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dr- Farooq Mofti Arch-Ahmad Falata Sultan Alharthi 0910163 Homework 5 Visit rebort

Minimalism Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts. Minimalism is any design or style in which the simplest and fewest elements are used to create the maximum effect. As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post–World War II Western Art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with this movement include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It is rooted in the reductive aspects ofModernism, and is often interpreted as a reaction against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art practices. The terms have expanded to encompass a movement in music which features repetition and iteration, as in the compositions of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, and John Adams. Minimalist compositions are sometimes known as systems music. The term "minimalist" is often applied colloquially to designate anything that is spare or stripped to its essentials. It has also been used to describe the plays and novels of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, and even the automobile designs ofColin Chapman. The word was first used in English in the early 20th century to describe the Mensheviks.

TADO ANDO Ando was born in Minato-ku, Osaka, Japan, and raised in Asahi-ku in the city. He has led an eventful life, working as a truck driver and boxer prior to settling on the profession of architecture, despite never having taken formal training in the field. He visited buildings designed by renowned architects like Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis Kahn before returning to Osaka in 1968 and established his own design studio, Tadao Ando Architect and Associates.

Ando has strong culture backgrounds in Japan, where he was raised and also currently lives. Japanese religion and style of life strongly influenced his architecture and design. Ando's architectural style is said to create a "haiku" effect, emphasizing nothingness and empty space to represent the beauty of simplicity. He favors designing complex spatial circulation while maintaining the appearance of simplicity. As a self-taught architect, he keeps his Japanese culture and language tightly in his mind while he travels around Europe for learning experience. As an architect, he believes that architecture can change the society--"to change the dwelling is to change the city and to reform society".[1]"Reform society" could be a promotion of a place or a change of the identity of that place. According to Werner Blaser, "Good buildings by Tadao Ando create memorable identity and therefore publicity, which in turn attracts the public and promotes market penetration".[2] The simplicity of his architecture emphasizes the concept of sensation and physical experiences, mainly influenced by the Japanese culture. The religious term, Zen, focuses on the concept of simplicity and concentrates on the inner feeling rather than the appearance. The theory has vividly shown on Ando’s work and definitely become his style that distinguishes other outstanding architects in the world. In order to practice the idea of simplicity, Ando’s architecture is mostly constructed with concrete, which provides his architecture a sense of cleanness and weightiness at the same time. Due to the simplicity of the exterior, the construction and organization of the space are relatively potential in order to represents the aesthetic from sensation.

Chikatsu Asuka Historical Museum Introduction The region-Chikatsu Asuka was the scene of the events that have marked the earliest period of Japanese history. They were discovered more than two hundred burial mounds including four imperial tombs. The museum stands in the middle of the tombs dating from the centuries II to VII, and is dedicated to culture Kofun as evidence of major historical events. Situation The museum is located in the archaeological park Fusoki-no-Oka, region-Chikatsu Asuka in the southern part of Osaka. The building is in the middle of the park, digging area, housing the remains were discovered in the same place. Meaning The project idea is to offer visitors a reconstruction of the historical period they belong to the remains closer to reality as possible. Ando is why we developed a way of building a subterranean vault where the archaeological pieces are displayed. The building is listed as a large concrete tower overlooking a monumental staircase. The exterior is austere and solemn, and no net volume decorativa, paying tribute to the traditions and culture of the protagonists. The topic is sacred and burial evoked continuously. The play of light and shadows created on the inside and outside the museum, they define the architecture.

Spaces To access the museum is going through a hill to reach a lake leading to a waterfall. Facing the lake you can park. From there you can see the monumental staircase, which is reflected in the lake. The walk along the staircase leading to the top of a temple of archeology. In the first forks off a narrow walkway lined with concrete walls from which you access inside the museum. Once inside, Ando proposed a tour in contact with the past, continually evoking the look burial. The interior of the concrete tower was left in complete darkness. The exhibition galleries are spacious and essential, specially designed to display a scale model of the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, with objects placed around his body as a central keyhole. The light comes from above, but the atmosphere is intentionally kept in darkness.

Materials Concrete was used in general for the granite staircase and wood floors

Parc de la Villette The Parc de la Villette is one of the largest parks in Paris, located at the northeastern edge of the 19th arrondissement. The park houses one of the largest concentration of cultural venues in Paris, including the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie (City of Science and Industry), Europe's largest science museum, three major concert venues and the prestigious Conservatoire de Paris. Parc de la Villette is served by Paris Métro stations Corentin Cariou on Line 7 and Porte de Pantin on Line 5.  The park was designed by Bernard Tschumi, a French architect of Swiss origin, who built it from 1984 to 1987 on the site of the huge Parisian abattoirs (slaughterhouses) and the national wholesale meat market, as part of an urban redevelopment project. The slaughterhouses, built in 1867 on the instructions of Napoléon III, had been cleared away and relocated in 1974. Tschumi won a major design competition in 1982–83 for the park, and he sought the opinions of the deconstructionist philosopher Jacques Derrida in the preparation of his design proposal. Since the creation of the park, museums, concert halls, and theatres have been designed by several noted contemporary architects, including Christian de Portzamparc, Adrien Fainsilber, Philippe Chaix, Jean-Paul Morel, Méziane Azaïche, and Jean Nouvel, in addition to Mr. Tschumi.

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