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Issue 1: Autumn 2015

The magazine for psychology students written by psychology students

Inside: Page 6-11 Highlights from The 44th Welsh Branch Annual Student Conference Page 12-13 The experience of novelty as an approach to improve close relationships and expand your ―self‖‘ (Teodora Iona Barnes) Page 14-15 Family: the pillar of a child‘s self-esteem (Andreea Ioana Vaduva) Page 16-17 Books on Prescription: Applied (Maria Villanueva & Gisselle Cuomo) Page 18-19 Essay tips I wish I had known about when starting my degree (Lauren Groombridge)



The magazine for USW Psychology Students written by USW Psychology Students.

Editor in chief

Laura Catherine Drummond

Deputy editor

Louise Waddington & Nicola Leach


Creative Director

Student Engagement Team

University of South Wales, Treforest, Pontypridd,

Feature Writers Names Teodora Iona Barnes

CF37 1DL

Gisselle Cuomo


Laura Drummond

Jack Erasmus

Lauren Groombridge

Emily Groves

Blaine Mansell

Leigh McFarlane


Andreea Ioana Vaduva

Web link

Maria Villanueva

Twitter SulciUSW

Designer Student Engagement Team Pictures Laura Drummond



Artwork by Ceri Herbert

Jill Adams

Printed by

Lauren Groombridge

USW Print and Design

Blaine Mansell

Pontypridd, Rhondda Cynon Taff,

Freelance Consultant (Copywriter and Editor) Rhian Drummond

CF37 1TW

Sulci: Your magazine Remember, we always need people like YOU to get involved! You can send us ; Pictures, Tweets, Articles, Jokes, Recipes Basically, anything you like!

From the editor Welcome to the very first edition of SULCI. For those wondering where the name derives from, the word ‗sulci‘ means a depression or groove in the brain but equally as importantly, it also means valley and since the Treforest campus is surrounded by the South Wales Valleys, it seemed an apt name. We also held a vote on it and you lot voted it as your favourite! The first issue has seen more than its fair share of blood, sweat and tears (and chocolate). However, it‘s all been worthwhile and we‘re delighted to be publishing the first edition of this wonderful magazine. I have to send my thanks to all the writers that contributed articles to this issue as without you, there simply wouldn't be a magazine. It‘s also important to express my gratitude to our hardworking editors, who gave up their time to edit all of these articles.

Welsh Branch Annual Student Conference that was held at the Atrium in Cardiff. We managed to catch up with some of the students there who shared their thoughts on the event. We also have a range of articles covering topics such as the Books on Prescription scheme, how novelty can help you expand your ‗self‘, and the effect of the family on children‘s self esteem. Towards the end of this issue we have compiled some helpful advice on essay writing and how to cook cheap meals (you MUST try the microwave cup cake—and send us your pics!). It also contains a crossword where you can win a signed print of our cover image. If there‘s anything else you‘d like to see in the next issue then, just let us know. Or even better, get involved! Laura Drummond

This issue looks at the success of the 44th

What’s inside Page 4 Meet the Student Engagement Team Page 5 Letter from the President of the Psychology Society Page 6-11 Highlights from The 44th Welsh Branch Annual Student Conference Page 12-13 The experience of novelty as an approach to improve close relationships and expand your ―self‖‘ (Teodora Iona Barnes) Page 14-15 Family: the pillar of a child‘s self-esteem (Andreea Ioana Vaduva) Page 16-17 Books on Prescription: Applied (Maria Villanueva & Gisselle Cuomo) Page 18-19 Essay tips I wish I had known about when starting my degree (Lauren Groombridge) Page 20 Upcoming Events Page 21 Get Involved—The University of South Wales Autism Project Page 22 Creative Corner Page 23 The Funny Pages Page 24-25 Crossword/wordsearch Page 26-27 Recipes Page 28 Money, Money, Money: How to make it go Further! Page 29 Reviews Page 30 Come to the Psychology Ball Page 31 Meet the Psychologist

Meet the Student Engagement Team The student engagement team was set up to help you get the most out of your time at university. If you have any ideas of things you‘d like to see/do just let us know. We‘re quite often wandering around campus wearing our distinctive hoodies, so if you do see us, then please come and talk to us or drop us a message and we can come and meet you (we‘ll even supply drinks and biscuits/cake).

Laura Drummond I am currently working towards my PhD which focuses on the Books on Prescription scheme in Wales. I became interested in this field as I‘m fascinated by health related behaviours, especially how people can be taught to self-mange conditions. Outside of university, I enjoy being active; I spend the majority of my time up the mountain with my dogs. I‘m also slowly progressing through the various kickboxing belts. When I do eventually find time to relax, I enjoy catching up with friends and watching shows such as Game of Thrones or reading a wide range of books.

Louise Waddington I‘ve just started my PhD studies which I am nerdily excited about. I love watching soppy films, singing, shopping and going on adventures. I am dreadfully addicted to Netflix and one of my favourite things after a difficult day is to binge watch 2 or 3 episodes of whatever show I‘m currently catching up with. I have the cutest godson who can do no wrong, I‘m half Brazilian so my favourite holiday is visiting family there. I love confusing people by turning up to events on a unicycle. Costa hot chocolate fixes all, and if I had a super power it would be to be able to fly.

Nicola Leach I am currently studying for a PhD in psychology after finishing my degree and wanting to study further. The focus of my research is looking at gender differences in mental rotation and finding training strategies to reduce the gender gap. In my spare time I enjoy spending time with my family and friends, embarrassing my children by dancing in the car, and keeping fit. I have ran the Cardiff half marathon twice and am hoping this year to make it a third time.

From the President of the Psychology Society Luke Colquhoun is a second year student on the BSc Psychology course and would like to go into research when he graduates. In his spare time he enjoys reading, painting, and playing both video and board games.

Dear readers,

disorders including a well-received BPS event during eating disorders awareness week, we also had a great time arranging socials such as the psychology pub quiz and open mic night. We got to work alongside many great professionals and organisations whose contribution helped make the society the success it has been and I am excited to see how the society grows next year with the contacts and support that has been established this year.

