic drive. We hear guitar, castanets, and voice – a slow moving melodic line that surfaces periodically in the keyboard’s middle register. Granados demands double-note technique from the pianist, as well as some virtuosic flourishes. His music is seductive, sultry.

“Saturn Devouring One of His Children” by Franciso Goya


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Granados’s writing in Goyescas is generally so chromatic that he notates the accidentals – the sharps and flats – for each note within each measure. Quéjas ó la Maja y el Ruiseñor [“Complaints, or the Maja and the Nightingale”] is the only movement in the cycle that employs a conventional key signature (it is nominally in F# minor, with a central section in F# major). Most of this exquisite movement consists of the maiden unburdening her confidences to the bird. She embraces us in the inner folds of her soul; we have the sense that intimate details of her passions and romantic rendezvous are being revealed. She confesses that she would not change anything in her life. The nightingale, a silent listener until the end, weighs in with a brilliant cadenza of trills, broken chords, and bird song. The two of them are kindred spirits in their shared secrets. El Pelele [“The Straw Man” or “The Dummy”] was written slightly later than the balance of Goyescas. Composed in 1914, it bears the subtitle Scena goyesca and has traditionally been programmed either as a prologue or an epilogue to the full set, or to excerpted movements such as Mr. Ohlsson plays this evening. Granados adapted the music for El Pelele from music in the opening scene of his opera Goyescas. Its music depicts the majas tossing the straw-stuffed figure into the air. In its mystery, indolence, and the rich tapestry of its moods, El Pelele is a fitting complement to Goyescas’ other movements. - Program Notes by Laurie Shulman © 2010

“The Third of May, 1808” by Francisco Goya

Garrick Ohlsson Since his triumph as winner of the 1970 Chopin International Piano Competition, pianist Garrick Ohlsson has established himself worldwide as a musician of magisterial interpretive and technical prowess. Although he has long been regarded as one of the world’s leading exponents of the music of Frédéric Chopin, Mr. Ohlsson commands an enormous repertoire, which ranges over the entire piano literature. A student of the late Claudio Arrau, Mr. Ohlsson is also noted for his masterly performances of the works of Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert, as well as the Romantic repertoire. His concerto repertoire alone is unusually wide and eclectic – ranging from Haydn and Mozart to works of the 21st century. To date he has at his command some 80 concertos. In recognition of the 2010 bicentenary of Chopin’s birthday Mr. Ohlsson presented a series of all-Chopin recital programs throughout the United States and Europe and most especially in Poland. He was also heard in a special gala concert presented in Chopin’s childhood home in Warsaw on March 1, 2010. Mr. Ohlsson is an avid chamber musician who has collaborated with the Cleveland, Emerson, Takács and Tokyo string quartets, among other ensembles. Together with violinist Jorja Fleezanis and cellist Michael Grebanier, he is a founding member of the San Francisco-based FOG Trio.

teachers, most notably Claudio Arrau, Olga Barabini, Tom Lishman, Sascha Gorodnitzki, Rosina Lhévinne and Irma Wolpe. Although he won First Prizes at the 1966 Busoni Competition in Italy and 1968 Montréal Piano Competition, it was his 1970 triumph at the Chopin Competition in Warsaw, where he won the Gold Medal that brought him worldwide recognition as one of the finest pianists of his generation. Since then he has made nearly a dozen tours of Poland, where he has immense personal popularity. Mr. Ohlsson was awarded the Avery Fisher Prize in 1994 and received the 1998 University Musical Society Distinguished Artist Award in Ann Arbor, Mich. During the summer of 2006, Mr. Ohlsson presented the complete cycle of Beethoven piano sonatas at both the Ravinia and Tanglewood festivals, a cycle he performed for the first time in the summer of 2005 at Switzerland’s prestigious Verbier Festival. His undertaking of the complete Beethoven sonatas for Bridge Records has already resulted in eight discs, the third of which won a Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist Performance. In the fall of 2008 the English label Hyperion re-released his 16-disc set of the complete works of Chopin. For more information visit Garrick Ohlsson appears by arrangement of Opus 3 Artists.

A native of White Plains, N.Y., Mr. Ohlsson began his piano studies at the age of 8. He attended the Westchester Conservatory of Music and at 13 entered The Juilliard School in New York City. His musical development has been influenced in completely different ways by a succession of distinguished 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


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trio mediĂŚval Saturday, March 26 | 8 pm | Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception Anna Maria Friman Linn Andrea Fuglseth Torunn Ă˜strem Ossum

Fragments: A Worcester Ladymass Salve sancta parens Kyrie Gloria Munda Maria Quem Trina Polluit Benedicta / Virgo dei genitrix Credo (Bryars, 2008) Felix namque Grata iuvencula Salve, rosa florum De Supernis sedibus Dulciflua tua memoria Sanctus Agnus Dei Beata viscera Alma dei genitrix Benedicamus domino (Bryars, 2008) Ave Regina gloriosa (Bryars, 2003)

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. The Early Music Series is underwritten, in part, by donors to The Friends of Chamber Music Endowment Funds. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 90

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Fragments: A Worcester Ladymass When the Normans arrived in Britain, some time before 1066, they did not find much uniformity in the organization of any of the cathedrals. Some were served by monks who lived under the rule of St Benedict, some by monks who lived under different rules. Used to organizing cathedral life through a chapter – where church servants were priests, not monks, and lived in the world, not as cloistered beings – the Normans set about reorganizing government at most of the institutions of the newly-conquered land. Nine escaped… and one of these was the ancient foundation of Worcester. Here, life for the 50-odd monks continued under Benedictine rule – much as it always had, one imagines. Up at dawn for Matins, the first part of the daily Office, where the entire Book of Psalms was sung each week; manual tasks, done with prayerful attention; contemplation of God, all day, through song, study, prayer and work.

Program Notes

simplest settings of the early 13th century to those current a century later. We can reconstruct the remains of three large anthologies of polyphony, and there is also a host of other freestanding fragments.

We have called this concert a “Ladymass” – a votive Mass to the Virgin Mary. Such masses were frequent; but actually, much of the music you will hear is associated with one particular feast of the church year: that of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, celebrated on August 15th. England as a whole was so devoted to the Virgin that she was called the “Garden of Mary” in the middle ages. At Worcester, things were particularly intense since the cathedral was dedicated to “Our Lady.” Thus, there is a disproportionate amount of music associated with Marian feasts, and of these, the Assumption was the most lavish. It is sheer luck that in addition to the polyphony a 13th-century Gradual from Worcester also survives – the book that contains the plainchants for the masses of the entire church year. This is what has enabled the reconstruction of a Mass for the Assumption with some accuracy. However, you will also hear some items that had no association with any particular feasts. These are sung here in place of the readings that would have featured in a real mass of the time.

Music, of course, featured regularly throughout the day, as it did in all religious communities of both men and women in the middle ages. At Worcester, as elsewhere, the liturgy was articulated through sacred Latin monody – a single line of music that was sometimes melismatic and Medieval masses were a mixture of designed to be sung by more items that varied according to the virtuosic musicians, and at particular day – “Proper” items – and other times syllabic and sung those that didn’t – the “Ordinary” St. Peter’s Church by all present. But the evidence (Norman Medieval church in Wiltshire, England) of the Mass (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, of the surviving manuscripts Sanctus, and Agnus Dei). Composers shows that more complex polyphonic music was also important in England liked to set both types in polyphony. Here, you to these secluded individuals, giving life to the otherwise “plain” will hear examples from the entire chronological range of the song of the liturgy, which varied little from year to year at the Worcester Fragments, plus some pieces from other locations cathedral. We can’t say whether music was more important that are in the very similar, peculiarly English style that than at other comparable institutions, because such a minute marked its “insular” repertoires from those of the Continent: amount of English music survives altogether. Ironically, only a preponderance of major thirds, sections of “rounds” inside the books that had been set aside to be dismembered and used the pieces, parallel triads. Writers spoke of this English style as scrap parchment now come down to us: the polyphonic in terms of “sweetness”: the cleric and author Gerald of Wales books that were still in daily use would have been too Catholic (1146-1223) noted English singers “coming together with to survive Henry VIII’s systematic destruction in the 1530s. the enchanting sweetness of B flat,’’ and in the later middle Luckily, at Worcester, an unusual number of single leaves and ages, Johannes Tinctoris said that English songs exhaled “such binding fragments have survived, re-used in other codices to sweetness that they are to be considered most suitable even for provide flyleaves or spine stiffenings. This way, we have been the immortal gods.” The style was particularly associated with left more than 100 songs, in many different musical styles: the “westcuntre” (west country) by a 13th-century monk of Bury polyphony to adorn the movements of the Mass; the freelySt Edmunds – the provenance of the Worcester Fragments. composed, intricately-interweaving voices of motets; the stricter, declamatory tones of the conductus. All in all, it testifies to Would three women have sung this type of music in the a thriving musical community. The songs range from the thirteenth century? Yes, though perhaps not the pieces performed 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


here. Many musical manuscripts survive from nunneries to testify to the fact that women disobeyed St Paul’s injunction for women to keep silent in Church. Mostly, women seem to have sung plainchant alone – girls didn’t generally have access to the same level of musical training as boys – but there are also a few documents which show that in some places, women sang complex polyphony (in Las Huelgas in Spain, for example). In any case, we may think we know something about how music was sung in the middle ages, but we will never know what it sounded like: all modern performances create a modern sound world, after all. Program notes by Nicky Losseff A Performer’s Note The presentation of Medieval music today differs dramatically from its original context. We re-contextualize the music since none of it was composed to be a part of a concert program or presented to the kind of audience for which trio mediaeval performs. One of the crucial matters for contemporary female singers wishing to perform Medieval music is that we cannot be fully authentic historically, partly because of past marginalization of women by the church. The music presented in this particular program would most likely have been sung by male voices in the Middle Ages. We know, however, that nuns used the same liturgies as their male counterparts, and that they sang monophonic pieces in their convents. We might never know to what extent women sang polyphonic music, or how much polyphonic music was available to women, but we do know that there are manuscripts from sixteen convents in Europe which contain two- and three-part pieces, which suggests that women probably sang polyphony since it was available to them. Today we assume that the Mediaeval women and men who sang and listened to sacred vocal music in its original context were connected to religious establishments and convinced of their Christian religious lifestyle. Unlike our forebears, modern Medieval music performers and their audiences are not necessarily Christian or religious. Today anyone can enjoy this beautiful music as a part of our collective human heritage. It is difficult to know what this music would have sounded like in the Middle Ages. There are no recordings or precise descriptions regarding sound or singing techniques left to us, and of the small amount of written instructions for singers that do exist, most complain about the singing rather than offer constructive advice. There is, of course, a vast amount of Medieval iconography, but deriving a sound from a picture can be even harder than from a text. Because there is a lot of guesswork about Medieval music practices, we feel that performing this music today gives us the freedom to let our imagination and ideas flow, as though we were creating contemporary music. As a result, the trio performs contemporary music alongside Medieval music. When we 92

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learned that there was no Credo to be found in the Worcester manuscripts, we saw the possibility of including a contemporary one and asked Gavin Bryars (b. 1943) to compose the Credo. Bryars also wrote the Benedicamus Domino specifically for this program. The Ave Regina Gloriosa, also called Lauda 7, was composed for the trio in 2003. Bryars has used 13th-century Italian Lauda texts (to date there are 37 of them), extrapolating from anonymous monophonic originals, sometimes adding lines and textures, but always retaining the ancient outlines of the Lauda. We live in a world that has gradually become more or less dependent on constant information. For this particular program, in this venue, we have chosen to provide our audience with a minimum of textual information, and instead to present a sonic (and visual) experience where the music is free to speak for itself. There are several reasons for this decision. First, the literal translation might do little justice to the original text. The Medieval listeners’ appreciation of the Latin texts was very different from that of the present audience. We inevitably incorporate and invite modern reflections into the Medieval texts. Also, we fear there is a danger that the texts and translations channel the listening and restrict the listeners’ own creativity. Recent musicology suggests that much Medieval sacred music was probably sung from memory in the Middle Ages. The trio has always presented programs, or parts of programs, from memory. We feel that it increases the communication between the three of us, as well as between us and our audience. Now we realize that this practice of performing from memory has historical authenticity as well. This evening, every listener will appreciate the music and its context differently, bringing their own individual expectations to the occasion. Performer’s notes by Anna Maria Friman

trio mediæval

The mesmerizing voices of Oslo’s trio mediaeval have captivated the concert world with their breathtaking performances and recordings of a diverse polyphonic repertoire that features Medieval music from England and France, contemporary works written for the ensemble, and traditional Norwegian ballads and songs. Founded in 1997, the Grammy-nominated trio mediaeval developed its unique repertory during intense periods of work at the Hilliard Summer Festivals in England and Germany between 1998 and 2000, and subsequently with Linda Hirst and John Potter. “Singing doesn’t get more unnervingly beautiful,” wrote Joshua Kosman of the San Francisco Chronicle, who declared their San Francisco debut “among the musical highlights of the year.” He added, “To hear the group’s note-perfect counterpoint – as pristine and inviting as clean, white linens – is to be astonished at what the human voice is capable of.” trio mediaeval made its U.S. debut in 2003, performing two sold-out concerts at New Haven’s International Festival of Arts and Ideas. Since that first appearance, the trio has embarked on multiple North American tours performing in cities across the continent. Highlights include concerts in New York’s Carnegie (Weill) Hall, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the National Cathedral in Washington D.C., the Kennedy Center, engagements at San Francisco Performances and Spivey Hall, and broadcasts on American Public Media’s Saint Paul Sunday and Performance Today. trio mediaeval performs throughout Europe, giving concerts and radio broadcasts in Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands and the U.K. in such venues as the Oslo Concert House, the Vienna Konzerthaus, Wigmore Hall and numerous festivals.

