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04 Excerpts from the Book Towards Greater Responsibilities


32 Newsmakers


Letters from MAHATMA

Letters which Mahatma had written to some famous personalities during his life and time

India’s First Biker Women Contingent

Gandhi’s Connection With Gen Z A list of films made on the life and Values of Mahatma Gandhi FIND US ONLINE

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RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561

A Good News Weekly

Vol - 2 | Issue - 07 | Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 | Price ` 5/-

Riveting Records Of R i v er R es t or a t ions

Quick Glance Restoring rivers has a plethora of ecologicaland environmental benefits Restoration of Cheonggyecheon river in Seoul is a shining example of this Preserving the rivers whilst improving infrastructural accessibility is crucial

Restoring and reviving our rivers is a crucial element of environmental conservation and urban design n mihir paul


umanity has always engineered the environment around us. From the earliest days of wetland drainage and the need to acquire fresh water, to keep it flowing and keep it clean enough to drink, building cesspits to take away our waste and to stop pollution of vital waterways, we have always strived to maximize our sanitation and living conditions in order to expand and survive. We only have one planet and protecting our water sources is crucial at this point. Environmental conservationists understand that the way we live is a reflection of how we feel about the natural world, and our everyday habits show how much we truly value all the things that the Earth gives us.

Rivers and their catchments provide a wide range of natural, economic and societal services. However, many activities such as channelisation, culverting, damming, abstraction, urbanisation, pollution, dredging and intensive agriculture can negatively impact the environment and the services rivers provide. River degradation has led to an extensive loss of habitats and additional pressures on the aquatic and terrestrial species that use them. It also affects the quality of our drinking water, resilience to climate change and ability to store

and hold back flood water. Damage to river systems has been so extensive that an urgent need has emerged, not only to conserve but to restore these systems. Best practice river and catchment restoration can deliver multiple benefits including improvements to water quality, biodiversity, water supply security and reductions in flood risk and pollution. The removal of dams and other barriers to fish and wildlife movement in and along rivers and streams presents a real opportunity to enhance the ability of our riverine organisms and habitat to withstand the effects of climate change, as

We only have one planet and protecting our water sources is crucial at this point

well as safeguard important infrastructure from severe flooding. While it has always been a good idea to preserve the connectivity of river and stream corridors and prevent habitat fragmentation by dams, dropped culverts and other barriers, it is now more important than ever that we keep these vital riverine “escape routes” open to enable trout and other sensitive species to find safe refuge in tenable habitats as they cope with the stream heating and other adverse impacts brought on by global warming. Enter River Restoration River restoration refers to a large variety of ecological, physical, spatial and management measures and practices. These are aimed at restoring the natural state and functioning of the river system in support of biodiversity, recreation, flood management and landscape development. River restoration is used to describe a variety of modifications of river channels and adjacent riparian zones and floodplains, and of the water, sediment, and solute inputs to rivers. These modifications share the goal of improving hydrologic, geomorphic, and/ or ecological processes within a degraded watershed and replacing lost, damaged, or compromised elements of the natural system. By restoring natural conditions, river restoration improves the resilience of the river systems and provides the framework for the sustainable multifunctional use of estuaries, rivers and streams. River restoration is an integral part of sustainable water management and is in direct support of the aims of the Water


Cover Story

Framework Directive, and national and regional water management policies.

Case Study #1 – Musi River, Hyderabad, India

The river Musi passes through the city of Hyderabad and divides it into two parts. On 28 September 1908, a cyclonic flood of unusual intensity passed through the middle of this city. The rainfall recorded at Shamshabad, one of the principal raingauge stations in the catchment area, was 12.8 inches in 24 hours and 18.90 inches in 48 hours. This fall resulted in the most destructive flood that had been witnessed in Hyderabad City for over three-quarters of a century. The northern bank of the river was on a lower level than the southern one. The river basin above the city abounded in small tanks, there being 788 tanks in a basin of 860 square miles, roughly at the rate of one tank for every square mile of catchment. The valley of the Musi River which caused this flood consisted of two rainfall basins — the Musi proper with a catchment of 285 square miles and the Easi with one of 525 square miles.

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 Restoration Project 1908 The flood occurred on Monday, 28 September 1908, as already stated, reaching its maximum height about an hour before noon. After midnight

it developed into a cloud-burst. Rain descended in sheets, flooded the small tanks and overburdened their waste weirs. As a result, one tank after another gave way and the flood in the city rose to

Proposals were made for raising the Musi river banks an artistic effect along the riverfront