I started this year as the vice president but briefly took over as president of the University of South Wales Psychology society at the end of the year. This has been a rewarding experience that has taught me a lot, most importantly that a successful endeavour requires far more than any one person; it requires the collaboration of the people you work with and I have been lucky enough to work alongside friends for the duration of this year. I would like to say a huge thank you to Harry Thomas for shaping and guiding the society as its president for the majority of the year and to Aisha Gorman, our societies treasurer, for keeping us on track and moving forward. I look forward to supporting the society as a member next year and wish the next President and their team all the best.

From the very beginning the societies' committee was determined to use the society to increase awareness of mental health and educate not only our members but anyone who would listen. One such issue the society championed was eating disorders, I am proud to say we hosted numerous talks and charitable events raising awareness of eating

The 44th Welsh Branch Annual Student Conference This year the University of South Wales was fortunate enough to host the annual welsh student conference for the British Psychological Society at the Atrium Building/Campus in Cardiff on Saturday 25 April 2015. The annual event offers third-year undergraduate and taught masters students an opportunity to present their own work to their peers at an event specifically aimed at students receiving degrees from Welsh Institutions.

Students got involved by either giving a 20 minute oral presentation or displaying a poster where they discussed their work and findings, with the abstracts for the oral presentations going on to be published in the proceedings of the conference. A total of 130 students from various Welsh universities attended the event, with 13 of the presentation talks and 7 of the posters coming from the University of South Wales. As well as student talks, there were two key note speeches; one being an extremely amusing talk on the psychology of online dating by Dr Martin Graff, and the other a very intriguing talk on the research conducted by our university‘s Discovery Centre, by Dr Catherine Purcell and Sally Scott Roberts.

The day was separated into three sessions, each of which consisted of twelve oral presentations spread across three rooms (four talks per room, per session), allowing guests to move from room to room between talks. The first session was held in the morning, during which I had the pleasure of presenting my talk, which was followed by Martin‘s keynote speech. This was followed by a lunch break during which poster presentations were held. After lunch and poster presentations, came the second session, and after a quick coffee break came session three which was then followed by Catherine and Sally‘s keynote speech and a prize giving ceremony for best talks where two of our students actually won prizes! (But more on them later!).

The whole day was made possible by Dr. Dan Bowers, who organised the entire event. Thanks to him, the day was a smooth running and fun filled event. When asked about his thoughts on the day, Dan said: “We were privileged to be asked to host the conference, it’s a fantastic opportunity for students to present their work, improve presentation and poster skills , and have a publication on their CV. Psychology students from the University turned up en masse and performed brilliantly on the day.”

Jack Erasmus is an outgoing third year student, who attended the conference to present his research that compared methods of emotion regulation on causing significant physiological change.

Here are his thoughts on the day; Overall, the day was one of the best and most enjoyable days of my degree. To present the findings of the dissertation that I had worked all year on was a very rewarding feeling, and a hell of a lot of fun too! But what really made the day so enjoyable was going from room to room and listening to the studies that other students from all over Wales have done, or in the process of doing, which I found truly inspiring. It was ridiculously intriguing to hear the sheer variety of studies that others students from this university, and from so many other universities, had decided to do and what their findings were. There were definitely a number of students which I could see being the next big researchers in psychology in years to come. Unfortunately there were a couple of extremely interesting talks where the student had not yet collected their data so did not know whether their hypothesis was confirmed or not, which was particularly frustrating when the study sounded great! But aside from that, it was a great day, one which I learnt a lot from. It was also great to see students from this university go to talks by students from other universities and engage with the wider, Welsh student community. My advice to any student working on their dissertation, or approaching third year is to put your name down for the student conference. Whether it be an oral presentation or poster presentation, you will have a great time, and it is an amazing experience for those wishing to go into research, especially if you do a talk as it‘s great experience for doing conferences in the future. But even if you don‘t want to be a researcher, the whole day is a great experience, and is fun as it is interesting (not to mention that it‘s a great line on your CV!).

The 44th Welsh Branch Annual Student Conference: Interviews Fay Ings - Mphil/PhD student at USW I presented a poster on my research that focuses on memory recall ability. It was a little bit daunting as prior to the event, I hadn't had much experience in presenting a poster to people but it was a worthwhile experience. I really enjoyed seeing the wide range of research that is being conducted by other students, it was great to listen to research in many areas that could go on to further develop studies in the future. The free tea was pretty good as well!

An investigation to ascertain if high and low emotional interruptions executed at different stages of a task impedes memory recall ability of operational military staff? This investigation examined interruptions on memory, by using emotive stimuli to interrupt participants while conducting a memory recall task. Very little research has been conducted within emotional interruptions on memory. The purpose for this experiment was to ascertain if positive or negative stimuli interrupted an individual‘s memory recall ability, in order to gain understanding on types of emotion that can enhance/interrupt their ability. Forty-six participants took part within this experiment (23 military, 23 non-military) and completed 20 trials of memory recall. Only 15 trials were interrupted with emotional stimulus (images with a military theme) and five had no interruption. The 15 trials consisted of five types of emotive stimulus (control, low positive, low negative, high positive, high negative) within three points of interruption (before words, after words, after retention). Results indicated differences in scores, as a reduction occurred from non-interruption trials compared to interruption trials. Also, findings indicated significant differences in scores between the groups (with the military scoring more than the nonmilitary group) and the type of emotion and point of interruption. Age and job role were also significantly correlated with the scores. A questionnaire was also given to analyse the participant‘s views on whether the images used within this experiment were mild or extreme and positive or negative emotion. The military group seemed to cope better than non-military suggesting their experiences within their job role may have desensitised them to emotional stimuli; although no job roles were accounted for by the non-military group. However, mixed views were found in the questionnaire suggesting the views were not consistent among the groups. This experiment could enhance future research by taking into account job roles, video gaming and effective emotive stimulus including negative emotions as there seems to be a gap within research because mainly positive stimuli is examined.