The trio delights in performing new music and collaborates with a multitude of contemporary composers, including Gavin Bryars, Piers Hellawell, Roger Marsh, Ivan Moody, Paul Robinson, Thoma Simaku, Oleh Harkavyy, Bjørn Kruse and Andrew Smith. In 2005, the trio premiered Shelter in Cologne, Germany. This joint production of Bang on a Can composers Michael Gordon, Julia Wolf and David Lang, German new music ensemble musikFabrik, and Ridge Theater, received its U.S. premiere at the Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM). Their four albums on ECM Records feature pristine performances of a diverse repertoire, and have met with near unanimous praise. Their first release, Words of the Angel, immediately charted on Billboard’s Top 10 Bestsellers list and was the April 2002 Stereophile “Recording of the Month.” Soir, dit-elle (2004), features Leonel Power’s Missa Alma Redemptoris Mater alongside works by Gavin Bryars, Andrew Smith and Ivan Moody, and met with similar critical and commercial success. The trio’s third recording, Stella Maris (2005), features 12th and 13th-century music from England and France as well as the world premiere recording of Missa Lumen de Lumine by Korean composer Sungji Hong. trio mediaeval found themselves back on the Billboard charts and with a 2008 Grammy nomination for “Best Chamber Music Performance” with their most recent release, Folk Songs – an intimate collection of Norwegian folk songs featuring traditional percussion. For more information visit trio mediæval appears by arrangement of Alliance Artist Management.

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George Frideric Handel’s

Acis and Galatea Friday, April 1 | 8 pm | The Folly Theater

Words by John Gay, Alexander Pope and John Hughes CAST Galatea, a Nereid, nymph of the sea Acis, a shepherd Damon, a shepherd Coridon, a shepherd Polyphemus, a Cyclops

Teresa Wakim Aaron Sheehan Jason McStoots Zachary Wilder Douglas Williams

Chorus of nymphs and shepherds: Teresa Wakim, Jason McStoots, Aaron Sheehan, Zachary Wilder, Douglas Williams BEMF Chamber Ensemble: Robert Mealy & Cynthia Roberts, violin Phoebe Carrai, ’cello Robert Nairn, bass Gonzalo Ruiz & Kathryn Montoya, oboe and recorder Dominic Teresi, bassoon Avi Stein, harpsichord Paul O’Dette & Stephen Stubbs, archlute, English theorbo and Baroque guitar Paul O’Dette & Stephen Stubbs, Musical Directors Gilbert Blin, Stage Director Anna Watkins, Costume Designer Robert Mealy, Orchestra Leader Kathleen Fay, Executive Producer Darren Brannon, Associate Producer Melinda Sullivan, Assistant to the Stage Director

This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund 94

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Acis and Galatea - Synopsis

In an idyllic pastoral setting, shepherds and nymphs celebrate their carefree life and the joys of nature. A nymph of the sea, Galatea, longs to be reunited with her beloved, the shepherd Acis. The Nereid attempts to persuade the birds to cease their cheerful song, as they awaken her desire for him. As soon as she departs, Acis appears, seeking his fair Galatea. The shepherd Damon tries to persuade him to abandon his search and join his fellows in their easy recreation, but Acis now sees Galatea and praises her beauty. The two are reunited and declare their happy love for each other. Shepherds and nymphs warn the lovers of the arrival of Polyphemus, the Cyclops. The giant comes stalking though the forest, intent on having Galatea for himself. Horrified, Galatea rejects the deformed creature. The youth Coridon advises Polyphemus to be gentler in his wooing if he wishes to succeed in winning her. Acis wants to leap to Galatea’s defense though he is but a mortal. Damon once more tells him that love is fleeting, but Galatea proclaims her constancy to Acis, and the two affirm their love and fidelity to each other. The jealous Polyphemus, overhearing these declarations, hurls a rock at Acis, and kills him. Galatea mourns his death, and is joined in lamentation by the shepherds. They remind the sea nymph that with her divine powers she can make Acis immortal, so Galatea transforms him into a murmuring fountain.

Program Notes

Acis & Galatea George Frideric Handel’s career was unusual for a Baroque composer. Unlike the vast majority of his musical contemporaries, he did not work throughout his career under the patronage system of the church or court, but ultimately made his living as an impresario, setting up his own theatrical companies and living off the box-office success of his compositions. Despite his obvious independent spirit, however, his career path developed slowly; it is not clearly evident in the history of his early years. Handel took his first job in 1702 (at the age of seventeen) as organist at the Calvinist Cathedral in Halle. After only one year he left for Hamburg, where he wrote his first operas. In 1706 Handel traveled to Italy. In Rome, he worked primarily for the Marquis (later Prince) Ruspoli, but he also fulfilled specific commissions for Cardinals Pamphilj, Colonna, and Ottoboni. He also traveled to Naples for a period of weeks, and probably spent extended periods in Florence and Venice as well. Handel left Italy early in 1710 and took on the position of Kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover in June. In autumn of the same year, however, he traveled to London, where he composed for Queen Anne and produced the opera Rinaldo on the London stage. He returned to Hanover in 1711, but at the end of 1712 went back to London for good.

later dedication reading in part, “This Opera more immediately claims Your Protection, as it is compos’d in Your own Family.”

Sometime after 1715, Handel began to compose for the Earl of Carnarvon, known today by his later title, the Duke of Chandos. It was for this patron, at his country estate in Cannons, that Handel in 1717 and 1718 composed the Chandos anthems and Te Deum, the English masque Acis and Galatea, and the first version of the oratorio Esther. In 1720 the Royal Academy of Music for the performance of Italian opera in London opened under the musical directorship of Handel with the Earl of Burlington and the Duke of Chandos as two of the original subscribers. Handel would never work directly under the patronage system again. At both Burlington House and Cannons, Handel was surrounded by the same group of literary figures, including Alexander Pope, John Gay, and John Hughes. After his first London visit, Handel had requested that Hughes send him an English poem. The resultant cantata, Venus and Adonis, is still thought to be Handel’s first setting of an English text. The text of Acis and Galatea (1718) derives from this literary group as well; it is principally by Gay but includes work of Pope and Hughes. Gay and Pope were founding members of a literary group calling itself the Scriblerus Club, which played a critical role in the raging debates of the 1710s concerning the proper criteria for pastoral poetry on the one hand, and the growing popularity of Italian opera on the other. Both controversies had an impact on the composition of Acis and Galatea. The Scriblerians argued against the realistic and rustic pastoral in favor of the classical and Arcadian poetry

Galatea by Gustave Moreau, French, 1826-1898

In Handel’s first few years in London he enjoyed the patronage of the Earl of Burlington. His opera Silla (1713) was written for private performance at Burlington House, and both Teseo (1713) and Amadigi (1715) are dedicated to Burlington, the

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containing “a certain majesty in simplicity which is far above the quaintness of wit” (Pope). Gay parodied the rustic pastorals in The Shepherd’s Week (1714), writing in his introduction that “Thou wilt not find my Shepherdesses idly piping on oaten Reeds, but milking the Kine, tying up the Sheaves, or if the Hogs are astray driving them to their Styles.” But the Scriblerians could not win the argument by ridicule alone; Acis and Galatea was a joint effort to write a true, classical pastoral. The story, taken directly from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, is simple. Galatea, a water nymph, and Acis, a shepherd, are in love with one another. Polyphemus, a giant Cyclops, also loves Galatea, but she rejects his suit. In a jealous rage, he kills Acis. Galatea, encouraged by her friends, transforms Acis’s broken body into a “bubbling fountain.” Not only does its classical origin place this story clearly in the camp of the classical pastoralists, but the use of a text from Pope’s Pastorals of 1709 for the trio “The flocks shall leave the mountains” makes the authors’ battle position clear: it was specifically Pope’s Pastorals that had started the literary debate. In fact, Acis and Galatea can be understood allegorically to represent the pastoral “wars,” with Polyphemus symbolizing, to the Scriblerians, the hated rustic style, and Acis, the true Arcadian pastoral. With Polyphemus’s killing of Acis, Galatea (representing perhaps the Scriblerians themselves) is left to mourn, using her “power divine” to turn his body into a bubbling stream that will continue “murm’ring still his gentle love.” While the pastoral debate continued to rage, Italian opera was sweeping London. In opposition, many English writers and composers attempted to produce dramatic works in English. The most successful of these were the short dramatic entertainments called masques that were usually based on classical mythology, such as Colley Cibber’s Venus and Adonis and Myrtillo (both 1715), Barton Booth’s The Death of Dido (1716), John Hughes’ Apollo and Daphne (1716), and Lewis Theobald’s Decius and Paulina (1718). The Preface to Myrtillo makes its role in the controversy clear: “The following entertainment is an attempt to give the town a little good music in a language they understand…It is…hoped, that this undertaking…may in time reconcile music to the English tongue.” Of the masques mentioned above, one was set to music by John Galliard (Decius and Paulina); the others are all by John Pepusch, composer-in-residence at Cannons. Perhaps the Scriblerians recognized the superiority of Handel’s genius and hoped with his talent to win both the pastoral and opera wars. If so, the plan contained many ironies. Not only were all three of the composers engaged in this battle against foreign musical domination themselves transplanted Germans, but Handel, of course, had also become the leading operatic composer of London, was planning for the opening for the Royal Academy of Music, and could hardly have wished for the abandonment of Italian opera. However, Acis and Galatea ultimately was the work that propelled his career toward the composition of English dramatic oratorios, even though that did not occur until 1732, 96

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and then only in response to a pirated, public performance by another company. The musical forces in Acis perfectly suited the musical forces available in Cannons. Indeed the masque can be performed with as few as five singers—one soprano, three tenors (meaning countertenors and tenors), and one bass—and seven instrumentalists—two violins, two oboes (these players also covering the recorder parts, as was Handel’s typical practice), two cellos, and continuo. These instrumental and vocal numbers match those found in the eighth, ninth, and tenth Chandos Anthems, where soloists also sang the appropriate line in the choruses. If this was also the case in Acis, then the work was certainly not staged. Indeed in advertisements for the pirated performance of 1732, the performance is heralded as “being the first Time it was ever performed in a Theatrical Way.” Handel, however, set the story using the common forms of baroque opera, such as the da capo aria (which contains two distinct sections with the first repeated after the second), and molded these forms to his dramatic purpose. Through his setting, the music and text become a unified whole. Originally conceived in a single act, the masque can be divided into three sections. The first begins with a chorus in B-flat major, continues with five da capo arias and concludes with a duet in C major. The second section parallels the first. It begins with a chorus in B-flat major and continues with five da capo arias; it concludes with a trio in C minor. In the last section, Acis dies and the Arcadian atmosphere is shattered. Reflecting this disruption of normalcy, there are no da capo arias in the last section. The masque concludes, after the transformation of Acis, in the home key of B-flat major. Handel often borrowed music from his earlier compositions or from other composers, and the score of Acis provides examples of this. A few borrowings have been documented from Handel’s own works, and a handful of vague resemblances to the music of other composers has been suggested. The chorus “Mourn all ye Muses,” for example, seems to demonstrate Purcellian influence. As Winton Dean writes, “The broken unaccompanied cadences, false relations, and expressive play with words” are strongly reminiscent of the final chorus of Dido and Aeneas. Both choruses immediately follow the death of an important character. More remarkable is the borrowing documented by Handel scholar John Roberts in Polyphemus’s “Ruddier than the cherry” from Hamburg composer Reinhard Keiser. The tune is based virtually unchanged on a fragment of a bass line in an aria from Keiser’s Janus (1699). Handel’s stroke of genius, as Roberts argues, is the decision to present the Cyclops in an aria where an ungainly bass line becomes its principle melody; its wide leaps and incessantly repeated one-measure phrases make Polyphemus seem bumbling and inadequate. And Handel compounds the joke by writing a new accompaniment for flageolet recorder, the highest and smallest instrument of the orchestra. Nothing could better highlight the cyclops’s awkwardness and size than this extreme contrast in range and sound.

