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A mobility aid for the disabled.....

Sumit Jadhav | 02398601 | Industrial Design | Summer 09 | 3rd August


Index Introduction:

Design:

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Hypothesis Project Brief Key Points

Research: -

Target Market 1- 2 User Inputs 1- 2 Accessibility Self Confidence Existing Disability Aids 1- 2 Usability Data 1- 2 Accessibility Data 1- 2 Materials 1- 4 Proposed Technology Travel Mapping

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User Interface Ideation 1- 5 Design Development • Concept 1 1- 8 • Concept 2 1- 4 • Concept 3 1- 2 Design Variation 1- 3

Implementation: -

Functionality 1- 9 Key Point – Independent Lifestyle Design Details 1- 19 Product Comparison 1- 8 Key Point – Mobility Exploded View Orthographic View Bill Of Materials Key Point – Locally Produced User Environment Color Variation Resources Project Guides

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Hypothesis

If a product to aid people in their daily tasks, who have lost their mobility is designed, which will be locally produced in India, it would improve their quality and length of life.

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Project Brief Problem statement: Through out India there are many poor people who are either Paraplegic or are suffering from Polio. There are various job opportunities available to such people but are not able to materialize on it due to lack of knowledge and mobility, which if provided would help these people lead a better life. There are various mobility aids used by some of the people but there is still room for improvement as they say “There is always a room at the top�. Some of the key words involved in this problem are Mobility, Locally Produced and Independent Life style.

Project brief: The aim here is to develop a product, which improves mobility of these people in their day to day life, by making them more independent at an affordable price, and also help them retain their self confidence. The product should be a combination of the benefits of various aids commonly used by these people. It should be locally produced, using locally available parts. It should overcome some of the problems faced by these people in day to day life while keeping in mind the ergonomic and aesthetic aspects as against the pricing.

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Key Points

Locally Produced

Independent Lifestyle

Low tech Cheap Local Materials Local Parts

Physical Economical Social Psychological

Mobility

Prosthetics Crutches Wheelchairs

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Rsearch Data Self Confidence

Lack of accessibility makes these people dependent on others even for their basic needs, which gives us an idea so as to how difficult it must be for these people to go from one place to another. One of the examples can be clearly seen from this snap here where in the female is disabled and is being carried by another person, which would certainly affect ones self-confidence.

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Target Market

The product is targeted to the poor Indian people who are either paraplegic and are suffering from polio. These people cannot spend much on their disability and have to be dependent on charitable trusts for taking care of their disability.

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Target Market Paraplegia

Paraplegia is when the level of injury occurs below the first thoracic spinal nerve. The degree at which the person is paralyzed can vary from the impairment of leg movement, to complete paralysis of the legs and abdomen up to the nipple line. Paraplegics have full use of their arms and hands.

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Name

User Inputs

Satyaprakash Tiwari, M/54 Type of disability Both legs amputated Incident behind disability An accident while boarding a train. Type/s of disability aid/s used and cost Wheelchairs costing 15,000/- (Owned) and 45,000/- (Gifted) Preferred disability aid and Reason for using the preferred aid Wheelchair as there is no other option Boarding trains/busses, climb stairs, incompatibility of public transport, public restrooms, poor road conditions, climatic conditions (specially rainy season) Recommendations for improvement Employed Self-employed, a shop for local goods setup by BEST (Brihanmumbai Electric Supply Transport) Job environment requirements Climbing few stairs Mode/s of transport Trains (rarely) Bus (inaccessible) Trains (accessible only with assistance, some are not accessible even with assistance) Inaccessibility for the mode of transport: does not level up with the platform or road or pavement, bad roads. Any sport/hobby you perceive or wish to perceive Spear throwing (participated in international disabled games), Marathon for Disabled, Exercising. Money spent on your disability Mostly sponsored Budget for spending on disability aids Not more than Rs 10000-15000/-

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Name

User Inputs

Ashish Goyel, M/35 Type of disability Parapledgic Incident behind disability An accident while riding a bike. Type/s of disability aid/s used and cost Wheelchair costing 6,000/Preferred disability aid and Reason for using the preferred aid Wheelchair as there is no other option. Boarding trains/busses, climb stairs, incompatibility of public transport, public restrooms, poor road conditions. Recommendations for improvement Light weight, detachable, foldable, more accessible. Employed Was a Hotel Manager but currently unemployed due to disability. Job environment requirements Attending customers and retaining a standing position. Mode/s of transport Turns out to be expensive, public transport not accessible even with assistance Inaccessibility for the mode of transport: Doors too narrow, no lifts or ramps. Any sport/hobby you perceive or wish to perceive Swimming (but cannot do it now) Money spent on your disability Self sponsored and funded. Budget for spending on disability aids Not more than Rs15000/-