Micheala Lawes - Level 6 student at USW I presented a poster on verbal insight problem solving ability which is the focus of my third year dissertation project. I think it was a really enjoyable experience and it was a nice way to end my undergrad degree. I thought it was really worthwhile and I would encourage other students to sign up for next year. I enjoyed being able to present and share my research and it was fascinating to listen to the other presenters. Overall, it was a good experience. The environment is fun and friendly and it‘s nice to meet others who share similar interests. Can verbal insight problem-solving ability be facilitated? The research examines the effects of incubation versus interruption on verbal insight problemsolving ability. It is hypothesised problems will be solved quicker if subjected to a longer incubation period. Analysis consists of 3 (interval type: interruption, incubation and control) x 2 (duration: short and long) within-subjects design. Dependent variables were operationalised as time taken to solve each problem and respective number of attempts. Previous research has found both interruptions and incubation can be beneficial to insight problem-solving. This experiment aims to understand which is more beneficial to verbal insight problems in particular, and if the length of time they are imposed for, is a salient factor. Participants (N=24) were recruited on a volunteer basis and solved six verbal insight problems of similar difficulty, within five minutes. Intervals of 30 and 120 seconds occurred within the problem presented. A self-report measure of creativity was completed to enable greater analysis. Results revealed a statistical significance of incubation on response time (p=0.00) and a significant interaction between incubation and interval length (p=0.34). It is concluded, verbal insight problem-solving ability may be facilitated using longer incubative periods, although future testing in specific populations, such as school children, is recommended.

Of course, the day couldn't have gone ahead without our helpers who made sure the day went smoothly. Here‘s what one had to say Gabrielle Jones - Level 4 student at USW I volunteered for the day and helped direct people to where they needed to go and assisted people when required. It was a really beneficial experience being part of the conference and seeing what happens. I learnt a lot from helping out and it will be great to put towards my Grad Edge. It was really interesting to see all the presentations, especially the one on Parkinson‘s disease and it was nice to show my support for all the students presenting. It was a really good experience and I‘m glad I had the opportunity to attend.

Winners at the BPS Conference Bethany Rice won the joint first prize for ‗Best Oral Presentation‖, the presentation focussed on her third year dissertation study looked at factors that affect sentencing decisions. I chose this topic as I am interested in forensic and criminal psychology and I remember participating in a similar study whilst in my second year, so I decided to build on this prior study by adding in additional elements such as the locus of control. It‘s been really interesting to complete my own research on a topic of my choice. However, it‘s understandably been quite stressful and difficult at times, I found it difficult to decide what aspects to include without making my study too complicated. Another difficulty was deciding what background research was relevant to include in my dissertation. I‘d recommend that other students start researching their topic area early as it can be time consuming, but once you have all the research, it makes the writing up much easier. I found the BPS student conference very enjoyable and it was very interesting listening to other people's presentations and finding out what other students had investigated and found. I was very dubious about sending in my abstract to do a presentation especially as I don't particularly enjoy giving presentations. However, I would definitely recommend that other students consider taking part in the BPS student conference as it is a very enjoyable and valuable experience when you get passed the nerves!

Factors that Affect Sentencing Decisions: Looking at the Effects of Age of Offender, Level of Recidivism & Participants’ Locus of Control on the Severity of Sentences Given. The main aim of the study was to look if certain factors can affect the severity of sentences that participants gave to the offenders. The design of the study was a 2x2x2 mixed design as it had three independent variables each of which had two different levels. This was done as a large amount of research has been conducted into this area and the current study was interested in seeing if such findings could be replicated and supported. There were three hypotheses tested. 1) Older offenders would get more lenient sentences than the young offenders. 2) Re-offenders would get more severe sentences than first time offenders. 3) Participants classified as internals would give more severe sentences to offenders compared to those classified as externals. Participants were obtained via an opportunity sample and once all the data had been collected a 2x2x2 mixed ANOVA was conducted to analyse the results. It was found that on average older offenders were given more severe sentences than younger offenders. It was found that on average re-offenders were given more severe sentences than first time offenders. Finally, it was found that on average that externals gave more severe sentences than internals. In conclusion, it can be seen that factors about the offender and the participants can affect the severity of sentences given to offenders. However the results from the current study (apart from the results for level of recidivism) do not support the hypotheses or previous research conducted.

Mathew Jones also won joint first prize for ‗Best Oral Presentation‖, the presentation focussed on his third year dissertation study that looked at the factors affecting eyewitness testimony. He hopes to continue his studies with a post-graduate course. I chose the topic as I‘ve had an interest in this area since studying Loftus and Palmer at A-level and remembered taking part in an interesting eyewitness study when I was a first year and the whole concept had really captured my imagination. However, my actual research was very different to what I had previously encountered both in terms of physically conducting my study and researching the key topics. The hardest aspect of the research was actually transforming the raw data as it involved using data from 24 questions and making those into 6 separate criteria which was a lengthy process! It took longer than planned and the literature review was a very daunting thing to undertake - at the time 3000 words seemed like far too much but I can confidently tell you that it didn't seem enough once I started typing! The main difficulties I encountered were time keeping and organising my work. Generally I'm not very good at sticking to deadlines and I often had to work till late in the night just to complete it. My golden bit of advice would be to make plans that you can stick to, work with your tutor to make deadlines which are both realistic and flexible (just in case!) The conference was absolutely outstanding. It was an experience I will never forget and not just because I won joint first place! It was such a great experience to have not just students but delegates from the BPS there viewing everyone's work and probing us for information about our studies. It was an experience I had never had before - with actual psychologists engaging with my research and being informed. When I first walked into my presentation slot I had hoped it would be empty! I was one of the last of the day but it looked like everyone had decided to turn up to see my work and that made me extremely nervous. Overall it went okay - doubt I would have gotten joint 1st if it had gone as bad as I felt it had!! It was an experience I would encourage everyone to get involved with not just because it was fun seeing everyone's work and not just because you get published in the proceedings (which is fantastic for a graduate !!!) but because it shows real engagement with psychology and it's fantastic cheering on your friends and learning new things from students from other universities. Factors affecting eyewitness testimony To evaluate the misinformation effect and its effects upon memory 2 (Short exposure time/Long exposure time) x 2 (15 minute delay / 1 week delay) x 2 (Leading Questions/Non-Leading Questions) mixed methods design. The traditional memory models posit the idea of a three stage process in memory; acquisition, retention and retrieval. Successful coding of a memory through these processes is thought to make the memory unchangeable. However through the use of leading questions and the misinformation effect, researchers are able to manipulate the memories of participants. Participants are students studying at the University of South Wales (Both post-graduate and undergraduate) from a variety of degree courses. This study aims to recruit 40 participants in total using opportunity sampling. The study aims to find evidence for the misinformation effect being present. It also aims to see how leading questions, exposure time and a recall delay affects the memory of participants The study aims to find evidence for the misinformation effect, as well as point to short comings in existing memory models in regards to working memory.

