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SEEKING IDENTITY IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA’S SOCIALIST ARCHITECTURE RE-PURPOSING OF THE ABANDONED YUGOSLAV WWII MONUMENT, THE HOME OF REVOLUTION IN NIKŠIĆ, MONTENEGRO

BY: SUNČICA MILOŠEVIĆ


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‘Seeking Identity in Former Yugoslavia’s Socialist Architecture’ Re-purposing of the abandoned Yugoslav WWII monument, the Home of Revolution in Nikšić, Montenegro

A thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Architecture at the University of Cincinnati in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture at the College of Design, Architecture, Art and Planning Author: Sunčica Milošević B.S.Arch. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009 Committee Chair: Michael McInturf, M.Arch, Associate Professor of Architecture Committee Members: Aarati Kanekar, PhD Associate Professor of Architecture John Hancock, M.Arch, Professor of Architectureww Research Advisor: Vincent Sansalone, M.Arch Associate Professor of Architecture

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ABSTRACT: Overpowering the city of Nikšić, Montenegro, is a structure, perhaps no longer interesting in its form, but definitely in its purpose and meaning. It is the Home of Revolution, an edifice conceptualized to arise emotions of awe, to acknowledge the horrifying period of struggle against fascism and nazism, to showcase architectural wisdom and ambition of the Yugoslav dream and to be the center of arts and culture. According to this alien, brutalist object, the city of Nikšić, and largely the republic of Montenegro would be recognized upon the Yugoslavian, and wider European stage. Home of the Revolution was supposed to be the biggest and most grandiose of all World War II Spomeniks or monuments that the federal government of Yugoslavia sponsored since the development of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. However, unlike the thousands of primarily sculptural WWII monuments across the nation, this particular monument was to house a complete cultural program and function. Yet, no one had anticipated the unraveling political events that initiated with Tito’s passing in 1980.

1 1. Marko Mušić: Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-89.

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In place of a people’s collective revolution, came the antibureaucratic revolution with deep economic and political crisis that slowly led to a complete suspension of the project. Since then, the Home of Revolution has been patiently awaiting its fate, abandoned, violated and decaying for the past 25 years. Proposed is a fictional projection of events which depict transitional psychological stages of society, a society whose mentality evolves into a rising state of acceptance where the monument becomes part of the everyday life, part of a society which no longer feels anger or shame towards its past. The cultural shifts are directly reflected upon architecture and layered through time as a direct opposition to the past ideology’s single-handed imposition of an architectural style which was irrelative toward the existing culture and context.

Thus, the site, through the acts of the people, not only evolves into a state of acceptance but truly becomes the home of revolution, occupied by daily activities and a new fostering of arts and culture. This process will enable the fragmented notion of national identity to undergo a journey of self-discovery and maturity, as the re-evaluation and re-focus upon rooted values and the past will aid the wounded society to re-identify with its new evolving culture and physical environment. It is my belief that these processes of self-discovery through stylistic expression in arts and architecture can provide for a matured dialogue, a wide stage of expression, and for cultural vibrancy under the new unifying political umbrella, that of the European Union.

THESIS QUESTIONS: 1. How can an architectural intervention not only enhance the wounded territory’s physical and economic posture through development, but help re- discover and clarify a sense of new national identity? 2. How does present history affect the memory of the past? 5


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Sunčica Milošević Copyright 2013

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THANK YOU’S: First and foremost, I wish to thank my dear brother Julian Alexander Filipović for begging me to propose a design solution for the Home of Revolution since he was five years old. We grew up staring at this decaying, violated monument from the balcony of our home in Montenegro and he has always expressed his frustrations with its horrific sight during the summers that we visited as kids. My dear little brother, I hope that your sister made you proud and that you enjoy my drawings. You inspired me to do this. I would also like to thank my mother Zorka Musović and grandmother Danica Musović for being my constant support and for always believing in me. If it wasn’t for your efforts and sacrifices, I would not have had an opportunity to live my American Dream or to attend such a prestigious university and invest in my education. I feel truly blessed and thankful, and I hope that I have made you proud. My dear grandmother, a woman who knows everybody in our home town, has been my major link to some of the following people in this letter. She has gone through such efforts to go out, meet with these individuals, scan, and electronically send me all the preliminary documents I needed for this project. Dear grandma, you are my angel.

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Very importantly, I would like to thank my research advisor Vincent Sansalone, Associate Professor of Architecture at the University of Cincinnati who prefers to be called an artist rather than an architect. His interest in controversial project, directional spontaneity and permission to explore abstract or unconventional ideas were primary reasons why I had wished to work with Mr. Sansalone. As hard as it seemed at times for me, thank you for letting me learn how to swim through my own set of ideas which kept drowning me until I learned how to accept the complexity and multiplicity of this project. You have told me not to listen to anybody else but myself, and I am sincerely happy that I have done exactly that. Also, I would like to thank my best friend Nemanja Ćalasan, for being my emergency contact during all my years of school including this most stressful one. You’ve pushed me and kept me going when I felt the weakest and most insecure. I wish to thank you for all your sleepless nights and belief in me. When we were 15 years old, we had our first date on the rooftop of this monument, and on my 18th birthday I woke up to a view of the “i love you forever” graffiti message upon this monument’s facade which has not faded to this day. We grew up through such a rough time, but I am finally at a state where I am proud of our past and where we come from.

I would also like to thank prof. John Hancock, professor at the University of Cincinnati, for his additional guidance, self-willed commitment, constant feedback and patience with my evolution of ideas through this entire year. Thank you for being dedicated to not just my own work, but to all of your students. You have come to our desks in studio each and every class time and this constant guidance is what made us stronger and our projects stronger.


Sincere thanks go to Nebojša Adžic, Montenegrin architect and architectural engineer. Mr. Adžić has made this project topic possible as he has provided me with invaluable drawings he has created of the existing state of the Home of Revolution monument. Likewise, he provided me with published magazine articles and local media articles which addressed the monument and he has been sending me regular feedback upon my work. I am very thankful for all of your dedicated correspondence with me and your continued support.

A very special thank you goes out to my dearest friend Olia Miho. You were my advisor plus one and also an emergency hot line. You have spent innumerous hours with me on the telephone, helped me clarify my thoughts and ideas, challenged me to justify my actions, and encouraged me to follow my own ideas even if they seemed crazy and nonsensical at the time. You will always a special place in my heart. If this network of support wasn’t enough, I was extremely fortunate for the following people who were very kind to supply me with all necessary sources of information regarding the Home of Revolution monument. I wish to thank Mr. Živojin Stanišić, director at the Institute for Design and Urban Planning in Niksic, Montenegro, for sending me extensive site documents and photographs of this project as well as Mrs. Bojka Ðukanović, professor of the English Language and Literature at the College of Philosophy in Niksic, Montenegro, for linking me with the above contacts.

Likewise, I wish to thank Dimitrije Labudović, professional photographer for working closely with me over the telephone line and taking such extensive photographs of the site, most of which have made this document more beautiful. And, I wish to thank my dear friends from Nikšić, Uroš Pavićević and Ðorđe Pantović for their time and kindness to additionally provide me with photographs of the Home of Revolution monument. Lastly, but very importantly, a sincere thank you goes out to my dear friend, former classmate and a colleague in architecture, Nina Kandić for providing me with plan drawings of our home city, Nikšić. I have been truly blessed to have such a great network of kind people. Thank you everybody. 9


28 INTRO

SITE

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foreword my childhood experience

Political Yugoslavia

overview of the ideological concept of Yugoslavia, the three political Yugoslavias, and its ultimate collapse.

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Architectural Yugoslavia

72

Yugoslav Utopian Monuments

88

Largest Utopian Monument

104

Architecture as Political Act

128

Site Analysis

overview of the Yugoslav ‘Modernism,’ parallels between political change and its effects on architecture, and the resulting disconnect between the Yugoslav sense of identity and its remaining works of architecture.

overview of the ambitious constructions of Yugoslav WWII memorials, their aim to abstract and conceal the past in efforts to celebrate a socialist utopian future, a new national identiy.

overview of the largest WWII memorial of the former Yugoslavia, left unfinished, gated, and abandoned in the heart of the city Niksic, second largest city of the former Yugoslav republic, Montenegro

evaluation of the exploited politics behind the site’s existing condition, analysis of contemporary theories and examples of socialist architecture, political and psychological implications of commemorating the past, and outlined desire for change at the site of Home of Revolution.

series of diagrams outlining of the existing conditions of the monument and its site, site’s impact upon the urban fabric, and intervention opportunities.


RESEARCH

142

METHOD

190

Precedents

analysis of influential and exemplary works of architecture and landscape architecture, outlining the successful and similarly desired effects behind several categories of precedents - theory, or the idea precedents, site precedents and building precedents.

Design Approach

analysis of the autocratic vs. democratic gestures of urban planning, outlining the core principles behind the collage technique and how it can be applied as a multiple, spontaneous gesture in architecture. This method leads toward design process where a fictional sequence of seven psychological phases and cultural shifts is layered and overlapped into a resultant phase of cultural pride and a state of the past’s acceptance.

PROJECT

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Design

series of drawings which illustrate the final phase of pride or acceptance, the site’s multiple and overlapped program of both the high arts and the casual everyday activities allows the Home of Revolution and its site to truly become occupied, to truly foster arts and culture, and to truly be the home of revolution.

bibliography

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IMAGE CREDITS:

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Marko Mušić: Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-89: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. Home of Revolution. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Edited by author.

Chapter 1 cover image - View of a residential apartment building from within the Home of Revolution: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. Home of Revolution. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Edited by author. 1. Lenin square with its elementary school prior to demolition, 1963: MONTENEGRO - NIKSIC - 1963. 1963. Photograph. Nikšić. http:// http://www.delcampe.net/. 24 May 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/id,174639378,var,MONTENEGRO--NIKSIC--1963,language,E.html>. 2. Family photo of my mother and grandmother: Family, Nikšić. Photograph by author. 3. 4.

Lenin square with its elementary school prior to demolition: Building of the Pre-existing Elementary School, Teaching School and Pedagogy Academy. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. Nikšić Zbornik Zanimljivosti. By Maksim Vujačić. Vol. 10. Nikšić: Biblioteka “Arhiv Uspomena”, 2005. Cover Image. Print. View of the historic school and the public square along the city’s main pedestrian boulevard “korzo:” Nikšić. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://www.skyscrapercity.com. 18 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://i47.tinypic.com/fooiuq.jpg>.

5. Home of Revolution, image from the 1980’s, rock climbing: Home of Revolution in Nikšić. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://imageshack.us/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/4/tndomrevolucijeuniksicu.jpg/?sa=0>.

6. Photo from the 1980’s of the north edge of the monument’s site showing the newly constructed residential district: Nikšić. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://forum.cafemontenegro.com/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://forum.cafemontenegro.com/attachment.php?attachmentid=1593&d=1134856033>. 1.

View of the Home of Revolution from my family’s residence: Home of Revolution existing state, Nikšić. Personal photograph by author. Aug 2012.

2. Home of Revolution site in early 2000’s: Nikšić. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://www.domaci.de/. 27 Jan. 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.domaci.de/album_showpage.php?full=&pic_id=24289>. 3. Scan of the Home of Revolution tender catalogue: Nikšić Catalogue. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. Comp. Nebojša Adžić. Print. 4. 5.

Childhood photo with view of the monument: Personal photograph by author. 1993. Childhood photo at the school amphitheater: Personal photograph by author. 1993.

1. Chapter 2 cover image - Tito posing for a bust portrait: tito-pozira-za-kip. N.d. Photograph. http://www.flickr.com/. By Ivan Anić. 9 Jan. 2007. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ivansarmy/352268845/>. Map of Former Yugoslavia, emphasis on Montenegro: Diagram by author. 2012. 1. 2. Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia: Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. 2012. Photograph. http://www.wikipedia.org/. 25 Mar. 2008. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coat_of_arms_of_the_Kingdom_of_Yugoslavia.svg>. 3. Formation of the Kingdom of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia: Devedeset Godina Od Stvaranja Kraljevine SHS. N.d. Photograph. http://www.rts.rs/. 01 Dec. 2008. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.rts.rs/page/stories/sr/story/125/Dru%C5%A1tvo/30554/Devedeset+godina+od+stvaranja+Kraljevine+SHS.html>. 4. Assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, sparking a revolt against Austio-Hungarian Empire and the start of WWI: L’assassinat De François-Ferdinand Et Son épouse Par Gavrilo Princip, à Sarajevo, Le 28 Juin 1914. N.d. Photograph. http://www. interet-general.info/. 24 July 2008. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.interet-general.info/spip.php?article1917>. 5. Proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs at Congress Square in Ljubljana on 20 October 1918: Grbaječ, Fran. The Proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs at Congress Square in Ljubljana on 20 October 1918. 1918. Photograph. Museum of Modern History, Ljubljana. http://www.wikipedia.org/. 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:KongressfallofAH.jpg>. 1. Map of former Yugoslavia’s 6 republics : Thaler, Wolfgang. Map of Yugoslavia. N.d. Photograph. Modernism In-Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. Inside Cover Image. Print.

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p. 46 - 47 p. 48 - 49

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Tito addressing the crowd of supporters in Belgrade. tito-ljudstvo2. N.d. Photograph. http://www.flickr.com/. By Ivan Anić. 9 Jan. 2007. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. < http://www.flickr.com/photos/stanojka/6823076132/>. 2. Tito’s annual birthday celebration / national Youth Day ceremony held in Belgrade, Serbia tito-kambodza. N.d. Photograph. http://www.flickr.com/. By Ivan Anić. 9 Jan. 2007. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ivansarmy/352267187/>. 3. Tito visits Podgorica, formerly called Titograd, capital of Montenegro: tito-v-titogradu. N.d. Photograph. http://www.flickr.com/. By David Cuoto. 10 Mar. 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/stanojka/6969198937/in/set-72157629552961341> 4. Tito petting a leopard during his business trip in Africa: tito&gepard. N.d. Photograph. http://www.flickr.com/. By Ivan Anić. 9 Jan. 2007. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ivansarmy/352265611/>. 5. Tito on the front cover of World Week, Dec 9, 1959, following the break with Stalin: Tito on the Cover of World Week Magazine.1959. Photograph. http://yugoslavian.blogspot.com/. 14 Apr. 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://yugoslavian.blogspot.com/2010/04/tito-on-cover-of-world-week-magazine.html>. 6. Tito and his wife enjoying a celebration meal with young pioneer students: Tito’s Pioneers. N.d. Photograph. http://forum.net.hr/. 25 May 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://forum.net.hr/forums/p/319287/9680135.aspx>. 1. Geopolitical map of socialist Yugoslavia, published 1987: Geopolitical Map of Yugoslavia. 1987. Photograph. Belgrade. YU - Handbook on Yugoslavia. By Nikola Antić. Belgrade: Federal Secretariat for Information, 1987. 112-13. Print. 1. Alexander Wittek: National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo 1892, burned 1992: Norfolk, Lawrence. National Library of Bosnia-Hercogovina Burning, August 1992. 1992. Photograph. Sarajevo. http://www. lawrencenorfolk.com/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.lawrencenorfolk.com/archive/cities/burning-libraries/>. 2. Ivan Štraus: Unis Towers, Sarajevo 1986, burned 1992: 20 Years Since The Bosnian War. N.d. Photograph. http://cdn.theatlantic.com/. 13 Apr. 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/bosnia041312/s_b09_42595679.jpg>. 3. Shelled and burned home, Bosnia and Herzegovina: N.d. Photograph. http://www.glogster.com/. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <http://4206e9.medialib.glogster.com/media/06fe4114a8980757d952d86aea41c3c71069b870036f6b98e377180c0e0 9e864/3380499412-86a2e9b712.jpg>. 4. Sniper Alley, Sarajevo 1992: Stoddart, Tom. Sniper Alley, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1992. Photograph. Sarajevo. http://www.cpi-reps.com/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.cpi-reps.com/index.php#mi=2&pt=1&pi=10000&s=1&p=0&a=3&at=0>. 5. Bosnia, statement about the war: Statement about the Bosnian War. N.d. Photograph. http://www.vagabondjourney.com/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.vagabondjourney.com/2009-travel-photos/09-war-protest-bosnia.JPG>. 1. Chapter 3 cover image - Hotel Rixos, Dubrovnik: Hotel Rixos Libertas. N.d. Photograph. Dubrovnik. http://www.ibegalis.com/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ibegalis.com/hotels/dubrovnik/rixos1.jpg>. 1. Drago Ibler, building at Matrićeva Street 13, Zagreb, Croatia 1930: Drago Ibler, building at Matrićeva Street 13, Zagreb, 1930. N.d. Photograph. Zagreb. Impossible Histories - Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant-gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991. Ed. Dubravka Djurić and Misko Suvaković. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT, 2003. 342. Print. 2. Ivan Zemljak, primary school, Zagreb, Croatia 1930-31: Dvorišni Objekat Pri Završetku Gradnje. Snimio: Ivan Zemljak, Preuzeto Iz Knjige Darje Radovčić I Suradnika “Moderna Arhitektura U Hrvatskoj”. N.d. Photograph. Zagreb. http://blog.dnevnik.hr./. 18 Apr. 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-ri2r3QwMr2Q/T4xdeo6ElvI/AAAAAAAAMuo/fdaj5BPsEKg/s800/selska6.jpg>.

3. Ivan Zemljak, primary school, Zagreb, Croatia 1930-31: Dvorišni Objekt (uočite Prazninu Iza Njega, Tu Se Sad Nalazi Firma “Ericsson Nikola Tesla”!). Snimio: Ivan Zemljak, Preuzeto Iz Knjige Darje Radovčić I Suradnika “Moderna Arhitektura U Hrvatskoj”. N.d. Photograph. Zagreb. http://blog.dnevnik.hr./. 18 Apr. 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-uh74qF-jW6o/T4xdeXt-2NI/AAAAAAAAMuw/w_b0s6Lkhnc/s800/selska5.jpg>.

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4. France Tomazić, Villa Oblak, Ljubljana, Slovenia 1932-35: Outside View,Villa Oblak by France Tomazić, Ljubljana 1931-33, (DESSA). N.d. Photograph. Ljubljana. http://corbu2.caed.kent.edu/ architronic/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://corbu2.caed.kent.edu/architronic/v4n2/pix/v4n2.02mb.jpg>. 1. Momir Korunović, Postal Ministry, Belgrade, Serbia 1928: Momir Korunivić, Postal Ministry, Belgrade, 1928. N.d. Photograph. Zagreb. Impossible Histories - Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991. Ed. Dubravka Djurić and Miško Suvaković. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT, 2003. 349. Print. 2.

Milan Zloković, University Clinic for Children, Belgrade, Serbia 1933: Dečija Bolnica U Tiršovoj. N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. http://www.skyscrapercity.com/. Jan. 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://i362.photobucket.com/albums/oo64/Braniac87/BolnicaTirsova.jpg>. 3. Ernest Weissmann, VIlla Kraus, Zagreb, Croatia 1936-37: Ernest Weissmann, VIlla Kraus, Zagreb, 1936-37. N.d. Photograph. Zagreb. Impossible Histories - Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991. Ed. Dubravka Djurić and Miško Suvaković. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT, 2003. 345. Print. 4. Dragiša Brašovan,Yugoslav Airforce Command Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1935: Komanda Ratnog Vazduhoplovsta, 1935 Belgrade-Zemun. N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. http://www.skyscrapercity.com/. July 2006. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://i105.photobucket.com/albums/m235/Vlastimir/Capturettttt.jpg>.

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1. Nikola Dobrović: Grand Hotel, Lopud near Dubrovnik, Croatia 1936: Thaler, Wolfgang. Nikola Dobrović: Grand Hotel, Lopud near Dubrovnik, Croatia 1936. 1936. Photograph. Modernism In-Between The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 20-21. Print.

2. Grand Hotel, 2011: GRAND HOTEL (1936.) Architect Nikola Dobrović (currently under Reconstruction). 2011. Photograph. Dubrovnik. http://www.flickr. com/. 1 Sept. 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://farm7.staticflickr.com/6064/6131011970_d20fd68242_b.jpg>.

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1. Vjenčeslav Richter: Pavilion of Yugoslavia at EXPO, Brussels 1956-58: Yugoslavia Pavilion, Expo 58. N.d. Photograph. Brussels. http://www.flickr.com/. 23 Feb. 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2755/4383289769_1751ac0c7e_z.jpg?zz=1>.

2. Božidar Rašica, Zagreb International Fair Pavilion, Zagreb, Croatia 1953: Messe Zagreb, Pavillon Der Schwerindustrie Avenija Dubrovnik, Zagreb 1953 - 57, Architekt: Božidar Rašica. N.d. Photograph. Zagreb. http://www.ostblog.ch/. 22 Jan. 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ostblog.ch/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/zagreb-fair-architecture-bozidar-rasica-005.jpg>.

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3. Ivan Vitić, Simo Matavulj, Elementary School and Yugoslav People’s Army Club, Šibenik, Croatia 1950-61: Thaler, Wolfgang. Ivan Vitić: Simo Matavulj Elementary School and Yugoslav People’s Army Club, Šibenik, 1950-61. Photograph. Modernism In-Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 97. Print. 4. Mihailo Janković and Dusan Milenković, former Building of Social and Political Organizations, view of New Belgrade, Serbia: Thaler, Wolfgang. View of New Belgrade from the top of the former Building of Social and Political Organizations by Mihailo Janković and Dušan Milenković. Center: Federal Executive Council Building. Photograph. Modernism In-Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 141. Print. 1.

Edvard Ravnikar, Office Towers and Cankarjev dom Congress Center, Revolution Square (today Republic Square), Ljubljana, Slovenia 1960-74: Bezjak, Roman. Cankarjev Dom, Cultural and Congress Center Ljubljana, Slovenia 2009. 2009. Photograph. Ljubljana. Socialist Modernism. By Till Briegleb, Christian Raabe, and Inka Schube. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011. 22. Print. 1. Marko Mušić, Memorial Center, Kolašin, Montenegro 1969-75: Kempenaers, Jan. 2010. Photograph. Kolašin. http://openbuildings.com/. Web. 11 June 2013. <http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group4/building39295/media/dwke_spomenik_17.jpg>. 2. Marko Mušić, Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-1989: Linke, Armin, and Srdjan Jovanović Weiss. Home of Revolution. 2011. Photograph. Nikšić. Socialist Architecture: The Vanishing Act. Zurich: JRP/Ringier, 2011. 36. Print. 3. Marko Mušić, Church of Christ’s Incarnation, Dravlje, Slovenia 1980-85: KIRCHE MENSCHWERDUNG CHRISTI. N.d. Photograph. Ljubljana. http://www.visitljubljana.com/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.visitljubljana.com/file/1346474/cerkev-dravlje-2.jpg>.

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Marko Mušić, Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-1989: Linke, Armin, and Srdjan Jovanović Weiss. Home of Revolution. 2011. Photograph. Nikšić. Socialist Architecture: The Vanishing Act. Zurich: JRP/Ringier, 2011. 36-37. Print. 1. Janko Konstantinov, Telecommunication Center, Skopje, Macedonia 1974, 1982 and 1989: Bezjak, Roman. General Post Office Skopje, Macedonia, 2008. 2008. Photograph. Ljubljana. Socialist Modernism. By Till Briegleb, Christian Raabe, and Inka Schube. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011. 99. Print. 1. New Belgrade housing blocks, 1947-1975: Bežanijski Blokovi EDIT. N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. http://www.wikipedia.org/. 30 May 2005. Web. 13 Mar. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Be%C5%BEanijski_Blokovi_EDIT.jpg>. 2. Vladimir Potočnjak, Anton Urlih, Zlatko Nojman and Dragica Perak, Federal Executive Council Building (today Palace of Serbia), Belgrade, Serbia 1947-59: Kempinski Beograd. N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. http://beobuild.rs/. 08 Dec. 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://s8.postimage.org/iya9sqjkl/siv.jpg>. 3. 4.

Anton Bitenc, Church in Koseze, Ljubljana, Slovenia 1969-1973: Landscape in Transition. N.d. Photograph. Ljubljana. http://mediacenter.dw.de/. 16 Apr. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://www.dw.de/image/0,,15876337_303,00.jpg>.