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Existing Disability Aids Wooden Carts are compact easy to carry and use, can reach remotest areas in buildings, good for indoor use if things are close to from ground level, easy to maintain, cheap to make/buy. It has least aesthetic value, cannot be used for long distances, cannot climb stairs, makes u aware of you disability.

Crutchs are compact easy to carry, can reach remotest areas in buildings, easy to maintain, cheap to make/buy, can climb stairs. It cannot be used for long distances, difficult to use, hands are almost occupied most of the times, difficult to get up if it falls or if the person falls, cannot be used for wide range of disabilities.

Braces are compact easy to carry and use, can reach remotest areas in buildings, good for indoor and outdoor, easy to maintain., works as a prosthetic, can climb stairs with the help of crutches, hands can be free when wanted. It cannot be used for long distances, chances of unnoticed injuries.

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Existing Disability Aids Wheelchairs good for indoor use, hands can be free when needed, stable than crutches and braces, can be used for a wide variety of disabilities. It cannot be used for long distances, difficult to use outdoors, difficult to get in from ground, cannot climb stairs, inaccessible to most of the public transportation.

Tricycles can be used to travel comparatively longer distances. It cannot climb stairs, its is comparatively expensive, its big in size so cannot be used indoors, cannot access any type of transportation.

Modified Vehicles can be used to travel longest distances. It cannot climb stairs, its is expensive, its big in size so cannot be used indoors, cannot climb stairs, cannot access any type of transportation its a transport in itself.

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Useability Ergonomics

Ergonomics: This graph shows how well are the disability aids designed from an ergonomic point of view. It also compares the ergonomics of various disability aids which are existing in the market. It seemed like the wheelchair is better ergonomically.

Aesthetics

Modified Vehicles Tricycle

Aestheticscs: This graph compares the aesthetics of most of the disability aids panies they tend to have better aesthetics than the rest of the disaility aids used.

Wheelchair Crutches Calliper Wodden Carts

No

1

2

3

4

Preferences: This graph shows what are the types of disability aids these people would prefer to use over what they are using now. over traditional disability aids. Number used: This graph indicats the comparision of the disability aids actually used by these people. It can be seen that wheelchairs are one of the most used disability aid around.

Preferance* Modified Vehicles

* varies depending on the situation

Number used

Tricycle Wheelchair Crutches Calliper Wodden Carts

No

1

2

3

4

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Useability Ease of Use: This graph shows how easily can a person use the aid to get around. But looking at the wheel chair and its accessibility and simplicty it is better in the group.

Ease of Use

Compactness

Modified Vehicles Tricycle Wheelchair

Compactness: This graph compares how compact these disablity aids can be from a point of view of storage and manuverability in tight spaces. Though wooden carts are one of the most compact aids they are not preferred by many. Hence the compactness of calipers could be considered as ideal. Costing

Crutches Calliper Wodden Carts

No

1

2

3

4

Costing: Here the pricing of all the disability aids are compared. The cheaper the better. Though the wooden carts are the chapest but since they are least prefered, price range of the wheel chair can be considered as ideal.

Distance Covered

Modified Vehicles Tricycle Wheelchair

Distance Covered: This graph indicats the distacce that aperson can travel using

Crutches Calliper

tie but considering some of the graphs earlier, crutches can be taken up as the ideal to be looked at.

Wodden Carts

No

1

2

3

4

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Accessibility Rooms: This graph shows how easily can a person use the aid to get in and out of rooms and tight spaces. In this category the accessibility of wheel chairs and crutches can be considered as ideal. Restrooms: This graph compares accessible is a restroom using a particular disability aid. It can be seen that most of the disability aids are able to get these people in and out of the restrooms.

Rooms

Restrooms

Modified Vehicles Tricycle Wheelchair Crutches Calliper Wodden Carts No

Trains

1

2

3

4

Trains and Buses: This graph shows the extent to which a train or a bus is accessible using a particular type of disability aid.