Articles: Each issue of Sulci will feature a range of articles written by USW students on the topics that they are most passionate about. In this issue we have the following articles: 

The experience of novelty as an approach to improve close relationships and expand your ―self‖‘ - Teodora Iona Barnes

Family: the pillar of a child‘s self-esteem— Andreea Ioana Vaduva

Books On Prescription —Maria Villanueva and Gisselle Cuomo

The experience of novelty as an approach to improve close relationships and expand your “self”’ Teodora Iona Barnes is a second year student.

Couples all over the world consider spending time together, regardless of activity, as an important part of being together and essentially, an important relationship maintenance strategy. Studies have found that pleasurable activities and the amount of time spent together in a relationship are positively associated with relationship quality (Aron et al., 2000; Baxter & Dindia, 1990; Kilbourne, Howell, & England, 1990). Recent research (Girme, Overall, & Faingataa, 2014) in New Zealand has identified across two studies of 350 participants in long-term committed bonds that couples‘ shared activities, such as practicing sports, going on trips and engaging in pleasurable activities are linked with more satisfaction and closeness, and less stress. So if you ever find yourself in the situation of not knowing how to reignite the spark in your relationship, maybe it‘s time to think outside the box and break the cycle of routine. In the light of this evidence, self-expansion theory (Aron et al., 2004) firstly proposes that a central human motivation is represented by the desires, perspectives and identities aiming to expand the self and enhance one‘s sense of efficacy to accomplish goals. Secondly, this theory further suggests that when an individual assimilates his partner‘s personal traits in a close relationship he actually seeks to expand his self. In other words, by including your partner in your ‗self‘ you adopt some, if not the majority of your partner‘s aspects which lead to the individual‘s selfexpansion.

This inclusion of the other in self has been associated with perceived relational strength (Aron et al., 1992), cognitive interdependence and commitment (Agnew, Van Lange, Rusbult, & Langston, 1998). Furthermore, Dr. Bent Mattingly, Dr. Gary Lewandowski and McIntyre (2014) conducted two studies in which they found that relationships involving self-expansion increased one‘s willingness to be accommodating toward partner, forgive and sacrifice for him. These findings are consistent with Aron & Aron's (1986) prediction derived from the self-expansion model, that sharing stimulating activities will enhance marital satisfaction (also see Reissman, Aron, & Bergen, 1993). Furthermore, a team of American and European researchers (Lucas, Clark, Georgellis, & Diener, 2003) have studied 1,761 individuals that stayed married over the course of fifteen years and their findings suggest that during the first year of marriage couples experience a boost in life satisfaction that declines until they reach the same level of happiness as before marriage. Although over the course of long-term committed bonds the passion and satisfaction associated with the relationship may steadily decline, there is evidence to suggest that some couples maintain passionate love for decades (O‘Leary, Acevedo, Aron, Huddy, & Mashek, 2012). One reason for which this passionate love diminishes is that in time, familiarity and predictability may be associated with decreased desire, and thus the lack of novelty may decrease the level of experienced relationship quality and overall satisfaction. Therefore, the positive effects associated with novel activities, such as enjoyment, arousal, happiness, gratitude and sharing these activities in a couple, are enjoyable, and they become associated with the relationship itself. Not only arousing activities are expected to enhance positive feelings towards partner, but they involve cooperation which ultimately facilitates a state of interdependence and closeness. In summary, the emphasis of this article is that passion in relationships can be revived when we allow ourselves to understand and assimilate the perspective of our partners and self-expand, and by purposely engaging in novel activities that ultimately have the effect of renewing our relationship. References Agnew, C. R.,Van Lange, P. A. M.,Rusbult, C. E., & Langston, C. A. (1997). Cognitive interdependence:Commitment and the mental representation of close relationships, Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 74, 939-954. Aron, A. R., Robbins, T. W., and Poldrack, R. A. (2004). Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex. Trends Cogn. Sci. 8, 170–177. Aron, A., & Aron, E. N. (1986). Love as the expansion of self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere. Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Smollan, D. (1992). Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 596-612. Aron, A., Norman, C. C., Aron, E., McKenna, C., Heyman, R. E. (2000). Couples' shared participation in novel and arousing activities and experienced relationship quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2):273-84. Baxter, L. A., & Dindia, K. (1990). Marital partners‗ perceptions of marital maintenance strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationship, 7, 187-208. Girme, Y. U., Overall, N. C., & Faingataa, S. (2014). ―Date nights‖ take two: The maintenance function of shared relationship activities. Personal Relationships, 21, 125-149. Kilbourne, B. S., Howell, F., & England, P. (1990). A measurement model for subjective marital solidarity: Invariance across time, gender, and life cycle stage. Social Science Research, 19, 62-81. Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2003). Reexamining Adaptation and the Set Point Model of Happiness: Reactions to Changes in Marital Status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3):527–539. McIntyre, K. P., Mattingly, B. A., & Lewandowski, G. W. (in press). When ―we‖ changes ―me‖: The two- dimensional model of relational selfchange and relationship outcomes. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1(22), doi: 10.1177/0265407514553334.

Family: the pillar of a child’s self-esteem Andreea Ioana Vaduva is a first year student studying on the Psychology and Education course. She loves spending time with children and hopes to work with them in the future. She enjoys reading and taking long walks.

