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TrAnScEnDs ArChIcTeCtUrE

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In ThE FiELd oF EnGiNeErInG

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An architectural style is a specific method of construction, characterized by the features that make it notable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, materials, and regional character. Most architecture can be classified as a chronology of styles which changes over time. These may reflect changing fashions, changing beliefs and religions, or the emergence of new ideas and new technology which make new styles possible. Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society and are documented in the subject of architectural style. At any time several styles may be fashionable, and when a style changes it usually does so gradually, as architects learn and adapt to new ideas. The new style is sometimes only a rebellion against an existing style, such as “post-modernism” (means “after modernism”) which has in recent years found its own language and split into a number of styles with other names. Styles often spread to other places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist. For instance, the Renaissance began in Italy around 1425 and spread to all of Western Europe over the next 200 years, with the French, Belgian, German, English and Spanish Renaissance being recognisably the same style, but with unique characteristics.

“Greek”

“European” “British” “Medieval” “Victorian”

“Gothic” “Renaissance”

A style may also spread through Colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, or by settlers moving to a new land. One example is the Spanish missions in California, brought by Spanish priests in the late 18th century and built in a unique style. After a style has gone out of fashion, there are often revivals and re-interpretations. For instance, classicism has been revived many times and found fashion as neoclassicism (means “new classicism”). Each time it is revived, it is different. The Spanish mission style was revived 100 later as the “Mission Revival”, and that soon evolved into the Spanish Colonial Revival. Vernacular architecture works slightly differently and is listed separately. It is the native method of construction used by local people, usually using labour-intensive methods and local materials, and usually for small structures such as rural cottages. It varies from region to region even within a country, and takes little account of national styles or technology. As western society has developed, vernacular styles have mostly become outmoded by new technology and national building standards. The Roman Colosseum, an amphitheater built in the 1st century AD, capable of seating 50,000 spectators.

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The arcopolis: The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The “Sacred Rock) in Greece. Although there are many other acropolises in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as The Acropolis without qualification. The Acropolis is a flat-topped rock which rises 150 m (512 ft) above sea level in the city of Athens, Greece. It was also known as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Kekrops or Cecrops, the first Athenian king.The Acropolis rises sharply from the plain of Attica with steep cliffs on three sides. It is accessible by foot only to the west, where it is linked by a low ridge to the hill of the Areopagus. It is formed by a layer of blue-grey limestone, which is very hard but water-permeable. This rests on a layer of schist-sandstone marl, softer than the limestone but water-impermeable.

European Archictecture The colosseum: The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium), is the largest amphitheatre built in the Roman Empire. Originally capable of seating 50,000 spectators, it was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built in the 70s AD by Jewish slaves captured at the end of the Great Jewish Revolt. Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of Emperor Vespasian in AD 72. It was completed by his son, Titus, in 80, with later improvements by Domitian. It was built at the site of Nero’s lake below his extensive palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built covering the slope of the Palatine after the great fire of Rome in 64. Dio Cassius recounts that 10,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening.

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British Architecture The London Bridge: The London Millennium Footbridge is a pedestrian-only steel suspension bridge crossing the River Thames in London, England, between the existing Southwark Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, linking Bankside with the City. It was the first new bridge across the Thames in London since Tower Bridge in 1894 and it is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the Corporation of London.

The Buckingham Palace: Buckingham Palace has served as the official London residence of Britain’s sovereigns since 1837 and today is the administrative headquarters of the Monarch.Although in use for the many official events and receptions held by The Queen, the State Rooms at Buckingham Palace are open to visitors every year. For visitor information, please visit the Royal Collection website.

The south end of the bridge is near Globe Theatre, the Bankside Gallery and Tate Modern, the north end next to the City of London School below St Paul’s Cathedral. The bridge alignment is such that a clear view of St Paul’s south facade is presented from across the river, framed by the bridge supports, thus providing one of London’s most photogenic views of the cathedral.

Buckingham Palace has 775 rooms. These include 19 State rooms, 52 Royal and guest bedrooms, 188 staff bedrooms, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. In measurements, the building is 108 metres long across the front, 120 metres deep (including the central quadrangle) and 24 metres high.

London Bridge is a bridge in London, England over the River Thames, between the City of London and Southwark. It is between Cannon Street Railway Bridge and Tower Bridge; it also forms the western end of the Pool of London. London’s original bridge made this one of the most famous bridge emplacements in the world. It was the only bridge over the Thames in London until Westminster Bridge was opened in 1750. Westminster Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames between Westminster and Lambeth, in London, England.

The Palace is very much a working building and the centrepiece of Britain’s constitutional monarchy. It houses the offices of those who support the day-to-day activities and duties of The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh and their immediate family. The Palace is also the venue for great Royal ceremonies, State Visits and Investitures, all of which are organised by the Royal Household. Although Buckingham Palace is furnished and decorated with priceless works of art that form part of the Royal Collection, one of the major art collections in the world today. It is not an art gallery and nor is it a museum.

“Buckingham Palace”

“London Bridge”

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Renaissance Architecture Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture.

Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities. The style was carried to France, Germany, England, Russia and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities.

Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. The word “Renaissance” derived from the term “la rinascita”,which means rebirth, first appeared in Giorgio Vasari’s Vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani (The Lives of the Artists, 1550–68). Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet, it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien 1860,was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance. The folio of measured drawings Édifices de Rome moderne; ou, Recueil des palais, maisons, églises, couvents et autres monuments (The Buildings of Modern Rome), first published in 1840 by Paul Letarouilly, also played an important part in the revival of interest in this period.

The obvious distinguishing features of Classical Roman architecture were adopted by Renaissance architects. Among the earliest buildings of the reborn Classicism were churches of a type that the Romans had never constructed. Neither were there models for the type of large city dwellings required by wealthy merchants of the 15th century. Conversely, there was no call for enormo

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Gothic Architecture Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.Originating in 12th century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as “French work” (Opus Francigenum), with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.

Gothic architecture” does not imply the architecture of the historical Goths. The term originated as a pejorative description: it came to be used as early as the 1530s by Giorgio Vasari to describe culture that was considered rude and barbaric.At the time in which Vasari was writing, Italy had experienced a century of building in the Classical architectural vocabulary revived in the Renaissance and seen as the finite evidence of a new Golden Age of learning and refinement.

Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings.It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeal to the emotions.

The Renaissance had then overtaken Europe, overturning a system of culture that, prior to the advent of printing, was almost entirely focused on the Church and was perceived, in retrospect, as a period of ignorance and superstition. Hence, François Rabelais, also of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his Utopian Abbey of Thélème, “Here enter no hypocrites, bigots...” slipping in a slighting reference to “Gotz” and “Ostrogotz.”

A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction.

In English 17th-century usage, “Goth” was an equivalent of “vandal”, a savage despoiler with a Germanic heritage of classical types of architecture.


Victorian Architecture

In

In the ScotUnited land, the States of Amerarchitect Alexica, notable cities ander Thomson who which developed or were practiced in Glasgow was a rebuilt largely during this era pioneer of the use of cast iron and include Astoria, Albany, Troy, Bossteel for commercial buildings, blending ton, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian Flatbush sections of New York City, Buffalo, and oriental themes to produce many truly original Chicago, Columbus, Detroit, Eureka, Galena, Galvesstructures. Other notable Scottish architects of this peton, Grand Rapids, Baltimore, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape riod are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie May, Louisville, Atlanta, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Richmond, Saint Paul, the Gaslamp Quarter of San Diego, and St. LouAberdeen. During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated is. San Francisco is well known for its extensive Victorian architecture, to the colonies, but as the British Empire became firmly established during particularly in the Haight-Ashbury, Lower Haight, Alamo Square, Noe Valley, the 19th century many architects emigrated at the start of their careers. Castro, Nob Hill, and Pacific Heights neighborhoods. Some chose the United States, and others went to Canada, Australia, The extent to which any one is the “largest surviving example” The and New Zealand. Normally, they applied architectural styles is debated, with numerous qualifications. The Distillery Disterm that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter trict in Toronto, Ontario contains the largest and best Victorian architechalf of the century, however, improving transport and preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial ture refers collectively to communications meant that even remote parts architecture in North America.[citation needseveral architectural styles employed of the Empire had access to publications ed] Cabbagetown is the largest and most predominantly during the middle and late 19th such as the magazine The Builder, continuous Victorian residential area century. The name “Victorian” refers to the reign of Queen which helped colonial architects in North America. Victoria, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, during which period the keep informed about current styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements fashion. of what is typically termed “Victorian” architecture did not become popular until later in Victoria’s reign. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles mixed with the introduction of middle east and Asian influences. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it follows Georgian architecture and later Regency architecture, and was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built.


Medieval Architecture

The Latin cross plan, common in medieval ecclesiastical architecture, takes the Roman basilica as its primary model with subsequent developments. It consists of a nave, transepts, and the altar stands at the east end (see Cathedral diagram). Also, cathedrals influenced or commissioned by Justinian employed the Byzantine style of domes and a Greek cross (resembling a plus sign), with the altar located in the sanctuary on the east side of the church. Surviving examples of medieval secular architecture mainly served for defense. Castles and fortified walls provide the most notable remaining non-religious examples of medieval architecture. Windows gained a cross-shape for more than decorative purposes: they provided a perfect fit for a crossbowman to safely shoot at invaders from inside. Crenellated walls (battlements) provided shelters for archers on the roofs to hide behind when not shooting invaders European architecture in the Early Middle Ages may be divided into Early Christian, Romanesque architecture, Russian church architecture, Norse Architecture, Pre-Romanesque, including Merovingian, Carolingian, Ottonian, and Asturian. While these terms are problematic, they nonetheless serve adequately as entries into the era. Considerations that enter into histories of each period include Trachtenberg’s “historicising” and “modernising” elements, Italian versus northern, Spanish, and Byzantine elements, and especially the religious and political maneuverings between kings, popes, and various ecclesiastic officials. Romanesque, prevalent in medieval Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries, was the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent. Romanesque, prevalent in medieval Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries, was the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent.



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