In “The flocks shall leave the mountains,” Polyphemus’s destruction of the Arcadian atmosphere is indicated by his disruption of the da capo form, which never returns. It is impossible to know to what extent Handel took liberties with the text as it was presented to him, but it is clear that the text of the trio sung by Acis and Galatea could easily be set as a da capo duet. Polyphemus’s lines could then follow in an accompanied recitative. In contrast, however, Handel carefully sets up a duet texture, and then explodes it with the unanticipated entrance of Polyphemus in measure 17. Furthermore, he implies the use of the da capo form structurally (although not tonally), and it seems to the listener as if it is only the hurling of the boulder, so graphically depicted in the rushing strings at the end of the movement, that prevents the return of the first section of text. Handel enjoys toying with the listener’s expectations. In “Heart, the seat of soft delight,” Galatea transforms Acis into a fountain. In the first section she sings of her intentions. The actual transformation occurs in the second section with an abrupt change of style to the accompanied recitative. In the final section, there is no textual return, which would be dramatically impossible as the transformation has now taken place, but the musical motives symbolic of the flowing fountain return. With his play on the da capo form here, Handel gives musical expression to the idea that although Acis (the text) will not return, the fountain (the musical motive) will continue to tell of his love.

of the earlier attempts to create a satisfactory English substitute for Italian opera, “Whether it was owing to the Inability of the Composers, the Defects of the Performers, or the too prevailing Influence of the Italian Opera, those English Pieces had not the wish’d for Success, if we except Acis and Galatea, which in every Respect charms, to this Day, Persons of all Ranks and Capacities.” — Ellen T. Harris, Class of 1949 Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Printed by permission of the Waverly Consort Acis, as Genius of Cannons “Consult the genius of the place in all; That tells the waters or to rise, or fall; Or helps th’ ambitious hill the heav’ns to scale, Or scoops in circling theatres the vale; Calls in the country, catches opening glades, Joins willing woods, and varies shades from shades, Now breaks, or now directs, th’ intending lines; Paints as you plant, and, as you work, designs.” - Alexander Pope, Epistle IV

In the summer of 1717, after the highly successful performance of his Water Music for the King of England, Handel left busy London and went to take up residence at rural Cannons, a few miles from the English capital. The composer, temporarily unable to have his operas produced, was answering the invitation of one of his patrons: James Brydges, the Earl of Carnarvon, who would in 1719 be elevated to the title by which he is best known: the Duke of Chandos. As Paymaster-General of the English armies during the War of Spanish Succession, Brydges was able to amass a colossal fortune starting in 1705. His second Statue of Polyphemus suprising Acis & Galatea, Acis and Galatea was one of Handel’s Luxembourg Gardens, Paris marriage, in 1713, to a rich cousin, most popular works in his lifetime. had added to his wealth. Cassandra It was performed in many guises, the most heavily altered Willoughby was also a good match for Brydges, who was an avid version produced by Handel in 1732 as a counter to the pirated art collector. Highly cultivated and artistic, Cassandra had a keen performance in a competing theater. By 1739 Handel had interest in history of painting, having catalogued her father’s reverted to a version much closer to the Cannons work, but he collection, and was an amateur painter herself. divided the masque into two acts and added a choral version of the duet “Happy we,” to give a firmer ending to the first act. The couple set out to enjoy a grand life befitting their high noble rank, and Cannons was to be both the background and Acis and Galatea stands at a critical juncture in Handel’s career. symbol of this success. Chandos had started to erect a sumptuous It represents the culmination of his years under the patronage residence at Cannons in 1714. The house itself was of Italian system, and its composition therefore directly reflects the style, a rather new trend in English architecture that was musical forces available to him at the musical establishment influenced notably by the villas built by Palladio around Venice. in Cannons. At the same time, it is his first dramatic work in England was then as fascinated by Italy as the rest of Europe English, a language he studied and learned with the help of the was, and by the end of the seventeenth century a journey to Scriblerians, and it contains the musical and textual seeds of the Italy was a must for the education of every young man of good English oratorios that after 1742 completely supplanted Handel’s family. If busy Chandos didn’t himself go to Italy, he wished composition of opera. As one English librettist wrote in 1740 nevertheless to have Italy around him: the house designed for 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11


him by numerous architects, most notably James Gibbs, had all the classical features of symmetry and proportion. The inside of the house was still under construction in 1718, as the plans for the interior were as grand as for the exterior. Italian artists were brought in to make it the finest house in England, and Chandos spared no expense to have everything be as rich as possible. The rooms, decorated lavishly, were intended to welcome the art treasures he had begun collecting before Cannons was built. Ironically, one of the difficulties he faced was that the War of the Spanish Succession, which was a key factor in his great wealth, also made it more difficult to import art directly from Italy. Even so, his collection of Italian paintings included some of the great masters like Titian and Giorgione. The French school was less well represented, though several paintings by Poussin, an artist who was renowned for his Italian affinity, had been obtained. Italian and French painters not only decorated the private apartments of the family, they lavished their talents on a series of rooms that were designed to embody a princely life. At a time when public appearances and social gatherings were expressions of power, these spaces were also a kind of set, where the Earl and Countess of Carnarvon could play their roles with magnificence. Numerous rooms were fit to accommodate their passions for the arts, including a picture room, a tapestry room, a huge library, and a special room for music that was situated next to the dining room to allow the noble couple to dine in style. An orchestra and a vocal ensemble were part of the permanent household at Cannons.

But even more than the house and its musical staff, it was the gardens of Cannons that were renowned for their magnificence, their design, and their variety. This admiration was widespread, and the scale of the work put Cannons at the front line of the avant-garde. Thanks to his large grounds, Chandos was able to create a harmonious compendium of different styles. English gardens knew the beginning of a renewal in these years, where the models of Dutch and French gardens were copied but also adapted to allow less formality. In Cannons, like in Het Loo in the Netherlands, there was a pleasure garden and an orchard, but also a grand terrace opening on a parterre with sculptures, on the geometric model of Versailles, which then opened onto a huge park. The gardens were ornamented with a great basin, a canal, and numerous fountains, all in the Italian manner. As in Versailles, these water features were installed in a spot where neither river nor spring was available; water had to be brought from the closest mountains. To direct such king-like undertakings, Chandos had a water engineer in his household, his chaplain, the Rev. John Theophilus Desaguliers, who created a system of pipes and bores to feed the water features. Desaguliers was truly an expert and, in 1718, dedicated his translation from French of The Motion of Water to Chandos. This mastery—and its patronage— over the natural elements can be seen to correspond to the transformation of Acis into a fountain by Galatea. The gardens and waters of Cannons were in the background of the creation of Acis and Galatea, a work specially designed for and conceived to please the lord of the manor. We have very little direct information regarding the private performance of Acis and Galatea at Cannons in the summer of 1718. While the selection of this story surely suited Handel, who had already composed an Italian cantata on the same theme, it was also largely appealing to the poets who were by then the literary masters of the intellectual circle at Cannons: Alexander Pope, John Gay, and John Hughes. These poets were deeply connected with pastoral theory, and their skills in pastoral poetry were at a peak during this period, but the choice of the story of Acis and Galatea was certainly influenced by their deep knowledge of the classics, and a strong desire to please their noble patron with a fitting subject. The characters can first be found in Theocritus’s Idyll XI, entitled The Cyclops, in which the Greek poet tells of the love song Polyphemus addressed to the sea-nymph Galatea, who prefers the shepherd Acis. As Acis changes form at the end of the tale, this story is recounted by Ovid, the Latin poet of the first century, in his celebrated compilation called the Metamorphoses. Acis having been crushed under a boulder launched by the jealous Polyphemus, Galatea metamorphosed the young man into a river, Acis’s blood being changed into crystal water. The new tale of Acis and Galatea, being a product of the collaborative process between writers and composer, contained both poetical and musical evocations of water.

Galatea by Raphael


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Comparing Acis and Galatea with earlier English works generally leads to the conclusion that the work was originally devised as a one-act masque. But the similarity of shape with this type of entertainment should not influence our understanding of its form, and in fact Acis and Galatea was not meant to be staged like other English dramatic works were in 1718. For a start, the Cannons version included only five solo singers, who sang the principal roles and also served as the “chorus” in a Greek style, commenting on the story but not taking any active part in it. Another piece of evidence about the original staging of the 1718 score was given years later: when a theater production of the work was presented in London in 1731, the work was advertised as “being the first Time it ever was performed in a Theatrical Way.” The first Acis and Galatea was meant to be performed before an audience, not staged like an opera. We can only speculate what exact form this performance took. There is some evidence that Acis and Galatea was more a succession of pastoral pictures leading to an apotheosis than a real drama to be performed in a theatrical way. A 1732 performance of the work, this time supervised by the composer, announces clearly, “There will be no Action on the Stage.” Handel chose to present Acis and Galatea as a serenata in costumes in front of a theatre set showing, “in a Picturesque Manner, a rural Prospect, with Rocks, Groves, Fountains and Grottos”. The pastoral set of this performance looks like the view of a real garden, and one is irresistibly reminded of Cannons. The allegorical content of the libretto and its variations around the water theme may indeed offer a key, if framed by this Arcadian set “and every other Decoration suited to the Subject.” The allegory of the power of water must have found in Cannons a setting full of reflections for the eyes of Chandos and the audience at the first performance.

Actors performing in Acis & Galatea

The gardens and water features created by Chandos made a suitable set for his pastoral, even if stylized. The metamorphosis of Acis could have then taken place in front of the grand canal, maybe involving, by the opening of a large tap at the crucial moment, a display of waterworks… By this simple gesture, the allegory of the power of Galatea/Chandos on the Waters of Cannons would have been crystalline. Acis would have then become “the genius of the place,” in the words of a motto that Pope was soon to define as a rule for inspiration in English garden design, and which already finds an echo in the admiration of John Macky in 1722: “The disposition of the Avenues, gardens, Statues, Painting, and the House of Cannons, suits the Genius and Grandeur of its great Master.” In the gardens of Cannons, Handel, Pope, Gay, and Hughes had created a suitable Arcadian pastoral, and Chandos had found, in the river-god Acis, a perfect “genius of the place.” — Gilbert Blin Boston Early Music Festival Stage Director in Residence

Actors performing in Acis & Galatea

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Paul O’Dette, Artistic Co-Director of the Boston Early Music Festival, plays the theorbo, lute and Baroque guitar. He has been called “the clearest case of genius ever to touch his instrument” (Toronto Globe and Mail). He has given solo concerts at major international festivals across the world while maintaining an active international career as an ensemble musician. Best known for his recitals and recordings of virtuoso solo lute music, Mr. O’Dette has made more than 130 recordings, many of which have been nominated for Gramophone’s “Record of the Year” Award; The Bachelar’s Delight: Lute Music of Daniel Bacheler was nominated for a Grammy as “Best Solo Instrumental Recording in 2007.” In addition to his activities as a performer, Paul O’Dette is an avid researcher, having worked extensively in the fields of performance practice and with sources of seventeenthcentury Italian and English solo song, continuo practices, and lute technique. He has published numerous articles on issues of historical performance practice, and co-authored the John Dowland entry in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Paul O’Dette is Professor of Lute and Director of Early Music at the Eastman School of Music. Stephen Stubbs is the Artistic CoDirector of the Boston Early Music Festival. He made his professional début as lutenist at the Wigmore Hall, London, in 1976. From 1980 to 2006 he lived in North Germany, and was the professor for lute and performance practices at the Hochschule für Künste, Bremen. In 1987, he founded the ensemble Tragicomedia, which has since recorded over twenty CDs and completed tours of Europe, North America, and Japan. With his direction of Stefano Landi’s La Morte d’Orfeo at the 1987 Bruges festival, he began his career as an opera director and has since been invited to direct opera productions in most European countries, the U.S., Canada, and Scandinavia. Stephen Stubbs created the ensemble Teatro Lirico in 1996, whose live recording of Antonio Sartorio’s Orfeo was awarded the Cini Prize for Best Opera Recording of 1999. The group’s début recording on the ECM label was a New York Times “Pick of the Year” for 2006. His solo lute recordings include the music of J. S. Bach, Sylvius Leopold Weiss, David Kellner, and Jaques St. Luc, and with duo partner Maxine Eilander, Sonata al Pizzico. To cultivate the singers and players of the next generation he founded an early opera course called the Accademia d’Amore in 1997. Beyond this annual August workshop now located in Seattle, there is a series of weekend workshops during the year under the auspices of the Seattle Academy of Baroque Opera. 2009 saw the début of his new Seattle-based opera company, Pacific Musicworks.

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Gilbert Blin, Stage Director, graduated from the Sorbonne with a concentration on Rameau’s operas and their relation with the stage, an interest that has since broadened to encompass all French Baroque opera and its relationship to European Baroque theater, bringing together his expertise as an historian, stage director, and designer. He was the first French stage director invited by the Drottningholm Theatre in Sweden where he directed Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice in 1992 and 1998 with Arnold Östman conducting. Gilbert Blin designed and directed Vivaldi’s Orlando Furioso for the Prague State Opera in 2001, and a staged reconstruction of Vivaldi’s Rosmira fedele for the Opéra de Nice in 2003. Recent productions include a historically staged and designed production of Handel’s Teseo, and a staged version of Alessandro Scarlatti’s oratorio La Giuditta with the Ensemble Baroque de Nice, conducted by Gilbert Bezzina. An avid researcher, Mr. Blin dedicates much of his time to the history of performance, most notably of stage sets. His reconstruction of the original sets for Mozart’s Don Giovanni was presented at the Estates Theatre in Prague from 2006 to 2008. For the Boston Early Music Festival, Gilbert Blin directed Lully’s Thésée in 2001 and Lully’s Psyché in 2007. In 2008, he was appointed the Festival’s Stage Director in Residence and opened his residency with a production of the chamber operas Venus and Adonis by Blow and Actéon by Charpentier. For the 2009 Festival, he staged and designed the sets for Monteverdi’s L’incoronazione di Poppea. Robert Mealy, Orchestra Leader, is one of America’s leading historical string players; his playing has been praised for its “imagination, taste, subtlety, and daring” (Boston Globe). He is a frequent leader and soloist in New York, where he was recently appointed concertmaster of Trinity Wall Street’s resident baroque orchestra. He has led the Boston Early Music Festival Orchestra and Chamber Ensemble in three Grammy-nominated recordings and several festival seasons. A devoted chamber musician, he is a member of the 17th century ensemble Quicksilver, the Renaissance violin band The King’s Noyse, and the medieval quartet Fortune’s Wheel. He is a professor of music at Yale, where he directs the Yale Collegium and the Yale School of Music’s new postgraduate baroque ensemble. He is also a member of the new historical performance faculty at Juilliard. In 2004 Mr. Mealy received EMA’s Binkley Award for outstanding teaching at both Harvard and Yale. He has recorded over fifty CDs on many major labels.