Positive self-esteem is the key to a healthy lifestyle and personality. It can have a profound impact on our confidence, choices, thinking, emotions and goals. People with a high self-esteem can take new challenges easily as they see them as new opportunities to grow and be more productive, thus increasing their trust in their own qualities and skills. But is self-esteem a result of our experiences According to Bowlby‘s theory of attachment, or an attitude instilled by our social interactions infants are born with social behaviours and throughout life? from the very first moment when they interact P s yc h o a n a l ys t s l i k e with their parents, they form an attachment B o wlb y and F r e u d which will form the foundation for the future believed that a person‘s relationships and for the child‘s personality. behaviour or mental health issues have their roots in the early childhood.

A nurturing, sensitive family that is responsive to the child‘s needs and worries will help the child feel safe and important. At the same time, the child will develop a sense of trust not only towards the family, but also towards his/her own qualities.

By talking patiently and sharing personal experiences, parents can help their child understand that mistakes are part of learning and instead of focusing on what went wrong or pointing out child‘s mistakes, they can encourage the child to think about efficient ways and solutions in which to avoid or overcome difficult situations next time.

The feeling of being loved and cared for makes the child feel more confident to explore the environment and learn new things, but the learning process is not always a smooth path; it means a long ―chain‖ of mistakes which could make the child feel unsure and disappointed in themselves. The way parents react, guide and support their child can be another factor that can either build the child‘s self-esteem or demoralize him/her.

Such attitudes towards children can only influence how they will cope with similar situations in adulthood, how much confidence they will have in themselves and how they will treat other people. Although, children will develop relations with other pupils, teachers who will also have an impact on their self-image, family and the relationship with each parent will always be a source of motivation and an example of care and compassion.

Marilyn Price-Mitchell, a Ph.D. developmental psychologist in Bainbridge Island, Washington suggests that when the child makes a mistake, the best thing to do is allow him to talk about what happened and about his/her feelings about the whole situation. Listening and responding in a gentle way can be a crucial factor in how the child will behave and perceives himself/herself when they make a new mistake: the child will either feel frustrated or he will seek for advice.

References: Matthew McKay, Ph.D., and Patrick Fanning. (2000). Building Self-Esteem in Children. In: Self-Esteem. Oakland, Canada: New Harbinger Publications. p279-300. Roberta M. Berns. (2001). Methods of Socialization. In: Wadsworth Thomson Learning Child, Family, School Community. 5th ed. Canada: Earl McPeek. p65-68.

Books on Prescription: Applied Maria Villanueva is a mature student from Spain studying on the MSc Health Psychology course. She is an avid reader and amateur photographer who enjoys travelling and keen conversation. Gisselle Cuomo is a mature student from Italy studying on the MSc Health Psychology course. She regularly practices mindfulness and is a Buddhist . She enjoys keeping fit and is a vegetarian.

Mrs. Green has just been to see her GP because she has been experiencing some mild symptoms, such as sleeping disturbances, some difficulties to carry out her routines and a general condition of nervousness. The treatment she has just been prescribed is not exactly what she expected: she has not been referred to a specialist or been given an ordinary medical prescription to collect at her local pharmacy. Instead, she has been referred to her local library with a prescription for a book. Despite her first reaction of scepticism, she has been informed by her GP that bibliotherapy, the use of reading materials to help solve personal problems or for psychiatric therapy, is an evidence-based treatment, the effectiveness of which has been well established in a number of clinical trials and research papers. The book she has been prescribed is part of the Book Prescription Wales Scheme, a pioneering programme on the initiative of the Welsh Assembly Government, involving Library Services and Local Health Boards throughout Wales, and developed by Professor Neil Frude, head of the South Wales Doctoral Programme in Clinical Psychology, who is to receive the Lifetime Achievement Award for 2014 from the British Psychological Society's Professional Practice Board. The 32 books which are included in this scheme were carefully selected based on

collaboration between Clinical Psychologists, who made their recommendations on published self-treatment manuals covering 19 areas; 


Anorexia Nervosa


Assertiveness (women)


Binge eating disorder & Bulimia Nervosa

Chronic Fatigue



Health Anxiety

Manic Depression

Obsessions and Compulsions




Sexual Abuse (adult survivors)

Social Anxiety/Social Phobia



certain conditions, the programme being ideally suited to highly motivated and literate patients, with an interest in autonomous selfdevelopment. Taking into consideration the needs of prospective younger users, a Child and Young Person Scheme is currently being developed, to be launched this year.

From a psychological perspective, the books are based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), a short-term problem-focused psychosocial intervention. CBT is considered to be a form of psycho-educational therapy, the purpose of which is to change the way people think and behave, learning new skills which can be put into practice to improve their lives.

The books also share the purpose of addressing mild to moderate mental health problems, a relevant fact if we consider that according to data published by the National Assembly for Wales, 90% of patients seeking help for mild to moderate mental health issues are treated in primary care. As it usually happens when considering treatment options, in this case it is also true that one size does not fit all. The Book Prescription Scheme might indeed not be appropriate for

Following the initiative and success of the Welsh programme, similar schemes have been implemented not only in Scotland and England, but also in New Zealand and Denmark. For further information on the Book Prescription Wales scheme, such as the list of books or an information leaflet, you can visit the Health Promotion Library website at

What I wish I had known before I started a degree.

Lauren Groombridge is a 2nd year student. She loves the 80‘s and country music and is a huge fan of Lord of the Rings

Essay tips I wish I had known about when starting my degree Some students dread coursework such as essays and reports and others love them – either way coursework is an integral part of any psychology degree. I have compiled a list of all the tips based on personal experience and feedback from lecturers that I wish I had known (or actually listened to) when I started university.