Edvard Ravnikar, The Revolution Square, Ljubljana, Slovenia 1960-74: Symbolic Spaces. N.d. Photograph. Ljubljana. http://mediacenter.dw.de/. 16 Apr. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://www.dw.de/image/0,,15876400_303,00.jpg>. 5. Stojan Maksimović, Sava Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1977-79: Stojan Maksimović, Sava Center, Belgrade, 1977-79. N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. Impossible Histories - Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant-gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991. Ed. Dubravka Djurić and Miško Suvaković. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT, 2003. 362. Print. 6. Georgi Konstantinovski, Goce Delcev Student Dormitory, Skopje, Macedonia 1969: Thaler, Wolfgang. Ivan Vitić: Georgi Konstantinovski, Goce Delcev Student Dormitory, Skopje 1969. N.d. Photograph. Skopje. Modernism In-Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 62. Print. 7. Janko Konstantinov, Telecommunication Center, Skopje, Macedonia 1974, 1982 and 1989: Thaler, Wolfgang. Ivan Vitić: Janko Konstantinov: Telecommunication Center, Skopje, 1974 -1989. N.d. Photograph. Skopje. Modernism In-Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 103. Print. 1. Zlatko Ugljen, Serefudin White Mosque, Visoko, Bosnia 1969-79: Thaler, Wolfgang. Ivan Vitić: Zlatko Ugljen: Serefudin White Mosque, Visoko, 1969-79. N.d. Photograph. Visoko. Modernism In Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 74-75. Print. 2. Svetlana Radević, Podgorica Hotel, Podgorica, Montenegro 1967: Thaler, Wolfgang. Ivan Vitić: Svetlana Radević: Podgorica Hotel, Podgorica, 1967. N.d. Photograph. Podgorica. Modernism In Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 262-263. Print.

1. Mihajlo Janković, UŠČE Business Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1965: Figure 6. Mihajlo Janković: UŠČE Business Center, 1965 (location 5, Fig. 1). 1999. Photograph. Belgrade. Cities. The Destruction of an Architectural Culture: The 1999 Bombing of Belgrade. By Miloš R. Perović and Zoran Žegarac. 6th ed. Vol. 17. 395-408. December 2000. ScienceDirect. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275100000391>. 2. Dragiša Brašovan, Yugoslav Airforce Command Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1935: Figure 5. Dragiša Brašovan: Yugoslav Airforce Command Center, 1935 (location 4, Fig. 1). 1999. Photograph. Belgrade. Cities. The Destruction of an Architectural Culture: The 1999 Bombing of Belgrade. By Miloš R. Perović and Zoran Žegarac. 6th ed. Vol. 17. 395 408. December 2000. ScienceDirect. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275100000391>.

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1. Oslobodjenje Novine Publishing House, Sarajevo, Bosnia: Bezjak, Roman. Oslobodjenje Novine Publishing House Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 2007. 2007. Photograph. Sarajevo. Socialist Modernism. By Till Briegleb, Christian Raabe, and Inka Schube. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011. 74. Print.

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1. Shelled buildings and graffiti, Sarajevo, Bosnia: Near Sniper’s Alley, Sarajevo, Bosnia Herzegovina. Scanned Photo. 1995. Photograph. Sarajevo. http://www.flickr.com/. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://farm1.staticflickr.com/43/79845319_62d37c8fa9_o.jpg>. 2. Shelled buildings and graffiti, Sarajevo, Bosnia: Invisible border, Sarajevo. Personal photograph by author. 07 Aug. 2012.


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3. Shelled buildings and graffiti, Sarajevo, Bosnia: WelcomeToHell2. 1993-1994. Photograph. Sarajevo. http://www.newcombat.net/. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.newcombat.net/images/for_two_trips/WelcomeToHell2.jpg>.

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1. Chapter 4 cover image - Tito’s World War II Monuments: A World War Monument in Bosnia, near Serbia and Croatia. 2008. Photograph. Tjentište. http://www.flickr.com/. 28 June 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3072/2619517506_ce2b702eed_o.jpg>.

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Miodrag Živković, Figthers Workers Batallion Monument, Kadinjača, Serbia 1979: Kadinjaca. N.d. Photograph. Užice. http://miodrag-zivkovic.com/index.htm/. By Miodrag Zivković. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://miodrag-zivkovic.com/velike%20skulpture/spomiprostor/slike/kadinjaca.jpg>. 2. Miodrag Živković, Sutjeska Memorial, Tjentište, Bosnia 1971: Sutjeska. N.d. Photograph. Tjentište. http://miodrag-zivkovic.com/index.htm/. By Miodrag Zivković. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://miodrag-zivkovic.com/velike%20skulpture/spomiprostor/slike/sutjeska.jpg>. 3. Miodrag Živković, Figthers Workers Batallion Monument, Kadinjača, Serbia 1979: Kadinjaca6. N.d. Photograph. Užice. http://miodrag-zivkovic.com/index.htm/. By Miodrag Zivković. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://miodrag-zivkovic.com/velike%20skulpture/spomiprostor/slike/kadinjaca6.jpg>. 4. Bogdan Bogdanović, Jasenovac Flower Memorial, Jasenovac, Croatia 1966: Anna Sitting on the Flower. N.d. Photograph. Jasenovac. http://www.flickr.com/. 12 Oct. 2008. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3182/2935584170_0a646858ec_z.jpg?zz=1>. 1. Dušan Džamonja, Monument to the Revolution, Kozara, Bosnia 1972: Kozara01. N.d. Photograph. Kozara. http://fzz.cc/issue02PART.html. By Robert Burghardt. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://fzz.cc/slides_PART/jpgs/kozara01.jpg>. 2. Dušan Džamonja, Monument to the Revolution, Kozara, Bosnia 1972: Das Kozara Denkmal (“Mrakovica”) Erinnert an Die Schlacht an Der Kozara Im 2. Weltkrieg. N.d. Photograph. Kozara. http://www. bosnienforum.com/. 19 May 2011. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://img862.imageshack.us/img862/5091/kozara1.jpg>. 3. Dušan Džamonja, Monument to the Revolution, Kozara, Bosnia 1972: Pogled Na Mrakovicu I Spomen Kompleks. N.d. Photograph. Kozara. http://www.promoturpd.org/prijedor/. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.promoturpd.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/np_kozara.jpg>. 1. Bogdan Bogdanović, Dudik Memorial Park, Vukovar, Croatia, 1980: Denkmal Für Im Zweiten Weltkrieg Hingerichtete Zivilisten, Vukovar, Kroatien © Bild: Reinhard Seiss / URBAN+. N.d. Photograph. Vukovar. http://www.af-z.ch/bogdanovic. 03 Dec. 2009. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.af-z.ch/files/images/bogdan_vukovar_024.jpg>. 2. Bogdan Bogdanović, Partisan Necropolis of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia 1965: Nekropole Für Gefallene Partisanen, Mostar, Bosnien-Herzegowina © Bild: Reinhard Seiss / URBAN+. N.d. Photograph. Mostar. http:// www.af-z.ch/bogdanovic. 03 Dec. 2009. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.af-z.ch/files/images/bogdan_mostar_064.jpg>. 3. Bogdan Bogdanović, Partisan Necropolis of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia 1965: Partisan Cemetary, Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina. N.d. Photograph. Mostar. http://meinekleinefabrik.blogspot.com/2013/02/partisan cemetary-mostar-bosnia.html. 05 Feb. 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://25.media.tumblr.com/31b762b792f7b32ef2ba178e7d7a7e01/tumblr_mhift0Z2zA1r4vadxo1_500.jpg>. 4. Bogdan Bogdanović, Jasenovac Flower Memorial, Jasenovac, Croatia 1966: Jasenovac02. N.d. Photograph. Jasenovac. http://fzz.cc/issue02PART.html. By Robert Burghardt. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://fzz.cc/slides_PART/jpgs/jasenovac02.jpg>. Vojin Bakić, Tower on Magarčevo, Petrova Gora, Croatia, 1981: 1. petrova_gora01. N.d. Photograph. Petrova Gora. http://fzz.cc/issue02PART.html. By Robert Burghardt. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://fzz.cc/slides_PART/jpgs/petrova_gora01.jpg>. 2. Vojin Bakić, Tower on Magarčevo, Petrova Gora, Croatia, 1981: 2-Memorijalni_centar_Petrova_Gora. 2010. Photograph. Petrova Gora. http://www.cro-eu.com/forum/index.php?topic=2056.0. 22 July 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://cro-eu.com/galerija-fotografija/albums/userpics/10001/2-Memorijalni_centar_Petrova_Gora.jpg>. 3. Vojin Bakić, Tower on Magarčevo, Petrova Gora, Croatia, 1981: 1-Memorijalni_centar_Petrova_Gora. 2010. Photograph. Petrova Gora. http://www.cro-eu.com/forum/index.php?topic=2056.0. 22 July 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://cro-eu.com/galerija-fotografija/albums/userpics/10001/1-Memorijalni_centar_Petrova_Gora.jpg>.

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Marko Mušić, Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-89: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 1. Bogdan Bogdanović, Jasenovac Flower Memorial, Jasenovac, Croatia 1966: Thaler, Wolfgang. Nikola Dobrović: Bogdan Bogdanović: Jasenovac Memorial Complex, Jasenovac, 1959-66. N.d. Photograph. Modernism In-Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 238-239. Print. 2. Bogdan Bogdanović, Slobodište Memorial Park, Kruševac, Serbia 1965: Thaler, Wolfgang. Nikola Dobrović: Bogdan Bogdanović: Slobodište Necropolis, Kruševac, 1960-65. N.d. Photograph. Modernism In-Between - The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. By Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš. Fort Lauderdale, Zagreb, Vienna: Jovis, 2012. 240-241. Print. Yugoslav architecture time line: Diagram by author. 1.

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Chapter 5 cover image - Home of Revolution: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. Home of Revolution. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Edited by author.

Marko Mušić, Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-89: Linke, Armin, and Srdjan Jovanović Weiss. Home of Revolution. 2011. Photograph. Nikšić. Socialist Architecture: The Vanishing Act. Zurich: JRP/Ringier, 2011. 36-37. Print. 2. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Pavićević, Uroš. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 3. Exterior view, Home of Revolution: Linke, Armin, and Srdjan Jovanović Weiss. Home of Revolution. 2011. Photograph. Nikšić. Socialist Architecture: The Vanishing Act. Zurich: JRP/Ringier, 2011. 38. Print. 4. Exterior view, Home of Revolution: Courtesy of Pavićević, Uroš. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 1. Yugoslav industrialism: N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. YU - Handbook on Yugoslavia. By Nikola Antić. Belgrade: Federal Secretariat for Information, 1987. 137. Print. 2. Yugoslav partisans: N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. YU - Handbook on Yugoslavia. By Nikola Antić. Belgrade: Federal Secretariat for Information, 1987. 111. Print. 3. City center, Nikšić, Montenegro 2012: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 1. Lenin square with its elementary school prior to demolition: MONTENEGRO - NIKSIC - 1963. 1963. Photograph. Nikšić. http://www.delcampe.net/. 24 May 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/id,174639378,var,MONTENEGRO--NIKSIC--1963,language,E.html>. 2. Lenin square with its elementary school prior to demolition: Building of the Pre-existing Elementary School, Teaching School and Pedagogy Academy. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. Nikšić Zbornik Zanimljivosti. By Maksim Vujačić. Vol. 10. Nikšić: Biblioteka “Arhiv Uspomena”, 2005. Cover Image. Print. 3. View of the historic school and the public square along the city’s main pedestrian boulevard “korzo:” Nikšić. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://www.skyscrapercity.com/. 18 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://i47.tinypic.com/fooiuq.jpg>.

4. Photo from the 1980’s of the north edge of the monument’s site showing the newly constructed residential district: Nikšić. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://forum.cafemontenegro.com/. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://forum.cafemontenegro.com/attachment.php?attachmentid=1593&d=1134856033>.

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Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić.


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2. 3. 4.

Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić.

p. 100 - 101 1. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. p. 102 - 103 p. 104 - 105

1. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.

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Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Chapter 6 cover image - Home of Revolution: Courtesy of Pavićević, Uroš. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Pantović, Djordje. 2013. Photograph. Nikšić. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić.

Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1920s: The Potsdamer Platz. 1920s. Photograph. Berlin. Http://www.amc-booking.com/blog/2011/04/. Apr. 2011. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.amc-booking.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/architektur-kassel.de_.gif>. 2. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1945: Pisarek, Abraham. Der Demolierte Dom, Potsdamer Platz, Potsdamer Brücke Berlin. 1945. Photograph. Berlin. http://en.wikipedia. org/. 10 Apr. 2009. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Fotothek_df_pk_0000145_001.jpg>. 3. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1963: Wollstadt, Roger. Border at Potsdamer Platz in 1963. 1963. Photograph. Berlin. http://en.wikipedia.org/. 03 Apr. 2011. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Berlin_-_%22Der_Sozialismus_Siegt%21%22.jpg/800px-Berlin_ _%22Der_Sozialismus_Siegt%21%22.jpg>. 4. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1986: Lyricmac. Potsdamer Platz in 1986, Showing No Man’s Land between the Outer Wall (foreground) and Inner Wall (background). In the Distance, East Berlin and the Fernsehturm. The Palast Hotel Stood on the Grassy Area Immediately beyond the Lamp-post. The Grass-covered Mound Partly Visible on the Far Left Marks the Site of Hitler’s Bunker. 1986. Photograph. Berlin. http://en.wikipedia. org/. May 1986. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/63/Berlin-former_Potsdamer_Platz-1982.jpg/771px-Berlin-former_ Potsdamer_Platz-1982.jpg>. 5. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 2003: Mosch, Vincent. Blick Vom Leipziger Platz Auf Den Potsdamer Platz. 2003. Photograph. Berlin. http://www.stadtentwicklung. berlin.de/planen/staedtebau-projekte/leipziger_platz/de/realisierung/index.shtml. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/planen/staedtebau-projekte/leipziger_platz/pix/realisierung/030901_tuerme_potsdamer_ platz_680x443.jpg>. 1. Anca Petrescu, Palace of the Parliament (People’s Palace), Bucharest, Romania 1983-89: Bucareste. N.d. Photograph. Bucharest. http://www.maestrobilly.com.br/add_0763-especial-de-sexta-feira/. 05 Mar. 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.maestrobilly.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/BucharestParliamentPalace.jpg>.

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Anca Petrescu, Palace of the Parliament (People’s Palace), Bucharest, Romania 1983-89: N.d. Photograph. Bucharest. http://bucharestlounge.wordpress.com/2012/10/08/bucharest-half-marathon-beautiful-great/. 08 Oct. 2008. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://bucharestlounge.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/img_7502.jpg>. 2. Anca Petrescu, Palace of the Parliament (People’s Palace), Bucharest, Romania 1983-89: Bucharest’s Palace of the Parliament. N.d. Photograph. Bucharest. http://www.travelingmisslazy.com/weekly-photo-bucharests palace-of-the-parliament/. 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://www.travelingmisslazy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/weeklyphoto7.jpg>. 3. People’s Palace, Bucharest, Romania, Changing the Face 2009 3rd place competition winner: Ştefănescu, Dimitrie Andrei. Making You More Curious - The People’s House. 2009. Photograph. Bucharest. http://www2.dupont. com/Changing_The_Face/en_GB/past_editions/Bucharest-2009-People-House.html. 03 Aug. 2009. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/changing-the-face/5394660405/>. 3. Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro, existing state: Petrušić, Ivan. Dom Revolucije. N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://www.vijesti.me/vijesti/niksic-u-domu-revolucije-lakse-povrijedeno dvoje-mladih-clanak-121130. 01 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.vijesti.me/slika-519x316/vijesti/niksic-u-domu-revolucije-lakse-povrijedeno-dvoje-mladih-slika-223170.jpg>. 1. Daniel Libeskind, Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1999: Jüdisches Museum Berlin. 2011. Photograph. Berlin. http://dailyphotostream.blogspot.com/. 07 July 2012. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ShuyrlBnp7I/T-iJwfQa2VI/AAAAAAAAIQo/FM8vRhED8Q4/s1600/1109070153.jpg>. 2. Daniel Libeskind, Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1999: 13th September: Jewish Museum Berlin. 2007. Photograph. Berlin. Http://www.pbase.com/image/85523427. 13 Sept. 2007. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. <http://m7.i.pbase.com/o6/13/395713/1/85523427.8B2iKcUv.IMG_29711.JPG>. 3. Daniel Libeskind, Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1999: Shalekhet (Falling Leaves) an Installation by the Israeli Artist, Menashe Kadishman. N.d. Photograph. Berlin. http://blog.europetravel. net/photo/jewish-museum-berlin-4. 30 Oct. 2011. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. <http://api.ning.com/files/0jOGfrIFOlL3rkp5b2X0e-6pLeVaSQ19brsj4QG6Ci774AasOtDHInLUzt2qDded2QU4NR7vpx6YxzC6Y5O8L nzidxX4dZv/DSCN0901.JPG?width=450&height=600>. 4. Daniel Libeskind, Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1999: Libeskind-berlin. N.d. Photograph. Berlin. http://tomeffect.wordpress.com/2011/04/29/interactive-museums/. 29 Apr. 2011. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. <http://tomeffect.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/libeskind-berlin2.jpg>. 1. Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro, existing state: Niskic Dom Revolucije 01. 2013. Photograph. Nikšić. Http://www.pozitivnacrnagora.me/2013/03/05/back-to-niksic/. 05 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. <http://www.pozitivnacrnagora.me/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Niksic-dom-revolucije-01.jpg>. 1. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 2. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 3. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 4. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 1. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 2. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 3. Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Stanišić, Živojin. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 4. Home of Revolution, interior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. 1. Home of Revolution, Project vision in the original public brochure: Furlan, Vladimir. 1976. Photograph. Nikšić. DRN - Dom Revolucije Nikšić. Ed. Ljubo Vojvodić, Slobodan Vukajlović, Ratko Ðukanović, Gojko M. Kilibarda, and Veljko Šakotić. By Marko Mušić. Nikšić: Odbor Za Izgradnju Doma Revolucije u Nikšicu, 1976. 6-7. Print.


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Home of Revolution, exterior view: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Chapter 7 cover image - city of Niksic: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Map of Nikšić: Diagram by author. 2012. Pedestrian experience site photographs: Courtesy of Labudović, Dimitrije. 2012. Photograph. Nikšić. Edited by author. Plan diagram of site photograph locations: Diagram by author. Original AutoCad Drawing courtesy of Adžić Neboša. 2012. Digital file. Nikšić. Edited by author. Program typology Diagrams: Diagrams by author, 2012. Original AutoCad Drawing courtesy of Adžić Neboša. 2012. Digital file. Nikšić. Edited by author. Transportation and Accessibility Diagram: Diagram by author. 2012

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Cultural Adjacency Diagram: Diagram by author. 2012.

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Site Perimeter Typology Analysis: Diagram by author. 2012.

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Site Perimeter Program Analysis: Diagram by author. 2012.

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Chapter 8 cover image - Opera House in Oslo, Norway: Oslo-10. N.d. Photograph. Oslo. http://ds-lands.com/photo/cities/oslo/. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. <http://ds-lands.com/data_images/top_cityes/oslo/oslo-10.jpg>. p. 144 - 145 1-2. Lebbeus Woods, Prototypical Wall and Window Repair for Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1994: Woods, Lebbeus. Prototypical Wall and Window Repair for Sarajevo, Bosnia. 1994. Photograph. Sarajevo. http://lebbeuswoods. wordpress.com/2011/12/02/war-and-architecture-the-sarajevo-window/. 02 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://lebbeuswoods.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/window-4.jpg?w=600&h=681>. p. 146 - 147 1-2. Lebbeus Woods, Prototypical Wall and Window Repair for Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1994: Woods, Lebbeus. Prototypical Wall and Window Repair for Sarajevo, Bosnia. 1994. Photograph. Sarajevo. http://lebbeuswoods. wordpress.com/2011/12/02/war-and-architecture-the-sarajevo-window/. 02 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://lebbeuswoods.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/window-4.jpg?w=600&h=681>. p. 148- 149 1. Lebbeus Woods, Walls, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993: Woods, Lebbeus. Lebbeus Woods. 1993. Photograph. Sarajevo. http://studio3postindustrial.wordpress.com/2011/04/. 12 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://studio3postindustrial.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/lebbeuswoods.jpg?w=614&h=375>. p. 150 - 151 1. Lebbeus Woods: War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993: Toy, Maggie. War and Architecture Series. 1993. Photograph. Sarajevo. Beyond the Revolution: The Architecture of Eastern Europe. By Lebbeus Woods. London: Academy Editions, 1996. 70. Print. 2. Lebbeus Woods: War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993: Toy, Maggie. War and Architecture Series. 1993. Photograph. Sarajevo. Beyond the Revolution: The Architecture of Eastern Europe. By Lebbeus Woods. London: Academy Editions, 1996. 72. Print. 3. Lebbeus Woods: War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993: Toy, Maggie. War and Architecture Series. 1993. Photograph. Sarajevo. Beyond the Revolution: The Architecture of Eastern Europe. By Lebbeus Woods. London: Academy Editions, 1996. 71. Print. p. 152 - 153 1. Lebbeus Woods: War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993: Toy, Maggie. War and Architecture Series. 1993. Photograph. Sarajevo. Beyond the Revolution: The Architecture of Eastern Europe. By Lebbeus Woods. London: Academy Editions, 1996. 73-74. Print. p. 154 - 155 1. Carlo Scarpa, Tomba Brion - Brion Family Cemetery, Treviso, Italy 1970 - 1978: Brion Vega Cemetery_Carlo Scarpa. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.ronenbekerman.com/forums/finished-work/1515-brion vega-cemetery_carlo-scarpa.html. 21 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ronenbekerman.com/forums/attachments/finished-work/6286d1324485557-brion-vega-cemetery_carlo-scarpa rbscarpa_vue02-.jpg>. 2. Brion Cemetery, site detail: The connection between the tombs and the lawn suggests the water’s edge. 1997. Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa. By Yutaka Saitō, Hiroyuki Toyoda, and Nobuaki Furuya. Tokyo: Toto Shuppan, 1997. 84. Print. 3. Brion Cemetery, site enclosure detail: View of the northwest corner from the road. 1997. Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa. By Yutaka Saitō, Hiroyuki Toyoda, and Nobuaki Furuya. Tokyo: Toto Shuppan, 1997. 140. Print.

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Brion Cemetery, water feature detail: Brion_CarloScarpa_2. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.land8.net/blog/2011/10/04/international-memorials-brion-cemetery/. 10 Apr. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.land8.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Brion_CarloScarpa_2.jpg>. p. 156 - 157 1. Brion Cemetery, chapel interior: Coleman, Bruce. Brion Cemetery by Carlo Scarpa. 2012. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.flickr.com/. 30 June 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7128/7474742996_c4f8c180c9_o.jpg>. 2. Brion Cemetery, final drawing for the Brion Family Cemetery: Final Drawing for the Brion Family Cemetery. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa: Brion Family Cemetery. By Sergio Loss and Klaus Frahm. Köln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994. 139. Print. 3. Brion Cemetery, portico: Carlo Scarpa / The Brion Cemetery. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.jrgon.com/carlo-scarpa/. 10 July 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jrgon.com/timthumb.php?src=http://jrgon.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Carlo-Scarpa-11. jpg&h=510>. 4. Brion Cemetery, private pavilion: N.d. Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa: Architecture Atlas - Brion Monumental Complex, San Vito D’Altivole, Treviso. By Guido Beltramini and Italo Zannier. Venezia: Regione Del Veneto, 2006. 242. Print. p. 158 - 159 1. Brion Cemetery, Detail of the intersecting circles in the portico: Detail of the intersecting circles in the portico. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa: Brion Family Cemetery. By Sergio Loss and Klaus Frahm. Köln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994. 134. Print. 2. Brion Cemetery, Detail of the intersecting circles in the portico: Another Point of View. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.cgarchitect.com/2012/07/brion-family-cemetery-san-vitocarlo scarpa2. By Romain Truffaut. 13 July 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.cgarchitect.com/content/portfolioitems/2012/07/55855/Scarpa2_large.jpg>. 3. Brion Cemetery, portico with circle shaped openings: N.d. Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa: Architecture Atlas - Brion Monumental Complex, San Vito D’Altivole, Treviso. By Guido Beltramini and Italo Zannier. Venezia: Regione Del Veneto, 2006. 233. Print. p. 160 - 161 1. Brion Cemetery, Brion family tombs: Coleman, Bruce. Brion Cemetery by Carlo Scarpa. 2012. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.flickr.com/. 30 June 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7263/7474747094_e8bb32faf3_o.jpg>. 2. Brion Cemetery, view of the family tombs: View of the Brion family tombs. 1997. Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa. By Yutaka Saitō, Hiroyuki Toyoda, and Nobuaki Furuya. Tokyo: Toto Shuppan, 1997. 51. Print. 3. Brion Cemetery, site steps detail: Scarpa’s Stairs at Brion Tomb. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.italiancycling.com/07/pics2.html. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.italiancycling.com/07/scarpasteps.jpg>. 4. Brion Cemetery, portico circle gates: Liquidano, Geraldine. Carlo Scarpa, Brion Tomb, Italy. N.d. Photograph. Treviso. http://geraldineliquidano.blogspot.com/2012/08/ carlo-scarpa-brion-tomb-aa.html. 19 Aug. 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2012. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-bKSDnN7dUTs/UDEwzQsjm6I/AAAAAAAAAZw/aVSVh2oJoDU/s1600/DSCN5074scarpa.jpg>. 5. Brion Cemetery, water feature detail: Carlo Scarpa - Brion Cemetery. 2010. Photograph. Treviso. http://www.flickr.com/. 08 Mar. 2008. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4067/4545048565_6ac8632827_z.jpg>. p. 162 - 163 1. Carlo Scarpa, Brion Family Cemetery original drawing: Photograph. Treviso. Carlo Scarpa. By Yutaka Saitō, Hiroyuki Toyoda, and Nobuaki Furuya. Tokyo: Toto Shuppan, 1997. 72-73. Print. p. 165 1. Enric Miralles and Carme Pinos, Igualada Cemetery, Barcelona, Spain 1984 - 1994: N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós. By Anatxu Zabalbeascoa. London: Phaidon Limited, 1996. 39. Print. p. 166 - 167 1. Igualada Cemetery, descending site path: N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós. By Anatxu Zabalbeascoa. London: Phaidon Limited, 1996. 30. Print.