Teresa Wakim (Galatea) “With a voice of lambent beauty,” soprano Teresa Wakim enjoys an international career as a soloist in opera, oratorio, and chamber music. She has received praise from numerous publications, including the Boston Globe, Wall Street Journal, Miami Herald and Goldberg Magazine, and is featured on two Grammy-nominated recordings of Lully operas, Thésée and Psyché with the Boston Early Music Festival. Engagements for the 2009-2010 season included traveling to Germany to record her role as Diane in Charpentier’s Actéon with the Boston Early Music Festival, numerous performances of Handel’s Messiah across southern Florida with Seraphic Fire, the role of Morgana in Handel’s Alcina in Louisville with Bourbon Baroque, the title role in the recently composed opera Jeanne d’Arc by Steven Jobe in Rhode Island, and local solo appearances with the Handel & Haydn Society, Back Bay Chorale, Coro Allegro, and Boston Cecilia. Aaron Sheehan (Acis) is in high demand as a versatile performer of music ranging from solo to chamber repertoire. His voice has been praised by Opera News, the New York Times, and the Boston Globe. He has appeared as soloist with Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, the North Carolina Symphony, Tragicomedia, Concerto Palatino, the New York Collegium, the King’s Noyse, American Bach Soloists, Handel and Haydn Society, the Boston Early Music Festival, Tempesta di Mare, Aston Magna Festival, Moscow Chamber Orchestra, the Newberry Consort, Quicksilver, and American Opera Theater, among others. He has sung at Lincoln Center, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Washington’s National Cathedral, Tanglewood, and the Early Music Festivals of Boston, Regensburg, and San Francisco. Aaron has recorded and toured the U.S. and Europe with Paul Hillier’s Theater of Voices and with Fortune’s Wheel, and appears on the BEMF Grammy-nominated recordings of Lully’s Thésée and Psyché. He performs regularly with Blue Heron and La Donna Musicale, and is on the voice faculties of Brown University and Wellesley College. Jason McStoots (Damon), a Grammy-nominated soloist, has been celebrated as “particularly outstanding” with “finely articulated diction,” “sweet, appealing tone and real acting ability.” He is freshly returned from his Japanese solo debut in Bach’s St. Matthew Passion where he sang the part of the Evangelist. He recently received critical acclaim for his performances in the revival of William Kentridge’s production

of Monteverdi’s The Return of Ulysses and for Emmanuel Music’s performances of the St. Matthew Passion. As the Madwoman in Britten’s Curlew River with Intermezzo: New England’s Chamber Opera Series, McStoots was called “heartbreaking” by The Boston Phoenix who declared the production Boston’s Best Staged Opera 2006. He has appeared with groups around the US including Boston Lyric Opera, Pacific OperaWorks, The Boston Early Music Festival, the Handel Choir of Baltimore, the New Haven Symphony Orchestra, Tragicomedia, the Granite State Opera and OperaProvidence. In 2008 he was honored by Emmanuel Music as a Lorraine Hunt-Lieberson fellow. Zachary Wilder (Coridon) is a skilled performer of both early and modern music. He has worked with many early music luminaries, including Matthew Dirst, Ellen Hargis, Paul O’Dette, Albert LeDoux, Antoine Plante, and Stephen Stubbs, and has performed with the Houston Bach Society, Pacific Operaworks, Exsultemus, Emmanuel Music, Tragicommedia, Mercury Baroque, Ars Lyrica Houston, and the Mark Morris Dance Group. He has performed in several Boston Early Music Festival opera productions including Psyché and L’Incorinazione di Poppea (Nutrice). He was awarded a Tanglewood Fellowship in 2008 where he performed as Henrik in A Little Night Music with the Boston Pops and premiered Elliot Carter’s Mad Regales. Recent engagements include Uriel in Haydn’s Die Schöpfung, Renaud in Lully’s Armide and Telemaco/ Pisandro in William Kentridge’s production of Monteverdi’s Il ritorno d’Ulisse. Upcoming engagements include Händel’s Messiah and Judas Maccabeus (Judas), and Bach’s Magnificat. Douglas Wiliams (Polyphemus) This season Williams makes his solo symphonic debut with the Houston Symphony Orchestra in Handel’s Messiah, and his European debut with the baroque orchestra Les Talens Lyriques in Purcell’s King Arthur at the Salle Pleyel, Paris, under Christophe Rousset. As a soloist Douglas has appeared with Sir Neville Marriner, Helmut Rilling, Bruno Weil, and Sir David Wilcocks. Last season brought new attention to Mr. Williams’ emerging talent. In oratorio, the New York Times called his Bach “particularly impressive.” In opera, he “unfurled a bass voice of splendid solidity,” in his portrayal of Neptune in Monteverdi’s Ulisse in Seattle and San Francisco, according to Music Web International. Douglas received his musical training at Yale University and the New England Conservatory. He studied acting at Shakespeare & Company, and frequently writes and performs his own theatrical material. Douglas has appeared in every BEMF stage production since 2003. 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11 101

Special Thanks Folly Theater Staff and Volunteers Sincere appreciation goes to Gale Tallis, Doug Tatum, Greg Hulme, Kathy Stipek, Joan Hubbard, Khalid Johnson, David Tebow, Doc Watson, Bryant Stoll, Linda Bowlen, and Steve Irwin of the Folly Theater, and to all the friendly and helpful Folly volunteers who make The Friends’ Folly concert experiences enjoyable. Church Venue Staff and Volunteers Special thanks to the staff and volunteers at the churches who allow us to present our concerts and “What Makes It Great?” programs in their beautiful buildings: The Very Reverend Terry White, John and Leona Schaefer, and Mary Ann Mansfield at Grace and Holy Trinity Cathedral; Reverend Monsignor Robert Gregory, Mario Pearson, and Gail Monaco at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception; Jan Kraybill, Pam Robison and Cara Casey at the Community of Christ Temple; JoAnne Owens, Tara Hall, Beatrice Santner, and Tim McCray at the Visitation Catholic Church Fine Arts Society; and Rev. Doug Roberts and Mike Minor at the Country Club Congregational United Church of Christ. Thanks also to John Kimball who tirelessly and professionally provides the staging, lighting, and technical assistance for our programs at these churches. The Friends Volunteers Our heart-felt thanks to the “friends of The Friends” – our invaluable volunteers! Last season this hard-working, enthusiastic, and knowledgeable group of chamber music aficionados performed innumerable tasks for our concerts from selling CDs to transporting artists. We literally couldn’t have done it without them! Thanks goes to Bebe Bartholomew; Hugo Becker; Anne Biswell; Julia Brettle; Nancy and Mike Bruno; Marcia Cooper; Nancy, Michelle and Joel Corwin; Liz Craig; Anya Fluegge; Clint Garrett; Carmen Hostiuc; Jim and Lyn Jandt; Jessica and Jack Jarsulic; Brian Justice; Richard Keith; Christy Kirby; Margaret Lange; Virginia Long; Jack and Deb McClaran; Lisa Monroe; George Moss; Larry Probst; Carol Quigg; Cheryl and Randy Ringeisen; Sarah Rose; Patty Seligson; Sandi Simmons; Rick Stephenson; Jim Terril; Claudia Toomim; and Damian Torres-Botello. Thanks also to Carmen Hostiuc and Virginia Long for their valuable help in the office, and to our interns, Kyle Huber and Caitlin Lothamer. Bon Appetit Heartfelt thanks go to those who so generously hosted pre- and post-concert dinners and receptions for our artists and patrons last season: Bruce and Cynthia Campbell, Joan Gallos and Lee Bolman, Vera Isenberg, Jonathan and Nancy Lee Kemper, Phil and Patty Love, Cynthia Schwab, Cynthia Siebert and Larry Hicks, and Michael Waterford.

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Sweet Intermission André’s Confiserie Suisse and the Bollier family add a sweet note to every concert by allowing our sale of their delicious chocolates. Proceeds from the sale of these delectable treats benefit The Friends of Chamber Music.

Piano teacher Annette Adams with her students at the annual pizza party.

Beyond the Concert Experience The Friends provides complementary programming to enhance the concert-going experience. Special thanks to those who have shared their vast expertise by giving lectures and participating in panels: William Everett, Andrew Granade, Jane Solose, Diane Petrella, Stanislav Tuksar, Bill Ashworth, Bruce Bradley, and Noland Gasser of Thanks also to Jerry Harrington for his generosity in providing the Tivoli Cinemas for the showing of our FORTE Film Series. Firm Financial and Legal Footing A special thank you goes to our fantastic accountant, Jennifer Plackemeier, CPA, her assistant Betsy Bowman, and Harold J. Nicholson, CPA, for donating time and resources in performing our annual audit and preparing our tax returns. Special thanks to the law firm of Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal for legal advice. Page Turner A special thanks to John Schaefer who has been an avid, longtime supporter of The Friends, including artfully turning pages (yes – there is an art to it!) when needed. Harpsichords With extreme generosity, Oliver Finney makes his harpsichords – a French Dowd and a Flemish Wolf – available for The Friends’ artists to play, including the transportation and tuning of these beautiful instruments. We appreciate his liberal kindness.

Lucille Windsor, Debera Nichols of the InterContinental Hotel on the Plaza, Clint Young of Major Brands, Inc., Eric Weiss, and Stu Nowlin of Stu Nowlin Imaging for their invaluable help with the gala.

Piano students enjoy a pizza party with The Friends of Chamber Music following the Stephen Prutsman recital during the 2009-10 season.

Music Teachers Many area school and private music teachers wisely provide their students a deeper foundation for their studies by encouraging them and their families to attend the Friends’ concerts. Experiencing some of the world’s most renowned musicians playing the world’s finest music not only gives young people a vision of what their own music can become, but can encourage a life-long pattern of attendance at excellent cultural activities. We applaud you for your leadership. To encourage these young artists, The Friends provides youth 18 and under free tickets to International Chamber Music and Early Music concerts, and $15 tickets for Master Pianists Series concerts. “What Makes It Great?” programs are also free and a wonderful learning tool for all ages.

Further Thanks Sincere thanks also to our expert piano-tuner, Greg Hulme; Annette Luyben and Luyben Music; Carol Pecoraro and Penny Van Bebber at Kansas City Marriott Downtown; Sheraton Suites Country Club Plaza; Rene’ York of Leader Chauffeured Services; Dee Dee Adams, Ellen Porter, John Hamann, and Elly Miles at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art; Jon Ellis, David Shook, Geoff Hill, and Craig Wilcox at Paradise Park; Amity Bryson and Jason Harris of Avila University; André’s Confiserie Suisse; Julita Latimer of Julita Catering; John and Gina Reardon of Catering by Design; Room 39 Catering; Kasama Kasemvudhi; Gomer’s Midtown and Gomer’s South; Robert Riesmeyer of Employee Benefits by Design; Jamie Deets and Julia Scherer of Schmitt Music for the generous use of a Steinway piano; and Leslie Lerner, and Barney and Cheryl White for graciously hosting artists last season. Subscriber Benefits Card With great appreciation, we would like to thank the following Kansas City Originals members that offered special discounts to our patrons during the concert season. These include: The American Restaurant, Aixois, Bluestem, Californos, The Drum Room, Extra Virgin/Michael Smith, Lidia’s, Lilly’s Restaurant, and Room 39.

Our Friends in the Legislature We are grateful to the following legislators who have offered their steadfast support of the arts: Missouri Governor Jay Nixon; Sen. Joan Bray; Sen. Rob Mayer, Vice-Chair, Senate Appropriations Committee; Sen. Gary Nodler, Chair, Senate Appropriations Committee; Sen. Luann Ridgeway; Sen. Charlie Shields; Rep. Shalonn “KiKi” Curls; Rep. Doug Funderburk, Vice-Chair, House Appropriations – Transportation and Econ. Dev. Committee; Rep. Jason Grill; Rep. Jason Holsman; Rep. Allen Icet, Chair, House Budget Committee; Rep. Jason Kander; Rep. Rebecca Payne McClanahan; Rep. Charles Schlottach, Chair, House Appropriations – Transportation and Econ. Dev. Committee; Rep. Ryan Silvey; Rep. Trent Skaggs; Rep. Rick Stream, Vice-Chair, House Budget Committee; Rep. Mike Talboy. Soirée 2009 Benefit and Wine Auction Our utmost thanks to our Soirée 2010 Honorary Chairs Michael and Ginger Frost, and Event Chairs Robert and Prudence True. Thanks also to Gerard Eisterhold, Anya Fluegge, Doug Frost,

Volunteers Hugo Becker and Mike Bruno enjoy the opening night celebration.

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Contributors Why Give? The Friends of Chamber Music is loyal to its mission of presenting world-class artists for affordable ticket prices (our tickets are usually a fraction of what other major cities would charge for the same artists). As ticket sales cover only one-third of our expenses, we rely on the generosity of individuals, corporations, and government funders for the remaining two-thirds of our budget. Your generous financial support of our concerts and our “What Makes It Great?” series allows you to share in the joy of bringing outstanding music to our community. If you have not yet made a donation to The Friends, we invite you to join our donor family. Please call Tricia Davenport, Director of Development, at 816-561-9999 to learn more about making a contribution.