Start early! This one is incredibly important as you may find yourself being given more coursework and realise that you (oops) still haven‘t started that other essay from a week ago. Also, the feeling of having finished your work and being able to relax – and in my case catch up on Gossip Girl - while your fellow students are only just starting is pretty satisfying! Get to know FINDit. During a cohort tutor session I had the opportunity to play around with FINDit and learn how to input words in a specific way to get the most relevant sources

and it was invaluable! I moved from using mainly textbooks and websites to peerreviewed journals, newspaper articles and meta-analytic reviews. The lecturers DO notice what type of sources you use and the quicker you start using peer-reviewed work the better. Use your feedback – I wish I had paid more attention to the feedback from my grades at the beginning of my first year. It‘s there for a reason! If you are unhappy with your feedback in terms of quality or quantity then email the lecturer that marked it and if you are unsure who that is then contact your module leader and they should be able to tell you. I have found that lecturers are generally happy to sit down and talk through your work with you and it really does help. It is also better to do this sooner rather than later so that you can change weaker points in your essay-writing skills for your next assignment! Make a plan. In the past I rarely constructed any sort of essay plan as I didn‘t think it would make much of a difference to my work – I‘m not saying that you have to draw out a giant mind-map and colour code specific themes (although if it helps why not!) but I have definitely found it useful to write a brief plan of my points and ideas of how to link my paragraphs. Choose APA style referencing and then you input the details of your specific book/ journal article/website and it references the work for you in that style. It saves a lot of time and ensures your citations and reference list is in the appropriate format.

Correct referencing is vital! Throughout my hopefully make the process much less painful education when I have been asked to use and much more efficient! citations it always seemed to be using Harvard Referencing; in psychology you need to use APA (American Psychological Association) style citations and references. It‘s not hugely dissimilar but there is a definite difference between the two – there are certain websites such as which allows you to choose APA style referencing and then you input the details of your specific book/ journal article/website and it references the work for you in that style. It saves a lot of time and ensures your citations and reference list is in the appropriate format. I hope these can be helpful for you guys, even if you aren‘t only just starting your degree. Essays are a chance for you to show your critical thinking skills and knowledge of a subject; even if you aren‘t interested in that particular field of psychology these tips should

Events Fresher’s week Tuesday 22nd September Come join us at the societies fair, join the society for £2, meet the student engagement team and have a chat about volunteering for the magazine. 1pm Join us for a ‗Treasure Hunt‘. Check your induction timetable for further details Wednesday 23rd September Zoo Trip! Further details TBA. October (date/subject/location tbc) The society is arranging a talk from a local charity/psychological expert and would welcome all to attend. This will be followed by a Social to the pub where there will be a quiz. October Come join us in the Psych Lounge for a fun afternoon of Halloween themed activities. There will be pumpkin carving and competitions. November 6th/7th Psychology trip to see the Firework Display in Ynysangharad Park in Pontypridd. Wednesday December 9th Christmas Party for all Psychology students, Further details TBC.

DON‘T FORGET!!!!! The Psychology Student Ball will be a 3 course meal held at Cardiff Museum on Tuesday the 8th of March.

Get Involved—The University of South Wales Autism Project Emily Groves is a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst (BCBA) who is currently working on a PhD qualification focusing on the ‗Good Behaviour Game‘. She is passionate about applied behaviour analysis (L-R Hannah, Emily and Vicky) and the work of the autism clinic. Victoria Markham is also a BCBA and works alongside Hannah Richards as a Supervisor in the clinic. Vicki is working towards a PhD qualification whilst Hannah is awaiting the results of her recent board certification exam. The University of South Wales Autism Project (USWAP) provides a clinicbased, applied behaviour analytic early intervention services to children 5 years old and under with autism. Children do not need a formal diagnosis to attend the clinic. The service is co-ordinated by Dr. Aimee Giles, BCBA -D and staffed by postgraduate and undergraduate students who are studying behaviour analysis at the University of South Wales. Children receive individualised, evidence-based, one-to-one applied behaviour analytic therapy (ABA) in a fun, energetic, and nurturing environment. The Behaviour Analysis Clinic offers placement opportunities for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. For undergraduate students there are three levels of placement. A Level 1 placement provides a six week taster opportunity to see what happens in the clinic and learn entry-level skills. Level 1 placements run throughout the year in six week cycles and are open to all students in the Faculty of Life Sciences and Education. For those students who complete a Level 1 placement successfully and have a cleared DBS check, there are opportunities to move onto a Level 2 placement which is for a minimum of one term. During a Level 2 placement, volunteers are trained to assist lead tutors in delivering ABA programmes and work directly with the children who attend the clinic. Following a Level 2 placement, students can apply to do a Level 3 placement which involves volunteering for a minimum of two terms. Level 3 volunteers are trained to run a client's session independently, and assist postgraduate case managers. In addition to providing experience in the clinical application of ABA with young children with autism, students with an interest in research can also assist with research projects that are running in the clinic. Get involved with fundraising for the clinic! Emma Abberley was a year 2 student at the University, studying Early Years and Education. Emma was a senior volunteer at the Behaviour Analysis Clinic where she helped provide therapy to the young children with Autism. She tragically passed away in a road traffic accident in 2014 and at her parents request, a collection was started at her funeral to be donated to the behaviour analysis clinic. We now hope to continue fundraising so that we can develop a scholarship in Emma's name to allow more children to access the services of the clinic. It is anticipated that a series of fundraising activities would take place over the course of each academic year involving students and staff. Some upcoming fundraising events include the Cardiff Half Marathon, a climb up Pen-Y-Fan mountain and a 24-hour trampoline bounce! If you would like to get involved with any of our fundraising events, keep an eye on the UniLife homepage! Watch this space!

Creative Corner Send us your poems, short stories, cartoon strips and anything else you create! The Father of Psychoanalysis I'm sure that you have heard of me My name is Sigmund Freud. And any textbook that you read My name you can't avoid. My theories can explain the reasons Why you feel depressed. It seems unwelcome thoughts of yours You have indeed repressed. You say you acted on impulse I say it was the ID. You wonder why you smoke so much? Fixation as a kid. And if you don't believe me, well You may be in denial. So take a seat upon my couch and let us talk a while.

Blaine Mansell is a second year student who is hoping to become an occupational psychologist. He enjoys reading, writing and sport‌.occasionally procrastinating.