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p. 168 - 169 p. 170 - 171 p. 172 - 173

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Igualada Cemetery, site overview: Cabrera, David. N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. http://www.archdaily.com/375034/ad-classics-igualada-cemetery-enric-miralles carme-pinos/519598e0b3fc4bc89b00008a_ad-classics-igualada-cemetery-enric-miralles-carme-pinos_14_igualada_cemetery__ barcelona_esp-jpg/. 19 May 2013. Web. 21 May 2013. <http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/519598e0b3fc4bc89b00008a_ad-classics-igualada-cemetery-enric miralles-carme-pinos_14_igualada_cemetery__barcelona_esp.jpg>. 3. Igualada Cemetery, descending entryway: Mitchell, Craig G. Igualada Cemetery Park, Barcelona, Spain. 2011. Photograph. Barcelona. http://adcgm.blogspot.com/2011/07/ igualada-cemetery-park-barcelona-spain.html. 19 Feb. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-qciptURyP90/ThHilwfVwvI/AAAAAAAAANE/dYQXlNjZlxA/s640/DSC_0250.JPG>. 4. Igualada Cemetery, descending entry path: N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós. By Anatxu Zabalbeascoa. London: Phaidon Limited, 1996. 27. Print. 1. Igualada Cemetery, site overview: N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós. By Anatxu Zabalbeascoa. London: Phaidon Limited, 1996. 34-35. Print. 1. Igualada Cemetery, material details: N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós. By Anatxu Zabalbeascoa. London: Phaidon Limited, 1996. 33. Print. 2. Igualada Cemetery, material details: N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós. By Anatxu Zabalbeascoa. London: Phaidon Limited, 1996. 36. Print. 1.

Igualada Cemetery, material detail: Flower, Dan. Igualada Cemetery - Miralles. 2008. Photograph. Barcelona. http://www.flickr.com/. 17 Feb. 2008. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2122/2271484253_f18ee29d91_z.jpg?zz=1>. 2. Igualada Cemetery, material detail: Igualada Cemetery, E. Miralles. 2004. Photograph. Barcelona. http://www.flickr.com/. 10 Sept. 2004. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1048/4726654426_85abc787b9_b.jpg>. 3. Igualada Cemetery, descending path: Tag Archives: Igualada Cemetery. N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. http://morrismd.wordpress.com/tag/igualada-cemetery/. 05 Oct. 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://morrismd.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/107_img1809.jpeg>. 4. Igualada Cemetery, chapel interior: More New Experiences in Barcelona. 2009. Photograph. Barcelona. http://twhitnack.blogspot.com/2009_11_01_archive.html. 15 Nov. 2009. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_e58TwOKR2AU/SwEXjl0HiBI/AAAAAAAAAIQ/djHHQsXSkBY/s1600/Igualada+Cemetery+Chapel_04. JPG>. 5. Igualada Cemetery, chapel skylight detail: Igualada Cemetery. N.d. Photograph. Barcelona. http://talkarchitecture.wordpress.com/2011/01/19/igualada-cemetery/. 19 Jan. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://talkarchitecture.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/img_2451.jpg?w=640&h=351>. 1. Snøhetta, Operahuset (Oslo Opera House), Bjørvika, Oslo, Norway 2003 - 2007: Opera House. N.d. Photograph. Oslo. http://kumanz.wordpress.com/. 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://kumanz.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/dscn5212.jpg?w=479&h=359>. 2. Oslo Opera House, sloping roof detail: Alawi, Ghassan. Roof of Oslo Opera by Snohetta. 2010. Photograph. Oslo. http://ghassancontracting.wordpress.com/2011/02/10/ roof-of-oslo-opera-by-snohetta/. 10 Feb. 2010. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.landezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/operahuset-oslo-opera-house-snohetta-04.jpg>.

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Oslo Opera House, building view: Konieczny, Rafał. The New Opera House in Oslo. 2008. Photograph. Oslo. http://en.wikipedia.org/. 28 Sept. 2008. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Full_Opera_by_night.jpg/800px-Full_Opera_by_night.jpg>. 2. Oslo Opera House, pedestrian rooftop: Wiradi, Ignaz. The Observant. 2011. Photograph. Oslo. http://commons.wikimedia.org/. 24 Sept. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/9_of_10_-_Opera_House%2C_Oslo_-_NORWAY.jpg/800px-9_ of_10_-_Opera_House%2C_Oslo_-_NORWAY.jpg>.

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Oslo Opera House, pedestrian slopes: Opera House (Point of View). N.d. Photograph. Oslo. http://photo.jkscatena.com/2011/11/28/oslo-opera-house-point-of-view/oslo opera-house-_point-of-view/. 28 Nov. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://fotojks.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/oslo-opera-house-_point-of-view.jpg>. 4. Oslo Opera House, pedestrian slopes: Roof of Oslo Opera by Snøhetta. N.d. Photograph. Oslo. http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2010/09/roof-of-oslo-opera/. 16 Sept. 2010. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.landezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/operahuset-oslo-opera-house-snohetta-02.jpg>. 5. Oslo Opera House, pedestrian slopes: Vatne, Kjetil. Ice Solid. 2008. Photograph. Oslo. http://www.flickr.com/. 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3124/2877836593_d8eca94be1_o.jpg>. 1. Oslo Opera House, pedestrian rooftops: Opera House in Oslo. N.d. Photograph. Oslo. http://eggwhiteblog.com/category/music/. 08 June 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://eggwhiteblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/3_of_10_-_opera_house_oslo_-_norway.jpg?w=549&h=363>. 2.

p. 180 - 181 p. 182 - 183 p. 184 - 185

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Oslo Opera House, pedestrian rooftops: N.d. Photograph. Oslo. “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail - Music and Theatre - Review of Architecture and Construction Details. Ed. Christian Schittich. Vol. 2009. Eltville: Vetriebsunion Meynen, 2009. 276. Print. Ser. 3. 3. Oslo Opera House, pedestrian rooftops: N.d. Photograph. Oslo. “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail - Music and Theatre - Review of Architecture and Construction Details. Ed. Christian Schittich. Vol. 2009. Eltville: Vetriebsunion Meynen, 2009. 277. Print. Ser. 3. 4. Oslo Opera House, exterior material detail: N.d. Photograph. Oslo. “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail - Music and Theatre - Review of Architecture and Construction Details. Ed. Christian Schittich. Vol. 2009. Eltville: Vetriebsunion Meynen, 2009. 280. Print. Ser. 3. 1. Oslo Opera House, warm interior of the theater: N.d. Photograph. Oslo. “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail - Music and Theatre - Review of Architecture and Construction Details. Ed. Christian Schittich. Vol. 2009. Eltville: Vetriebsunion Meynen, 2009. 282-283. Print. Ser. 3. 1. Oslo Opera House, materiality of lobby interior: SNØHETTA Opera House Oslo, Norway, 2008. N.d. Photograph. Oslo. http://fair.veronafiere.it/marmomacc/ marmoArchitetturaDesign_2009/premio_opere_snohetta.asp. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://fair.veronafiere.it/marmomacc/marmoArchitetturaDesign_2009/img/zoom/snohetta_04.jpg>. 2. Oslo Opera House, materiality of lobby interior: N.d. Photograph. Oslo. “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail - Music and Theatre - Review of Architecture and Construction Details. Ed. Christian Schittich. Vol. 2009. Eltville: Vetriebsunion Meynen, 2009. 330. Print. Ser. 3. 3. Oslo Opera House, materiality of theater interior: White, Pae. Stage Curtain - Metafoil. 2005. Photograph. Oslo. http://www.operautsmykking.no/english/artpro/artpro_curtain.html. 03 Oct. 2008. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.operautsmykking.no/bilder/ill/DSC0609_612.jpg>. 4. Oslo Opera House, materiality of theater interior: N.d. Photograph. Oslo. “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail - Music and Theatre - Review of Architecture and Construction Details. Ed. Christian Schittich. Vol. 2009. Eltville: Vetriebsunion Meynen, 2009. 285. Print. Ser. 3. Michael Arad, Daniel Libeskind, Peter Walker, National September 11 Memorial & Museum, New York City, USA 2006 - 2011: 1. Meckstroth, Greg. Memorial_Snohetta. N.d. Photograph. New York City. http://blog.philadelphiarealestate.com/tag/architecture/. 27 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 May 2013. <http://blog.philadelphiarealestate.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/9_11-Memorial_SNOHETTA.jpg>. 2. National September 11 Memorial & Museum, void fountain: SAD Obeležile 11.septembar. N.d. Photograph. New York City. http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/planeta.299.html:344718-SAD-obelezile 11septembar. 11 Sept. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.novosti.rs/upload/images/gallery/2011/09/11.septembar/wtc405_sept11-_0911_11.jpg>. 3. National September 11 Memorial & Museum, void fountain: A Woman Touches the South Pool at the National September 11 Memorial Plaza Monday in New York. The Memorial Is Now Open to the Public. N.d. Photograph. New York City. http://www.today.com/id/44483977/ns/today-today_news/t/memorial-plaza-nyc opens-public/#.UerEeI3qm2I. By Samantha Gross and Verena Dobnik. 12 Sept. 2011. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://media3.s-nbcnews.com/j/MSNBC/Components/Photo/_new/g-cvr-110912-memorial-730a.grid-8x2.jpg>.


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National September 11 Memorial & Museum, site view: The Surreal 911 Memorial - Webcam Image from http://www.911memorial.org/ (south Pool to the Left and North Pool to the Right). N.d. Photograph. New York City. http://www.varuntaware.com/2012/04/911-memorial-at-ground-zero.html. 01 May 2012. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SFj-kkoY5eU/T5rs3UwVQiI/AAAAAAAAE94/mvFGAJ_AkVw/s1600/GroundZero_20120427-145731.jpg> p. 188 -189 1. National September 11 Memorial & Museum, memorial fountain: Lane, Justin. Robert Peraza, Who Lost His Son Robert David Peraza, Pauses at His Son’s Name at the North Pool of the 9/11 Memorial during the 10th Anniversary Ceremonies at the Site of the World Trade Center on Sept. 11, 2011. 2011. Photograph. New York City. http://www.globalpost.com/photo-galleries/planet-pic/5675139/memorial-services-911. 12 Sept. 2011. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.globalpost.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/gp3_fullpage/911-memorial-remembering-nyc-ground-zero-liberty towers-1-20110912.jpg>. 2. National September 11 Memorial & Museum, memorial fountain: Design Competition. N.d. Photograph. New York City. http://www.911memorial.org/design-competition. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.911memorial.org/sites/all/files/imagecache/article_main/articles/-%201.jpg>. 3. National September 11 Memorial & Museum, tree garden: Lennihan, Mark. Visitors to the National September 11 Memorial Walk around the Two Reflecting Pools. Read More: http://www. nydailynews.com/opinion/insult-victims-memory-article-1.1104913#ixzz2ZblVVscV. N.d. Photograph. New York City. Http://www. nydailynews.com/opinion/insult-victims-memory-article-1.1104913. 01 July 2012. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://assets.nydailynews.com/polopoly_fs/1.1104953!/img/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_635/voxa01e-1 web.jpg>. 4. National September 11 Memorial & Museum, memorial fountain: The Names at the 9/11 Memorial Are Overly Segmented, the Author Argues. N.d. Photograph. New York City. http://religion.blogs. cnn.com/2012/02/27/my-take-911-memorial-not-sacred-enough/. 27 Feb. 2012. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/dam/assets/110912062130-9-11-ten-year-memorials-updated-00021626-story-top.jpg>. p. 190 - 191 1. Chapter 9 cover image - Home of Revolution site plan collage: Drawing by author. p. 192 - 193 1. Total architecture, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France: Versailles, plan. N.d. Photograph. Versailles. “Collision City and the Politics of ‘Bricolage’” Collage City. By Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT, 1978. 89. Print. 2. Collage architecture, Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, Italy: Imperial Rome, Model at the Museo Della Civiltà Romana. N.d. Photograph. Museo Della Civiltà Romana, Rome. “Collision City and the Politics of ‘Bricolage’” Collage City. By Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT, 1978. 86. Print. p. 194 - 195 1. New Belgrade housing blocks, Belgrade, Serbia 1947-1975: Belgrado Possui Quatro Pontes Sobre Os Rios Sava E Danúbio, Sendo as Mais Importantes a Ponte Branko E a Gazela, Que Conectam O Centro Da Cidade a Nova Belgrado. N.d. Photograph. Belgrade. http://cidadesemfotos.blogspot.com/2013/05/ fotos-de-belgrado-servia.html. 28 May 2013. Web. 04 June 2013. <http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Itl262IeSVY/UaTYr8SZbTI/AAAAAAAA0YA/O24khf75Twk/s1600/Belgrado_6.jpg>. 2. Housing complex, Zagreb, Croatia: Bezjak, Roman. Housing complex, Zagreb, Croatia 2009. 2009. Photograph. Ljubljana. Socialist Modernism. By Till Briegleb, Christian Raabe, and Inka Schube. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011. 110. Print. 3. Home of Revolution, interior view: N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://www.sk.rs/forum/showthread.php?p=1087307. 26 June 2010. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.dodaj.rs/f/1t/wk/3Then1e/3.jpg>. 4. Home of Revolution, existing state: N.d. Photograph. Nikšić. http://vukajlija.com/forum/teme/47702-moj-grad-danas?strana=4. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://i48.tinypic.com/9ftixj.jpg>. 5. Home of Revolution, project vision in the original public brochure: Furlan, Vladimir. 1976. Photograph. Nikšić. DRN - Dom Revolucije Nikšić. Ed. Ljubo Vojvodić, Slobodan Vukajlović, Ratko Ðukanović, Gojko M. Kilibarda, and Veljko Šakotić. By Marko Mušić. Nikšić: Odbor Za Izgradnju Doma Revolucije u Nikšiću, 1976. 2. Print. p. 196 - 197 1. Georges Braque, Fruit dish and glass, 1912: Braque, Georges. Braque Fruitdish Glass. 1912. Photograph. http://en.wikipedia.org/. 08 Nov. 2005. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/63/Braque_fruitdish_glass.jpg/439px-Braque_fruitdish_glass.jpg>.

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Georges Braque, Still Life - Le Jour, 1929: Braque, Georges. Georges Braque â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Still Life: Le Jour (1929) Oil on Canvas. 1929. Photograph. Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art. http://www.kingsacademy.com/mhodges/11_Western-Art/26_20th-Century-Experimentalism/Braque/Braque.htm. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://www.kingsacademy.com/mhodges/11_Western-Art/26_20th-Century-Experimentalism/Braque/Braque_1929_Still-life_Le-jour. jpg>. 3. Georges Braque, Bottle and Fishes, 1910: Braque, Georges. Bottle and Fishes, 1910, Oil on Canvas. 1910. Photograph. http://chad-aroomofonesown.blogspot.com/2011/04/ georges-braque.html. 30 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-cPl6blOVrV4/TbyuIz6gDZI/AAAAAAAAADQ/0-qYH9xm0Mg/s320/Georges-Braque-aw16801050.jpg>. 4. Pablo Picasso, Bottle of Vieux Marc, Glass, Guitar and Newspaper, 1913: Picasso, Pablo. Bottle of Vieux Marc, Glass, Guitar and Newspaper. 1913. Photograph. Tate Gallery, London, UK. http://www. wikipaintings.org/. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://uploads0.wikipaintings.org/images/pablo-picasso/bottle-of-vieux-marc-glass-guitar-and-newspaper-1913.jpg>. 1.

Lebbeus Woods, Havana, Cuba 1994: Woods, Lebbeus. Lebbeus Woods, Havana, 1994. 1994. Photograph. http://www.archdaily.com/288469/lebbeus-woods experimental-architect-dies/. 31 Oct. 2012. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/50900f9a28ba0d4c5e000097_lebbeus-woods-the-experimental architect-dies_havana.jpg>. 2. Lebbeus Woods, War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993: Woods, Lebbeus. 1993-1994. Photograph. http://www.archdaily.com/349556/lebbeus-woods-1940-2012/. 31 May 2013. Web. 12 June 2013. <http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/514b59d3b3fc4b095e0000a3_lebbeus-woods-1940-2012_1993_ woods-lebbeus-002.jpg>. 3.

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Craig Atkinson, Limon, mixed media, 2007: Atkinson, Craig. Limon, mixed media, 2007. 2007. Photograph. Cut & Paste: 21st Century Collage. By Richard Brereton and Caroline Roberts. London: Laurence King, 2011. 13. Print. 4. Craig Atkinson, Day to Day, mixed media, 2008: Atkinson, Craig. Day to Day, mixed media, 2008. 2008. Photograph. Cut & Paste: 21st Century Collage. By Richard Brereton and Caroline Roberts. London: Laurence King, 2011. 12. Print. 5. Craig Atkinson, George, mixed media, 2008: Atkinson, Craig. George, mixed media, 2008. 2008. Photograph. Cut & Paste: 21st Century Collage. By Richard Brereton and Caroline Roberts. London: Laurence King, 2011. 11. Print. 1. James Dawe, Gasping Bust, digital photocollage, 2007: Dawe, James. Gasping Bust, digital photocollage, 2007. 2007. Photograph. Cut & Paste: 21st Century Collage. By Richard Brereton and Caroline Roberts. London: Laurence King, 2011. 44. Print. 2. Julien Pacaud, The Jonas Project, digital collage, 2009: Pacaud, Julien. The Jonas Project, digital collage, 2009. 2009. Photograph. Cut & Paste: 21st Century Collage. By Richard Brereton and Caroline Roberts. London: Laurence King, 2011. 136. Print. 3. Julien Pacaud, When You Sleep, digital collage, 1991: Pacaud, Julien. When You Sleep, digital collage, 1991. 1991. Photograph. Cut & Paste: 21st Century Collage. By Richard Brereton and Caroline Roberts. London: Laurence King, 2011. 134. Print. Aspiration, digital collage: Drawing by author. 1.

p. 204 - 205

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Neglect, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 206 - 207

1.

Violence, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 208 - 209

1.

Shame, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 210 - 211

1.

Repentance, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 212 - 213

1.

Elevation, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 214 - 215

1.

Physical model diagrams: Models and diagrams by author.

p. 216 - 217

1.

Pride, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 218 - 219

1.

Chapter 10 cover image - Home of Revolution project design, model photographs: Model and photograph by author.

p. 200 - 201

26


p. 220 - 221

1.

p. 222 - 223

1.

p. 224 - 225

1.

Home of Revolution project design, Longitudinal Section, digital collage: Drawing by author.

2.

Home of Revolution project design, Transverse Section, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 226 - 229

1.

Home of Revolution project design, Longitudinal Section, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 230 - 231

1.

Home of Revolution project design, Transverse Section, digital collage: Drawing by author.

p. 232 - 233

1.

Thesis defense presentation: Photograph by author.

p. 234 - 235

1.

Thesis defense presentation: Photograph by author.

p. 236 - 237

1.

Thesis defense presentation: Photograph by author.

2.

Thesis defense presentation: Photograph by author.

3.

Thesis defense presentation: Photograph by author.

1.

Chapter 10 cover image: Thesis defense presentation Photograph by author.

p. 238 - 239

Home of Revolution project design, model photographs: Model and photographs by author. Home of Revolution project design, Site Plan, digital collage: Drawing by author.

27


Intro _foreward

1.


1

2

One early morning a public messenger was sent to the residential buildings around the perimeter of Lenin Square in Nikšić, Montenegro to inform all the residents of the upcoming demolition of its public school that afternoon. Yugoslavia’s biggest World War II monument, the Home of Revolution, was to be built on that very site. People were curiously gathering behind their closed windows, anxiously and fearfully awaiting what was about to happen. The nearby residents, however, were mistakenly advised by the excited, nervous teenage boy to make sure all their windows stay closed. That same morning my grandparents broke into a dramatic argument over whether to close

30

or open all the windows. My grandfather, who worked for the city’s mining industry frantically ran up and down their building’s stairwell, informing all our neighbors to open their windows instead, while my grandmother was running behind him arguing the opposite. In all of this chaos, an immense explosion was heard and our building shook as if they had just experienced an earthquake. Each door and window popped open and every glass surface shattered in pieces. The sky filled with dust which begun to infiltrate all condominiums. My grandmother was upset with all the cleaning to do, while my grandfather stood on our balcony filming this historic moment. My mother and uncle, who were children at the time, sadly watched their recently renovated school go down in pieces. What they didn’t know, and what my grandfather didn’t live to see, was this utopian project’s unrealized future. The monument’s ambitious construction was halted in 1989. Yugoslavia was running out of federal capital and the constant overturn of local politicians provided for loop holes where citizens continued funding seemed to disappear into some deep, corrupted pockets. The monument was simply abandoned. Its site was gated and the people just learned how to live with its haunting presence and unrealized promises. For me, I wish I was born twenty years earlier. I wish so because only then could I


understand what it was like to live in this utopian ideology and to feel the pain of its non-realization. This ideology offered reasonable promises and much excitement within the people who had struggled and survived the horrifying events of the World War II. While this generation’s childhood memories were of WWII poverty and memories of eating powdered and canned US food donations, they were happy to be granted a stable life in this new economy with their children’s futures seeming secure.

3

Tito was cherished like a hero, dressed like a prince in his signature white suit, his picture framed in everyone’s home next to the icons and family portraits. He was a symbol of ethnic unity, harmony and a prosperous, progressive future. Seeing new construction and the rise of the Home of Revolution was to many a symbol of hope and an assurance of a healthy, growing economy. Who wouldn’t be excited to have a stable job in the city’s expanding industry, a new residential condominium and a vehicle - a little Yugo to keep.

4

5

1, 3. Lenin square with its elementary school prior to demolition. Family photo of my mother and grandmother. 2. 4.

View of the historic school and the public square along the city’s main pedestrian boulevard “korzo.” Home of Revolution, image from the 1980’s, rock 5. climbing. Photo from the 1980’s of the north edge of the 6. monument’s site showing the newly constructed residential district.

6

31


As my grandparent’s generation survived WWII and grew up into the working class, they always kept a level of scepticism about the future. They were the work hard, save hard for worse days generation. This was also the generation who often had to give up inheritance and property for the economic equality of a new, socialist society. However, my parents generation was born into a stable, safe environment with an already established socialist ideology.