Contributors We gratefully acknowledge the kindness of our many contributors who have given their financial support on behalf of our concerts and our “What Makes It Great?” series with Rob Kapilow. This list of contributors represents donations and pledges received between July 1, 2009 and August 1, 2010. The Friends of Chamber Music’s fiscal year is July 1 – June 30. Special thanks to the Richard J. Stern Foundation for the Arts for underwriting the Hamburg Steinway piano. VISIONARIES ($50,000 and above) Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation William T. Kemper Foundation GUARDIANS ($25,000 - $49,000) The Friends of Chamber Music Endowment Funds Missouri Arts Council SUSTAINERS ($15,000 - $24,999) Stanley H. Durwood Foundation Francis Family Foundation Neighborhood Tourist Development Fund Courtney S. Turner Charitable Trust, Daniel C. Weary and Bank of America, Trustees MAJOR BENEFACTORS ($10,000 - $14,999) Charles & Virginia Clark H&R Block Foundation Hall Family Foundation David Woods Kemper Memorial Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Benny Lee Missouri Arts Council Cultural Trust Fund National Endowment for the Arts Patricia Rivette Sosland Foundation Michael Waterford

BENEFACTORS ($5,000 - $9,999) ArtsKC Fund of the Arts Council of Metropolitan Kansas City Anonymous Dick & Jane Bruening Commerce Bank of Kansas City Mr. & Mrs. Irvine O. Hockaday, Jr. Master Craftsmen Foundation Dr. & Mrs. Douglas McNair Miller-Mellor Association Estate of David H. Perkins RLS Illumination Fund J. B. Reynolds Foundation Landon & Sarah Rowland Cynthia H. Schwab Ten Ten Foundation PATRONS ($1,000 - $4,999) Mr. & Mrs. Charles L. Bacon, Jr. Hugo & Sharon Becker Dr. & Mrs. Robert Biber Copaken Family Foundation Jay & Kit Culver David M. & Sandy Eisenberg Mr. & Mrs. Joseph T. Fahey Scott Francis John R. & Ellen R. Goheen Mr. & Mrs. Donald J. Hall, Jr. Dave & Demi Kiersznowski Marshall & Janet Miller Mr. & Mrs. Mark O’Connell Rick Parker & Mary Nusser

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A. Rae Price Dr. & Mrs. Edward J. Prostic Cynthia Siebert & Lawrence Hicks Morton & Estelle Sosland Dr. Alexander Susàn Marc & Elizabeth Wilson Ellen & Jerome Wolf DONORS ($500 - $999) Anonymous Tom & Carol Barnett Peter & Diana Baumann Lennie & Jerry Berkowitz Leonard & Irene Bettinger Philanthropic Fund of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City Jack Coakley & Jane Ratcliffe J. E. Dunn Construction Jon & Juli Ellis Anne Fraser Drs. James & Linda Hamilton Mr. & Mrs. James B. Hebenstreit Pamela A. Hoelzel Honeywell Hometown Solutions Dave Hughes Tom & Ann Isenberg Donor Advisory Fund of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City Walter & Christina Isenberg Ian Kenney Adele Levi, in memory of Bill Levi David Lindberg

Mr. & Mrs. John Schaefer Naoma & Webster Schott Zachary & Rhonda Shafran Dr. Larry E. Sherwood & Ms. Janet Gregg Joshua & Jane Sosland Philanthropic Fund of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City Arthur & Barbara Stern Gerald & Marilyn Uppman Sally Wood

FCM Board Member Scott Francis and former Development Director Kate Beebe

Donald B. Marquis Nan Muchnic Jane E. Ratcliffe Julia Scherer Dr. David & Meredith Steinhaus SUPPORTERS ($250 - $499) Anonymous Joan F. Curran Don & Patricia Dagenais Fred D. Fowler, M.D. Joan Gallos & Lee Bolman Roni & Tony Genova Sherrill Gerschefske Neil & Lona Harris Shirley & Barnett Helzberg Foundation Rita & Lamar Hunt, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Kipp Mr. & Mrs. William B. Kort Scott Lindsay Thomas Lucero Bill & Peggy Lyons Lindsay & Lee Major P. Alan McDermott Ann & Whitney Miller Joyce A. Nichols Miller Nichols Charitable Foundation June & Cal Padgett Stanley S. & Ardyce H. Pearson Jana E. Pinker Memorial Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Charlie Porter George & Wendy Powell

SPONSORS ($100 - $249) Mr. & Mrs. Sam G. Adler, Jr. Dwight & Naomi Arn Mr. & Mrs. Russell W. Baker, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Richard O. Ballentine Thomas & Susan Bamford Mr. & Mrs. Clay Barton Marie Rubis Bauer & Michael Bauer Duane & Nancy Benton Mark & Kathy Berger Dan Bernstein Dr. & Mrs. Lance G. Beshore James & Betty Jean Bingham Rita & Irwin Blitt E. Bollier Sandra Bowlby Marilyn T. Bradt Tucker & Gina Bridwell Dorothy Burggraaff & Tim Scott Alietia Caughron Sally Chapple Karen L. Christiansen William H. & Jill J. Coughlin Dr. & Mrs. Ivan Damjanov Robert Delisle John E. Dieter III Roger Dirks & Cindy Capellari Marles S. Dudley, NCTM Dr. & Mrs. Robert H. Easterday Gerard Eisterhold & Kate Garland Geraldine E. Fowle Jerry Fry William R. Gann Melvin & Meta George Nicholas Good Barney Goodman Donor Advised Fund of the Jewish

Community Foundation of Greater Kansas City James & Mary Grant Klaus & Claudia Grunewald Dr. Richard K. Gutknecht Karen & William Halverhout Nancy Hawley Mr. & Mrs. J. Randall Hedlund Caroline & George Helmkamp John F. Herbst Charles & Leslie Herman Maxine L. Hetherington, M.D. Walter & Jean Hiersteiner Carolyn Hogan & Andy Rusnock Ann & Jim Hotchkiss Mr. & Mrs. Howard H. T. Hsu Mr. & Mrs. George S. Huff Joseph T. Jensen Ann & Ed Kander Jerry & Joy Kaplan Father Ambrose Karels Duane & Cosette Kelly Drs. John & Ann Kenney Pamela D. Kingsbury Donna & Parker LaBach Mr. & Mrs. Art Lafex Dr. N. J. Lindsey, in memory of Dr. Elizabeth Wilson Douglas Maag John & Kathy MacDonald James & Eileen Marshall Rev. Mike & Judy May Robert and Heather Maynard The Honorable Patrick & Patricia McAnany Dr. William McCollum Dr. & Mrs. H. Richard McFarland Jerry McManus, M.D. & Lynna McManus Susan Medler & Roger Oyster

FCM patrons applaud at the conclusion of a “What Makes It Great?” concert.

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Ken & Elizabeth Meisinger Metzler Bros. Insurance C. Stephen Metzler Virginia Miller Richard Morgan Sherrill Mulhern Ben & Lyndal Nyberg Richard & Louise Parizek Debra & Allen Parmet Kevin & Julie Pass Dr. & Mrs. Lewis H. Roht Ed Scherer & Helen Aspebakken Scherer Edmund & Eleanor Scherer Schering-Plough Foundation Matching Gift Program Dr. William O. Scott Uri & Marlene Seiden Shalon Fund Sigma Alpha Iota Kansas City Coordinating Counci Shirley Spiegel, in memory of Marshall Spiegel Mr. & Mrs. Glenn Spillman Alice Statland Gary Tegtmeier Kent & Patricia Thompson Benjamin & Marilyn Tilghman Virginia & Edwin Trainor Ann Unger Heinz K. Wehner Robert Weirich & Karen Kushner Paul & Meta Ann White John Wilkinson Bruce J. Williams Murray & Elsie Winicov E. David & Judith Frame Wiseman Dr. & Mrs. David D. Zoller Fritz & Nancy Zschietzschmann FRIENDS (Up to $99) Arthur & Lottie Abt Susan Akin, NCTM Tandy & Janet Allen Bill & Kristin Amend Arthur A. Anderson Gary N. Anderson Donald & Jeanne Andrade Anonymous Jan Armstrong Edna Atkisson Jane Anne Beachner Beckmann Violin Shop Joseph & Francoise Bien Rick & Alice Blanner Charles & Jeanne Bleakley Betty Brand

Curtis & Sharon Bock Mr. & Mrs. R. Craig Christie Nancy Cramer Consuelo Cruz Dorinda Derow Dan Devine & Michelle Chollet Richard & Anne Dreher Michael Driks Phyllis Holter Dunn Mrs. Ray W. Dunn Julie Elfving Rob & Melissa Falkner Mr. & Mrs. Bill Featherston Don & Ann Ford Mr. Charles R. Fortner Baila Goldstein GoodSearch Pablo Hernandez Roger & Karen Hibbard Ralph & Mary Anne Hile George & Carolyn Kroh Kirk & Babs Krueger Frank & Margie Kysela Jeremy M. Lillig Mark Lowry & Tammie Kresse-Lowry Howard & Gena Martin Donald & Carolyn McCaul Kevin & Harriette McCaul Betty B. McDermott John H. McMillan, M.D. Millie B. Mehnert, NCTM Jay & Symie Menitove Marti Moore Mark & Julie Morris Mu Phi Epsilon Mr. & Mrs. Wendell C. Muck Henry Mudge-Lisk Carol Mueller Lloyd & Connie Northtop Dr. Robin L. Onikul Dr. & Mrs. Jorge C. Paradelo Dick & Audre Patel David & Beth Pener Steve & Kathy Peters Richard I. Preis Ann T. Reed, in memory of Catharine Gardner George & Goldie Sakoulas Wayne & Lou Ann Sangster Shirley Schnell Arlene Schumann Walter & Sally Sedelow Wayne X. Shandera, M.D. Mr. & Mrs. Herbert D. Sharp Dale & Anne Shipley Jeanne Shopen

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Jack & Norma Jean Sigler Tom & Vicki Smith Clyde D. Stoltenberg Anthony & Diane Stolz Melody D. Stroth, NCTM Howard & Gail Sturdevant Betty & Gene Werner Ron Williams Paula Winchester/ Twelve Winds Tea Company Mr. & Mrs. Roger Wingert Dewey K. Ziegler Every effort has been made to ensure an accurate list of contributors. If we have made an inadvertent mistake, please bring it to the attention of Tricia Davenport, Director of Development, by calling 816-561-9999. The lists printed here represent donations and pledges received between July1, 2009 and August 1, 2010.

Pianist Nareh Arghamanyan signs autographs for patrons.

Endowment Donors In addition to their annual gifts, endowment donors have given to The Friends of Chamber Music’s future. The Friends’ endowments are permanent funds from which earnings may be used at the Board’s discretion for special initiatives, concerts, or operations. We thank the following donors for recognizing the need to strengthen The Friends’ endowments for the sake of future audiences. Amounts shown are cumulative, often reflecting multiple gifts over the years. $100,000 and above William T. Kemper Foundation National Endowment for the Arts Challenge Grant Sanders & Blanche Sosland Music Fund $10,000 - $99,999 Anonymous Commerce Bank of Kansas City Mr. & Mrs. George C. Dillon David M. & Sandy Eisenberg Steven & Jeanette Karbank David Woods Kemper Memorial Foundation Mr. & Mrs. William G. Levi Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Lyons Vera Patton William Quirk Mr. & Mrs. Lamson Rheinfrank, Jr. Cynthia H. Schwab Cynthia Siebert & Lawrence Hicks Sosland Foundation Lester T. Sunderland Foundation Sutherland Lumber Courtney S. Turner Charitable Trust, Daniel C. Weary and Bank of America, Trustees Mark & Nancy Viets

$5,000 - $9,999 Anonymous, in memory of James W. & Ruth T. Evans Nancy Martin Barnes Vera Isenberg Isaac (Jack) & Rena Jonathan Douglas McNair & Cecelia Stadler McNair Deborah E. Prince Patricia Y. & Gerald B. Rivette $2,500 - $4,999 Mr. & Mrs. Richard O. Ballentine Charles & Virginia Clark Mr. William G. Levi Robert Loyd Whitney F. & Ann Miller Jane E. Ratcliffe Beth K. Smith $1,000 - $2,499 Leonard & Irene Bettinger Julie A. Burgess Jack Coakley Mr. & Mrs. Charles French Tom & Ann Gill Dr. & Mrs. John R. Goheen Mr. & Mrs. William Greiner

Mr. & Mrs. Irvine O. Hockaday Mrs. G. M. Mulhern Janice Newberry Julia Scherer Claudia Scognamiglio-Pasini Mr. & Mrs. Barney White Marc & Elizabeth Wilson $500 - $999 Sally Chapple, in memory of Charles Culloden Ruth Evans $250 - $499 Joan Gallos & Lee Bolman Jon & Janet Henderson Kathleen A. Markham Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Parks Mr. & Mrs. Glenn R. Spillman Special thanks to those who remember The Friends of Chamber Music or The Friends of Chamber Music Endowment Funds in their wills or estate plans: Anonymous (3) Nancy Martin Barnes Mr. & Mrs. Charles Abbott Carter, Jr. Sally Chapple Victor (Vic) Contoski Dorothy Dreher Marsha L. Enterline Adele Levi Sally Verburg Livengood Jane E. Ratcliffe Julia Scherer Cynthia H. Schwab Cynthia Siebert & Lawrence Hicks Joshua & Jane Sosland Dr. Harry & Alice Statland, in memory of Suzanne Statland Kaleen Tiber Michael Waterford

Audience members applaud pianist Behzod Abduraimov during a preview event.

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Soirée 2010 Donors Special thanks to the following organizations and individuals for making Soirée 2010 a resounding success! (For more information on Soirée, The Friends of Chamber Music’s annual benefit and wine auction, please see pages 20 and 21.)