The Funny Pages Send us your jokes, funny stories or pictures and we‘ll print our favourites!

Patrick: ―Use reverse psychology.‖ Murphy: ―That sounds too complicated.‖ Patrick: ―Ok, DON‘T use reverse psychology.‖ Murphy: ―Ok, I will.‖

At Pavlov‘s house, the front doorbell rings. Mrs Pavlov: ―Can you get the door?‖ Pavlov: ―I can‘t, I‘ve got to feed the dog.‖

Secretary to the psychologist: ―Doctor, there is a patient here who thinks he‘s invisible.‖ Doctor: ―Tell him I cant

Why was Pavlov‘s hair so soft? Classical Conditioning

How many psychologists does it take to change a light bulb?

None, it has to want to change.

The Cross Word Crossword Win a signed print of our cover image by local artist Ceri Herbert. Send your completed crosswords to or drop the into the student engagement team in D105.



8 No fastener on small particle – that’s what I think (7)


9 Nearly without number before what came later (5) 10

Worth seeing – and how! (5)


Mixed resinous condition (8)


Woman of dubious reputation a novelist? (8)


Mind without first part of idea is husk (4)


American city Rosalind might like? (7)


Take off football kit (5)


Drink back for royal (5)

Lambert, always there (8)

2 First of apple in sow and alien produces famous psychologist (6) 3

Money-makers give fresh breath (5)

4 Docked smallest offspring on French road – 11 Confused leapers might cause return to worse that’s a lie (6) condition (7) 5 Mammal on old road – top dog in the armed 12 Sounds like relatives give you formication (4) forces (3,4)

25 Omitting last letter in Cornish town brings punishment (7)

6 (6)

Stares around start of research – bears fruit


Sounds like a purchaser for this shed (4)

14 Damaged passes around first of young nerves form connections (8) 15 How bats move and some clinicians assess patients (7) 17

Must, being left in crazy bogie (6)


Quick to remind? (6)

20 Research assistant behind Wagner’s masterpiece – very keen (6) 21

Confusingly, part of it employing (5)


Something inside dog resists monster (4)


How to survive student life! The low down on tasty and easy to follow meal ideas, money tips and cleaning tips (assuming you want your security deposit back at some point!) Toad in the Hole

Cheaters Carbonara

This recipe will feed 4 people for under a Fiver! It‘ll be ready in 40 minutes.

Make a pasta carbonara for one with only 4 ingredients.

Ingredients Ingredients 8 sausages (use vegetarian sausages as 1 portion of cooked pasta a substitute) 1 heaped tablespoon of cream cheese 1 tablespoon vegetable or sunflower oil Dash of milk 225g (8 oz) plain flour Bacon bits 4 eggs Method 250ml (8 fl oz) milk 1. Cook your pasta as usual and drain, Method add back to pan Prep:10 min Cook:30min 2. Fry bacon bits until cooked Preheat the oven to 200 degrees (gas 3. Add bacon, cheese and milk to pasta mark 6). 4. Stir over a low heat for a couple of mins until an easy cheese sauce is created Pour the oil into the bottom of a baking dish and place sausages in dish. Bake in 5. Chuck in a bowl and enjoy the oven for 10 minutes.

other ideas: -add veg when frying the bacon cause veg is good for you and stuff -try fresh pasta -cream cheese with added herbs for extra Remove the sausages from the oven, and flavour ladle the batter over them until the sausages are 3/4 covered. Return to the oven and bake for 35 minutes, or until the centre is risen and browned. Meanwhile, in a bowl, whisk together the flour, eggs and half of the milk until smooth. Gradually add the rest of the milk until the batter is smooth.

Gooey Chocolate Mug Cake This recipe will feed 1 person in less than a few minutes! Ingredients 1 egg 1/4 c. powdered sugar 1-2 Tbsp. cocoa powder (depending on how chocolatey you want your cake) 1 standard-sized mug

Baileys Toasted Marshmallow Amazingly simple and delicious1 Ingredients Marshmallow Baileys (or similar liqueur) Method Toast marshmallow (over a campfire or even a tealight candle) Dip marshmallow into Baileys Enjoy!!!


Jammie Dodger Shot

In mug, crack egg, add powdered sugar and cocoa powder. Whisk together with a small whisk until well mixed. Microwave for 50-60 seconds, until the cake is cooked through (but not overcooked!) Top immediately with a handful of milk chocolate chips, hot fudge, whipped cream, or ice cream. For PURE BLISS, pour several tablespoons of heavy whipping cream over the cake, then eat it with a spoon. Divine!

The best tasting shot that you will ever have. You won‘t be grimacing when you knock this one back. Ingredients A bottle of Chambord (blackberry liquor) Double cream Sugar Method Fill a shot glass 3/4 of the way with Chambord Top up with Cream Add a little sugar Enjoy!

Money, Money, Money: How to make it go Further!