They grew up happy, spoiled, and expected a normal, middle class future with the war of the 1990’s being an unthinkable and an impossible thought. They had access to free education, insurance, healthcare, freedom of religion along with a passport to travel anywhere they wished. When I hear of my mother’s memories of skiing in the Alps, shopping in Italy, and studying abroad in Moscow, I try to imagine her youth and its painted in my mind like a fairy tale which shattered in pieces with the eruption of the war.

2

3

1

I was born just before the federation fell apart in ‘86 and I was only five years old when the war in Bosnia started. I grew up shielded from knowledge of the war. Television news were “for adults” and as a child I didn’t understand what inflation was and that we were economically struggling like everyone else. I grew up with my grandmother, facing this decaying monument just across our flat’s balcony and I would pass by it every single day without much thought.

1. View of the Home of Revolution from my family’s residence. 2. Home of Revolution site in early 2000’s. 3. Scan of the Home of Revolution tender catalogue. 4. Childhood photo with view of the monument. 5. Childhood photo at the school amphitheater.

32


I was only missing my mother who was in Belgrade, working and searching for an opportunity to get us to United States, to start over. Our collective Yugoslav dream quickly became the search of an American dream for my family while the building of the unfinished, decaying monument sank and flooded slowly, whispering “I am sorry” to us. It was a mirror of a shattered society, a sinking ship of an abandoned Yugoslavia, one that failed us. I used to be able to see my own reflection in the blue glass panes, how I was standing on our balcony. I could count all of my grandmother’s flower pots and spy on whoever else was lounging outside by skimming my sight across its reflective blue panes.

4

5

I would sometimes sing into a fake microphone and watch myself in the reflection like it was my audience and balcony my stage. But, one morning, someone had shattered the panes in which I could see our flat. I never sought for my reflection again. I always saw the building, but never myself. The connection was broken, and my mind was trained to ignore it. After all, it was some old, ugly building which was never built. In my teenage years, I would visit my grandmother and I would always be angry that this building was still there. It was looking worse each time I returned and my connection to former Yugoslavia was further distanced. When it came time to attend university, my application letter stated that I wished to study architecture as it was my dream to learn how to construct societies, and construct hope in deconstructed societies that I had grown up with. I was interested in the emotional bond that people invest in their “home” whether it be their actual home or a larger space such as their home town, a specific street, or a public space that their memories are attached to.

It wasn’t until graduate school that I learned of the “abandoned” Yugoslav WWII monuments while searching the Internet. This research led me to uncover and document their meaning and to connect them like one would connect the dots for my personal understanding and personal research into the past that I have left behind. Only, I had missed one dot, one dot that my mind had grown ignorant towards, one that I learned to ignore my whole life. I had not realized until my thesis year, that the largest monument of them all, of my whole compilation and sequence, was, in fact, the Home of Revolution. Sometimes the choices we make in life are not as spontaneous as they seem and sometimes it is only through an evaluation of our past that we realize how deeply our aspirations are connected to our childhood experiences. For me, this book is not only an effort to bring to light an abandoned socialist monument and to apply my talents in developing a conceptual design solution that could enhance its setting and society. This book is part of my personal growth and connection of that abandoned, forgotten piece. As much as I have hated this building and made every effort to start over in life and abandon my past, this process for me is a process of return and reevaluation of my past.

33


Background _ political yugoslavia

2.


35


1

Yugoslavia emerged through the ruins of the Ottoman and the AustroHungarian Empires, splitting twice along the way. First split occurred at the beginning of World War II during the Nazi German occupation in 1939. And, the second split occurred in 1991, shortly after Tito’s death and during a time when numerous countries of the eastern block were experiencing their own collapse. With Yugoslavia, each break swept through the nation in form of a class, religious and ethnic war, 2 causing a revolutionary reinvention and transformation of its physical and ideological state.

2 4

3 6

5 7

1. Slovenia 2. Croatia 3. Bosnia & Herzegovina 4. Serbia 5. Kosovo 6. Montenegro 7. Macedonia 1. Vladimir Kulić, Maroje Mrduljaš, and Wolfgang Thaler. Modernism In-between: The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia, 24. 2. Dubravka Djurić, and Miško Šuvaković. Impossible Histories: Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant-gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991, 3. 3. Djurić and Šuvaković, Impossible Histories, 3. 4. Djurić, Impossible Histories, 7.

36

Yugoslavia was a state of unsound, irrational connections and clashes among the cultures of the Middle Europe, the Balkans, and the Middle East from its development in 1918 to its violent collapse in 1991. Its post effects have translated into further fragmentation of territories with detachment of Montenegro and still questioning state of Kosovo since 2008. Yugoslavia, in its ideology, was a movement to unite all southern Slavs into an autonomous state and a common language which initiated in the 1830’s. 1

All the ideal political models of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries were part of the Yugoslav conception and collapse: liberal bourgeois capitalism and liberal capitalist fascism, nationalism and revolutionary communism, Stalinism, real socialism, selfgoverning socialism, post socialist patriotism, and transitional postsocialism. 3 Thus there has existed a transforming Yugoslavia in a political sense from 1918-1991, but also, very importantly, a Yugoslav culture as a dynamic territory for cultural exchange among not only the Yugoslav people but also the people of Balkans and Europe as a whole. The political and social history of Yugoslavia went through the following stages:


(1918-1941)

The first Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 with the merging of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (state formed at the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the independent Kingdom of Serbia. The Kingdom of Montenegro had already been united with the Kingdom of Serbia while Kosovo, Vojvodina and Macedonia were territories of Serbia prior to unification. This was an official union of all Southern Slavs into a unifying single state named the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes for its first 11 years, officially renamed into Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. The kingdom was reigned by the Serbian KaradjordjeviÄ&#x2021; dynasty which lasted until the outbreak of World War II and the German occupation of Yugoslavia in 1941. 4

2 3

4

FIRST YUGOSLAVIA:

5

1. Map of Former Yugoslavia, emphasis on Montenegro. 2. Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. 3. Formation of the Kingdom of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia. 4. Assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, sparking a revolt against Austio-Hungarian Empire and the start of WWI. 5. Proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on Congress Square in Ljubljana, October 29, 1918.

37


1

38


1. Map of former Yugoslaviaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 6 republics.

39


1

SECOND YUGOSLAVIA: (1945-1980)

During World War II, Kingdom of Yugoslavia was occupied by the Nazi Germany with territories under the Quisling rule of Axis powers. For Yugoslavia, World War II was not only a war of resistance against the occupying forces, but also a civil war between the communist-led Partisans and the Serbian royalist Chetniks. The Partisans won not only as a resistance to Nazi occupation, but also against the bourgeois class system in favor of a classless society with Tito rising as the Partisanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main hero. 2

40


3

4

5

Following World War II, Tito’s socialist Yugoslavia was tied with the Soviet block (1945-1948) for three years. The break with the Soviet Union followed with an emergence of self-governing socialism, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, (1950-1980) which lasted until Tito’s passing in 1980. Yugoslavia politically stood between the Eastern and Western blocks while building relationships with the third world countries. It initiated and maintained the NonAligned Movement since 1961 which promoted non-alliance, political friendship, independence and peace during the Cold War. 5

6

1. Tito addressing the crowd of supporters in Belgrade. 2. Tito’s annual birthday celebration / national Youth Day ceremony held in Belgrade, Serbia. 3. Tito visits Podgorica, formerly called Titograd, capital of Montenegro. 4. Tito petting a leopard during his business trip in Africa. 5. Tito on the front cover of World Week, Dec 9, 1959, following the break with Stalin. 6. Tito and his wife enjoying a celebration meal with young pioneer students. 5. Živojin Milić, Nikola Korbutovski, Bojan Kveder, Kordija Kveder, and Srđan Vujica. In Belgrade Once Again: [Ninth Non-aligned Summit, Beograd ‘89], 9.

41


1

42


1. Geopolitical map of socialist Yugoslavia, published 1987.

43


THIRD YUGOSLAVIA: (1991-2003)

After President Tito’s death, the Yugoslav federation was slowly collapsing super ceded by the rise of national states and their relatively hermetic cultures (1980-1991). 6 This period erupted with the violent post socialist wars in the 1990’s between the Yugoslav federal army and the nascent national armed forces. This led to wars in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. After the 1995 Dayton Peace Treaty, the remaining two republics of Serbia and Montenegro maintained the status of remaining Yugoslavia, formally renamed Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 2003.

3

1

COMPLETE DISSOLUTION:

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consisted of two remaining states, Serbia and Montenegro. However, there were conflicting political implications with Serbia and Montenegro being the sole legal successors of the former nation. Thus, the union between the two remaining states had to be renamed to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.

4

2

1. Alexander Wittek: National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo 1892, burned 1992. 2. Ivan Straus: Unis Towers, Sarajevo 1986, burned 1992. 3. Shelled and burned home, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 4. Tom Stoddart: Sniper Alley, Sarajevo, 1992. 5. Bosnia: statement about the war. 6. Djurić, Impossible Histories, 7.

44

This constituted a looser union. The two republics functioned under separate economic policies and currency. In 2006, following a legal referendum, Montenegro voted for political independence. As of 2006, all of the 6 former Yugoslav republics are independent states, with the Serbian province of Kosovo still unresolved.


5

45


Background _ architectural yugoslavia

3.


47


1

FIRST YUGOSLAVIA:

ARCHITECTURE IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA:

1.

Drago Ibler: building at Matrićeva Street 13, Zagreb, Croatia 1930.

2-3. Ivan Zemljak: Primary school, Zagreb, Croatia 1930-31. 4. France Tomazić: Villa Oblak, Ljubljana, Slovenia 1932-35. 1. 2.

Vladimir Kulić, Maroje Mrduljaš, and Wolfgang Thaler. Modernism In-between: The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia, 25. Vladimir Kulić, Modernism in Between, 25.

3.

Kulić, 25.

4.

Dubravka Djurić, and Miško Šuvaković. Impossible Histories: Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avantgardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991, 342.

5. 6. 7.

48

Dubravka Djurić, and Miško Šuvaković. Impossible Histories, 341. Kulić, 26. Dubravka Djurić, and Miško Šuvaković. Impossible Histories, 340.

Text Impossible Histories speaks of a state, a society, and a culture of former Yugoslavia that no longer exists. It is an unavoidable fact that Yugoslav politics and political ideologies have played a direct role in its architectural and artistic language. Through all of its political revolutionary changes, rifts and conflicts, the art and architecture of the former Yugoslavia underwent their own revolutions and expressions, demonstrating this complex culture’s search for expression, attention, and identity. Architectural expression went through the following stages:

The experiences of World War I matured artists and culture, pushing the provinces to establish all necessary structures of statehood such as universities, cultural institutions, economic institutions, etc. The individual states had not been able to sustain on their own and invested all their hopes and expectations in a united kingdom of Yugoslavia. There was a notion that the South Slavs, despite their religious and linguistic differences, were essentially one race and that their union into a singular power would defend them against future foreign domination. 1 This unity, and the need for new structures of statehood, called to question as to what the architectural expression should be like. This period’s development brought an uneven, yet powerful movement of modernization in the kingdom’s large urban centers and the architectural profession became entangled in the international networks of the internationally emerging Modern Movement. 2 A considerable number of the Croatian, Slovenian and Serbian architects had studied and worked with the famous modernists such as Adolf Loos, Peter Behrens, Josef Hoffmann, Le Corbusier and others, and brought their influences and experience back to Yugoslavia. 3


2

Croatian capital of Zagreb had developed a quite extensive volume to functionalist architecture comprised of mostly apartment buildings and private villas. Croatian modernists competed to introduce innovations such as starking towerlike building designs with flat roofs, likewise ribbon windows, and corner balconies all without ornamentation. 4 In its capital of Ljubljana, Slovenian modern architecture was mostly influenced by figures such as Ivan Vurnik and Otto Wagnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s famous student Joze PleÄ?nik whose interventions had reshaped the city with both small scale and

3

monumental buildings. 6 Slovenian architecture had adopted the modernist compositional harmony of great solid geometric volumes, utilizing iron and concrete structures, including particular formal elements such as irregular ground plan, ribbon windows, flat roofs and thin metal railings on roof terraces and staircases. 7 Much like Zagreb represented the stylistic evolvement of Croatia, and Ljubljana of Slovenia, the Yugoslavian and Serbian capital Belgrade was the third important stage for modern architecture of Yugoslavia.

4

49


1

1.

Momir Korunović: Postal Ministry, Belgrade, Serbia 1928.

2. Milan Zloković: University Clinic for Children, Belgrade, Serbia 1933. 3. Ernest Weissmann: VIlla Kraus, Zagreb, Croatia 1936-37. 4. Dragiša Brašovan: Yugoslav Airforce Command Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1935. 8.

Djurić, Impossible Histories, 349.

9.

Kulić, Modernism in Between, 27.

10. Kulić, 28.

50

Although, Belgrade’s architectural style was caught up in a divided dialogue, one that favored implementation of Serbian medieval architectural elements and another that argued Belgrade’s necessity to resemble an encompassing Yugoslav capital, much like many of the world’s Western capital cities. Meanwhile, a yet third style was proposed as part of Serbian architecture, the national-romantic, which was quite decorative in nature and similar to the popular European art-deco of the 1920’s. This style served more as a language of presenting Yugoslavia to the international public. 8 With only Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana being internationally recognized as capitals of modernism, the less developed regions’ centers such as those of Macedonia, Bosnia, Montenegro and Kosovo could not contribute as the harbingers of architectural identity and their development was mostly implemented in the styles of the three capitals’ movements. 9 All these building efforts were disrupted by World War II which devastated much of Yugoslavian kingdom’s territory. Once again, the major cities of Yugoslavia lay in ruins. The Communist Party of Yugoslavia was born and was the only resistance party which was able to defeat the occupying forces of the Nazi Germany. They were known as the Partisan army who joined the Allies in 1943 and liberated the Yugoslav territories.

2

3


4

A partisan fighter and a Communist leader, Josip Broz Tito, rose to the top ranks among the winning Partisans and introduced his concepts of national liberty, equality of all Yugoslav people, equality of social classes and elimination of capitalist exploitation of the working class. At the time his concepts were quite parallel with the Soviet Union, and he thus introduced a tight-reigned communist dictatorship in 1945. The new state envisioned fully modernizing its capitals overnight and implemented the Soviet Five Year Plan of the 1930â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s as a model for rapid construction, nationalizing the architectural profession and construction which required standardization of production. 10

51


1

2

52


1. Nikola DobroviÄ&#x2021;: Grand Hotel, Lopud near Dubrovnik, Croatia 1936. 2. Grand Hotel, 2011.

53


1. 2. 3.

Vjenčeslav Richter: Pavilion of Yugoslavia at EXPO, Brussels 1956-58. Božidar Rašica: Zagreb International Fair Pavilion, Zagreb, Croatia 1953. Ivan Vitić, Simo Matavulj Elementary School and Yugoslav People’s Army Club, Šibenik, Croatia 1950-61.

Mihailo Janković and Dušan Milenković: former 4. Building of Social and Political Organizations, view of New Belgrade, Serbia.

1

10. Djurić, 350. 11. Ibid, 364. 12. Kulić, 37. 13. Ibid, 39. 14. Vladimir Kulić, Land of the In-between Modern Architecture and the State in Socialist Yugoslavia, 1945-65, ix. 15. Kulić, 37. 16. Djurić, 364. 17. Ibid, 355. 2

SECOND YUGOSLAVIA: The development of the SFRY has led to the two key historical moments correspond to the two distinct phases that shaped architectural style in socialist Yugoslavia. First was the period of intense Stalinization immediately after World War II, noted by the Five Year Plan, and second was a period of gradual liberalization following the broken relationship between Tito and Stalin in 1948. As, Yugoslavia searched for alliance and not subordination to the Soviet Union, its membership was expelled from the Comitern, the European Communist party that was dominated by the USSR. In search of support, Yugoslavia started catering toward the West. The early models of socialist realism adopted from the Soviets were gradually abandoned and by the 1950’s the pressure on controlled artistic work and expression was lightened. 10 Thus, with the relaxation of the iron grip, politics provided for a degree of intellectual and artistic freedom. Modernism quickly emerged as a predominant mode of architectural practice in former Yugoslavia. Although, practicing architecture was framed within the limits of socialized building types and required an expression representative of a classless society. In order for artists to balance their innovative freedom, they had to agree, however, to they would not interfere with domestic politics. 11

54


Contrasting the 1940’s, the 1950’s were representational of the International Style, utilizing elements such as simple white volumes and glass boxes for most of the state administration and institutional buildings, replacing the Corbusian epidemic. 12 “American facades” populated major Yugoslav cities. 13 This paralleled to the politically friendly relations with the West and new influences by the Western culture. The revival of contemporary architecture that followed was in return instrumental in reinforcing Yugoslavia’s new image of a reformed Communist country for the world to observe. 14 It also demonstrated a clear visual testimony of country’s independence and difference from the USSR. 15 In essence, such democracy in artistic expression was necessary, as the Western democracies observed Yugoslavia with skepticism. 16 Yugoslavia demonstrated its orientation through a symbolic message perhaps best demonstrated through the metal and glass volumes of fair trade expo pavilions between 1954 and 1958. Most recognized was the Brussels Expo of 1958. 17

3

4

55


56


1

1. Edvard Ravnikar: Office Towers and Cankarjev dom Congress Center, Revolution Square (today Republic Square), Ljubljana, Slovenia 1960-74.

57


Thus, since the 1960’s brought the possibility of original and personal architectural styles, many architects in Yugoslavia began to develop their own personal, formal and increasingly distinct and recognizable approaches to architectural composition. 18 Architects developed a style of structural orientation with elements of brutalism. And for a long period, this method of the metal and concrete structural form, paired with a lively glass facade surface became a fundamental theme in this modernist movement. 19 1

The 1960’s and 1970’s became referred to as the golden age of architecture. 20 Public competitions were erupting everywhere and the construction of expressive monuments became highly popular. 21 For example, this participation in public competitions brought acclaim to Slovenian architect Marko Mušić, a Slovenian architect whose work derived from Ravnikar’s school, and later from international structuralism and brutalism. 22 He engaged in regionalism such as in his memorial center in Kolašin, Montenegro (1970-1975), and he “finally stopped at the concept of organic architecture, dynamized in the exterior and the interior, especially by using mobile, circular, rising forms, as in the Church of Christ’s Incarnation in Dravlje (Ljubljana) between 1980 and 1985. The church with its curved glass wall, rises from behind a densely planted hill resembling an open eye. “ 23 He became known for his expressive memorial architecture, and his final unfinished project of the Home of the Revolution in Nikšić, Montenegro will be discussed in the following chapter as a site whose concept of strengthening the Yugoslav national identity has been abandoned and forgotten as a result of political fragmentation in the 1990’s.

58


2

4

3

1.

Marko Mušić: Memorial Center, Kolašin, Montenegro 1969-75.

2, 4. Marko Mušić: Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-1989. Marko Mušić: Church of Christ’s Incarnation, 3. Dravlje, Slovenia 1980-85. 18. Djurić, 358. 19. Ibid, 358. 20. Ibid, 360. 21. Ibid, 360. 22. Ibid, 360. 23. Ibid, 361.

59


1

1. Janko Konstantinov: Telecommunication Center, Skopje, Macedonia 1974, 1982 and 1989.

60


61


The 1970’s marked the plateau of Yugoslav international status and architectural influence. As Tito was the last surviving founder of the Non-Aligned Movement and thus held great respect and privilege within his non-aligned connections, Yugoslav construction companies conducted grand projects in the recently decolonized Third World Countries. 24 These constructions occurred in Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia and South America with projects ranging from interior to master plans of entire cities. 25 Their ambitious efforts continued to progress abroad masking the rising number of unfinished public projects at home. Funds were depleting and architectural development soon came to a complete halt.

1.

New Belgrade housing blocks, 1947-1975.

2.

Vladimir Potočnjak, Anton Urlih, Zlatko Nojman and Dragica Perak: Federal Executive Council Building (today Palace of Serbia), Belgrade, Serbia 1947-59. 3. Anton Bitenc: Church in Koseze, Ljubljana, Slovenia 1969-1973. 4. Edvard Ravnikar: The Revolution Square, Ljubljana, Slovenia 1960-74. 5. Stojan Maksimović: Sava Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1977-79. 6. Georgi Konstantinovski: Goce Delcev Student Dormitory, Skopje, Macedonia 1969. 7. Janko Konstantinov: Telecommunication Center, Skopje, Macedonia 1974, 1982 and 1989. 24. Kulić, 47. 25. Ibid, 47.

62

1

2


6

5

3

4

7

63


1

2

64


1. Zlatko Ugljen: Serefudin White Mosque, Visoko, Bosnia 1969-79. 2. Svetlana RadeviÄ&#x2021;: Podgorica Hotel, Podgorica, Montenegro 1967.

65


THIRD YUGOSLAVIA:

When Tito died in 1980, political disagreements among the Yugoslav republics rocked the stability of the nation. Rebellions and secession referendums were held across the nation. These regional differences and turmoil reflected in the architectural work during the last years of Yugoslav federation. As early as the 1970’s there was a visible decrease in the number of large scale construction projects which was a direct parallel to the decreasing investment capital. 26 Several republics were not able to go ahead with the planned or initiated construction of public buildings and infrastructure, as was the case with the Home of the Revolution in Nikšić, Montenegro. 27

1

1. 2.

Toward the end of the 1980’s, Slovenian and Croatian politicians saw the possibility for gradual resolution of the federation’s accumulated problems in an expanding decentralization and democratization of the economy. In contrast, Serbian politicians gained support in the less developed republics, such as Montenegro, and above all in the federal Yugoslav army. Proclaiming the secessions illegal and disputing over ethnic territories, the Serbian led Yugoslav army entered the territories to forcefully exercise federal laws and measures, which in turn became a gruesome civil and military war. Mihajlo Janković: UŠČE Business Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1965. Dragiša Brašovan: Yugoslav Airforce Command Center, Belgrade, Serbia 1935.

26. Djurić, 364. 27. Ibid, 364. 28. IIbid, 371. 29. Ibid, 371.

66

The 1990’s in Yugoslavia did not begin with the popular deconstructivist movement in design, but erupted with genuine deconstruction in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina until the peace treaty was signed in 1995. 28


However, destruction continued as conflict in Kosovo erupted in 1998 which ended with the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999. 29 As a result, much of the valuable architectural fabric such as historic urban areas and monuments were damaged and destroyed from 1991 into 1999. Meanwhile, Montenegro seceded peacefully in 2006, and Serbian province of Kosovo was declared independent by most of the international community in 2008. The 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have brought psychological battles among people where their senses of national identity are broken, in question, or extreme. Most people no longer identify with Yugoslav identity, its the socialist utopian dream, its halted modernist movement and its abandoned, unfinished and even destroyed projects. People donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t necessarily feel aversive towards these buildings as the political instability was not one to overthrow the large picture of the socialist ideology, but to battle unresolved and suppressed ethnic tensions from the past.

2

Many buildings are damaged beyond repair, some are abandoned, but also some are resurrected. This eclectic mixture of physical states still constitutes a functioning environment. The post war 2000â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have, however, brought forth wave of unregulated and foreign construction which has some concerns and questionable effect upon these already wounded societies. These speedy efforts of joining the European Union may have both positive and negative implications upon architecture and the urban environment where the questions of self-identity and self-autonomy have not yet been realized. 67


68


“As the socialist state descended into chaos, so did its cities. Instead of the cozy Baroque squares and fountains, the unplanned, illegal growth invaded the half-finished spaces of the modernist city. Everything that the socialist city was supposed to eradicate blasted back with a vengeance: land speculation, total lack of coordination, dominance of private interest over public. At the same time, the pasts that seemed safely buried for forty-five years were re excavated, shaking up the sensitive ethnic balance that held the country together. By the end of 1991, Yugoslavia was no more. The destruction of its most prodigious urban creations was just a visible mark for the lives that perished.” 22 1.

1

Oslobodjenje Novine Publishing House, Sarajevo, Bosnia.

22. Kulić, 229.

69


1

2

1-3. Shelled buildings and graffiti, Sarajevo, Bosnia.

70


3

71


Background _ yugoslav utopian monuments

4.