Honorary Chairs Michael & Ginger Frost Chairs Robert & Prudence True Wine Auction Consultant and Auctioneer Doug Frost Co-Auctioneer and Auction Consultant Lucille Windsor In-Kind Sponsors Doug Frost Marquee Artisan Wines Stu Nowlin Imaging Eric Weiss CONTRIBUTORS $15,000 and Above Dr. & Mrs. Michael D. Frost $10,000 - $14,999 DST Systems, Inc. $5,000 - $9,999 Muriel McBrien Kauffman Foundation $1,000 - $4,999 Commerce Bank of Kansas City Mrs. Robert Ingram Steve Karbank Dr. & Mrs. Douglas McNair Stinson Morrison Hecker Foundation Fund Barney & Cheryl White $100 - $999 Mary Lou & Tom Brous Charles J. Egan, Jr. Jerry Paul Fogel

John & Ellen Goheen Bob & Marlese Gourley John & Mary Hunkeler Adele Levi Dennis & Susan Marker John & Wendy Marvin Dr. & Mrs. James E. Miller Drs. Charles & Susan Porter Table Hosts Baker Sterchi Cowden & Rice LLC/David & Sandy Eisenberg Bob & Mary Biber Commerce Bank/Jonathan & Nancy Lee Kemper Jay & Kit Culver DST Systems, Inc. Scott Francis Michael & Ginger Frost Vera Isenberg Benny & Edith Lee Ann & Whitney Miller James & Patricia Miller Marshall & Janet Miller Cynthia Schwab Cynthia Siebert & Larry Hicks Stephen Taylor & Linda Gill-Taylor Robert & Prudence True Jerry & Ellen Wolf Auction Item Donors Ambience Furs André’s Confiserie Suisse Arrow Rock Lyceum Blue Bird Bistro Blue Stem Café Sebastienne Charlecote Antiques Bertrand & Anne de Montille David & Sandy Eisenberg Gerard Eisterhold Fogo de Chão Scott Francis The Friends of Chamber Music

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Doug Frost GEORGE, a lifestyle store Rain Harris Hudson & Jane Hyatt Regency Crown Center & Skies Restaurant & Lounge InterContinental Kansas City at the Country Club Plaza Steve Karbank Julia Irene Kauffman/Kansas City Royals Day & Whitney Kerr Linda Lighton Lon Lane’s Inspired Occasions Phil & Patty Love Major Brands Steve Metzler & Brian Williams Mark & Lynne O’Connell John Olichney & Renée Siebert Scott & Kim Penning Room 39 Josh & Jane Sosland Morton & Estelle Sosland Neil & Blanche Sosland Barbara Spilker Strauss Peyton Portraits Robert & Prudence True Webster House Paula Winchester, Lucille Windsor

Glossary abendmusik [Ger.] evening music. accompaniment the musical background for a principal part or parts. adagio very slow tempo. adagio ma non tanto a slow tempo, but not too much. affettuoso affectionate, tender. air a tune, vocal or instrumental. aleatory [adj. aleatoric] music which leaves certain creative decisions to the performer, perhaps concerning the ordering of composed fragments, or specific pitches or durations used. allegro fast tempo; merry or lively. allegro non troppo merry and lively, but not overly so. allegretto moderately fast tempo; often lighter in texture or character than allegro. allemande a German dance of the mid-16th century in a moderate 2/4 or 4/4 time which eventually became incorporated into instrumental suites in the 18th century alta capella term referring to the town wind bands found throughout Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, usually consisting of shawms, slide trumpets and sackbuts. andante moderately slow; a walking tempo. andantino slightly faster than andante. animé [animando or animato, It.] Animated. In common use since the 19th century to indicate either a quickening of the tempo or a more excited expression. antiphony [adj. antiphonal] the use of two or more performers or ensembles that are spatially separated, and that alternate or oppose one another in a musical piece. aperto [It.] “open”. The first of two endings for a section of a piece. appassionato impassioned. appoggiatura meaning a “leaning,” this term describes a dissonant pitch that is in a strong metrical position as if “leaning” against a note or notes, that is resolved or ceases to “lean” by moving to a consonant* pitch in a relatively weaker position by ascending or descending a step. archlute a small six-or seven-course* lute with an extended pegbox that holds unfretted bass courses. Archlutes were commonly used as part of the basso continuo* in Italian music of the 17th and 18th centuries. arco bow; often seen in music following pizzicato* sections (where the strings are plucked with the fingers); “arco” indicates the performer is to play with the bow. aria elaborate solo song found primarily in operas*, oratorios* and cantatas*. arietta a small aria or song, usually sung by a secondary character in an opera*. articulation the characteristics of attack and decay of tones and the means by which these characteristics are produced. Staccato* and legato* are types of articulation. arpeggio a chord whose pitches are sounded successively, usually from the lowest note to the highest rather than

simultaneously. assai [It.] much, very much. atonal the absence or opposite of tonality, or the absence of a key center. attacca attack immediately. When placed at the end of a movement, it serves as an instruction to begin the next movement without pause. barcarolle [Fr.] music modeled on the song of the Venetian gondoliers, usually in 6/8 or 12/8 time with accompaniment* suggesting the rocking of a boat. ballade In the 19th century, a long, dramatic type of piano piece; musical equivalent of a poetic ballad, such as the Chopin Ballades. bar line in musical notation, a line drawn vertically through one or more staves to mark off a measure.* Baroque period period or style in Western music extending from roughly 1600-1750, during which J. S. Bach and Handel composed. bassa capella term referring to music groups found throughout Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, usually consisting of soft instruments such as strings. (As opposed to alta capella). basso continuo [It.] “thoroughbass.” Also called simply “continuo.” Independent, continuous bass line throughout a piece that serves as an accompaniment to instruments or voices performing the melody. At a minimum, it consisted of a keyboard instrument (harpsichord, organ, clavichord) and a bass instrument (viola da gamba, violoncello, bassoon). In earlier Baroque works, a lute, guitar, or theorbo* participates as part of the continuo. In late Baroque concertos the continuo most often comprises harpsichord and cello; however, period instrument ensembles frequently call on the other continuo instruments. bel canto bel canto singing characteristically focuses on evenness throughout the voice, skillful legato*, a light upper register, flexibility, and a lyric, “sweet” timbre. It also refers to the art and science of that vocal technique which originated in Italy during the late seventeenth century and reached its pinnacle in the early part of the nineteenth century. binary form describes a piece comprised of two sections, each usually repeated. The first section generally modulates* to a related key, and the second generally progresses back to the original key. Symbolized AA’. breve [Lat.] short, brief. brio [It.] vivacity; spirit. buffo [It.] comic. cadence harmonic formula that concludes a musical phrase, section or piece. cadenza elaborate passage for the soloist in a concerto, during which all other instruments are silent; usually near the end of a movement and often not written out by the composer but left to the performer to improvise. canon [adj. canonic] piece, or moment in a piece, in which 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11 109

a subject or musical idea is imitated by one or more voices playing the same musical idea, but beginning after the first voice states the subject and overlapping with it. A well-known example is “Row, Row, Row Your Boat.” The voices which follow the first statement of the subject may or may not begin on the same note or pitch as the first voice. This was a technique commonly employed in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. cantabile to be performed in a melodious, singing manner. cantata vocal composition developed in the Baroque period for chorus and/or solo voice(s), based on secular or religious texts, generally with several movements* and accompanied* by an instrumental ensemble. canticle song from a book of the Bible other than the Psalms. cantilena [Lat.] 1) In the Middle Ages, melody or song, including liturgical chant as well as secular songs; 2) In the 13th – 15th centuries, polyphonic* song, especially the French chanson*; 3) In the 19th century to present, a lyrical vocal or instrumental melody. cantiones sacred songs. canzona [It., ‘song’] instrumental arrangement of French chansons* popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. canzonetta [It.] a light vocal piece popular in Italy from the 1560’s, in England in the late 16th century, and in Germany in the early 17th century. capella [Ger. “Chapel”]; usually refers to a church or court musical ensemble. However, in Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries, the term came to be used to describe any musical group. capriccio [It.: ‘whim, fancy’; Fr. ‘caprice’] it does not signify a specific musical technique or structure, but rather a general disposition toward the exceptional, the whimsical, the fantastic and the arbitrary, “wherein the force of imagination has better success than the observation of the rules of art.” (Furetière, 1690) cassation an informal instrumental genre of the Classical period, usually intended for performance outdoors as a kind of street serenade. cauda a textless passage that often appears at the end of lines in medieval sacred songs. cavatina in 18th- and 19th- century opera, a short solo song, simple in style and without a da capo or repeat. Usually consists of a short, instrumental introduction followed by a single statement set to music. chaconne a form of variations based on a basic chord progression of a dance in triple meter and major mode which originated in Latin America and spread across Europe in the 17th century. chamber concerto works for chamber orchestra in which all instrumentalists participate in both the orchestral tutti as well as sharing the solo sections. chamber music music written for small ensembles or soloists, for either private or domestic performance, or before an audience in a relatively small hall. chanson [Fr.] song. chant see plainsong. chiavette in 16th-century vocal polyphony, a coordination of 110 The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

clefs that locates the staves of individual parts, or the ten-line staff used by composers and theorists. chitarrone [It.] 1) In 16th-century Italy, a large bass lute whose strings were tuned similarly to the descant* (soprano) lute, but with the first two courses* an octave lower. 2) In the 17th century, the theorbo. chorale the congregational song or hymn of the German Protestant Church. chord (adj., chordal) three or more tones played simultaneously. The most commonly used chord is built on intervals of thirds, such as a C major chord comprised of the notes C, E and G. chromatic scale scale which includes all 12 tones of the octave; moving in half steps.* chromaticism the addition of at least some pitches of the chromatic scale, which is the scale that includes all 12 pitches (half steps* or semitones) contained in an octave. This may result simply from the filling in of whole steps with half steps. Classical 1) in Western music, the period or style extending from the early 18th century through the early 19th century; 2) art music, as opposed to folk or popular music forms. claveciniste referring to an era of 18th-century French harpsichord compositions. clef sign placed at the beginning of a staff to indicate the position of pitches. coda concluding section of a composition or movement,* usually reinforcing the final cadence. compound meter a meter* that includes a triple subdivision within the beat; i.e., 6/8 time. con brio [It.] with vivacity, spirited. concertante in the 18th century, works for two or more performers (including orchestral works) in which one or more performers is called upon for soloistic display. Mozart’s Concertante for violin and viola soloists plus orchestra is an example. concertino (1) the soloists in a concerto grosso,* (2) in the 18th century, a multi-movement work for orchestra or chamber music ensemble. concerto a work for one or more solo instruments accompanied by orchestra, often in three movements. concerto grosso a concerto for a small group of soloists (the concertino), and larger orchestra (the tutti* or ripieno*). con moto literally “with motion”; to be played more rapidly. consort an instrumental ensemble, usually made up of two to eight players, where the instruments come from different families (i.e., strings mixed with winds). continuo see basso continuo. contrapuntal [adj.] having to do with counterpoint.* cornetto [It.] a wooden or ivory instrument of the brass family, with a wide conical bore and side holes for a thumb and six fingers. It was used in church and chamber music from about 1550 to 1700. corrente [It. courante, Fr.: running, flowing] a dance and instrumental form which flourished in Europe from the late 16th century to the mid 18th century, often as a movement* of a suite in 3/8 or 3/4 time.

countermelody an accompanying part with distinct, though subordinate, melodic interest, in a piece with a clear melody and accompaniment. counterpoint [N.] contrapuntal texture in which two or more melodic voices proceed simultaneously and relatively independently. Renaissance and Baroque works are particularly rich in contrapuntal* writing. courses in a string instrument, the term refers to a pair of strings tuned to the same note and sounded as one, producing a stronger, more ringing sound. An example is the four-course* mandolin, strong in four double courses. crescendo [It.] gradually increasing in loudness. cross rhythm a rhythm in which the regular pattern of accents of the prevailing meter is contradicted or challenged. couplet two successive lines of poetry forming a pair, often within a larger form. csárdás a Hungarian dance in duple time. Slow (lassu) sections alternate with fast (friss) ones. da capo to repeat a composition by returning to the beginning and playing until the word “fine” (“the end”) appears in the music. decrescendo [It.] gradually becoming softer. descant [discant] (from medieval Latin, discantus, ‘sounding part’), term first used in the 12th century , a technique of composition where one voice is added to a plainchant* (or singlevoiced song), usually note against note and usually in contrary motion. descant lute a high-pitched member of the lute family, played in the soprano clef. development growth of a musical idea or ideas through variations or transformation; middle section in a sonata* form. diatonic a scale with seven different pitches, made-up of five whole* and two half* steps such as a major* or minor* scale. diminished seventh chord a chord composed of four tones, each a minor third above the next. It is often used to modulate* to another key. dissonance musical sounds that create a feeling of tension, as opposed to consonance. All music consists of the play between dissonance and consonance. divertimento in the second half of the 18th century, especially in Austria, typically, a light, secular instrumental work for a chamber music ensemble or soloist. dodecaphony twelve-tone* technique for musical composition that ensures that all 12 notes of the chromatic* scale are of equal importance, thus creating music with no key center. The technique was tremendously influential on composers of the mid-twentieth century. dominant the fifth scale degree (note) of a major or minor scale.* doppio [It.], double the speed double canon a piece in which two melodic subjects, or ideas, are employed in canonical style (see canon*). double fugue fugue in which two subjects* are first given full and independent treatment, and then are combined contrapuntally with one another. drone an instrument that plays only a constant pitch or

pitches; sustained tone in a piece of music. dumky (pl. dumka) literally “to ponder.” (1) A Slavonic folk ballad from the Ukraine, alternating between moods of elation or despair. (2) Instrumental music involving sudden changes of mood between melancholy and despair. duple meter any meter in which there are two basic beats in a measure, such as 2/2 or 2/4. dynamics the aspect of music relating to degrees of loudness; dynamic markings. étude literally “study”; instrumental piece designed to improve a player’s technique. equal temperament a musical temperament or system of tuning in which the octave is divided into 12 semitones* of equal size and every pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio. exposition first section in a fugue*, sonata*, symphony or concerto* movement, where a subject* or musical ideas/themes are first heard or exposed. fandango [Sp.] a lively spanish dance for a single couple, in a quick triple meter* originating in the 18th century and accompanied by guitars and castanets and alternating with sung couplets. A striking characteristic is the abrupt stopping of the music with the dancers frozen in place. fantasy, fantasia composition in no fixed form wherein a composer may follow freely his or her imagination; may consist of multiple styles, moods, keys,* meters,* tempi* or forms. fermata a performance indication sign used in a composition directing the performer to stop or hold for an unspecified time, to be determined by the performer. figured bass a bass part in which numbers provide the harmonic guidelines within which the performer is expected to improvise. finale the final movement of a sonata,* symphony,* concerto* or string quartet;* usually in a fast tempo.* fine the end. fioriture ornamental passages that are improvised or written out. flautino [It.] a small flute which is played vertically; similar to a recorder rather than a piccolo. forte loud. fortissimo very loud. fragmentation a compositional technique using only a part or fragment of a musical idea/motif.* fret a piece of material placed across the fingerboard or neck of some string instruments, limiting the strings to be played at a specific pitch. frisch [Ger.], fresh, new. fughetta [It.] a short fugue. fugue (adj. fugal) literally “flight”; in music, a composition in which three or more voices enter imitatively one after another, each giving chase to the previous voice which “flies” before it. fugato a fugue-like passage occurring in a larger work or movement that is not in itself a fugue.* fuoco [It.] fire. furiant a quick, exhilarating Bohemian dance in ¾ time with shifting accents. galante term used in 18th-century French music to describe free 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11 111