Buses

Modified Vehicles Tricycle

vehicles, tricycle and wheel chairs.

Wheelchair Crutches Calliper Wodden Carts No

1

2

3

4

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Accessibility Slopes

Slopes: This graph shows the ease with which these aids can navigate slopes. Most of them can go over slopes but it depends on the steapness of the slope.

Steps

Modified Vehicles Tricycle

Steps: This is the main part where most of the disability aids fail it can be chairs are not able to get over stairs. This is one of the biggest hurdles to be overcome in order to solve most of the accessibility problems faced by disabled people.

Wheelchair Crutches Braces Wodden Carts No

1

2

3

4

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Materials Wood Can be used for framework, small parts. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall

Coir Can be used as filler material in cushioning. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Comfort Overall

Resin Composits Can be used for framework, small parts, support in a sheet form. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall Best

Average

Poor

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Materials Cotton (cloth) Can be used as support material, as straps, filler for cushioning. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Comfort Overall

Cardboard Can be used as framework or for padding. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall

Cane Can be used as support material, framework. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall Best

Average

Poor

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Materials Jute Can be used as support material or as straps. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Comfort Overall

Plastics Can be used for joints, small parts, frame parts. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall

Bamboo Can be used as support, framework. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall Best

Average

Poor

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Materials Aluminium Can be used for supports, covers (sheet metal), frame work Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall

MS (Mild Steel) Can be used for supports, frame work. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall

Galvanized Steel Can be used for supports, covers (sheet metal), frame work. Economically Availability Production Process Maintainance Weight Overall Best

Average

Poor

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Inspiration

Inspirations :

Some of the other inspiring ways of mobilizing are skateboards, roller blades, kick scooters, skiing poles which are also low tech and can be locally produced.

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Proposed Technology Irish Mail This is one of the human powered vehicles which use the Irish Mail technology. In this the handle which is a type of cranking device which is linked slightly of f-set on the turning wheel or gear which drives the f inal driving shaf t. The basic concept here is to conver t translating motion into circular motion.

Pedal Powered Pedal Powered vehicles or machines are ver y common the most common example being a bicycle. A couple of more are shown in the photos above. Technology this is one of the most common, cheap and easy to use mechanisms. Parts are locally available and easy to maintain.

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Rsearch Data Accessibility

As it can be seen this is one of the most widely used mode of transport but there is no adjustment for disabled access. The bus does not lean down so as to make it easier for disabled people to get in. This makes these buses almost inaccessible to these people unless someone helps them board the bus.

The local trains are the most common means of transport, but it can be seen that in spite of having a special compartment for disabled people, there is a height difference between the platform and the running board thus making it inaccessible for wheelchairs.

In spite of the local trains having the provision for disable people the platforms itself are inaccessible to these people. This is because the foot over bridge either have stairs or have ramps which are very steep for such people to access on their own.

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User Interface

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Ideation Concept 1

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Ideation Concept 2

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Ideation Concept 3

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Ideation Concept 4

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Ideation Concept 5

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Design Development Concept 1

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Design Development Concept 1

These images show how a person can change his position from standing position to a sitting position. First unlock the trailing wheel on the back. Then unlock all the joints and lock the wheels. Then with the help of crutches sowly lean back.

Lower your body slowly working out with one hand at a time. Once you reach the bottom most position you are free to roll around using hand pads. To go over the stairs you have to change over to this position and then use your hands to lift yourself and place on the next step. The slider at the back helps sliding the wheels over the stairs easily.

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Concept Analysis Concept 1

L

ing look s y lwa ht a g i s f ine o

up

There is a considerable difference between communicating to a normal standing person seating in a wheelchair and a normal person sitting and communicating with a normal standing person. Since the person in the wheelchair can not

stand at his will and has to communicate with a normal standing person by looking up at him/her, somewhere making the person in the wheelchair feel that wish he/she could stand. While being in a standing position the

person can now communicate almost the same height as that of a normal standing person. Doing so would boost up their selfconfidence.

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Concept Analysis Concept 1

There are some medical advantages in maintaining an upright position.

Weight of the upper body being put on the legs.

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The leg bears the weight of the upper body

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This helps retaining bone strength

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Also it maintains the necessary weight on the leg muscles

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This ensures proper blood supply

The over all result of this is that being in an upright position avoids the person from loosing the strength of his/her muscles or bones and at the same time providing a chance for a Paraplegic person to recover form his/her illness.