73


2

TITO’S WWII MONUMENTS:

1

3

74

While, Socialist Realism provided a rich spectrum of opportunities for representing human labor in artistic form, focusing completely on a mode of figurative representation that portrayed labor in heroic forms,1 the Yugoslavian monuments, or Spomeniks, which until now have received little international attention, were an exception. In all of former Yugoslavia about 20,000 monuments and memorials have been raised, stemming from the most active period of Yugoslav modern art which has been described as socialist modernism or socialist aestheticism. 2 Those built in the 1940’s and the 1950’s bear the style of socialist realism due to the influence of the Soviet Union in the initial stages of SFRY’s development, while the larger and most important memorial sites have been built between the 1960’s and 1980’s using a unique, abstract, often monumental formal vocabulary of brutalism which aimed to teetertotter between the East’s and the West’s architectural language.


“Looking at these abandoned World War II monuments, we find ourselves confronted with a strange form and style, reminiscent of Star Wars and Slavic folklore.” 4 They are monuments built of concrete, steel and glass erected in order to commemorate World War II battles and concentration camps, mythicizing the Partisan battles while to simultaneously offer the people of Yugoslavia a sense of pride in a unifying identity geared toward a socialist utopian future. The situation today varies among regions and their specific context. Most of the monuments are abandoned, deserted, silent and empty. They are often violated with radical graffiti phrases and guarded only by nature, it’s trees and blowing winds.

4

They stand as physical witnesses of a time that has passed, that once denoted the starting point for a new society. Yet, they are still gearing toward something that even today isn’t existing, proclaiming a distant future, a utopian society, which already has become an unrealized past. 3

1,3. Miodrag Živković: Figthers Workers Batallion Monument, Kadinjača, Serbia 1979. 2. Miodrag Živković: Sutjeska Memorial, Tjentište, Bosnia 1971. 4. Bogdan Bogdanović: Jasenovac Flower Memorial, 1.

Armin Linke, Srdjan Weiss Jovanović, and Tobia Bezzola. Socialist Architecture: The Vanishing Act, 123. 2. Robert Burghardt, “Partizanski Spomenici Putovanje U Jugoslovensku Modernu.” Trans. Dragoslav Ruzic. KVART (2008): 72-77. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.rb.fzz.cc/pdf/spomenici_ KVART.pdf>, 75. 3. Robert Burghardt, “Partizanski Spomenici Putovanje U Jugoslovensku Modernu,” 75. 4. Linke, Socialist Architecture: The Vanishing Act, 3.

75


1

76


3

2

1-3. Dušan Džamonja: Monument to the Revolution, Kozara, Bosnia 1972.

77


2

3 1

1.

Bogdan Bogdanović: Dudik Memorial Park, Vukovar, Croatia, 1980.

2-3. Bogdan Bogdanović: Partisan Necropolis of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia 1965. 4. Bogdan Bogdanović: Jasenovac Flower Memorial, Jasenovac, Croatia 1966. 5.

Vladimir Kulić, Modernism in Between, 225.

6.

Robert Burghardt, “Partizanski Spomenici Putovanje U Jugoslovensku Modernu,”75.

7. Burghardt, “Partizanski Spomenici - Putovanje U Jugoslovensku Modernu,”75. 8. Linke, 124.

78

One of the most prominent architects with focus on memorial sculpture and architecture was taken by Bogdan Bogdanović, a Serbian architect who drew much attention with memorial park in Dudik, Croatia (1980) which is characterized by a group of large stylized stone and metal figures in the middle of wilderness. 5 Today it sits damaged due to the war in the 1990’s. Another significant project of his was the necropolis in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is a fenced stone space with terraces leaning on a hill, populated by abstract alien-like forms.


The monument to the victims of the Jasenovac concentration camp (1963-1965) is a large concrete mass that in the author’s concept blossomed into a stone flower, hiding the memorial crypt at its foot.

4

These monuments are often located in appealing natural environments, such as upon hilltops, within national parks, in mountains and secluded forests. Situated in well designed parks with tables and benches for the visitors, they inevitably became tourist attractions. However, not everyone visited them at own will. Students were often taken on excursions and picnics to these sites as part of an educative mission within the former Yugoslavia. 6 This mission was accentuated by inclusion of simple, outdoor amphitheaters at these sites. Sometimes, they were represented by stone seats in a semicircle, sometimes articulated like a theatre, and sometimes abstract. Along the natural spotlights and a stage open to the sky and the beauty of the natural site, it is easily imaginable how spectacles of theatre, public reading and summer academia were conducted in the open. 7 Presently, their haunting, empty interiors show empty stages where the states’ political propaganda held speeches and delivered nationalistic messages to the community.

“Constructed by Yugoslav sculptors and architects, they forge a link between the iconography of social realism and the modernist tradition of the non-figurative sculpture. They combine a thoroughly contemporary stance - their affinity with metabolist forms and what was then the high tech - with reference to a national identity.” 8

79


1

80


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2

1-3. Vojin Bakić: Tower on Magarčevo, Petrova Gora, Croatia, 1981.

81


“They buried socialist Yugoslavia’s troubled roots into a distant indeterminate past to enable the construction of its future; but when the roots started being excavated again in the 1980’s, the future soon came to an end.” 9 1

82


1.

Marko Mušić: Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-89.

9.

Kulić, 228.

10. Linke, 3-4. 11. Ibid, 125 12. Ibid, 125. 13. Ibid, 125 14. Kulić, 228.

“These spaces were only able to resound with a message as long as such a message was provided by the state. Now the stage is still set, but the actors have gone. Now the cathedrals have been abandoned by the priests, just as they have been stripped of their robes. And so we are finding that it is actually the interior spaces which look like the skins that have been shed, while the buildings remain standing as sculptures, as monuments. They are quickly being absorbed by the newly growing urban texture, scars which may disturb a little but which no longer hurt. It looks as if nobody finds it necessary today to hate these buildings, to destroy them. Sheer relics of a forgotten history, they encounter nothing but clueless indifference,” 10 -Tobia Bezzola. As fantastical and mysterious these sites are to foreigners, the truth is that their history has not been forgotten. History and memories are instilled within the scars of people who bear them. Spectators still inhabit these monuments and travelers often still visit and have picnics at these sites, but these monuments are no longer acknowledged in their original, designed context. These monuments are part of the politically turbulent past and, today the majority of youth is simply disinterested and ignorant toward them.

On one hand these monuments can be seen as witnesses of a political order now disintegrated, and on the other hand they can stand as artifacts with nothing comparable existing anywhere else. 11 Here, something that since the late 19th century has only existed on paper or as a model of a utopia, has found its place, become real, been used, and has been marked by time. 12 They have become obsolete again, yet ripped from the context of their intended purpose. They direct to both the past and the future, because they bear witness to the fact that any utopia that becomes true will in its turn decompose and disappoint. 13

“On the one hand, their open-endedness and mythical allusions were essentially aligned with the overall tendency to mytholigize the war; on the other, their lack of historical specificity helped downplay the fact that the war was fought not only against foreign occupation, but also between Yugoslavia’s own ethnicities, as well as on ideological grounds.” 14 83


1

2

84


1. Bogdan Bogdanović: Jasenovac Flower Memorial, Jasenovac, Croatia 1966. 2. Bogdan Bogdanović: Slobodište Memorial Park, Kruševac, Serbia 1965.

85


1930

86

functionalism

1940

socialist realism

1950

international style

1960

brutalism


1980

slowed progress

1990

war.. .

2010

deregulation

87


Site _ largest utopian monument

5.


1

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2

HOME OF REVOLUTION

Domineering the city of Nikšić, Montenegro, is a structure, perhaps no longer interesting in its form, but definitely in its meaning. 1 It is the Home of Revolution, conceptualized to arise emotions of awe, to acknowledge to the highest degree the period of struggle against fascism, to paint an architectural wisdom of one period and to be the center of culture. This was an object according to which this city of Nikšić, and largely, the republic of Montenegro would be recognized. 2

4

3

Home of the Revolution was supposed to be the biggest and most grandiose of all World War II Spomeniks, or monuments that the federal government of Yugoslavia sponsored since the development of SFRY. However, unlike many WWII monuments across Yugoslavia, this one was to house a complete cultural program and function. 3

1.

Marko Mušić: Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro 1976-89.

2-4. Exterior views, Home of Revolution. 1.

Dragan M. Božović, “Dom Revolucije U Nikšiću.” Pod Lupom. TVCG. Niksic, Montenegro, May 2011. Television. Trans. 2. Dragan M. Božović, “Dom Revolucije U Nikšiću.” TVCG. 3. Božović.

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3

2

The 1970’s were a time of the socialist Yugoslavia, when Nikšić was considered one of the strongest economic, industrial centers of the Yugoslav republic Montenegro. Having been a primarily industrial city, Nikšić, lacked the quantity of cultural program for its 30,000 inhabitants at the time, and thus the city found it quite necessary to erect a pubic object that would house all these functions. 4

1

1.

Yugoslav industrialism.

2.

Yugoslav partisans.

3.

City center, Nikšić, Montenegro 2012.

4.

Božović.

5.

Ljubo Vojvodić, Slobodan Vukajlović, Ratko Ðukanović, Gojko M. Kilibarda, Veljko Šakotić, Marko Mušić. DRN - Dom Revolucije Nikšić. Nikšić: Odbor Za Izgradnju Doma Revolucije u Nikšicu, 1976, 2-3.

92

The city’s industry was producing surplus revenues, and along with its history of being one of the first cities to liberate itself against the Nazi occupation and having served as one of the foregrounds of the socialist party - this city served as an ideal location for such a grandiose, monumental, and Yugoslavia’s biggest monument. 5


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The decision to construct the Home of Revolution in memory of the World War II veterans was declared 3 decades following the liberation of the city from the Nazi occupation, on September 18th, 1974. And, the site which was to host to monument was decided upon a central city block, at the time called Lenin Square. This block is the size of 2 metric hectares, bordering the streets Njegoševa, Nika Miljanića, Skadarska and Radoje Dakić. 6 This central block had already housed an elementary school and two public parks which were quickly demolished in order to allow for the construction of this monument. And, politically along with the educational mission of Yugoslavia, the monument’s city central location was ideal. 7 The construction began in 1976 and continued on for about 10 years, during which citizens contributed toward its realization through their regularly taxed income. Due to the industrial surplus revenues and citizens’ contributions, the projects designed program area of 7,230 square meters, quickly had expanded to 9,000 square meters. Then, the program expanded to 12,349 square meters and finally tripled into a total of 21,738 ambitious square meters. 8

2

3

4

1-2. Lenin square with its elementary school prior to demolition. 3. Lenin square with its elementary school prior to demolition. View of the historic school and the public square 4. along the city’s main pedestrian boulevard “korzo.” Photo from the 1980’s of the north edge of the 5. monument’s site showing the newly constructed residential district. 6.

Božović.

7.

Ibid.

8.

Isidora Damjanović, “Anarhija Od Betona.” Index, 32.

95


It was anticipated that the monument would house a quite diverse and rich program:

1

twelve hundred seat theater, a summer amphitheater, cinema, conference halls, radio and television center, lounges, library, education facilities, retail, national cuisine restaurant, art workshops and studios, a youth center... 3

2

1-4. Home of Revolution, interior views. 9.

BoĹžoviÄ&#x2021;.

10. Ibid.

96

Only about 250 square meters of the 24,000 square meters was to be part of the World War II memorial. Everything else was supposed to have functionality needed in a developing cultural environment. This program was enough to accommodate seven thousand people at once. 9 This enormous program and accommodation would have provided for a 24/7 environment which was ideal for the already familiar political and educational mission of Yugoslavia.


4

However, no one anticipated the unraveling political events that initiated with Titoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s death in 1980. In place of a peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s collective revolution, came the antibureaucratic revolution with deep economic and political crisis that slowly led to a complete suspension of the project. 10 97


1

Since its abandonment, it has been realized that below the structure runs a table of underground water, whose implications were disregarded during construction. Thus, the unfinished basements and catacombs are presently filled with pools of risen water that are about 7 to 10 meters deep. 11 The building, as a vacant concrete shell of labyrinth spaces has become a haunting attraction for drunks, homeless, drug addicts, adventurous youth, and even stray animals. 12 A metal fence was secured several times to prevent the tragedies, but nothing has stopped the curious and wandering minds from encroaching these dangerous spaces. Over a dozen citizen lives have been taken in these dark spaces, either through inattention or purposeful act of suicide. 13 At the time of its construction, the public had invested about fifty million German marks, and about 400 tons of steel were built into the supporting structure - the total cost which was sufficient to construct 3,000 residential flats or 50 high-rises of 14 stories each. 14 Even an international tender has been posted for decades, but no one, even from abroad, seemed interested in dealing with this long abandoned plan. 15 Thus, besides the citizen lives, this monstrous structure, now referred to as the Home of Death, or the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Blue Necropolisâ&#x20AC;? has engulfed a significant amount of cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capital as well. 98


3

2

4

1-4. Home of Revolution, interior views. 11. Božović. 12. “Dvije konstante nikšićkog doma revolucije: strava i užas,” javniservis.me, 19 June. 2011. Web. 13. Ibid. 14. Damjanović, “Anarhija Od Betona.” Index, 32. 15. Damjanović, 32.

99


City’s minister Branislav Mićunović had announced to the Vijesti media that the Home of the Revolution will be completed as soon as the economic crisis improves while other sources are reporting its eventual destruction. He stated: “The design solutions are ready, our cooperation with the author of the project is Marko Mušić is on schedule and intense. The economic crisis has hampered the planned dynamic of re-initiating construction. The government, Ministry of Culture, Directorate of Public Works and the Municipality of Nikšić are ready to work on the completion of the Home of the Revolution and I am confident that the exit from crisis and an improved financial status in the upcoming period will ensure conditions that Nikšić obtains a representative cultural object, kind that this city for a long time has deserved.” 16 Thus, the decades long abandonment of the decaying and slowly sinking structure has been equated with the economic stature. The completion date of year 2016 was announced in 2008. However, as of 2013, no initiation upon this project has been observed. And, unfortunately, the public continues to live in disappointment.

1

1.

Home of Revolution, interior view.

16. “Dom Revolucije - Ruglo Koje Niko Neće,” Vijesti Online,14 May 2011, Web. Trans. 17. “Nikšić: Izložba u Domu revolucije u čast žrtvama, počinje i akcija čišćenja,” Vijesti Online, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. Trans.

100


Despite volunteering efforts, the building and its site remain quite unprotected. Through the violated parts of the fence curious people pass on a daily basis, those who wish to hide, those who are homeless and seek shelter, those who conduct illegal activities such as use and sale of drugs, to those who are simply curious to climb to the panorama tower at the top. Quite recently, city’s artists Milonje Ðikanović and Miodrag Pekić held a commemorative exhibit with 15 paintings and sculptures within the Home of Revolution in an effort to address the 15 lost lives within its dangerous necropolictic abyss of spaces. This action was paired with public voluntary action of cleaning the site and securing its entry loopholes. Pekić stated: “One of the motives behind this action were the sad and unfortunate events of this place. Second motive is the one of creation, because this space intrigues curiosity to us artists. We would like to stress that this action has been executed through voluntary citizen efforts, without any monetary sponsorship and without any support from the responsible institutions and local administration.” 17 101


1

1-5. Home of Revolution, exterior views. 18. “Nikšić: Izložba u Domu revolucije u čast žrtvama, počinje i akcija čišćenja,” Vijesti Online, 11 Oct. 2011, Web. Trans. 19. “Tvorac Doma revolucije iz Slovenije došao da učestvuje u čišćenju,” Vijesti Online, 17 Oct. 2011, Web. Trans. 20. Ibid, 21. Ibid. 22. Ibid.

102

The current public volunteering measures are organized in three phases. First, goal is to eliminate as much of the 850 cubic meters of waste, 2500 cubic meters of wild plants and construction debris. Second phase will be to conceal all openings to eliminate the possibility of entry into the empty building. And the third phase will be eliminating the rusty fence and cultivating new plant life in efforts to conceal the building from pedestrian view. 18 These citizen initiated efforts show the scale of their impatience and tiredness of awaiting the fate of this haunting and hazardous monument. So, in effect, they are taking action in securing the site and veiling the building along with its theory which they no longer associate with. Montenegrin newspapers are publishing that the public has succeeded in eliminating 20 tons of debris through their own efforts and even the monument’s author, Marko Mušić, had come from Slovenia to monetarily aid in these efforts. Although, he is hoping that this monument will be completed one day. He stated: “I cannot believe that an object which rose through people’s efforts, that was purposed for culture, society, and education, cannot be completed for function. The largest and most significant problem of our time is the one of national identity which should be strengthened by all means. And national identity of one country is comprised of education, culture, everything that this city once had. Now, it has an object which through relatively small means could function“ 19

“This object has a complete program of education, culture, and socialization. And this is just necessary today when people are becoming more distant from one another, when a man no longer has physical contact with another man. The Home of Revolution is with all its program and functions an ideal place where people would greet, meet, and spend time together. Two years ago we did a study of partial re purposing, and foremost of completion of the object with all interior and technical units.“ 20 “I often ask myself whether this object will ever shine. Each time when I re-evaluate this project, I am convinced that it is great, as far as its functionality goes, and that even today I would not change anything. This project was a collaboration of hundreds of experts from across Europe - experts in stage technology, lighting, acoustics. It is an object prepared for all time.“ 21 “Nikšić had a cultural tradition and a highly significant role in former Yugoslavia, its old theatre, things it today no longer has and I cannot believe that the city will easily give up from that. I am convinced that time will come when this Home will be completed. Perhaps not all at once, but that is not a catastrophe. Many objects are completed in phases, and so can this one,” said the architect. 22


His comments are quite expected, as every architect wishes to see his child mature to its desired potential, especially one of this significance in terms of it being the largest of all monuments in former Yugoslavia. However, the public and especially the youth who hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t lived in the socialist country, are not convinced that this object is stylistically appropriate and that even its completion should be continued in the predetermined form and style. 2

4 5

3

103


Site _ architecture as political act

6.


105


POLITICAL SITE:

Direct democracy, selfdetermination, self-organization are what is actually happening with the citizens taking responsibility into their own hands. This sense of self-autonomy and ownership are a new revolution where the people themselves are no longer waiting for the government to step in and help. Rather, they are taking initiative and through phases of volunteering are working to conceal, band-aid, encapsulate the building.

1

The actions that are happening at the site serve as a form of propaganda - but one in criticism of the current governance. Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s patience is boiling from their economic status, their physical environment and their well being, that veiling this building themselves speaks strongly of their disappointment and impatience with their leaders. School children yearly paint the corroding fence that encloses the sate. They are learning from a young age that this building needs to be masked with innocent imagery of happiness and hope. Teenage youth encroaches these spaces, painting various graffiti, sometimes attacking the political system and other times leaving their personal signature or a mark. This act of vandalism and marking territory is yet another rebellious act as the act itself violates state owned, no longer public, but private property.

1. Home of Revolution, interior view. 2. Home of Revolution, exterior view.

106


2

We are not only observing a collective revolution upon this site and the building, but also the nature has taken itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wild toll with wild shrubs and even trees growing inside the monument. In addition, an economic revolution is physically evident with the so called, temporary constructions, of small private businesses that have become permanent since early 2000â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Thus, the Home of Revolution has found its inhabitants and been somewhat occupied despite its incompletion. During political elections, opposing parties collage the corroding fence with their posters and advertisements. Oppositionists tear down the posters during the dark hours of the night. They toss the posters over the fence into the wild, untamed abyss of the site and impose their own partyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s propaganda. So, as the election days go by, people wake up to previous posters being torn down and collaged over with new ones. Along the daily walk into the city center, citizens are informed about daily politics and opinions through the visual dialogue posted on the 107


decaying fence. Thus, the fence becomes a battle field of the opposing parties and people’s perception of politics. The site’s boundaries express the quiet, secret voices who fear public exposure. Meanwhile, for politicians, these gates serve as optimal advertising since the conquering of the site’s fence, in the central block of the downtown, with the decaying socialist backdrop just might up their chances of being elected. The corroded, dented gate becomes a promenade billboard while the monument becomes a three dimensional reminder of a failed past. The political posters of central and eastern Europe depicted technological utopianism and a tempered determination to control the future, without much effort of recapturing the past. Therefore, even at present we see how this building and its gated site are providing a field for the current competing regimes to depict or paint themselves to the people. Once again, political posters serve as visual rhetoric, but no longer of the utopian socialist future.

1. Home of Revolution, street view. 1. James Aulich and Marta Sylvestrová, Political Posters in Central and Eastern Europe, 1945-95, 4.

108

1

The historical significance of the socialist political poster lies not so much in its aesthetic value as in the fact that it was a reproductive narrative for the masses upon which the state made its claims to legitimacy, insinuating various historiographies and theoretical concepts into the speech and thought patterns of the everyday. 1 With location in the utmost city center, the Home of the Revolution sits like a giant rock upon which it is impossible not to stumble. It’s sheer, unavoidable presence makes this site an ideal location for this new multi dimensional repetitive narrative to occur, one that is an inescapable part of an everyday life.


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ARCHITECTURE & REVOLUTION:

1

2

3

1. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1920s. 2. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1945. 3. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1963. 4. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 1986. 5. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany, 2003. 2. Neil Leach, Architecture and Revolution: Contemporary Perspectives on Central and Eastern Europe, 2. 3. Neil Leach, Architecture and Revolution, 3. 4. Leach, 3. 5. Ibid, 3. 6. Ibid, 4. 7. Ibid, 4.

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4

Neil Leach, Reader in Architecture and Critical Theory at the Univ. of Nottingham, states that the principal problem in central and eastern Europe has been the issue of the built environment. He says that architecture has been indistinguishably tied to social developments. These evident parallels may be constructed between the utopian social projects of the first half of the 20th century and the utopian architectural ones - where both types represented dreams and aspirations that ultimately failed and were unrealized. 2 Architecture has failed to change the world, yet we keep wondering as to what type of architecture best suits a world which has changed. 3 The buildings that have been left behind the unveiled communist era have left societies with a range of complex problems, such as the buildings that are now left behind in the former Yugoslavia. Most of these buildings, such as the Home of Revolution, are environmentally incompetent or structurally unsound, designed to serve a now redundant social program, and carry the stigma of association with the previous regime. 4 Neil addresses the exact case of the Home of Revolution when he explains that these design issues are in addition synthesized with the struggling economic condition


Alexanderplatz used to be the center of East Berlin and a showcase for socialist architecture, while Potsdamer Platz housed the Berlin Wall. Both plazas have been completely redeveloped into entertainment and shopping centers. As a result, important monuments are being erased purely for the sake of financial interest, and this same scenario may happen to the Home of Revolution as the local government is eager to sell the site and replace it with a profitable venue. Such danger lies in this disinterest of bearing responsibility. of these post socialist states. Even though it may be in the best economic interest to re-use and re-furbish these already existing buildings, they require such vast sums that this option is no longer feasible. 5

5

What is crucial in addressing what needs to be done, is to understand that without considerations of complexity in theoretical issues, most redevelopment of these buildings is likely to follow the paths of self-interest as dictated by that particular timeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s marketplace. 6 Such an example can be seen in Berlin, where big businesses have taken over and redeveloped many of the sites that were vacated by the deconstruction of the Berlin Wall, such as Alexanderplatz and Potsdamer Platz. 7

111


This is exactly what is happening with the Home of Revolution. There are generations of people whose memory is still intact. They associate political meaning with the building and its site either positively or negatively. Meanwhile, the younger generations have little or no memory, so they cannot perceive nor associate the building’s state with any political content.

COMMEMORATING THE PAST:

Frederic Jameson, a Distinguished Professor of Comparative Literature at Duke University, studies the problem of architecture’s role in commemorating the past. He particularly focuses on Bucharest, a city whose pre-existing urban fabric was extremely violated by Ceausescu in preference for his “People’s” Palace. Jameson asserts that we must not only “distinguish between the function of a work of art to subvert aesthetic ideology, as opposed to general ideology,” but also take into account the process of “transaesthetic,” a changing perception of history over time. 8 For Jameson, political meaning is dependent upon a sense of historical perception and memory. He argues that the building can only serve as a history lesson if its public still has a sense of association with its memory. 9 “ If the political content is merely allegorical, once the existential and social context has been forgotten, the associations will be lost.” 10 112

Renata Salecl, philosopher and sociologist who works as a researcher at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, also considers the question of how to deal with the issue of remaining monuments to a previous socialist regime. Her primary focus is one of the innate need for identity and thus a symbolic order through which to define that expression or identity. She states that “nostalgic memory may itself provide that sense of stable identity, offering a myth of a happy past as a means of escaping the actual trauma of the past,” scenario quite evident in Montenegro and other former Yugoslav states. 11

Looking at the Romanian example, Ceausescu singlehandedly attempted to destroy the past and to develop a new symbolic order by the act of demolishing vast, existing townscape to create a platform for construction of his own palace. By renaming it the ‘People’s House,’ the citizens of Bucharest had blindly carried out the leader’s autocratic vision for the palace which symbolically presented an ideal society. 12 People’s Palace, at present, is reputed to be the second largest building in the world, only second to Pentagon. 13 It is situated at the boundary of a 4 km long avenue of large, imposing buildings which was forced through the center of old Bucharest. Although this enormous structure remained unfinished at the time of Ceausescu’s overthrow and execution in 1989, the People’s Palace has been somewhat completed and is now used as the House of Parliament and as a conference center. 14 1.