or homophonic style, as opposed to the strict, learned, contrapuntal style. gavotte [Fr.] a French dance of the 16th-century court of moderate tempo* in duple meter* usually danced in a line or a circle. gesangvoll, gesang [Ger.], songfully, song geschwind [Ger.], quick, swift. gigue a fast and usually final dance movement of a suite* of English origin and using some rhythmic multiple of triplets. giusto [It.] just, precise; an appropriate or usual tempo* for the type of piece at hand, or return to regular tempo after passage of a flexible tempo. glissando a continuous movement from one pitch* to another. This may be produced by a sliding movement on string or wind instruments, with all of the micro-intervals (smaller than half or whole steps) contained in between the beginning and ending notes of the slide. On the piano, it is produced by a rapid succession of half and/or whole steps. giusto [It.] just, precise; an appropriate or usual tempo* for the type of piece at hand, or return to regular tempo after passage of a flexible tempo. glissando a continuous movement from one pitch to another. This may be produced by a sliding movement on string or wind instruments, with all of the micro-intervals (smaller than half* steps) contained in between the beginning and ending notes of the slide. On the piano, it is produced by a rapid succession of half and/or whole* steps. grave slow or solemn. grazioso graceful. Gregorian Chant named for Pope Gregory I, unaccompanied, monophonic* music cells, codified in the 8th and 9th centuries and used as the basis for compositions for the Catholic Church for several centuries. ground bass a pattern of notes, most often a melodic phrase with a consistent harmonic progression set in the bass, repeated over and over again with changing upper parts. Grounds are basically a series of continuous variations. In Italy, grounds were called basso ostinato, or “obstinate bass.” half steps the smallest interval in use in western music tradition. There are twelve such intervals contained in the octave. harmonics a tone produced on a stringed instrument by lightly touching a vibrating string at a given fraction of its length so that both segments vibrate. harmonic minor scale a type of minor scale in which the third and sixth degrees of the scale are each lowered a half step from the major scale. harmony the relationship of tones when they sound simultaneously; also, any number of pitches sounded simultaneously, or a chord. harpsichord stringed keyboard instrument in prominent use from the 16th to 18th centuries, and revived since the 1880’s. Similar in shape to a grand piano, but in the harpsichord, strings are plucked by a plectrum as opposed to being struck by feltcovered hammers. homophony (adj. homophonic) music in which one voice, carrying the melody, is supported by an accompaniment 112 The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

which is far less important than the melody; as opposed to monophony and polyphony. hymn a song in praise of god(s) or heroes. hymnodist composer of hymns. Impressionism an artistic movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries represented in music chiefly by Debussy and Ravel. impromptu a title of a single-movement composition, characterized by an off-hand style, as if the result of sudden inspiration, but not necessarily of an improvisatory nature. The most famous of these were composed by Schubert and Chopin. innig, innigkeit [Ger.], heartfelt, intimacy. intermezzo (1) a 19th-century character piece; the term suggests the casual origin of the composition; (2) same as “interlude” or “entr’acte.” A movement that comes in between two movements, and is usually meant to serve as a lighter refreshment to those movements*. interval distance between two pitches. invertible counterpoint a technique of contrapuntal* writing that allows the voices to change places (the higher becoming the lower and vice versa). invention the name given by J.S. Bach to 15 short keyboard pieces, each in two parts and each developing from a single idea. The 15 companion three-part pieces are now known also as “inventions.” The term also appears in earlier music, implying creativity but with no particular musical charateristics. Kapellmeister the leader of a musical chapel, or court ensemble, which might provide both sacred and secular music. (Bach held this position at the court at Cöthen from 17171723.) key in tonal* music, the pitch relationships that establish a single pitch as a tonal center or tonic.* klavierstücke [Ger.], keyboard pieces ländler an 18th-century folk dance from Austria and southern Germany in slow ¾ time. langsam, langsamer [Ger.], slow, slower larghetto slightly less slow than largo. largo very slow tempo; considered the slowest tempo by some theorists. laude nonliturgical religious song, of greatest importance in the 13th through 16th centuries, but in continual use through the 19th century. Usually composed in Italian or Latin, these songs were anonymous, monophonic*, and simple in style. legato, [It., from legare,‘to bind’] a directive indicating that notes should be played smoothly, without noticeable breaks between them. The opposite of legato is staccato. lento [It.] slow tempo. libretto the text of an opera or oratorio, originally and more specifically the small book containing the text. Lied [Ger., pl. Lieder] (1) a poem, usually lyrical and often strophic (2) a song having such a poem for its text, usually written for solo voice and piano accompaniment during the Classical and Romantic periods. Commonly known as “art song.” lirone [It.] a bass bowed string instrument developed in the 16th century. Held between the legs and usually fretted, with

9-14 melody strings and 2 drone strings. lute a European, plucked, string instrument with an oblong, rounded body, a flat soundboard featuring a rosette, and a short, fretted* neck with an angled pegbox,* sometimes even perpendicular to the neck. Six-course* lutes were standard after about 1600, but later Italian instruments had as many as fourteen courses.* madrigal popular in the 16th and early 17th centuries, a secular vocal work written for four to five voices,* usually unaccompanied,* set to verses, most commonly by Petrarch. Magnificat the canticle* of the Virgin, Luke 1:46-55, which begins “My soul doth magnify the Lord.” The Magnificat is part of the Office of the Vespers. Marian having to do with the Virgin Mary. marsch [Ger.] forward, march, off with you Mass the central service of the Roman Catholic rites, deriving from a ritual commemoration of the sacrifice of Christ, usually made up of several sections that fall into two categories: the Proper* and the Ordinary*. measure a way of dividing music into specific units of time set off by bar lines*; most often, with the same number of “beats.” mediant the third degree of the scale*, so called because it is midway between the first degree of the scale (the tonic)* and the fifth degree of the scale* (the dominant)*. Medieval music from the period of the Middle Ages, from about 500 until about 1430. melody succession of musical tones forming a line of individual significance and expressive value, as opposed to harmony (tones sounded simultaneously); thus, melody and harmony represent the horizontal and vertical elements of music. menuetto minuet mesto [It.] sad, mournful. meter in a given composition or section, the basic pattern of regular pulses and accents found in each measure* and indicated by a time signature.* Middle Ages period of history from about 500-1430 A.D. Musical notation began in Western Europe during this time (9th century). Some forms of music from this period include plainsong,* the Mass,* motets,* and liturgical dramas. minimalism school or mode of contemporary music marked by extreme simplification of rhythms, patterns, and harmonies; prolonged chordal or melodic repetitions; often creating a trance-like effect. minor key a key which has a minor interval* between its first and third degree or notes. minuet [Fr. menuet, It. menuetto] a stately French dance of the 17th and 18th centuries, in triple meter* and moderate tempo*; often paired with a another section of music called a trio*, and is most often the third movement of a Classical symphony, sonata or quartet. mit [Ger.] ‘with’. mode (adj. modal) scale; usually used to denote scales* used by churches in the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Each mode is based on a series of pitches, with different patterns of intervals.

moderato [Fr. modéré] moderate tempo. modulate to change from one key to another. molto much or very; used with such musical terms as allegro molto (very fast). monophony (adj; monophonic) music consisting of a single voice* or line, for either one performer or an ensemble performing in unison*, such as in chant.* mosso moving, animated. motet (1) prominent type of composition of the 13th century, usually for three voices, often combining religious and secular texts; (2) an unaccompanied choral composition of the 15th and 16th centuries, contrapuntal*, usually for four or five voices*, generally with a religious text. motive [Fr. motif; Gr. Motiv] a brief melodic figure, too short to be called a theme, and often a fragment of a theme, which may become the basis for an entire composition. moto ‘motion;’ con moto, ‘with motion,’ i.e. quickly movement a complete and relatively independent part of a larger composition such as a sonata*, quartet*, concerto* or symphony.* mute, or sordino* a device for reducing the volume and/or altering the tone color of an instrument. nocturne [Fr. “of the night”; It. notturno]. Title used for certain instrumental works of the 19th and 20th centuries, suggesting night and usually quiet and meditative in quality. non not. notturno (see nocturne). novellette [Fr.; Ger.] a title given by Schumann to some of his character pieces. obbligato [It., ‘obligated’] an accompanying* part that is of integral importance. It is not as important as the subject or melody, but has more independent character than accompaniment.* octave the interval* made up of the first and eighth tones of a minor or major scale.* Office distinct from the Mass*, these are the daily services of the Western Christian rites. opera a drama set to music, which consists of singing with arias and recitatives with orchestral accompaniment, and usually also comprising an orchestral overture* and intermezzo.* opera buffa [It.] comic opera. opera seria [It.] serious opera. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the chief operatic genre. opus (abbr. op.) literally “work”; numbers used to indicate the order in which a composer’s works were published; not necessarily an indication of the order in which they were written. oratorio an extended musical drama with a text based on religious subject matter. Usually performed without scenery, costume, or action; instead, it emphasizes narration, and uses a chorus. orchestra see symphony. Ordinary refers to the five Mass* texts, which remain the same for every liturgical service (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei). ostinato a melodic and/or rhythmic motive or phrase that is repeated persistently, often in the bass. 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11 113

overtone in acoustics, a faint higher tone contained within every musical tone. A body producing a musical pitch such as a taut string or a column of air within the tubular body of a wind instrument-vibrates not only as a unit but simultaneously also in sections, resulting in the presence of a series of overtones within the fundamental tone (i.e., the one identified as the actual pitch). overture a composition intended as an introduction to a suite*, opera* or other dramatic work. Sometimes designated as a sinfonia or an introduzione (“introduction”). pantonic (pantonality) synonym for atonality*, Schoenberg preferred this term as indicating the combination of all keys rather than the absence of any key, but it is rarely used. partita (1) in the late 16th and 17th centuries, a variation, usually on a traditional melody, (2) in the late Baroque period, and early Classical period, a type of multi-movement* instrumental suite*, whose movements* are based on dances that have become stylized and suitable only for listening. The most common movements in a partita are prelude*, allemande*, bourrée, sarabande*, minuet*, and gigue*, though other lighter movements may be included. passacaglia a continuous variation form, mostly from the Baroque, whose basso ostinato* formulas are originally derived from ritornellos.* passepied [Fr.] a French dance of the 17th and 18th centuries resembling a fast minuet.* It was usually in binary* form and in 3/8 or 6/8 time with continuous running movement. It became part of the 18th-century suite* as one of the optional dances. passion music form that began in the Medieval period which depicts the Passion of the Christ (his crucifixion and resurrection). pastorale a work of music or literature that represents or evokes life in the countryside. pathétique with great emotion. pedal point a sustained tone in the lower register, occurring under changing harmonies in the upper parts. pegbox a boxlike construction at the far end of the neck of a stringed instrument which houses ‘pegs’ or screws to which the strings are attached and which can be turned to tune the strings, wither by tightening or lessening them. perpetuum mobile a composition in which rhythmic motion, often in a single note-value in a rapid tempo, is continuous from beginning to end. pianissimo very soft. piano (1) the instrument; (2) a directive found within a score to indicate playing quietly. (The first pianos were called ‘fortepianos’ meaning ‘loudsoft’ because a performer could affect the volume of the note by altering the way the keys are struck. Neither the harpsichord nor the organ had this capability.) piano trio (1) a trio consisting of piano, violin, and cello, (2) a work for such a trio. più more. pizzicato in music for bowed and stringed instruments, a directive to pluck, with the fingers or thumb, the strings for certain notes or passages of notes. plainsong (plainchant or chant) unaccompanied 114 The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

monophonic* (all voices in unison) music of the Middle Ages which was influenced by the chants* of Jewish synagogue music and the early Eastern Church. poco little. poco adagio a little slower tempo. polka a moderately fast Bohemian dance that originated in Europe around 1830, and was popular throughout the 19th century. polonaise a festive aristocratic Polish dance in triple meter,* in a moderate tempo with a strong emphasis on the first beat, usually performed as a processional with couples. polyphony music that simultaneously combines several lines of equal or almost equal importance; as opposed to monophony* and homophony.* polytonality simultaneous use of two or more tonalities or keys. praembulum [Lat.] prelude. prelude a piece or movement that precedes other movements of a larger work, such as in a partita* or suite.* prestissimo a tempo marking indicating a piece or section of a piece is to be played as fast as possible. presto a tempo marking indicating a piece or section of a piece is to be played very fast. programmatic music intended to express or depict specific images or stories, as opposed to representing abstract ideas. Proper the sections of the Mass* whose texts change according to occasions in the Church calendar. quartet (1) an ensemble comprised of four instruments or vocalists, or some combination of the two. The most common combination consists of two violins, a viola and a cello, which is known as a string quartet, a form founded by Haydn (2) a composition written for such instrumental/vocal combinations. quodlibet [Lat.] “What you please.” A composition in which well-known melodies or texts are presented simultaneously or successively, the result being humorous and displaying technical virtuosity. rallentando [It., abbr., rall.] gradually slowing down; same as ritardando.* rasch, rascher [Ger.], quick, quicker, sehr rasch, very quick recapitulation section of thematic restatement; usually the third and final section in a movement* of a sonata* form work. recitative [It.] a vocal style designed for the speech-like declamation of narrative episodes in operas*, oratorios* or cantatas.* relative key has to do with the number of pitches two keys or scales* share in common, e.g., relative major/minor keys. Renaissance period in Western music, the period extending from approximately 1425 to 1600. ricercar [It., ‘to seek’] a type of late Renaissance and early Baroque instrumental composition. It usually refers to an early kind of fugue*, particularly one of a serious character in which the subject uses long note values. In the 16th century, the word ricercar could refer to several types of compositions, which mostly fell into two general types a predominantly improvisatory work and a sectional work in which each section begins imitatively, usually in a variation form. ripieno [It., ‘filled’] term used in Baroque music to denote the