Maintains bone strength and helps in retaining muscle strength.

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Design Development Concept 1

These images show how a person can change his position from standing position to a sitting position. First unlock the trailing wheel on the back (not shown here). Then unlock all the joints and lock the wheels. Then with the help of crutches sowly lower yourself into the seat.

These images show how a person can change his position from standing position to a sitting posiThe only thing is one may not need the crutches while seating on a chair with raised armrests.

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Design Development Concept 1

These images show how a person can change his position from seating position to a standing position. First unlock the trailing wheel on the back. Then unlock all the joints and lock the wheels. Then with the help of crutches sowly lift yourself.

Lift your body slowly working out with one hand at a time. Once you reach the standing position you are free to roll around using crutches. To go over the stairs you have to use your hands to lift yourself and place on the next step. The slider at the back helps sliding the wheels over the stairs easily.

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Design Development Concept 1

These images show how a person can change his position from standing position to a sitting position. First unlock the trailing wheel on the back (not shown here). Then unlock all the joints and lock the wheels. Then with the help of crutches sowly lower yourself into the seat.

the position of the hip joint with adjustments which can be done by the user as per needs. The second one shows the position fo r unlocking the knee joint if it needs to be reached. The third photo shows the ability to strap oneself.

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Concept Analysis Concept 1

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Design Development Concept 2

These images show how a person can change his position from seating position to a standing position. First unlock the hip joint and lock the wheels. Then with the help of crutches sowly lift yourself using one hand at a time. The crutches can now be used to propel yourself.

While in the seatign position the person can go up or down the stairs by turning the wheels with the help of the spokes control over the wheels.

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Design Development Concept 2

These images show how a person can change his position from seating position to a standing position. First unlock the hip joint and lock the wheels. Then with the help of crutches sowly lift yourself using one hand at a time. The crutches can now be used to propel yourself.

While in the seatign position the person can go up or down the stairs by turning the wheels with the help of the spokes control over the wheels.

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Concept Analysis Concept 2

History / Background: This cart can be used by disabled people for their daily commute, climbing stairs and it can help them to stand up in an upright position whenever needed.

Issue: Cart Design This design can very much be used in the rural areas where there not much of a problem of space management the way it is in the cities. This design does satisfy many of the issues that were to be fulfilled. But to get it finalized there are many other issues that need to be addressed. Comparatively compact design.

1

Range of drive trains can be used.

2

The dimensions can be easily modified according to the needs of the person. Easy to manufacture.

1

Boosts self Confidence

Final Decision: 2 Pros 3

Helps tem retain the upright position which they are not able to be in if they are using some of the other disability aids. Helps them reach objects that are otherwise difficult to reach. Strong joints.

Option 1: Standing Position 1

Unstable during standing position.

Design Features

Strong Framework. Possible Solutions

Bigger wheels at the base. Better base for stability.

3

Cons

4

Use of lighter Materials.

Decision Making

Can climb stairs without the help of others.

1

This design makes trains accessible for them.

2

2

The design may be top heavy.

1

Low seating position makes it easier for them to enter and exit the cart.

2

Objects close to the ground can be easily reached.

3

Offers good stability while traveling.

4

Stable and safe even while climbing stairs.

Possible Solutions

Movable/Folding driving mechanisms/wheels.

Pros Tight spaces can be accessed by changing to the standing position.

3 Pros

The person has to change from seating to standing position. The frame can be designed by putting a joint such that the wheelbase can be reduced.

The wheel base is too long to access tight spaces in the same position.

1

Accessibility Seating Position

Some other way of doing it. Local busses would be difficult to access. They will have to transfer themselves from the cart to the seats if need be. But it will still consume quite some space which is less in a place like a bus.

2

3 Cannot accommodate this into any type of seat.

1 Cons

Cons 2

Low seating is not good while moving in traffic or during rainy season due to water clogging problems.

The problem of pressure sores remains unsolved. They have to change their position after some time interval to prevent it from happening.

Use of a visibility flag which would solve half of the problem. Possible Solutions

Use of bigger wheels at the back. Increasing the height by modifying the frame.

Design better seat support. Possible Solutions:

Cushion material. Some mechanical linkage to resolve that.

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Design Development Concept 3

Handle Bar

This can be used for climbing into the chair from the ground which is like substitute to other high raised objects which are otherwise used to get into the chair.