Anca Petrescu, Palace of the Parliament (People’s Palace), Bucharest, Romania 1983-89.

8.

Leach, 5.

9.

Ibid, 5.

10. Ibid, 5. 11. Ibid, 7. 12. Ibid, 6.


1

113


Comparing the People’s Palace to the Home of Revolution, applying a similar concept is not that far stretched. We cannot say that Tito himself dictated that this very site is an ideal site for this monument and that he himself intended to destruct the existing public school and the two beautiful parks it had. However, the local government sought recognition and decided to ambitiously keep increasing the size of the program into one that was supposed to be the largest monument in all of Yugoslavia. By association of Yugoslav World War II monuments with Tito, it cannot be flawed to associate the Home of Revolution with Tito’s himself. If this monument was to represent the final, most grandiose monument of Yugoslavia - and perhaps the Balkans, - whose concept was to celebrate and instill Yugoslav national identity, then this monument was indeed a reflection of the former Yugoslav President Tito’s ambitions and his ideology.

1-2. Anca Petrescu, Palace of the Parliament (People’s Palace), Bucharest, Romania 1983-89. 3. People’s Palace, Bucharest, Romania, Changing the Face 2009 3rd place competition winner. 4. Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro, existing state. 13.

Leach, 9.

14.

Ibid, 9.

Had it been completed, the Home of Revolution would have been part of architectural discourse much so like the House of People in Bucharest. Just like Salecl speaks of collective memory, this sense of nostalgic memory and need for identity is quite pertinent. The Home of Revolution was, after all, encompassing a public program “for the people,” one which would accommodate a quarter of the city’s population at any given time. Despite the fact that the educational wing housed a Marxist library, the Youth Center wing which would celebrate and host performances of the Youth Communist Party and despite the fact that any given performance in the building’s theatres would be censored, many people blindly and enthusiastically believed in this programmatic promises of this building and, likewise, in its socialist utopian ideology. People’s taxes and labor carried out this vision of a monument, which the architect refers to as “the monument of all time.” 15 Therefore, I strongly believe that this building serves as an ideal site for an intervention which can re-shape, re-identify, and birth a new sense of national identity for the citizens of Niksic, and generally the Montenegrin people.

1

2

15.

“Tvorac Doma revolucije iz Slovenije došao da učestvuje u čišćenju,” Vijesti Online, 17 Oct. 2011. Web. Trans. 16. Leach, 6.

114

3


Today, for those who remember its ascribed ideology, a sense of nostalgic memory towards the past identity may be at play. However, for those who don’t remember, such as myself, this building just exists with no association to anything, other than it’s clear construction style of the 1970s and its visual resemblance of an abstract, blue glass sphinx, a futuristic necropolis, a deep mystery. What is bothersome at present, is not this fading or faded memory of the past regime, but the building’s physically dilapidated state that sits abandoned, forbidden. A sense of national identity is wounded however. There is no longer a Yugoslavia. The promise of a better future has evaporated in the chaotic politics of the 1990’s that followed and are frozen in time today. However, according to Leach, “architecture may still play an important indirect role in the formation of new national identities.” 16

4

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2

1 3

1-4. Daniel Libeskind, Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1999. 17.

Leach, 7.

18.

Ibid, 7.

19.

Ibid, 7.

20.

Ibid, 7.

21.

Ibid, 132.

116


Looking at successful examples, Daniel Libeskind, a world renowned architect who was born in Poland and himself affected by the issue of national identity and commemoration of the past, has displayed a consistent approach to memorial architecture in numerous works of architecture. His attitude was to neither erase the past nor to reconstruct the past. Instead, “he calls for strategies of transformation and metamorphosis of existing realities, as he attempts to open up a domain for the creation of unpredictable, flexible and hybrid architectures.” 17

“Memory is built. Memory is not something which is just there. It is also constructed... When we remember we are not in the past. We are always remembering now. The nature of memory also changes with the present and with the future.” 21 Daniel Libeskind

Libeskind believes that memorials to the past should not be erased and hat Europe needs to live with its history and contain these monuments. His extension to the Berlin Museum aims to awaken

the memory of Jewish culture that has been destroyed. The focal void that extends through the zigzag plan of the museum forces visitors to cross it in multiple instances as they progress in and out of the museum. This educes a geometric presence empty of artifacts. With this purposeful gesture Libeskind portrays a memory to a culture that has been all but eradicated in an absence of any presentation. 18 “The void becomes a death mask of a culture, the invisible made visible by its conspicuous absence”, yet that same void and absence demands presence and experience. 19 Libeskind, thus, sees architecture as a “space of lived experience, and as the space of memory which is itself prompted by encounter with the physical.” 20

4

117


AESTHETICS AND IDEOLOGY:

Herbert Marcuse, who was a German philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, has argued for a link between the concept of aesthetics and revolution. In his view, the revolutionary may in fact exist within the aesthetic in all forms of art, including architecture. 22 Even though Leach argues that architectural form in and of itself cannot be a political agent, nor influence political behavior, 23 I would agree with Marcuse in that architecture does portray a kind of aesthetic that in its autonomy, “art can be revolutionary in the stylistic changes that it brings about, which disrupt accepted aesthetic conventions and reflect broader social changes.” 24

1.

Home of Revolution, Nikšić, Montenegro, existing state.

22. Maggie Toy, Beyond the Revolution: The Architecture of Eastern Europe, 8. 23. Leach, 6. 24. Toy, Beyond the Revolution: The Architecture of Eastern Europe, 8. 25. Toy, 8. 26. Ibid, 8. 27. Ibid, 9. 28. Ibid, 9. 29. Ibid, 9. 30. Ibid, 9. 31. Ibid, 9.

118

In opinion of Marcuse, “art was necessarily abstracted from the given social reality by a process of sublimation”, and thus came to represent both reality and the question of it. 25 However, “in contrast to mainstream Marxist aesthetics, art for Marceuse was not proletarian” as he “remained deeply suspicious of the mass media.” 26 Therefore, I believe it is safe to argue that Yugoslavian socialist monuments challenged the mainstream Marxist aesthetics in rise and development of a style all their own. Their autonomy and abstract forms do in fact tie closely to an aesthetic revolution, which was necessary for Yugoslavia to achieve in order for it to demonstrate stability and ability to perform as an independent nation upon the world stage.

In addressing ideology, Leach states that “architecture has its own special significance as the most public of all the arts, and the one which may most acutely influence the social.” 27 This sets architecture apart from the other arts as it has a unique capacity of acting autonomously. “The very presence of architecture gives it a social impact, so that any ‘negativity’ any critical capacity within architecture, is all but cancelled by the ‘positivity’ of its presence.” 28 According to Georges Bataille, who was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, anthropology, philosophy, economy, sociology and history of art, “monumental architecture not only reflects the politics of an epoch, but also has a marked influence on the social.” 29


1

“Architecture is the expression of the true natural of society, as physiognomy is the expression of the nature of individuals.” 30 “It is in the form of cathedrals and palaces that the church and state speak to and impose silence upon the crowds.” 31 119


ARCHITECTURE AND PROGRAM:

1

2

3

1-4. Home of Revolution, interior views. 32.

Toy, 10.

33.

Leach, 9.

34.

Vojvodić, DRN - Dom Revolucije Nikšić. Nikšić: Odbor Za Izgradnju Doma Revolucije u Nikšicu, 1976. Trans. 35. Toy, 10. 36.

Ibid, 11.

120

Michel Foucault, who was a French philosopher, social theorist, historian of ideas, and literary critic, is very well known for his studies between power and space. In his piece of Bentham’s panopticon, he explores the question of how architectural form may guide social behavior. The primary concept which Foucault tried to illustrate is that the “architecture may become an apparatus for creating and sustaining a power relationship independent of the person who operates it.” 32 It is the form itself which helps develop a type of social control and such an example would seem to present that architecture has the power to determine social behavior. 33 In the Home of Revolution, the multiplicity and the sheer size of performance stages both indoor and outdoor paired with the censorship of speech and expression, Foucault’s theory may be applied in that these spaces, along with their function, could have shaped social behavior which was desired by authorities. Had this building been completed and in function, and had the socialist regime continued on, these spaces would have had a chance to serve as an incubator of socialist ideals. This would not be a far stretched assumption, as early post socialist education was still dense with nationalistic lyrics praising Tito, novel literature heroically depicting Partisans fighting against the Fascist and Nazi occupation, while history and science courses indoctrinated the anti-religious concept of evolution.


The intended program which, among a vast list of rooms, would host a central Marxist library referred to as the “unavoidable” “spinal cord” of the building, paired with a Youth Center and even a discotheque for the teens would have served as an encapsulating 24/7 environment of exposure to this constant bombardment and osmosis of the socialist ideology. 34 Thus these spaces were masked by their variety of program, but intended to dissipate a quite powerful political message and exchange of these filtered ideas within the glassed, transparent gathering spaces.

4

Foucault states: “ I think that architecture can and does produce positive effects when the liberating intentions of the architect coincide with the real practice of people in the exercise of their freedom.” 35 Thus it is not in the architecture alone which dictates the social behavior, but the utilization of these forms and spaces can aid in advocacy of politics. Architecture, whose form had the alleged freedom of expression in former Yugoslavia, in and of itself is not what is political, but architecture’s form is a supporting agent of political use through its efficiency in layout. 36

121


1

2

3

1, 3. Home of Revolution, exterior view. 2, 4. Home of Revolution, interior view. 37.

Toy, 11.

38.

Ibid.

39.

Ibid.

40.

Ibid..

41.

Ibid.

42.

Ibid.

122

Thus, buildings, according to Foucault, would have no inherent politics, or capacity of informing the social behavior, but they can facilitate to a degree the practice of those politics. 37 In contrast with the utopian vision of Marcuse, Foucault emphasizes the politics of everyday life over the architectural form as the only and principle determinant of social behavior.


According to Leach, the question always lies in what political associations a building can have. “A building is endowed with ideological content according to certain configuration of praxis” and “as that praxis shifts, so too does the ‘content’ of that building.” 38 He provides an example of the Egyptian pyramids, stating that they embodied senses of tyranny and oppression to the slaves who constructed them. However, at present, they are interpreted quite differently - as sublime objects which depicted the Egyptian civilization - are preserved, and admired by innumerous masses of curious tourists. Thus, they no longer speak to their previous tyrannical ideology and concept of society. 39 4

According to Jameson, what is important is the question of history as these associations rely on the sense of collective memory. 40 A building must be observed within a continuously changing historical context. 41 Towards the end of socialist dictatorship of Romania, the People’s Palace was universally decried. “It was denounced as totalitarian architecture, as a symbol of Ceausescu’s regime, and compared to the architecture of other such regimes. After the revolution, it would appear that the population was in favour of destroying this monument to dictatorship. Some years later and even currently, many architects most architects continue to deride the building, while attitudes of the majority of the population would seem to be in favour of it: the building has emerged as a popular conference venue, and the monumental avenue leading up to the palace is now the most expensive real estate in Bucharest. For many the palace represents the centre of the city.” 42 123


1

1-2. Home of Revolution, Project vision in the original public brochure.

124


2

125


DESIRE FOR TRANSFORMATION This leads me to into a method explorations where neither destruction or completion of the monument to its pre-designed state would be a solution in part of whole. Thus, “one could argue that only the construction of the building”, such as the People’s House, or the Home of Revolution, which themselves “entailed the destruction of some previous precious remnants” of these two cities “could be construed as politically ideological.” 43 Any subsequent readings of both these edifices must be based on the aesthetic. 44 Hence, the intentionally unique aesthetic style of architecture Yugoslavia had does capture a political revolutionary act. In its absolute autonomy and abstract expression of alien-like forms, the aesthetic still poses a problem for the society of Nikšić and the public sense of identity despite the changing attitudes of generations who may no longer associate with the ideology of the building. Therefore, while the building itself - its form with hierarchy of program and space - may no longer hold power and serve as a reminiscence of a failed political ideology, its aesthetic still poses a problem. 126

Destruction is unnecessary as some present and future generations are not necessarily bothered by its presence, but only by its strange unearthly style and dilapidated state. The sense of collective memory will further fade with progression of time, and just like many of Tito’s monuments across the former Yugoslavia, they will sit abandoned and forgotten. However, Home of Revolution is one which is not so easy to forget because unlike most of the Yugoslav monuments, this one is not located in nature, atop a forested hill. It sits in the heart of the city and is passed by and stumbled upon on a daily basis.

The monument was designed almost three decades ago when sustainability was not necessarily considered as a design factor. Meanwhile, two decades of its abandonment and exposure to elements seems to suggest that much of the infrastructure is no longer sound. However, in alignment with Foucault’s theory of the power of space, the program of the building’s spaces is not inefficient. The program is adaptable and may be re-appropriated for the needs of the 21st century privatized system and globally oriented youth. This isn’t to say that the program and form are perfect as is, which is what the living architect still argues to be true. I assert that the existing program is quite excessive and redundant in comparison of the city’s population and that the form’s sheer volumetric size is also excessive and too powerful for the city and its textural fabric.

On the opposite end, this building should not be completed in its originally envisioned state despite the local government’s promises and such stated intentions because such action would not be economically sustainable. 1.

Home of Revolution, exterior view.

43. Toy, 11. 44. Ibid.


1

127


Site _ analysis

7.


129


HOME OF REVOLUTION Pedestrian Promenade

City Square

100

400 meters 200

130


NIKSIC CITY MAP The city of NikĹĄiÄ&#x2021; encompasses about 1 km perimeter or primarily industrial and residential type buildings. The city center is highlighted with a pedestrian boulevard which runs from the corner of the Home of Revolution intersection, trough the City Square, and down to the main vehicular roundabout. This promenade is dense with casual, pedestrian activity while the street itself is closed to vehicular traffic from about 11:00 - 23:00h. The promenade is host to small pavilion like shops, boutiques, shopping centers, businesses, cafes and restaurants. 131


1_sw

Series of photographs above follow a pedestrian point of view around the site occupied central city block. What is visually evident and important to note is that on a constant, daily basis, people who are heading to run errands or socialize within the city center, cannot avoid to either physically pass the monument or see a view of its ghostly, haunted presence. The monument, is a physical marker of the city center, yet a marker which is gated, masked and forcedly avoided. Likewise, its sheer size and intricate geometric footprint make it comparable only to industrial plants along the city’s perimeter, and nothing of everyday, public function. Thus, not only is this building dominating the urban scale with its sheer expansion and footprint in plan, but exhibits the same dominance in height and its overall volume. The site perimeter is gated with gates that serve as political poster boards and canvases for school children. It seems as though every effort is made to band aid this abandoned structure and obstruct if from direct pedestrian view.

132

2_w

The following diagrams will provide an overall view of site access and already existing cultural program within the monument’s vicinity. It can be seen that the entire city center is located within a 4-5 minute walking radius of the grandiose structure. City’s cultural core is the pedestrian boulevard that touches and has its initiation point at the corner of the monument’s site. Likewise, this being a relatively small city with heavy pedestrian traffic, free parking lots are present in multiple locations around the site, as well as along all vehicular streets. Analyzing the cultural facilities within the city center it can be concluded that educational branch is sufficient, but that the city is still lacking in performance spaces.

3_nw

4_n

The sheer neglect of the monument (one which was supposed to provide performance spaces and a complete cultural program) has had a concentrically destructive effect beyond its gated perimeter. The city’s historic theater has been demolished, while the army museum that included a movie theater and exhibit spaces is permanently closed and in a state of destruction and decay. Likewise the city’s only and culturally highly important public market has been permanently closed. Hence, it can be said that the overall corrosion of the monument itself has slowly spread like a virus beyond its enclosure and that, from a realistic, and a practical point of view, this project is crying for program that would reflect the lively and enthusiastic culture of the people in Nikšić, Montenegro. Their promise of gaining an exciting cultural program cannot die along with the political ideology that this monument represented.


5_ne

6_e

7_se

8_s

existing site views 7.

8.

2.

6.

5.

1.

4.

3.

133


Two longitudinal sections and the plan diagrams demonstrate the general originally intended program for the Home of Revolution. The massive building was split into three phases which were meant to encapsulate an entire necessary cultural program within a singular structure. The core of the building was phase A, or the education wing comprising of educational and library facilities. Here the public would be exposed to censored knowledge, and the original project brochure titled this phase as the “spine” or connector space to the

The overall intent was that this environment would strengthen the socialist ideological values through constant, 24/7 interaction and exchange of information among visitors where program would range from high cultural events and grand performances to the everyday culture of daily necessities and casual social activities.

entire edifice. It was stated that a visitor could not possibly utilize the spaces without having to pass by this internal promenade of exposed libraries. The largest portion of the building was intended for performance spaces. This wing included theaters of several sizes, the formal foyer, dining and studio spaces for local artists. And the last, but very crucial wing was the triangular youth center. This wing was intended for smaller performances and slightly casual gathering spaces for the young pioneers.

As explained in the following diagrams, the series of small temporary shops and the public park were added in the early 2000’s as preliminary efforts to utilize some of the vacant site of the monument.

EDUCATION PERFORMANCE

YOUTH CENTER

10 m

YOUTH CENTER

PERFORMANCE

10 m

134


PHASE A: EDUCATION EDUCATION ROOMS LIBRARY LOUNGES

PHASE C: YOUTH CENTER BISTRO SPORTS CLUB SMALL PERFORMANCE SPACE

PHASE B: PERFORMANCE ENTRY / FOYER ETERNAL FIRE MEMORIAL MAIN THEATRE ART STUDIOS TV & RADIO STATIONS NATIONAL RESTAURANT MOVIE THEATER SNACK BAR SERVICE SPACES

EDUCATION

YOUTH CENTER

PERFORMANCE

PEDESTRIAN BOULEVARD

SMALL SHOPS

PARKING

PUBLIC PARK

10 m

135


RELIGION

GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONS

GREEN SPACE & RURAL SITE

TRANSPORTATION

RESIDENTIAL

PUBLIC SAFETY GREEN SPACE & RURAL SITE

RELIGION TRANSPORTATION

URBAN & SUBURBAN SITE

PUBLIC SAFETY

ROADS RAIL LINES

URBAN & SUBURBAN SITE ROADS URBAN PARK SPACE URBAN BLOCKSRAIL LINES

ROADS

URBAN PARK SPACE URBAN BLOCKS ROADS RAIL LINES WALKING DISTANCES PEDESTIAN BOULEVARD

RAIL LINES WALKING DISTANCES PEDESTIAN BOULEVARD RECREATION PATH

RECREATION PATH VEHICULAR STREETS PUBLIC PARKING LOTS

VEHICULAR STREETS

ANIĆ

A

NJEG

ANIĆ

2 min NIKA

RSKA

2 min RAD

OJA

JA D

VEHICULAR STREETS NIKO

LA TE

A

NIKO RAD LA TES OJA LA DAK IĆA

DAK

IĆA

RAD

OJA

DAK

IĆA

A

SLA

GATED SITE ACCESS

AKIĆ

SKAD A

3 min

MILJ

ANIĆ A RA DO

ANIĆ

SKAD A

3 min

MILJ

RSKA

A

4 min 4 min

VEHICULAR STREETS NIKA

NJEG OŠEV A

MILJ

GATED SITE ACCESS

NJEG OŠEV A

NIKA

NJEG

A

MILJ

OŠEV

NIKA

SKAD A

RSKA

SKAD A

OŠEV

RSKA

A

PUBLIC PARKING LOTS

PEDESTRIAN STREET PEDESTRIAN STREET PUBLIC SQUARE PUBLIC SQUARE

TRAIN STATION TRAIN STATION

BUS STATION

BUS STATION

RECREATION PATH

RECREATION PATH

CITY PARK

CITY PARK

100m 100m

136


GREEN SPACE & RURAL SITE

TRANSPORTATION

URBAN & SUBURBAN SITE

PUBLIC SAFETY

ROADS RAIL LINES

URBAN PARK SPACE URBAN BLOCKS ROADS RAIL LINES WALKING DISTANCES PEDESTIAN BOULEVARD RECREATION PATH

SPORTS CENTER

VEHICULAR STREETS PUBLIC PARKING LOTS

KINDERGARDEN

OŠEV

RSKA MILJ

NJEG

SKAD A NIKA

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

A

ABC

MUSIC SCHOOL

ANIĆ

A

VEHICULAR STREETS

2 min RAD

OJA

4 min

3 min

2 min

A

NIKO

LA TE

MOSQUE

SLA

DAK

IĆA

RAD

OJA

DAK

IĆA

GATED SITE ACCESS

NJEG OŠEV A

3 min

KINDERGARDEN

ANIĆ

SKAD A

4 min

MILJ

RSKA

NIKA

ABC

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLOSED THEATRE

ABC

ABC

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

PEDESTRIAN STREET

COLLEGE PUBLIC SQUARE

SMALL THEATRE

KINDERGARDEN

CLOSED THEATRE TRAIN STATION

ORTHODOX CHURCH BUS STATION

ORTHODOX CHURCH

RECREATION PATH

CASTLE & MUSEUM

CITY PARK

HERITAGE MUSEUM SMALL SPORTS STADIUM 100m

100m

137


The monument is enveloped by a mixed typology of buildings that range from civic, commercial, and residential programs. To the north of the monument are predominantly residential city blocks that host apartment buildings with shops and cafes along their first floor.

SITE PERIMETER The Home of Revolution site itself is host to not only the grandiose monument itself, but also a series of small, temporary structures which host small businesses and shops. These shops were constructed in the early 2000’s in an effort to open up and utilize some of the monument’s open site - which, prior to this, was simply gated and uninhabitable around the entire block perimeter. Thus partial efforts have been made to re-adapt some of the site which faces the main pedestrian boulevard. Likewise, as these shops outline the awkward void left by the monument’s footprint, the rear is planted with tall trees and gated so as to obstruct an average pedestrian’s direct view of a massive, dilapidated structure behind. To the south, a small park with seating has been made which is now one of the most popular rest areas in the city center, since the city’s main park is located at the opposite end of the pedestrian boulevard, near the former royal palace. On the west end of the site sits a relatively small building which serves as a guard station, so that guards can monitor the site and prevent pedestrians from entering the gated site. 138

Directly to the east is a highly visited city block which hosts the main city hotel with its restaurant, the main city shopping mall, and the city’s Town Hall with local government functions. To the south of the monument is another popular city block, visited primarily by students, teenagers and those who seek parking spaces. The main public structure to the south is an elementary school (grades 1-8 in Montenegro), a no longer functioning museum and the so called “blind street” which is a functionally dead end street used for parking. It intersects the pedestrian boulevard which is closed to vehicular traffic during the majority of day hours. There used to be a historic theater to the east of of this block. However, it was out of function for about a decade and recently demolished.