tutti (or concerto grosso) sections, as opposed to the solo (or concertino) group. ritardando [It., abbr. rit.] Gradual slowing of tempo; same as rallentando. ritornello prelude material for full orchestra, stated at outset and recurring at periodic intervals throughout the movement. Ritornello are always present in first movements of Baroque concertos and frequently play a part in last movements. rococo a term from art used to describe the graceful and ornamented music of the 18th century. Romanticism a period in European music history, usually considered to have spanned from the early to late 19th century. rondeau one of the three standard poetic forms used for chansons in the 14th and 15th centuries. rondo form prominent in the Classical period in which a main theme alternates with contrasting episodes; one of the most common rondo patterns is ABACABA. sarabande a slow, highly ornamented Baroque dance whose historical origin is Spanish, usually in triple meter* and part of an instrumental suite consisting of several movements.* scale a schematic arrangement of notes in ascending and descending order of pitch which are regularly used in the music of a particular period or culture. scherzo [It., ‘joke,’ ‘game’] movement of a sonata*, symphony* or quartet* that replaced the minuet in the 19th century; usually written in a light, rapid style often with a contrasting trio* section. schnell, schneller [Ger.], ‘fast’, ‘faster’ sehr [Ger.], ‘slow’ semitones see half steps. semplice [It.] simple, without ornament. serenade a vocal or instrumental work intended for performance in the evening, and usually addressed to a lover, friend, or person of rank, and composed for a specific occasion. serialism compositional technique in which the 12 notes of the chromatic* scale are arranged in a fixed order; the “series,” can be manipulated in a variety of ways to generate melodies and harmonies, and which normally remains binding for an entire work. sforzando [It., “forcing” pl. sforzandi ] an indication for a strong accent on a note or chord.* siciliano, siciliana a dance of Sicilian origin, usually in a minor key, in compound duple or quadruple time with a swaying rhythm. sonata composition for one or more instruments, usually in several movements;* takes on different forms in different periods of history. Most sonatas written in the 18th and 19th centuries contained at least one movement in sonata-allegro form. sonata-allegro a large-form movement in three parts: exposition, development and recapitulation. symbolized ABA’ (see diagram on next page). Most commonly employed in sonatas, quartets, concertos and symphonies. sonatina [Fr. sonatine] a work with the formal characteristics

of a sonata (see Sonata-Allegro diagram below), but on a smaller scale and often less technically demanding for the performer. sordino [It.] see mute.* sostenuto [It.] sustained, sometimes with the implication of a slowing tempo. sotto voce [It.] under the breath, in lowered tones, softly, as an aside. spiccato [It.] a fast, detached stroke in which the bow is dropped on the string and lifted again after each note. staccato literally “detached”; a manner of performance in which each note is shortened and separated from the notes that follow. The opposite of legato.* staff, stave (pl. staves) a group of horizontal lines, on which notes are placed to indicate pitch. The number of lines in a staff varied throughout many centuries, until a five-line staff was adopted to create a standard common to all composers and countries in the west. stop (pl. stops) refers to a string technique wherein a performer “stops” a string by pressing his finger on it at different places to produce a specific pitch. A string player may “stop” several strings at a time to produce a chord or cluster of sounds simultaneously. stretto [It., ‘squeezed together’] in a fugue, the imitative treatment in which the subjects follow so closely in succession that each overlaps with the next creating greater stress or tension. string quartet (1) an ensemble comprised of two violins, a viola, and a cello, (2) a composition written for this combination of instruments. strophe (adj., strophic) units of text set to music and characterized by repetition of the same music for all strophes. Sturm und Drang [Ger., “storm and stress”] A movement in late 18th-century German music that aimed to produce a powerful, even violent expression of emotion. style gallant refers to an 18th-century style that was written in a more free, homophonic* style as opposed to the older, more strict style of employing counterpoint.* stücklein [Ger.], little pieces subdominant the fourth scale degree of a major or minor scale.* subject a melody or melodic fragment on which a fugue* is based. submediant the sixth scale degree. suite a series of different instrumental movements* with some element of unity, often performed as a single work. The piece’s unity may be derived from a common key, or from some thematic connections and overall form. A partita* is a particular kind of suite. sul ponticello [It. “near”] marking which indicates to play near the bridge of a stringed instrument. suspension a dissonance* which is created by holding a note from a previous chord, while the other notes of the chord* change to create a new chord in which the held note no longer belongs. The suspended note creates tension or dissonance*, until it is resolved by moving to a harmonic pitch or note that is part of the new chord. symphony 1) a large-scale, public composition usually based 35th Anniversary Season 2010|11 115

on sonata* form, usually in multiple movements* written for orchestra; 2) a largescale instrumental ensemble intended for public performance. syncopation displacement of the normal accent by transferring it from a strong to a weak beat. Used throughout all classical music periods, it has been employed more aggressively in the 20th century by musicians in the “classical” and jazz fields. tanto [It.] so much, too much. tardamente [It.] slow, slowly; slowing down. tempo (pl. tempi) speed at which a composition is performed; common tempo markings include (listed from slow to fast): largo, lento, adagio, andante, allegretto, allegro, vivace, presto, prestissimo. ternary form describes a movement with three sections. The first and third sections are identical or closely related, and the second is contrasting. ABA form. terrace dynamics a technique applied when performing a sequence wherein the dynamic or volume level is louder for each statement of a sequence that usually rises in volume when the pitch rises and decreases in volume if the sequence is going down. theme principal melody in a composition. theorbo a large bass lute, which was developed in the late 16th century especially for playing basso continuo. It will have six courses* and seven or eight contrabass courses in a second pegbox attached to the first. timbre tone color. time signature the sign placed at the beginning of a composition or during the course of it to indicate its meter.* It normally consists of two numbers: the top number indicates how many beats are in each measure*, and the bottom number indicates what type of note value is worth one beat. tiorba [It.] see theorbo. toccata [It., “touch”] An instrumental composition, often featuring several virtuosic sections, designed to show off the player’s technical capabilities. tonal in Western music, the organized relationship of tones with reference to a definite key center or tonic, and generally, a work written in a specific scale or key. tonic first degree, or pitch, of a major or minor diatonic scale.

tranquillo tranquil. transposition the rewriting or performance of music at a pitch other than the one in which it was originally written. transverse flute [It. traverso, Fr. traversière, Ger. Traversflöte] a term used until the middle of the 18th century to distinguish a side-blown flute from the end-blown recorder. tremolando or tremolo the fast, unmeasured repetition of a single note or alternation of two notes. triad a chord* consisting of three pitches, each pitch usually separated by the interval of a third or fourth (see chord). trill (1) a fluttering or tremulous sound; warble; (2) in music, the rapid alternation of two tones either a whole or half step apart. trio (1) composition for three performers; (2) The B section of an ABA form of a minuet or scherzo, usually in two parts, each of which is repeated. trio-sonata a sonata written for three instruments, usually two upper voices and one basso continuo*. triple meter any meter* in which there are three basic beats in a measure*, such as 3/4 or 3/8. triplet three notes of the same rhythmic value to be played/ sung in the time normally occupied by one or two note(s) of the same value, thus making them faster. tromba [It.] trumpet. troppo too much (as in non troppo, ‘not too much’). tutti literally, “all”; in orchestral works, particularly concertos, a passage where the entire orchestral force resumes playing after a passage in which only a soloist or small group of soloists (concertante*) are playing (see also concerto grosso* and ripieno*). twelve tone music music in which all twelve notes of the scale* have equal importance; i.e., music which is not in any key or mode*, and which is often described as atonal.* unison 1) the interval formed by two statements of the same pitch; 2) simultaneous performance at the same pitch, or sometimes at one or more octaves.* valse [Ger.] see waltz.* variation compositional technique in which musical ideas or themes are manipulated and repeated many times with various changes.

Sonata-Allegro Form Theme 2

Closing Theme

Theme 1

Theme 1

Leaving home Home


Thoughts of home while traveling

Let’s go back Thoughts of a new place


116 The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

Theme 2


Away from home

Home! Should we leave?


Closing Theme

No, let’s remember where we went but stay home.

Vespers [Lat., evening] a devotional service, part of the Divine Office, usually performed in monasteries and convents in the early evening. viola da braccia a 16th- and 17th-century bowed, string instrument played on the arm as distinct from one played on or between the legs (da gamba). viola da gamba a 16th and 17th-century bowed stringed instrument played on-or between the legs. virtuosic a term used to describe music that requires great technical capability on the part of the performer. vivace lively; indicates a tempo equivalent to or faster than allegro. voice (1) the human voice; (2) a single part or line in an instrumental composition. walking bass a bass accompaniment that moves steadily in a rhythm contrasting to that of the parts played in the upper registers. It consists of unsyncopated* notes of equal value, using a mixture of scale tones, arpeggios*, and passing tones to outline the chord progression, often with a melodic shape that alternately rises and falls in pitch over several bars. waltz a ballroom dance, always in triple meter*, but the tempo may range from slow to moderately fast; one of the best known of the 19th century Austrian/German dances. whole step an interval consisting of two half steps or semitones.* ziemlich [Ger.], ‘rather’, ziemlich schnell ‘rather fast’. * denotes words that are defined in this glossary. Note: These definitions are taken from The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, edited by Don Randel; The New Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Denis Arnold; and The New Groves Dictionary of Music, edited by Stanley Sadie; with additional edits by The Friends of Chamber Music staff.

Abbreviations: AV. abbreviation for Asow Verzeichnis,the thematic catalog of Richard Strauss’s works by E.H. Mueller von Asow BWV. abbreviation for Bach Werke Verzeichnis, the catalog of the works of J.S. Bach, developed by Wolfgang Schmieder. D. abbreviation for Otto Erich Deutsch’s thematic catalog of the works of Schubert. Hob. abbreviation for catalogue of Haydn’s works compiled by Anthony van Hoboken. The number after Hob. indicates the musical form, and the number after the colon indicates the numbering within that type of work. HWV. Abbreviation for Händel-Werke-Verzeichnis, the modernday thematic catalog of Handel’s works compiled by Bernd Baselt. K. or KV. abbreviation for Köchel-Verzeichnis, the thematic catalog for the works of Mozart first prepared by Ludwig von Köchel. K. abbreviation for Ralph Kirkpatrick’s chronological system of cataloging the works of Domenico Scarlatti.

RV. abbreviation for Peter Ryom’s Verzeichnis, the definitive catalog for the works of Antonio Vivaldi. TWV. abbreviation for Telemann Werke Verzeichnis (Telemann Work Catalogue). The first number after TWV indicates the general type of medium, the letter after the colon is the key of the particular work, and the following number is the numbering within that type of work WoO abbreviation for Werk ohne Opuszahl (work without opus number), in the thematic category of Beethoven’s works.

35th Anniversary Season 2010|11 117

University of Missouri-Kansas City


OF MUSIC AND DANCE Conservatory audition dates Sat., Dec. 11, 2010 Sat., Feb. 5, 2011 Mon., Feb. 21, 2011 Fri., Mar. 4, 2011

Karen Kushner

John McIntyre

Diane Petrella

Jane Solose

Robert Weirich

Piano Study At The Conservatory The piano performance degrees at the bachelors, masters and doctoral levels offer a variety of experiences to students, including pedagogy, literature, collaborative piano and chamber music, all taught by world-class faculty. Full and partial scholarships and graduate assistantships are available. Conservatory admissions UMKC, 816-235-2900 Relay Missouri: 1-800-735-2966 (TT) UMKC is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

E xcept ional Talent. Ex traordinar y Expe r i e nce.

Our 24th Season! Baroque by Candlelight

Saturday, October 2, 2010

Old Mission United Methodist Church

Great music from the Baroque era, including concertos by Bach and Vivaldi.

Schumann & Chopin Bicentenary


Tuesday, November 30, 2010 Unity Temple on the Plaza

Romantic piano concertos begin the holiday season, featuring pianists Lana and Slava Levin.

Dvorak’s Serenade

Monday, February 14, 2011 Old Mission United Methodist Church

Dvorak’s lushly romantic ‘Serenade for Strings’ for Valentine’s! Bruce Sorrell, Music Director

For tickets and information: Central Ticket Office 816.235.6222 or

Beethoven’s ‘Pastoral’

Friday, June 24, 2011 Unity Temple on the Plaza

Beethoven’s famous ‘Pastoral’ Symphony will herald the arrival of summer

Kansas City’s First Choice for the Best New Independent Films, World Cinema and Classic Movie Series

Get Showtimes & Watch Previews at

is proud to host The Friends of Chamber Music’s presentation of Chanticleer at the Community of Christ Temple

February 5, 2011, at 8:00 p.m. River and Walnut Streets, Independence, Missouri To learn about other exciting fine arts events on the Dome and Spire series, visit or call 816-833-1000, ext. 2324 for further details.

Ad Index Andre’s Confiserie Suisse......................................................4

Kansas City Star.................................................................14

Aristocrat Motors.................................................................7

Karbank Real Estate Company.............................................3

Bach Aria Soloists.............................................................120

KCUR & NPR News.........................................................16

Blue Cross Blue Shield...............................Inside Back Cover



Luyben Music....................................................................18

Commerce Trust Company.......................Inside Front Cover

Metzler Brothers Insurance.................................................18

Country Club Congregational United Church of Christ.......118

Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art...........................................12

Dome & Spire Series........................................................121

P/Strada, L.L.C..................................................................15

Fine Arts Chorale...............................................................15

Park University...................................................................10

Folly Theater....................................................................119

Quality Hill Playhouse.......................................................17

Foxwood Springs................................................................11

Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal........................................15

John Knox Village............................................................118

Tivoli Cinemas.................................................................121

Johnson County Community College................................17

UMKC Conservatory of Music & Dance.........................119

Kansas City Chamber Orchestra......................................120

University of Kansas Hospital...............................Back Cover

Kansas City Life Insurance Company.................................18

Youth Symphony of Kansas City........................................12

Kansas City Repertory Theatre...........................................17

122 The Friends of Chamber Music | The Intimate Voice of Classical Music

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011  

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011  

Friends of Chamber Music 2010-2011