Foot Rest into the chair using the handle bar along with it being a place to rest feet.

Track Bigger Spokes

Track is the rubber belt mounted on two rolls and avoids the wheels from getting stuck between the corners of the stairs.

Bigger spokes can be used by the user to grip the wheel in a better way to get the wheelchair over the stairs.

Height Changer

The height of the seat can be lowered in order to change the angle while climbing stairs so as to make it more stable while going up the stairs.

Transmission

The track is connected to the rear wheel with a belt drive which rotates along with the rear wheel which is inturn turned by hands the way it is done in regular wheelchairs.

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Design Development Concept 3

The pictures on th side shows the preparation that needs to be done for the wheelchair prior to climbing the stairs. lower the seat from back side with the help of leveling screws or mechanism. This helps in retaining balance while climbing stairs. Once that is done the personwill have to turn around with his back facing the stairs.

After turning back the person can use the spokes of the wheel to pull himself up over the stairs. The belt below which is connected to the rear wheels helps the wheels from getting stuck on the stairs. It rotates along with the rear wheels with the help of a driving mechanism

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Design Direction

The image above shows the hip joint with variable angle adjustment feature. This helps them to balance themselves.

The place where the person stands is slightly below and in front of the rear wheel centre which would improve stability.

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Design Variation

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Design Evolution

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Design Evolution

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Functionality

Seating to Standing Transition from seating to standing position:

For a person to change from seating to standing one has to do the following steps 1. Put the crutches in the lifter mechanism and the crutch holder. 2. Once into position repeatedly push the lifter mechanism lever. 4. Keep pushing till the person reaches the standing position. 5. The person is ready to roll.

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Functionality

Standing to Seating

Transition from standing to seating position: For a person to change from standing to seating one has to do the following steps 1. Put the crutches in the lifter mechanism and the crutch holder. 2. Once into position one can slide down using the braking mechanism. 4. Keep sliding till the person reaches the bottom 5. The person is ready to roll

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Functionality

Propulsion

In order to move forward the person will have to use the crutches as ski poles. The way in which a skier uses ski poles the user will be using the crutches and the brakes to control the product.

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Functionality Propulsion

The photos shown above illustrates how a person would be using the product while in a standing position. The crutches which are held in both hands are used like ski-poles to propel forward.

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Functionality Propulsion

The photos shown above illustrates how a person would be using the product while in a sitting position. While in the seating position the person can move around in a way similar to that of the wheelchair, driving the wheels with hands.

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Functionality

Stair Climbing

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Functionality

Stair Climbing

The photos shown above illustrates how a person would be using the product while going up the stairs with the help of another person. The position in which the user will be and the person pulling the user can be seen from the photos. One of the issues while doing so was that it would have become easier for the person pulling the product if only the rear wheels would have been bigger.

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Functionality

Stair Climbing

The photos shown above illustrates how a person would be using the product while going up the stairs on his own. The position in which the user will be going over the stairs can be clearly seen from the photos. The position remains the same for going up or down the stairs. One of the issues while doing so was that it would become easier for the user if the rear wheels would have been bigger. Having bigger wheels would have given the user much better grip and hence a better control while going up or down the stairs.

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Key Points

Locally Produced

Independent Lifestyle

Low tech Cheap Local Materials Local Parts

Being able to go over stairs and be able to get in and out of buses or trains one gets a greater range of travelling distance. This would help in boosting self confidence which would be beneficial to the person in many other ways.

Mobility

Prosthetics Crutches Wheelchairs

Physical Economical Social Psychological

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Design Details Height Adjustment

Increase in height

The product can be customized to suit various body sizes. There are cuts running through the body panels and are attached to the frame behind. When the frame is extended for extra height, these panels move along with the frame the way it is shown in the snap.

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Design Details Height Adjustment

A – Upper Thigh Cover B – Lower Thigh Cover C – Extended Under Cover A

C

B

For height adjustment when the frame is extended part A moves further away from part B. Part C is an extension of part B which normally remains under part A and is only visible when the frame is extended. The purpose of having part C is to avoid any pinch points in the design.

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Design Details Hip Joint

Back Support Frame Locking Mechanism Tilt Regulator

Locked Position

Hinge Unlocked Position

Locked Position

Brake Handle

This is the standing position where in the back support is in upright position.

This is the standing position where in the back support is in upright position.

This is the position where the product position is being changed from standing to seating.