Monument Public Buildings Retail Buildings Residential Buildings

Houses Retail Mosque Hospital Bank

HOME OF REVOLUTION Guard Station

Elementary School

Lastly, to the west of the monument are several city blocks which host the city’s main hospital, the city’s main bank, and a small mosque. This west end of the site is relatively more quiet and less visited than the east side’s formal pedestrian boulevard. Thus, it is predominantly visited by students and those who are running some daily errands. 100 meters

25 50


Public Park

Site of the Old City Theater

Parking Lot

Residential/Retail

Police Station

Army Hall former museum/exhibition/theater

Condominiums

House

Condominiums Condominiums

Condominiums

Condominiums

Condominiums

Condominiums

House

House Condominiums

Mixed Use Condominiums Mixed Use

Small Shops

Hotel/Restaurant

SmallRetail

Shopping Mall

Town Hall

Condominiums

139


Retail promenade / Main Vehicular Street "Korzo" - Formal city center promenade / no vehicular traffic 17:00-23:00h "Blind Street" - vehicular dead-end/parking street School Road - school children walk to and from this road

RESIDENTIAL

RESI

CIVIC

CIVIC ABC

RESIDENTIAL

100 meters

25 50

140

P

CIVIC


IDENTIAL

Overall, NikĹĄiÄ&#x2021; has a relatively small and dense city center, one which closely ties the residential and civic program through the commercial base floors and a predominantly pedestrian culture. The Home of Revolutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gated site sits in the center of all major functions like a steep mountain, one which is forbidden and one which must we walked around in order to enjoy daily activities and functions. It is my desire to incorporate an already present pedestrian culture with its everyday activities into this site and to create new paths, or vistas, that will not only permit people to occupy and use the site, but to comfortably progress through and revisit the site of their ideological past on a daily, constant basis. Those who wish to reminisce and meditate can enjoy some quiet gardens or a park, Those who wish to hurry through can pass comfortably in all directions. And, those who wish to visit the building itself, can enjoy its re-purposed program and function. In sum, these three types of activities will offer people to become one with this abandoned site, to accept their past and live with it on a daily basis with pride, unlike the current shunned mountain, a stumbling block of fear and shame. 141


Research _ precedents

8.


143


IDEA PRECEDENTS Conceptual ideas in addressing the proposal for Home of Revolution were heavily inspired by the emotional, raw drawings by Lebbeus Woods. Woods was and American architect, artist and a theoretician who is known for his experimental projects. With the project titled, The Sarajevo Window, Woods addressed the topic of an emerging, new-born identity and a sense of new-found belonging in a violated, changing environment.

1

He witnessed the Bosnian War of the 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, specifically Sarajevo - a multi cultural city that was wounded and under constant attack. He felt that the destruction of architecture had created an unrecognizable, bewildered environment and that in response architecture could be, and had to be, part of a solution. He witnessed that without formal help of designers or architects, the people had built temporary walls and shields against weapons, tossing up varieties of improvised repairs and patches in order for them to live and work in this makeshift, temporarily safe environment. 1 However, he felt that these makeshift, substitute solutions visually degraded a culture which was unique, refined and previously ordered. 2 In response, Woods believed that in order for this wounded culture to evolve and stand up to the enemies, it needed a new sense of order, one which would nobly and elegantly depict the culture against the constant strife and violence. 3

144


“Intention is important, even at the smallest scale, and the intention in Sarajevo was to consciously reshape its world, turning ruins and battered remnants into a new kind of architecture, a uniquely Sarajevan architecture, and something of which the city’s people could be proud.“ 4 Thus, inspired by these makeshift solutions and the people’s defensive spirit, he created a series of window designs that aimed to embody the impetus of the people while also serving as a functioning shield against elements. He refers to these designs as “modest designs, made from scavenged metal, wood and even cardboard.” 5 However, he stressed that the goal was to alter these materials piece by piece and to avoid, above all, “junk sculptures.” 6 “The goal was also to establish some basic rules of reconstruction, keeping in mind the enormous task of rebuilding the damaged city that would begin when the terrorists were defeated and people could turn their energy to building the new city I had forecast in my manifesto, and a new way of civic life.” 7 The conceptual idea of The Sarajevo Window can be related to the issue of the decaying, violated Home of Revolution in Montenegro. Much like Sarajevan people sought a new sense of identity amidst a multicultural ideology and environment that no longer was, the people of Niksic found themselves living in Yugoslavian ideology that was collapsing.

2

1-2. Lebbeus Woods: Prototypical Wall and Window Repair for Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1994. 1.

Lebbeus Woods, “WAR AND ARCHITECTURE: The Sarajevo window.” 02 Dec. 2011. Web, 3.

Lebbeus Woods, “WAR AND ARCHITECTURE: The 2. Sarajevo window,” 3. Woods, 3 3. 4.

Ibid, 4.

5.

Ibid, 3.

6.

Ibid.

7.

Ibid, 4.

145


1

146


2

1-2. Lebbeus Woods: Prototypical Wall and Window Repair for Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1994.

147


They saw their utopian dream celebrated through this monument freeze in a state of nostalgia and continually decay at present. The promised structure, “the monument of all time,” 8 ceased to be and their culture and sense of identity no longer associates with this abandoned piece of architecture. Yet, like an eye-sore, it’s dilapidated state degrades and belittles a society which, just like Sarajevan, is one that is unique, refined, ordered. Another project by Woods, titled Walls, addresses the issue of contemporary culture during a crisis and proposes designs of the periphery edges, or walls, in Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Havana, Cuba.

1. Lebbeus Woods: Walls, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993. 8. “Tvorac Doma revolucije iz Slovenije došao da učestvuje u čišćenju,” Vijesti Online, 17 Oct. 2011. Web. Trans. 9. Maggie Toy, Beyond the Revolution, 69.

148

“Contemporary culture is in the midst of a crisis that can be met fully at its peripheries and edges, but not at its core, even though that is where its causes and most fatal effects are to be found. While at the core it is so effectively disguised, towards the boundaries of the culture, which are always to some degree neglected or at the limits of control from a centre of authority, the disguise slips somewhat, and the crisis is revealed.” 9

1


149


1

150


Woods refers to walls as the “most primordial of architecture elements,” defining them as “zones” which exist in every city of political or economic crisis. 10 He portrays these zones as critical edges of urban life and culture which may be of any scale, a city block as case in Home of Revolution or an entire city, a nation “which has found itself between abrading or colliding ideologies.” 11

2

These designs both metaphorically and literally portray buildings in a such a way that they portray both the wounds of the past and new additions geared toward the future. Woods focuses on the tectonic presence and division between the old and the new. He addresses that these edges, or walls, may become pure spaces, ones with a new presence but that there will always be those who choose to explore the more rough, difficult parts of the wall. 12 This draws a parallel with the periphery, or edges of the Home of Revolution - the corroded gates which are constantly occupied by those who are curious to push the limits, adventure seekers, criminals, artists, and simply those who feel they are forbidden to. A portion of the edges has already been pushed back, back to the brink of monument’s shell and the previous edge has thus been occupied by small shops and businesses.

1-3. Lebbeus Woods: War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993. 10. Toy, Beyond the Revolution, 69. 11. Toy, 69, 12. Ibid. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid.

3

“These zones of crisis are the only places where actualities of the dominant culture are confronted, and from which new ideas essential to the growth of that culture can emerge.” 13 Thus, question lies as to how to push these boundaries further, how to corrode them and develop the site into something new, which can “fly” and evolve, yet still be “rooted” and “belong to a particular place and time.” 14

151


1

1. Lebbeus Woods: War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993.

152


153


1 2

1. 2.

Carlo Scarpa: Tomba Brion - Brion Family Cemetery, Treviso, Italy 1970 - 1978. Brion Cemetery: site detail.

3.

Brion Cemetery: site enclosure detail.

4.

Brion Cemetery: water feature detail.

15. Guido Guidi and Antonello Frongia, Guido Guidi: Carlo Scarpa’s Tomba Brion, 23. 16. Guido Beltramini and Italo Zannier, Carlo Scarpa: Architecture Atlas, 230. 17. Beltramini, Carlo Scarpa: Architecture Atlas, 230. 18. Yutaka Saitō, Hiroyuki Toyoda, and Nobuaki Furuya, Carlo Scarpa, 16.

154

SITE PRECEDENTS Approaching the design for the enormous, roughly 20,000 sq. m site of Home of Revolution was heavily influenced by the metaphorical concepts and aged tectonic elements behind a couple of world famous cemeteries. First is the Brion Family Cemetery in Treviso, Italy which was designed by Carlo Scarpa. Second is the Igualada Cemetery in Barcelona, designed by Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós. The Tomba Brion, Brion Cemetery, was designed by Carlo Scarpa in the late sixties and continuously developed until the architect’s death in 1978. The cemetery stands as an integral, essential part of San Vito’s “cultural geography.” 15


3

The overall space of Brion Cemetery is divided into three components: the private resembling the deceased, married couple; the family - resembling their relationship; and the public, resembling the overall community. 16 The designed objects are primarily elements of reinforced concrete with intricate, overlapping geometries. The high quality of execution and the perceivable, romantic aging of materials provides for an “astonishing complexity and density as is found only in an ancient monument, created by layers of subsequent interventions.” 17 “Scarpa polishes and refines these different elements of time and space to present us with architecture in its purest form, both belonging to and transcending all cultures.” 18

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“In Scarpa’s view, the cemetery is a place for meditation, not only about death and memory but also about the presentness and the future of life: in it, the possibility of looking away from where we are is an instigation to reflect upon alternative spaces and distant horizons.” 19 Scarpa once stated to his students that “everyone is very happy to go there - the children play, the dogs run around.” 20

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Brion Cemetery: chapel interior.

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Brion Cemetery: final drawing for the Brion Family Cemetery.

3. Brion Cemetery: portico. 4.

Brion Cemetery: private pavilion.

19. Guidi, Guido Guidi: Carlo Scarpa’s Tomba Brion, 23. 20. Guidi, 23.

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The site is an L-shape adorned by pools at each end. One pool encircles the pavilion to the south while the other encircles the chapel to the north. Along two sides of the L, the site is framed by the old, conventional cemetery San Vito. The Brion family’s cemetery is, thus, accessed by two ways. One entry is directly from the binding old cemetery. This entry is formalized through an iron gate which leads into the chapel that sits at south bend of the L. The second access is by a great cypress avenue, called the “propylaeum” after the Greek word for entrance. The propylaeum leads to a portico whose circle shaped openings lead one’s view into Scarpa’s poetic landscape.

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1-2. Brion Cemetery: detail of the intersecting circles in the portico. 3. Brion Cemetery: portico.

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Brion Cemetery: Brion family tombs.

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Brion Cemetery: view of the family tombs.

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Brion Cemetery: site steps detail.

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Brion Cemetery: portico circle gates.

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Brion Cemetery: water feature detail. 1

21. Sergio Los and Klaus Frahm, Carlo Scarpa, 131. 22. Los, 140. 23. Guidi, 24. 24. Saitō, Carlo Scarpa, 18. 25. Saito, 18. 26. Ibid, 16. 27. Ibid, 17. 28. Ibid, 16.

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The entire site is raised and framed by an inclining boundary wall so that one can look out into panoramic views from within, but no one can look into the site, preserving the observational privacy and meditation of visitors. 21 Besides the chapel and the private meditation pavilion which are framed by their pools, the third focal point of the site is the “arcosolium,” a concrete arch below which lie the Brion family’s tombs, at the very corner of the L. 22 The progression between these focal elements is very subtle, asymmetric, and carefully planned. However, the visual subtleness is interrupted by corporeal sensations, as one literally feels the elevation descends and ascends, even if they are a matter of just few steps. This “synesthetic experience” that “absorbs space and engages the body,” 23 allows the visitor to feel and understand the importance in sequence and hierarchy of designed spaces. Likewise, these elevation transitions incorporate multiple paths which help “smooth out the transitions from one level to another.” 24

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“For example, after passing through the entrance wing, as one walks along a narrow path with a gentle downward slope, the view of the tombs and the arch, which are on the right-hand side, gradually changes. They are slowly submerged within the grassy field. One suddenly realizes that the surface of the field is not flat but gently undulating. And that it is perhaps intended to represent the sea, the arch a bridge, and the tombs, two boats floating slowly underneath it. The gradient slopes downward and the tombs almost completely disappear from sight where the L-shaped wall makes a ninety-degree turn, leaving the arch suspended like a rainbow above the lawn.” 25 Thus, with this much guidance and planning, the Brion Cemetery appears more like an experiential, metaphorical park than a cemetery.

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The mystery, layered meanings and unanswerable riddles are what drive people to visit this site. People come from all over the world to visit this cemetery, many among which are couples who seek romance in these romantically placed tombs that are inclined toward each other. 26 “Here one experiences a sense of both physical and spiritual freedom, a surge of energy, regardless of age and gender.” 27 It “fills one’s senses with nature and the changing seasons.” 28

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1. Carlo Scarpa: Brion Family Cemetery original drawing.

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The second, similarly metaphorical site precedent is the Igualada Cemetery designed by Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós designed in the late 1980’s. While metaphors of nostalgia, cycles of time and merging of the past with the present are similar, what makes Igualada Cemetery additionally unique is the architects’ merging between the architecture and landscape where one physically blends into the other. Igualada Cemetery is located on the Barcelona city’s periphery, near an industrial region. However, despite its physical isolation, it offered an untouched, natural setting. Unlike the Brion Cemetery, whose site is raised, or platformed, the architects of the Igualada Cemetery decided to bury, or sink the site into the ground, creating a scar into the landscape which otherwise, from a distance, seems untouched. From afar, “it is the trees that draw one’s attention to the work, rather than the man-made construction.” 29

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Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós: Igualada Cemetery, Barcelona, Spain 1984 - 1994.

29. Anatxu Zabalbeascoa, Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós, 22. 30. Zabalbeascoa, Igualada Cemetery: Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós, 4. 31. Zabalbeascoa, 12. 32. Ibid, 8. 33. Ibid, 17.

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The building and its site are in a symbiotic relationship with each other, where the “architecture converges with the site to a point where it is almost is the site.” 30 This manner of spatial interventions presents a “respect for the site’s memory, not merely for what it was immediately prior to construction, but for how it had previously existed.” 31

As said previously, an attribute which both of the sites share, is the visual and experienced notion of time and its evolving cycles. “The idea of the passing of time and a return to origins” was the absolute, principal factor in the way Igualada was envisioned. 32 “Miralles intended the cemetery to be closer to those still alive than to the dead, but with some kind of interplay between the dead and the living. Therefore, the cemetery would display an acceptance of the cycle of life, to enable a link between the past, the present and the future.” 33


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One way in which this spiraling journey is perceived at Igualada Cemetery is through the directional zigzag path that guides and descends visitors into the site. The site provided a route which people could follow and where the dead would “simply occupy their place in the landscape” allowing the cemetery to become a park, a public space, where “the living can also stay awhile and walk alongside the place of rest.” 34 “The architecture adopts the form of a street, a public social space where corridors and pathways follow a processional route that descend towards the burial area. Here, Miralles achieves an ambiguous relationship between figure and ground, through the use of slashing diagonals, overlapping planes, floating horizontals, sloping walls and dynamic structures, whether of steel, wood or concrete, embedded into or piercing through the space.” 35

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Igualada Cemetery: descending site path.

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Igualada Cemetery: site overview.

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Igualada Cemetery: descending entryway.

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Igualada Cemetery: descending entry path.

34. Zabalbeascoa, 18. 35. Ibid, 14. 36. Ibid, 15.

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These developed relationships, such as one between the person and architecture, the architecture and the site, or person to the site are the ones which tie the whole design into this mythical, nostalgic, everlasting spiral of life, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;cemetery emulates the path of life, both spatially and temporally.â&#x20AC;? 36 This designed path, or a route, visitors would progress through is composed of three focal, exposed elements. They are the entrance with sculptural crossing steel marks, a chapel with the mortuary, and rows of concrete burial niches constructed into the twisting ridges. The main entrance is slightly elevated upon a sloping platform above the rest of the site. 167


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1. Igualada Cemetery: site overview.

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The chapel is on the left near a mortuary with its concrete wall perforated so that it smoothly, visually transitions into the angled burial niches. As people follow this descending path and pass the walls of burial niches, they slowly become buried, embedded into the cemetery themselves. Upon reaching the end of the path, “no other view can be seen beyond the confines of the site, save that of the surrounding mountains.” 37 1

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“The dead buried here are neither neglected nor monumentalized. They simply occupy their place in the landscape, side by side along the path, allowing for others continually to enter the place. Once they are placed inside the cemetery, the dead themselves thus become part of the site. The ‘necropolis’ has been transformed from a city of the dead into a park where the living can also stay awhile and walk alongside the place of rest of their deceased loved ones.” 38


This careful play of levels along with an undulated progression create a dynamic experiential movement, and, thus, the architecture becomes a “living art to which the user can personally and physically relate.” 39 Meanwhile, the aging process architecture itself, embeds and buries the architecture itself. “With time and weather inevitably intervening in the work, covering and eroding it, allowing it to become part of the natural landscape, the Igualada Cemetery will eventually be perceived less as a burial ground, and will come to be seen more as a field, an area in which all the natural cycles of life and, alongside it, death, take place.” 40 Everything, including the materiality of details such as lamps, commemorative plaques, and mausoleum doors, is designed to decay and rust naturally. 41 Materials used at the site were typically vernacular materials such as wood, stone, embellished by mosaic tiles yet are boldly contrasted by massive undulating concrete slabs and precast, perforated, lightened concrete forms. 42

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1-2. Igualada Cemetery: material details. 37. Zabalbeascoa, 19. 38. Ibid, 18. 39. Ibid, 24. 40. Ibid, 16. 41. Ibid, 20. 42. Ibid.

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1-2. Igualada Cemetery: material details. 3.

Igualada Cemetery: descending path.

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Igualada Cemetery: chapel interior.

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Igualada Cemetery: chapel skylight detail.

43. Zabalbeascoa, 20. 44. Ibid, 21.

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The perceivable experience along with formal materiality are both intended to speak to the same overall concept, one where “culturally perceived divisions” and replaced by “the notion of continuity.” 43 “In order to avoid the association between finality and death, Miralles turned to nature and decided to build a living cemetery, an optimistic reminded of the continual transformation of nature and matter.” 44


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Perhaps what drew my inspiration in these contemporary cemetery designs is their experiential landscape and architectural design where the people may informally utilize the space. They may contemplate or mourn the past, while others may enjoy their promenade through a park. This concept of connecting the abandoned, detached past, such case in Home of Revolutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political, national ideology, with the present mentality and way of life was an inspirational factor drawn in the cemetery precedents. For the people of Niksic, this utopian dream has deceased, while the neglected site has become associated with a haunting necropolis, referred to as the Home of Death, rather than Home of Revolution.

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BUILDING PRECEDENTS In addressing the building design of the Home of Revolution, several building precedents have been referenced. Those which inspired me the most were the Opera House in Oslo, Norway, which was designed by Snøhetta and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, designed by architect Michael Arad and landscape architect Peter Walker. The Opera House provided a physical, architectural inspiration as it demonstrated a method of minimizing an overpowering presence of the Home of Revolution monument and, likewise, a method of integrating formal and informal programs for a continuous interest and mixture of society. Meanwhile, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum is a great example of a successful, cutting-edge memorial design that illustrates how to selectively preserve and physically experience elements of a sensitive past so that people may always be reminded of their past, while going about their everyday activities.

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Snøhetta: Operahuset (Oslo Opera House), Bjørvika, Oslo, Norway 2003 - 2007.

2. Oslo Opera House: sloping roof detail.

45. Christian Schittich, “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail Magazine - Music and Theatre, 276.

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The Opera House in Oslo, Norway is a contemporary theater built in 2008 whose monumental architecture is humanized through sloping ramps, blurring the divisions between the building and the site. To me, it appears as a contemporary version of the Home of Revolution monument in its parallel functional program and its form. Both buildings present this out-worldly body, one reminiscent of an alien aircraft, or a cubist sphinx. Even the article from Detail Magazine introduces the building as such. “Has a stealth aircraft made an emergency landing in Oslo harbour? Or has a sphinx set itself down in the water? The new opera house doesn’t look like a building... Camouflaged beneath its sloping surfaces, it seems more like part of the landscape.” 45

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The building is located in the Bjorvika Peninsula which has been a focal point of the city of Oslo to this day. Questions rose as to how to connect its nearby urban area which is one of the most neglected areas in the city. Thus, the Opera House has been one of the first projects in this revitalization process. 46 Unlike the Oslo Opera House, the Home of Revolution already sits in the city centre, yet its decaying state has not only caused citizens and visitors alike to avoid its gated perimeter, but has caused decay, destruction and abandonment of nearby structures as well. Thus, this example offers an excellent example of how to reintegrate society with a part of the city which has been neglected.

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According to the competition statement, the Oslo Opera House was to portray a an excellent quality and have a monumental appearance, while also calling for “a sense of togetherness, of common property and free, open access for all.” 47 One way of achieving this was to fold the building and its site into a continuous “carpet” that would sit in harmony with the cityscape. 48 Thus, in conceptualizing the intricate sloping roof surfaces, Snøhetta applied the Japanese art of origami. The entire site along with the emerging building are treated as a folded sheet of paper. 49

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“What is especially important to note is that the architects have created a large and sensitively shaped surface for a public area that is by no means used solely by opera goers.” 50 The site is visited most by casual visitors who are looking for a strolling, social atmosphere. On a nice day, the people walk upon and inhabit the roof’s public sloping surfaces as if it were a park. Tarald Lundevall, Norwegian architect who was partners with Shøhetta during the Oslo Opera House project, states that the surface of the roof was articulated in a manner so that people would find interest in walking there, resting there, observing the city and the nature from there unobstructed by unnecessary sculptural elements along the way. 51

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Oslo Opera House: building view.

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Oslo Opera House: pedestrian rooftop.

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3-5. Oslo Opera House: pedestrian slopes. 46. Schittich, “Opera House in Oslo.” Detail Magazine, 276. 47. Schittich, 276. 48. Ibid. 49. Ibid. 50. Ibid, 275. 51. Ibid, 277.

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He says: “If you actually make your way on foot from the sea all the way up to the roof and the sky, you pass through a series of spatial relationships, and you can look into or through the building.” 52 And, his instincts were right. To date, over 800,000 people have walked to the roof which is spectacular for a relatively small city of Oslo. 53 He even admits that they didn’t perceive that this project’s informal program would host so many visitors and states that they might have to expand upon the leisure programs such as the cafe and the bar. 54 What is remarkable, and especially important to note, is that this influx of casual visitors and their utilization of the everyday, informal program, has in effect caused great interest in visiting the formal spaces of the opera and the theater. 55 This blend of the everyday and the high arts are, in my opinion, an essential component in elevating and holding together a society, especially one which has been wounded and is still developing out of a crisis. Thus besides the precedent’s reminiscent form and program to the Home of Revolution, influential are the very blending of the architectural from with the site, the public with the private, and the formal with the informal.

1-3. Oslo Opera House: pedestrian rooftops. 4.

Oslo Opera House: exterior material detail.

52. Schittich, 277. 53. Ibid. 54. Ibid. 55. Ibid. 56. Ibid, 272. 57. Ibid.

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As stated earlier, the Home of Revolution poses a great issue of overpowering the cityscape with its sheer volumetric size. Opera House in Oslo demonstrates a great solution in masking a large volume. It’s “foyer and the two auditoriums merge with the roofscape, so that the large volume of the building is cleverly concealed.” 56 From the glassed, tall foyer, ramps and staircases “lead to the heart of the house - to the horseshoeshaped auditorium” 57 Perhaps, implementing similar sloping, spiraling public spaces about the large, central theater of the Home of Revolution can both reduce its volumetric presence and offer a mediating space where public activities will bring life and turn its neglected site into new focal element of the urban center. 179


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1. Oslo Opera House: warm interior of the theater.

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1-2. Oslo Opera House: materiality of lobby interior. 3-4. Oslo Opera House: materiality of theater interior. 58.

Schittich, 276.

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Another motivation drawn from this precedent is the overall play with materiality. At the Opera House, we see a sharp contrast in materiality between the icy white marble and stone of the exterior surfaces with the warmness of the dark curving oak in the interior. Home of Revolution offers this stained, graffitied, béton brut shell of ghostly, chill spaces where a similar approach of playfully contrasting materials can be implemented. Utilizing warm materiality of the wood and contemporary steel elements will not only provide a visual definition between the old and the new, the past and the present, but demonstrate an occupation of the decaying, rusting shell with a functioning, sound, leading-edge quality of the present. Likewise, implementing wood in the interior helps achieve an excellent sound quality for a space such as a theater. The dark “wave-like” oak walls at Oslo offer great sound absorption and reverberation, while eliminating glare, and, yet, offer a durable material which is pleasant to touch. 58

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Michael Arad, Daniel Libeskind, Peter Walker: National September 11 Memorial & Museum, New York City, USA 2006 - 2011. 2-3. National September 11 Memorial & Museum: void fountain.