Student Loan: Where did it all go??? You‘ve probably had your first instalment of your student loan, and I can bet that your first idea is to hit the pub with it. Alas, it‘s worth remembering that this lump sum has to last you until January unless you have a part time job or are willing to beg/cry to Mam and Dad for more. I know it seems like a lot of money and you‘re probably wondering where it will all go. Let‘s have a look... Firstly, a substantial chunk of it will go on accommodation either to student halls or a private landlord. Thankfully, most landlords are pretty savvy and will take the rent in termly instalments as soon as you get your loan. This is good news as you don‘t have to worry about keeping enough money back to pay rent each month. Now that your rent has been paid, your next biggest expense will probably be food. What you‘ll probably find is that you eat well until November when money starts getting tight and you realise you only have limited funds left until January. This is one area where you‘ll probably waste a lot of money on eating out, takeaways and junk food bought from the local corner shop. Try and save money by planning your weekly shop and cooking meals with friends; you can cook pasta dishes fairly easily and cheaply! At the beginning of term, you‘ll get a book list. Sadly, if you buy all of these it‘s likely to cost you hundreds of pounds! Speak to your lecturers and find out which ones they think are the best to invest in. Remember, the library has a huge selection so get to grips with using it. Also, check out second hand books, they do the same job and they‘re likely to be substantially cheaper. Throughout the year, you‘ll probably end up wasting money on a whole bunch of random stuff. Let‘s think about this rationally, do you really need to buy a flower off someone in Cardiff at 3am? Probably not. Of course, after a few drinks, that flower will represent all of your hopes and dreams; it‘ll seem physically impossible to resist spending a fiver on it, but do try your best. Save your money for essentials. Remember, coats and hoodies have an annoying habit of going missing in bars, sometimes you‘ll need money to replace these. You‘ll also be buying your own toiletries such as shampoo, shower gel and toothpaste; consider whether you really need the luxury brands or whether you can use cheaper alternatives. And of course, don‘t forget your trusty NUS student discount card! The biggest thing to remember is that you‘ll need money to put down a deposit on somewhere to live the following year. This can get pricey as you often need to pay letting fees, security deposits and various other annoying fees that adults have to pay! However, the most important thing is that you don‘t cut back on your spending to the point where you don‘t go out and enjoy yourself. University is one of the best times of your life, make the most of it while you can, but just make sure you stay somewhat smart with your money!

Reviews Here you can find reviews on the best psychology related stuff such as TV shows, textbooks, software and events.

TV Review: “You’re back in the room” Gracing our screens on a Saturday night, we‘ve been treated to a marmite like TV show called ―You‘re back in the room.‖ On first glace this programme seems to be your average Saturday night game show, but the psychology behind it intrigues me. The show, presented by the silver fox himself Phillip Schofield, sees a group of contestants hypnotised in front of millions of viewers, they then go on to compete in tasks to win cash prizes. The show has received mixed reviews but has made me curious from a psychology perspective. What is hypnosis? How does it work? The star hypnotist in this show is Keith Barry who states, ―Hypnosis is about shutting down the conscious mind and reigniting the unconscious and imagination, so while I instruct under hypnosis the contestants may interpret that in all kinds of ways.‖ From looking at hypnotherapy research, it seems hypnosis is a broad concept, however the recurring characteristics of hypnosis seem to be a trance like state which created extreme suggestibility, imagination and relaxation. The client is alert all of the time as the hypnotic state is compared to daydreaming. Normally, your conscious and unconscious work in perfect harmony when tackling daily routines. When someone is under hypnosis, the conscious takes a backseat and allows the hypnotherapist to work closely with the subconscious mind. Hypnosis works by making the rational conscious mind salient, opening up the susceptible subconscious to new things such as habit changes and phobia adjustments to bizarre activities. There are a number of ways hypnosis can be induced from fixed gaze hypnosis (the one you see in movies) to progressive relaxation therapy (the one psychiatrists like to use) Now for the science bits. Numerous studies using EEG machines have considered the effects of hypnosis on the brain, and there does seem to be an alteration in brain activity. There has been shown to be an increase in low frequency brain waves (likened to sleep) and an increase in right sided brain activity, hence supporting the ―impulsive‖ trait of hypnosis. There are, however, shortcomings in hypnotherapy. Pressure could account for success as the client may want to please the hypnotherapist. Also a person‘s belief in the hypnotherapy alone could be enough to affect cognition, otherwise known as the placebo effect. Do I believe hypnotherapy works? I am open to persuasion, at the moment it all seems too good to be true, however Keith Barry seems to have a good following via blogs, books, tours and shows so there may just be something in it. I like to think of this as religion. Some people believe and some people don‘t, it‘s all about the individual‘s perception. Leigh McFarlane

Three course meal and disco at National Museum, Cardiff Early bird tickets available until November 20th 2015 at ÂŁ32 All profits donated to the Autism Clinic Contact the Student Engagement team: or come find us in D105!

8th March 2016

Interview with....

Dr Catherine Purcell Favourite place? Gower peninsula, those of you who don‘t know where this is – look it up, it‘s one of the most beautiful places that I‘ve visited, and I‘ve done my fair share of travelling! Memorable experience? The day I got my PhD, for conflicting reasons - the utter relief in completing it and personal utter sadness because I knew it would be the last life event my mum would witness. Best advice? Never give in/up – it doesn‘t matter who you are, or where you‘re from; if you want something enough then a bit of hard work and a lot passion (with a spoon of luck) is a guaranteed recipe for success. Film/Book? Monsters University (Pixar) – love anything Disney. The Book Thief – stunning book and a good film representation Perfect night/day out? My perfect day out is a BBQ in the sand dunes with my partner and Archie (dog) after a long walk and paddle in the sea My perfect night would be spent curled up in the campervan, watching a DVD drinking hot chocolate with Merlyn (Welsh version of Bailey‘s) ..................................................................................................................................... A day in the life of Dr Catherine Purcell: My day starts with drinking two cups of Nespresso coffee (no other coffee will do) before I can function. I‘ll then take the dog and my partner for a walk (rain or shine), shower and run out of the door, jump into Fiona (my car) and remember where I‘m going! A day at work which might be research in schools, lecturing to undergraduates or post-graduates, or presenting at a conference etc – no two days are ever the same, which is why I love my job! I realised a long time ago that I couldn‘t be a 9.00am to 5.00pm desk person anymore. I tend to eat lunch on the go and if I‘m lucky, I‘ll get home by 7.30pm to walk the dog (light or dark), before cooking supper or getting a take away if I‘ve forgotten to get something out of the freezer (most days), After debating the state of world with my partner, we‘ll watch something mindless on TV such as The Big Bang Theory or Grey‘s Anatomy (depending on whether I want to laugh or cry), fall asleep before my head hits the pillow in my lion pyjamas – if you don‘t believe me ask my post-grad students as I‘ve worn them to lecture in – there was a point I promise!

Meet (the majority of) the USW Psychology staff team

Many of our staff at USW have interesting stories to tell. Tell us which member of staff you want to hear from in the next issue of Sulci! Would you like to conduct and write an interview to be published in the next magazine? Contact Laura, Louise and Nicola on



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