The latch is used to lock and unlock the hip joint. The latch remains in the down or locked position while in this position.

To unlock the joint the latch need to be rotated in the upward direction on both sides. Once that is done the joint is free to move.

Once the latch is unlocked the user can change the angle of the backrest to the desired angle. After adjusting to a required position the latch needs to be rotated downwards to lock it into position.

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Design Design Details Details

Locking Joint LockingJoint Mechanism

Tube 1 Wire Locking Strip Tube 2 Lifter

joints lock and unlock. The locking The lift ring is attached to a wire which runs from inside the tubing and is connected to a lever. This lever when pulled, the connected wire gets pulled, lifting the lift ring, which in turn pushes the lobes of the locking spring inward, thus unlocking the joint.

Tube 1 Wire Locking Strip Tube 2 Lifter

Locked Joint

Unlocked Joint

Knee Joint Cut Section View

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Design Details Strap Cross-section

Soft Leather Cover

Polyeurethane Foam

Nylon Strap

The product consists of two straps, the chest strap and the knee strap. Since both of these straps remain in contact with the body at all times there is a possibility of burns due to friction. In order to reduce this risk of skin injury the straps must be soft and wide. The wider the strap better is the pressure distribution on the body. Apart from that, the material of the strap is also important. The lesser the friction the better it is for the user. Taking the above factors into consideration and after looking at some of the existing straps, the strap should be made in a way indicated by the diagram here. The innermost part is the Nylon belt for strength and durability covered by a Polyurethane foam padding atleast 10mm thick, covered by soft Leather for comfort. Also the width of the strip should be 4 inches.

Strap Cross-section

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Design Details Crutch holder

The crutch holder is used while changing positions i.e. while changing from standing to seating and vice versa. The way in which a person can use it is by sliding the crutch’s narrow section into the slot of the holder and the lifter mechanism and then push it in the downward direction. By doing so the crutch gets secured during the transformations thus avoiding the person from tipping over. While removing lift the crutch and slide it out.

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Design Details Stair Dimensions

Rise Run

The chart here shows the various possible conventional combinations of Run and Risers of a staircase.

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Design Details Stair Dimensions

Train Station Stairs Rise : 4-5 inches Run : 9 inches

Bus Stairs Rise : 8 inches Run : 9 inches

Building Stairs Rise : 8 inches Run : 11 inches

Average Stair Size Rise : 7 inches Run : 9 inches

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Design Details

Rear Wheels

Rear Wheel Sizes Tread Riser

C 10 inches

B

A 7 inches

Fig. 1.0

Fig. 1.1

Fig. 1.2

Fig. 1.3

with the tread and raiser being 10 inches and 6 inches respectively. The rear wheel of my product was decided based on the following facts. Fig. 1.1 : Consider having a small wheel of 5 inch radius. The outcome of this sized wheel would be as follows

Fig. 1.2 : Consider having a small wheel of 8 inch radius. The outcome of this sized wheel would be as follows A. wheel would be it would be stable on the tread

B. it would be easier to roll the wheel over to the next step

C. ride quality will be good

Fig. 1.3 : Consider having a small wheel of 12 inch radius or more. The outcome of this sized wheel would be as follows A. wheel would be it would be unstable on the tread

B. it would be easiest to roll the wheel over to the next step

C. ride quality will be better

Conclusion: Having a radius lesser than the average tread size (i.e. 8 inches) would be a better solution from safety point of view.

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Design Details

Caster Wheels

Caster wheels play an important part in stability and maneuverability. Some of the main points to be considered are Trail, Wheel Width, Wheel Diameter and Wheel Material. Trail that the trail should be either 50mm or more. But at the same time having a long trail increases the turning radius of the caster, hence needing bigger space for rotation. The caster would be much stable if the trail is about 60 - 65mm.

For the caster to be able to go over gravel comfortably it needs to be wide enough. Hence the casters that I plan to use have a wheel width of 80mm.

Caster Bearing Fork

Caster Wheel Caster Wheel Steel Washer Diameter 110mm

A caster wheel needs to have a decent wheel diameter as smaller diameter wheels create problems with steering. Having larger wheels makes it more stable but making the over all product bulky. To balance this out the caster wheel that I plan on installing on my product has an over all diameter of 110mm.