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The second building precedent illustrates an excellent example of memorial architecture. Despite my aim to create a public space, space that is part of the informal everyday functions along with the formal function of the arts, it is important to humbly and delicately approach its past ideology and abandoned past. The National September 11 Memorial & Museum, often referred to as the 9/11 Memorial, is the primary commemorative work of architecture which addresses the terrorist attacks which have taken approximately 3,000 lives on September 11, 2001, and six lives during the World Trade Center bombing in 1993.

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The memorial and its museum, which is currently under construction, are located on the exact site where the destroyed Twin Towers of New York City once stood. The memorial occupies about half of the 16 acre site and is composed of two enormous waterfalls with reflecting pools that are set as memorial voids within the original footprints of the Twin Towers. 59 Their walls are stenciled with the names of people that have been killed during these attacks. The two monuments are framed by rows of more than 400 trees which were selected and harvested from the vicinity of the World Trade Center site, along with ones from locations in Pennsylvania and Washington D.C. - all areas impacted by the tragic events on September 11, 2001. 60 The marriage of the running water and the seasonally changing, growing rows of trees provide for a design which “conveys a spirit of hope and renewal, and creates a contemplative space separate from the usual sights and sounds of a bustling metropolis.” 61

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National September 11 Memorial & Museum: site view.

59. 9/11 Memorial. Web. <http://www.911memorial. org/>. 60. Ibid. 61. Ibid. 62. Ibid. 63. Ibid. 64. Ibid.

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While site serves a public outdoor function, one of an “urban forest,” the span of its grove trees is also an actual green roof to an underground program that will support the museum building and which already serves as an underground train station. 62 This project resulted out of a winning competition entry by architect Michael Arad and landscape architect Peter Walker, titled Reflecting Absence. With the two square memorial fountains and the carefully orchestrated rows of oak trees, the whole concept was one which would both resonate the feelings of loss - cascading water running into a dark abyss within the footprint void, and the mediating healing space - cyclically changing trees symbolic of survival, continued life, even re-birth. “These trees, like memory itself, demand care and nurturing of those who come visit and tend them.” 63 Thus, “the result is a memorial that expresses both the incalculable loss of life and its consoling regeneration.” 64


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The memorial plaza is carefully integrated into the city fabric so that it not only serves as memorial which is visited sometimes, but it encourages utilization of this space on an everyday basis. “The memorial grounds will not be isolated from the rest of the city; they will be a living part of it.” 65 This statement symbolically presents the idea of living with the tragic past, having this past become part of one’s self, part of their everyday life, so that they never forget history. Arad states: “I realized the important role that public places play in our civic life. They’re the glue that binds us together as a society.” 66 1

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1-2. National September 11 Memorial & Museum: memorial fountain. National September 11 Memorial & Museum: tree 3. garden. National September 11 Memorial & Museum: 4. memorial fountain. 65. 66.

9/11 Memorial. Web. <http://www.911memorial. org/>.

Clifford A. Pearson, “Creating a Place to Honor the Past and Look Ahead.” Architectural Record, Web. 67. 9/11 Memorial. Web. <http://www.911memorial. org/>.

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Along with the memorial plaza, the museum’s 110,000 square feet of exhibition space is under construction within the heart of the once existing World Trade Center site. The museum will exhibit the historic tragedy through multimedia displays, archives, stories, and artifacts, while the visitors will gain yet another physical experience through their progression of spaces.


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“Visitors to the Museum will descend a gently sloped ramp as they make their way to the base of the site where the main exhibition space is located. The descent echoes the construction ramps used to build the World Trade Center, and placed again at the site in the aftermath of the attacks for removal of debris and to provide access by victim’s families and others on the anniversaries of 9/11. As visitors make their way along the ramp, they will get their first glimpses into the Museum spaces they are about to enter. The Museum’s core exhibitions will be located within the archaeological heart of the World Trade Center site. Key historic and in-situ elements will convey both the architectural history of the World Trade Center and the events of September 11, 2001. As visitors make their final descent to the exhibition level, they will pass alongside the Vesey Street stair remnant, the historic ‘Survivor’s Stairs.’ ..” 67

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We can see that the Museum’s paths are carefully planned in order to tell a story of the past while the visitors physically descend deeper into their past, a designed gesture which references back to the cemetery precedents of Scarpa and Miralles. 189


Method _ design approach

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AUTOCRACY VS. DEMOCRACY The essay Collision City & the Politics of ‘Bricolage’ by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter, was a tying factor to my precedent analysis. This essay speaks of autocratic utopias - total architecture - comparing and contrasting the ideas of architectural organization through a single, central vision versus the organization through many, unrelated ends. 1

“... there exists a great chasm between those, on one side, who relate everything to a single central vision, one system less or more coherent or articulate, in terms of which they understand, thing and feel - a single, universal, organizing principle in terms of which all that they are and say has significance - and, on the other side, those who pursue many ends, often unrelated and even contradictory, connected, if at all, only in some de facto way, for some psychological or physiological cause,

1. Total architecture: Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France. 2. Collage architecture: Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, Italy. 1. Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter, “Collision City and the Politics of ‘Bricolage,’” Collage City, 86. 2. Rowe, Collage City, 87. 3. Rowe, 87. 4. Ibid, 88. 5. Ibid, 87.

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related by no moral or aesthetic principle; these last lead lives, perform acts, and entertain ideas that are centrifugal rather than centripetal, their thought is scattered or diffused, moving on many levels, seizing upon the essence of a vast variety of experiences and objects, for what they are in themselves, without consciously or unconsciously seeking to fit them into or exclude them from any one unchanging. . . at times fanatical, unitary inner vision.” 1

This essay states that these concepts of “total architecture” and “total design” are present in all utopian projections. 2 “For the architect, of course, the ethical content of the good society has, maybe, always been something which building was to make evident.” 3 Thus, architecture has always been regarded as a tool of organizing society. Historically, we have seen the hierarchy of order, power and importance displayed through volume, size, style and attention to detail stemming down from edifices of worship, aristocratic palaces, mercantile establishment, all the way to the private residences - sum of which reflects a formal advancement of a city and an ordered society. 4 In many cases, these drives for an ordered society resulted in the concept of “total architecture,” a “holistic utopian faith.” 5 2

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“Whenever the utopia disappears, history ceases to be a process leading to an ultimate end. The frame of reference according to which we evaluate facts vanishes and we are left with a series of events all equal as far as their inner significance is concerned.” 7 Karl Mannheim 2

There are two versions of the utopian idea: one which is the “object of contemplation,” and one that is the “instrument of social change,” however, in both cases, the concept of utopia doesn’t offer options. 6 Single vision and a single order prevails. In case of most socialist regimes, such as the former Yugoslavia, evident were both the utopia as the object of contemplation - the political ideology which focused on a sense of common, unifying national identity and the utopia as the instrument of social change - the Yugoslav Modernism, the rebellious act against both the Western International Style and the Socialist Realism.

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As Yugoslavia was a time of ambitious post World War II construction along with a new form of government - the architectural style of many cities, including Nikšić, Montenegro, was overwhelmingly executed in a singular, autocratic fashion. More than 50% of the buildings in Nikšić were constructed during the socialist period with the Home of Revolution, remaining unfinished, yet remaining as the largest and tallest building that conquers the overall urban fabric and historical, traditional building hierarchy. Home of Revolution encompasses an entire city block, exercising its dominance over religious edifices, the royal palace, and all other building types with the exception of a couple industrial factories which are located about the city’s periphery. Yet, these architectural ambitions halted, the political ideology collapsed, abandoning the utopian dream into a current day nightmare. Much like the gardens of Versailles display this single-handed, autocratic control, “triumph of generality, and a “refusal of an exception” in protest to history and pursuit of an ordered utopia, the Home of Revolution displays a very similar concept. 8 Likewise, any forced design intervention upon this deceased ideological site, would parallel this condemned manner as it would offer another single-handed, autocratic solution. Imposing a new absolute, dogmatic design or destroying the monument would both speak to

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and mimic those past ideals which a wounded society is fearful of. Meanwhile, simple completion of the monument would most literally parallel the gone ideals. However, the analysis of Hadrian’s Villa in Italy, one whose organizing principles are contrasted to the gardens of Versailles, has offered me inspiration in seeking a sequential, step-bystep, intervention and creating an eclectic work whose juxtaposition of unrelated “ideal fragments” speak to a democratic harmony of a singular, big idea as a whole - that of a refined identity. 9 5

1. New Belgrade housing blocks: Belgrade, Serbia 1947-1975. 2. Housing complex: Zagreb, Croatia. 3. Home of Revolution: interior view. 4. Home of Revolution: existing state. 5. Home of Revolution, Project vision in the original public brochure. 6. Rowe, 87. 7. Ibid, 32. 8. Ibid, 90. 9. Ibid.

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While the gardens of Versailles reflect a single-minded performance by King Louis XIV, Hadrian’s Villa was organized in a “disorganized,” “casual,” manner, where the “reverse of any ‘totality’” through an “accumulation of disparate ideal fragments” was an endorsement and a mirror of the Imperial Rome. 10 Thus while Versailles portrays a complete political power and control, Hadrian - despite himself being an emperor, an autocratic leader himself- did not feel the similar “compulsion to make so consistent a display of his autocracy.” 11 Unlike Versailles, Hadrian’s Villa was built by several architects at different times and has created a “simulated product of different regimes” - “all adding up” - “adding up in a convincing and useful fashion,” a bricolage that eludes a sense of nostalgia and a hybrid mix of ideas. 12 Thus the evident argument of this essay is that a highly organized reality is not a true reality. People need collisions of ideas and freedom of expression which future generations will be a part of and build upon. One way of dissolving the dogmatic utopian concept at the site of Home of Revolution, is by exploring a method of collage - a collage as an idea - the overlap and juxtaposition of multiple design gestures, and a collage as a literal process - creation of design gestures using a collage technique. The resultant design would re-order the site in and “insidious” and “gradual” manner, where the technique would be one of “cultivation” and not yet another “imposition.” 13

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COLLAGE Collage is an expressive art technique that dates back almost a thousand years. It was once a folk art, associated with the Japanese artists, whose techniques of cutting and pasting objects together have translated and developed throughout modern history. 14 It’s formal definition originates from the French word, “coller,” which means to glue, and is often defined as “a creative work that resembles such a composition in incorporating various materials or elements.” 15 However, collage, as a form of fine art, was most famed by artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in the early nineteenth century when the term collage became a signature characteristic of modern art. 16 3

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Georges Braque: Fruit dish and glass, 1912.

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Georges Braque: Still Life - Le Jour, 1929.

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Pablo Picasso: Bottle of Vieux Marc, Glass, Guitar and Newspaper, 1913.

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Georges Braque: Bottle and Fishes, 1910.

10. Rowe, 90. 11. Ibid, 91. 12. Ibid, 94. 13. Ibid, 65. 14. Gerald F. Brommer, George F. Horn, and Sarita R. Rainey, “Collage - a Recent Medium.” The Art of Collage, 8. 15. “Collage.” Merriam-Webster. Web. 16. Brommer, The Art of Collage, 8.

Their cubist paintings depict compositions of juxtaposed, broken fragments of various perspectives which illustrate a new abstract meanings and visions of the whole. “The torn, cut, and folded paper became an important part of their experimentation.” 17 This form of expression was later picked up by futurists and the surrealists who used realistic images in blended combinations as a way to illustrate complex ideas, thoughts, and feelings. 18

17. Brommer, 10. 18. Ibid.

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Today, collage is an important medium used not only in high art, but fashion, graphic design and architecture. It is no longer a solely manual tool or technique, but has been accomplished through digital technology. This form of organizing, illustrating and fusing of disparate thoughts and ideas provokes ambiguous questions and solutions which may not necessarily be produced through another medium. While the previously discussed essay Collision City & the Politics of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Bricolageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was a key, theoretical inspiration in utilizing a collaged approach to formal design of the Home of Revolution site, there were several artists whose literal artistic technique was appealing, expressive and meaningful to me. Of primary influence was work by Lebbeus Woods, whose work was previously discussed in the precedents chapter. Woods was a well known American architect and artist, who was celebrated for his critical views of architecture in relation to politics and environment through his collaged, violently juxtaposed architectural forms in drawings. For me, his drawings have depicted architecture beyond its literal scope of physical conception and have shown me that complex, sensitive issues can be addressed through a multiplicity of layered solutions.

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Lebbeus Woods: Havana, Cuba 1994,

2.

Lebbeus Woods: War and Architecture Series, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1993.

3.

Craig Atkinson: Limon, mixed media, 2007.

4.

Craig Atkinson: Day to Day, mixed media, 2008.

5.

Craig Atkinson: George, mixed media, 2008.

19. Richard Brereton and Caroline Roberts, Cut&Paste 21st Century Collage, 9.

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3

4

5

Another inspiration was drawn from a collage artist, Craig Atkinson, who treats each collage as an independent, spontaneous journey. What I learned through his work is that not every drawing is successful, but that through exploration of ideas including failure, one can learn how to recycle old, unsuccessful work into meaningful one. He saves and re-uses his unsuccessful work and anything that he dislikes from his past to use in a future piece, often creating collages out of collages, admitting that this is often a trial, error and a persistence process. 19

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Likewise, influential was the work by artist James Dave who uses a technique of photomontage and computer technology. This digital process allows him to oppose ideal fragments of his own photographs and create surreal, perfectly fitting, believable realities. 20

1

A similar result of a surreal world view is portrayed by a well known artist, Julien Pacaud, who also uses digital technology in careful, meticulous assembly of imagery, creating pieces that speak of strong, emotional, even apocalyptic narratives. 21 They led me into utilizing the digital collage technique which allowed me not only to combine fragments of online images and my own photographs, but to distort these fragments into fused, imagined, realities.

1. 2. 3.

James Dawe: Gasping Bust, digital photocollage, 2007. Julien Pacaud: The Jonas Project, digital collage, 2009. Julien Pacaud: When You Sleep, digital collage, 1991.

20. Brereton, Cut&Paste 21st Century Collage, 45. 21. Brereton, 135.

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2

Thus, through collage as an idea and a tool, I chose to tell a story and to create a fictional reality whose chapters, or layers, overlapped and juxtaposed themselves into a synthesized, complex design form. The result was one that both addressed politics and catered to the evolving culture and identity of the Montenegrin culture. What was notably crucial is that collage, as an exploratory technique, allowed me to express multitudes of ideas and concepts into a process which wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t just about the end result, but also about the journey toward the end result. And, this journey, the story, became equally significant. Ideas which seem disharmonious can come together into their own whole, a meaningful harmony of their own.

3

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PHASES The sequence of seven phases I chose express psychological cycles through time as a method of direct contradiction toward the previously applied absolutist, singlehanded architectural approach. In my opinion, this singular approach which swept through not only the Home of Revolution, but the majority of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new construction in quite a brief period of time does not connect to the peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s state and mentality any longer. This approach led to alien architecture forms - exemplified with the Home of Revolution monument - and it has failed to account for social and cultural growth and change. In my opinion, the societal and cultural changes should marry the architecture in both its formal and functional qualities. Thus, in an effort to portray this multiple, complex point of view, I created a fictional story - one which depicts and overlaps the following phases of psychological evolution. These seven phases create a fictional projection of events which depict transitional psychological stages of society - society whose mentality evolves into a rising state of acceptance where the monument becomes part of the everyday life, part of a society which no longer feels anger or shame towards its past.

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These fictional cultural shifts are directly reflected upon architecture and layered upon each other as a collage, as a direct opposition to the past ideologyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s single-handed imposition of an architectural style that was irrelative toward the existing culture and context. The idea is that the site through the multiplicity of layered acts by the society, not only evolves into a state of acceptance but truly becomes the home of revolution, occupied by daily activities and a new fostering of arts and culture.


1. _ASPIRATION

n: a strong desire to achieve something high or great, n: an object of such desire

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2. _NEGLECT n: n:

to give little attention or respect to, disregard, to leave undone or unattended to especially through carelessness

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Aspiration reflects the ideological drive associated with the newly developed Yugoslav identity. This collage depicts a past, uniform mentality of a hard working culture and a society of grand promises. Monuments alien, abstract form is elusive of the Egyptian sphinx where the citizens blindly sponsored their salaries towards the vacuuming construction of something which was to overpower and curse their city and realize into an abandoned necropolis.

The second phase is one of Neglect. This phase is the physical, current state of the monument whose dilapidated state reflects the blind eye of the society. The monument sits in the city center, like a giant rock upon which everyone stumbles, trips, yet it is ignored with its past ideology frozen and tucked in the rear of conscience. 205


The phase of Violence is manifested as an act of societal rebellion that is caused by a period of societal neglect and abandonment. For me this represented an act of nonacceptance and of discontent with the current situation. The act is portrayed as a physical force against the monument. 206


3. _VIOLENCE

n: an exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse n: intense, turbulent, or furious and often destructive action or force

207


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4. _SHAME n: n:

a painful emotion caused by consciousness of guilt, shortcoming, or impropriety the susceptibility to such emotion

The phase of Shame illustrates societal concealment of the past and of the previous, violent gestures. Shame becomes a response to violated social and cultural values. The monument is concealed and children running and playing upon the site are happy, ignorant, as if nothing has ever been here. This, for me, is a psychological state where one is ashamed of their past and chooses to erase its existence. 209


Next comes the phase of Repentance. This is illustrated as an act of exposure, an act of transparency and digging into the ruins of the past. In this phase, I imagined a society which reviews their past actions with a sense of regret. In an attempt to restitute the wrong, which is an important element of psychological healing, parts of the monument were revealed, dug into and re-purposed.

Following is the phase of Elevation, of new building and construction. To me, this phase represents a physical and psychological rising out of the past. I imagined construction of new volumes, such as the jewel-box theater, the new retail center, a public market and small pavilions of mixed use. The program choices directly portray a free economy and an uncensored artistic expression that now occupies the void spaces, the physically void shell of the socialist, dilapidated monument. Pride - the final phase - is a collage depicting the final design concept. This image portrays an elevated society that is content and accepting of their past. The accumulation of all of the overlapping gestures, or phases, provides for a landscape that creates a new social identity, one that is truly created through years of interventions and cultural changes of the people. The monument is swallwed up, corroded, exposed, re-purposed into an eclectic, multiple, messy composition that minimizes the original monumentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s volume, respects its history, and yet becomes the new, true home of revolution and a mirror of a new, current day society.

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5. _REPENTANCE n:

the action or process of regret especially for misdeeds or moral shortcomings 211


212


6. _ELEVATION

n: the height to which something is elevated, lifted a: being morally or intellectually on a high plane

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_neglect

_violence

Following the two dimensional exploration of these phases using digital collage, the five phases following the state of Neglect - which is representative of the current state, existing monument - were physically modeled and applied upon the original model of neglect. These physical and somewhat spontaneous explorations led to design gestures and programing in the design phase of the project. The Violence diagram was achieved through literal burning and destruction of the site edges and the building perimeter. The triangular youth center is completely destroyed. Shame model applies literal concealment of the damaged perimeter. It aims to bury the shameful past gesture and to band aid the violated building fragments.

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_shame

_repentance

_elevation

Repentence diagram re-exposes some previously â&#x20AC;&#x153;buriedâ&#x20AC;? or concealed elements such as the void caused by the demolished youth center and the triangular ruin walls of the library and educational spine. The Elevation model applies some new, contemporary volumes within the voids of the existing concrete structure. Steel mesh is symbolic of new materiality against the aged qualities of the already existing. The idea is to propose a new theater and new market/social spaces for people to enjoy and visit on a daily basis.

The juxtaposition of the high arts culture of the formal theater and the culture of the common everyday activities such as the market spaces and retail will provide for a wholesome, mixed culture that is not only constantly stimulated but is permitted to explore and contemplate the symbolic ruins of their past, satisfy nostalgic curiosities and embrace the contemporary, developed current.

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7. _PRIDE

n: the quality or state of being proud n: delight or elation arising from some act, possession, or relationship


Project _ formal design

10.


sky deck

retail arcade

The final model demonstrates a complex transition of planes - one is constantly being submerged into the site, elevated out and exposed to climbing slopes. This indooroutdoor juxtaposition is thematically bonded with series of sloped overhangs and arcades.

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restaurant/night club

cafe

pyramid ruins

The idea is to keep the majority of the program informal - such as indoor and outdoor cafes, retail and foods/flea market spaces. The sloping roof and site surfaces are open to becoming free, casual hang-out places much like the Opera House at Oslo. Meanwhile, the central, signature, sphinxlike form of the already planned theater would be re-purposed into a new jewel-box theater with its new square, glowing. glazed prism contrasting the aged, sliced up shell of the existing concrete.

amphitheater

art gallery

The demolished youth center is designed into a void, semi-private garden which offers contemplation and meditation spaces away from the traffic and busy retail promenade. The educational â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;spineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which held the two major building components together (those of the theater and the youth center) is now re-purposed into a glazed market space on its ground story while its upper level is treated as a multi purpose space in ruins.


sloped gardens

sunken garden

The ruin walls are maintained in a somewhat designed labyrinth whose original door openings would now be encased in contemporary steel frames so that those who wish to explore and play can follow their sequence. Meanwhile these open spaces can serve for an occasional flea market or an outdoor foods market during nice weather and weekends.

library ruins

market

amphitheater

sunken garden

The site also hosts a sloping amphitheater and another cascading slope of steps and grassed areas which can also serve for the function of gathering and outdoor performance. Below them are the old ruins - some of which would serve as an existing state museum for curious visitors to explore these mythical basement labyrinths and supposed atomic shelters. The remainder would serve for arcaded parking spaces and a shopping mall.

theater

library ruins

The odd form rooftop would be re-purposed into an already planned restaurant and a night club which would offer visitors a great panoramic view of the city and excitement to celebrate life amidst a deceased ideology of the past, censored regime.

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_site plan 223


NIGHT CLUB

DINING

EXHIBITION GALA SPACE

C

ROOFTOP PLAZA

ROOFTOP BEER GARDEN

BALCONIES IN RUIN

RESTAURANT THEATER

PYRAMIDS IN RUIN

CAFE

SU

BOUTIQUES

ORCHESTRA BURIED BASEMENTS

ART GALERY SPACE STEPPED RUIN PLATFORM BURIED RUIN SUNKEN PROMENADE

224


DEMOLISHED YOUTH CENTER

CONTROL ROOM LIBRARY IN RUINS PROMENADE / OUT DOOR MARKET THEATER PLAZA

UNKEN FOYER COLONNADE RUINS/ BELOW GROUND RETAIL & ACCESS TO SUNKEN GARDEN

FRESH MARKET/GROCERY RETAIL VOID GARDEN

_ew section

EXPOSED RUIN OVERHEAD

THEATER

THEATER BALCONIES

RETAIL PROMENADE GLASS PLAZA ORCHESTRA BURIED RUINS MUSEUM

_ns section 225


ROOFTOP BEER GARDEN

PYRAMIDS IN RUIN

226

CAFE


NIGHT CLUB

DINING

EXHIBITION GALA SPACE

CONTROL

ROOFTOP PLAZA

BALCONIES IN RUIN

RESTAURANT THEATER

SUNKEN F

BOUTIQUES

ORCHESTRA BURIED BASEMENTS

227


CONTROL ROOM LIBRARY IN RUINS PROMENADE / OUT DOOR MARKET THEATER PLAZA

SUNKEN FOYER COLONNADE RUINS/ BELOW GROUND RETAIL & ACCESS TO SUNKEN GARDEN

228

FR


DEMOLISHED YOUTH CENTER

RESH MARKET/GROCERY RETAIL VOID GARDEN


STEPPED RUIN PLATFORM BURIED RUIN SUNKEN PROMENADE

230


EXPOSED RUIN OVERHEAD

ART GALERY SPACE THEATER

THEATER BALCONIES

RETAIL PROMENADE GLASS PLAZA ORCHESTRA BURIED RUINS MUSEUM

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THESIS DEFENSE Following few pages contain a few photographs of my thesis defense presentation. They show a compilation of all final images, drawings, collages and physical models. I hope that you have enjoyed reading my work. Thank you sincerely, 232

Sunčica Milošević


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SUNČICA MILOŠEVIĆ B.S.ARCH. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN, 2009 M.ARCH. UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI, 2013

Seeking Identity in Former Yugoslavia's Socialist Architecture  

Re-purposing of the abandoned WWII monument, the Home of Revolution in Niksic, Montenegro

Seeking Identity in Former Yugoslavia's Socialist Architecture  

Re-purposing of the abandoned WWII monument, the Home of Revolution in Niksic, Montenegro

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