Axle

Caster Trail 55 - 65mm

The material used to make these caster wheels is rubber which is readily available and easy to mould using techniques which are simple and easy to reproduce. Rubber helps in absorbing shocks to some extent and also gives better traction on most of the surfaces.

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Design Details Brakes

Rear Brakes

The brakes used on the product are same as that of the ones found on bicycles. These brake units are readily available in the market and are ready to be picked up. Both the brake shoes are mounted on a brake shoe holder and is connected to the brake lever with a wire. Whenever the person pulls the lever the wire is pulled resulting in application of brakes.

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Design Details Fifth Wheel

Reference Frame Cradle Frame

Flexible metal Strip Fifth Wheel

Fully Extended (while standing)

Fully Retracted (while seating)

Fully Retracted (while standing and going up the stairs)

The fifth wheel also the trailing wheel is placed at the back side to provide stability to the product, if there be any situation wherein the product tips backward. While in the standing position the fifth wheel remains in the extended position and about 3 inches above the ground and comes in touch with the ground only if the product tips backward. while changing to the seating position the fifth wheel retracts inward and vice versa during the transformation processes. The way this works is there is a clip at the end of the fifth wheel which engages with the frame of the cradle (place where the person stands). When the cradle moves forward it retracts the fifth wheel and while moving backward (changing from seating to standing) the cradle pushes the fifth wheel outward into position. This reduces the chances of the person to forget about it thus making it safer.

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Product Details

Product Comparison Good Aesthetics

Bad Ergonomics

Good Ergonomics

Bad Aesthetics

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Product Details

Product Comparison Long Travelling Distance

Unconfortable

Comfortable

Short Travelling Distance

Mobilizer


Product Details

Product Comparison Bus/Train Accessibility

Stair Inaccessibility

Stair Accessiblity

Bus/Train Inaccessibility

Mobilizer


Product Details

Product Comparison Independency

Difficulty in Assistance

Easy of Assistance

Dependency

Mobilizer


Product Details

Product Comparison Small Foot-print

Larger Turning Radius

Small Turning Radius

Bigger Footprint

Mobilizer


Product Details

Product Comparison Low Tech

Expensive

Cheap

High Tech

Mobilizer


Key Points

Locally Produced

Independent Lifestyle

Low tech Cheap Local Materials Local Parts

Physical Economical Social Psychological

Mobility

Prosthetics Crutches Wheelchairs

Being able to go over stairs and be able to get in and out of buses or trains one benefits from most of the advantages of most of the disability aids on the market today at an affordable price.

Mobilizer


Exploded Views

Back Support - Frame - Cushioning

Back Support

Chest Strap Rear Frame Cover Hip Lock Lifter Brake Lever Seat Knee Strap

Knee Joint

Tyre Cover Slider Rear Wheel Cradle Boby Panels

Fifth wheel

Frame

Brakes

Mobilizer


Orthographics 6 cm

44 cm

R 4.6cm

R 12cm

39 cm

35 cm

R 6.6 cm 6 cm

R 6.6 cm

Pipe diameter same through out unless specified.

R54 cm

44 cm

R 47 cm 2.54 cm

46 cm width 4 cm 10 cm

30 cm 8cm width 40 cm

R 5 cm

54 cm

40 cm

Sq 2.54 cm

Mobilizer


Design Details Total Production Cost : 6470 Rs. (140$)

Bill of Materials

Mobilizer


Key Points

Locally Produced

Independent Lifestyle

All of the parts used in making of this product can be locally produced. Some of the parts are readily available in the market. This helps in keeping the overall cost of the product low. Low tech Cheap Local Materials Local Parts

Physical Economical Social Psychological

Mobility

Prosthetics Crutches Wheelchairs

Mobilizer


Color Study

The colors of the product have been chosen by taking into consideration the nature of the product and the target market. Since the person would be spending a lot of time

into this product, it should have pleasant and soft colors that would be inviting, would make the person feel like being in it and at the same time be proud of using it in public.

Mobilizer


User Environment

Mobilizer


Project Guides Carol Koffel

Anthony Tusler

Mark Bolick

Lewis B.

Chris Myers

Ralf Hotchiss

Academy of Art Thesis Prep

Academy of Art Research Phase

Academy of Art Design Phase

About Disability Design Phase

Academy of Art Implementation Phase

Whirlwind Wheelchairs Implementation Phase

Jim Shook

Academy of Art Design Phase

Mobilizer


Mobilizer  
Mobilizer  

Thesis project

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