Benefits of restoration River restoration has a plethora of social and ecological benefits: 1. Physical well-being: Many river restoration schemes on public parks have resulted in increased park usage, for longer periods, and an increase in sports and games. Research shows that regular physical activity helps reduce the risk of developing a range of serious diseases and improves overall quality of life. Many people are failing to meet recommended levels of activity which has led to an increase in obesity and coronary heart disease. 2. Mental well-being: Society has recognised the benefits of the environment on mental health for centuries. More recently there is evidence that contact with nature and living things makes people feel good and positively enhances their mental well-being while contributing to stress reduction. “Green exercise” refers to the synergistic benefit of participating in physical activities, whilst being directly exposed to nature. Reports have also demonstrated the value of outdoor activities in helping to combat depression and increasing happiness and wellbeing and confidence. “Less green nature means reduced mental well-being, or at least less opportunity to recover from mental stress. As natural green environments have increasingly come under pressure from economic development our own wellbeing has suffered as a consequence. Today, stress and mental ill-health are becoming more common, and the associated public health costs are growing” 3. Recreation: River corridors can provide opportunities for recreation as part of daily life allowing stress relief and enjoyment as well as activities such as fishing, cycling and watching wildlife. In built up areas river corridors enable safe, cost effective and healthy commuting which further contributes to physical health.

unprecedented heights, many buildings in the populous quarters being demolished. In an area known as Kolsawadi, about 2,000 people were stated to have been drowned or washed away. When the material collected by the survey was nearly ready and the engineering aspects of the problem were fully investigated, it was found that immunity to the city from floods could come only by providing storage room above the city by temporarily impounding all floods in excess of what the river channel could carry. This necessitated the construction of storage reservoirs of adequate capacity above the city. Two reservoir dams were proposed — one across the river Musi and another across its tributary, the Easi — both on the most suitable sites available within distances of 8 and 6 miles, respectively, above the city. The storage which was to be impounded on the Musi River was 8,439 million cubic feet and that on the Easi 11,950 million cubic feet, the total storage room as actually estimated being 20,389 million cubic feet. Proposals were also made for raising the river banks in places within the city and converting portions of them into

4. Social cohesion: Rivers can play a vital role in the community by encouraging social interaction and bonding. Restoring a river between two estates can enable two separated communities to mix. Voluntary groups cantered on protecting their river corridor bring communities together in positive action to look after their local area fostering a community spirit, pride in the environment and a sense of belonging. 5. Aesthetic: River restoration improves the aesthetics of the environment by restoring natural landscape features and benefiting the associated flora and fauna, creating nicer surroundings. People wish to experience wildness yet feel safe in urban areas. Post restoration improvements in social behaviour such as reduced graffiti and littering further improve aesthetics and foster a sense of pride in the local environment. 6. Education: Restoration schemes provide huge learning potential about our natural world helping to demonstrate how humankind depends on water and the need to reduce our collective impact on the environment. Key lessons include the water cycle, climate change adaptation, the threats of invasive species and the ecology of our native species and habitats. Studies have shown schoolchildren learning about wildlife and natural habitats from their site visits were motivated to do something differently in their everyday life to help the environment. 7. Cultural: Rivers have always been part of our culture with human settlements located adjacent to rivers for transport, fishing, farming and recreation. Restoring our cultural links to rivers is a long term goal and an important part of all drivers rose above. Many religions connect spiritual and religious values to rivers and the earth, and landscapes have long provided inspiration for art, folklore and architecture.

Cover Story

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 walks and gardens to give the banks an artistic effect along the riverfront. When the project for all the flood protection works was ready, meetings were held for considering the proposals. In March 1913, the Government of the State took steps to construct the Musi Reservoir. On the occasion on which H.E.H. the Nizam performed the ceremony of laying the foundation-stone for the reservoir dam on the Musi River. Musi Heritage Revitalisation Project There is an urgent need to make the Musi river a part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Framework of both the central and state governments, and set up a dedicated Musi River Basin Authority to ensure integrated governance. The Musi Heritage Precinct Revitalisation Project, shortlisted under the Inclusive HeritageBased City Development Programme, plans to address issues along the entire 21.5-km stretch of the Musi river, with special focus on the heritage precinct within, spread over 4.29 km. As many as 35 structures of heritage relevance have been identified near the river for restoration The much abused Musi river and its surroundings are in for better days. Not just its ecological state but the squatter and slum settlements along the river can hope for improvement. The Musi Heritage Precinct Revitalisation Project promises to breathe new life into the river, which has been reduced to an open sewer. The project, shortlisted under the Inclusive HeritageBased City Development Programme (IHCDP), plans to address issues along the entire 21.5-km stretch of the Musi river, with special focus on the heritage precinct within, spread over 4.29 km. World Bank official Stefania Abakerli and representatives of Cities Alliance and Centre for Environment Planning and Technology (CEPT) University, Ahmedabad, are arriving here on Friday to discuss the detailed project report (DPR) prepared by CEPT for the revitalisation of the Musi river. Hyderabad is among the four cities chosen by the Ministry of Urban Development for piloting the project. The three others are Ajmer, Pushkar and Varanasi. The IHCDP plans to bring traditional neighbourhoods, streetscapes, cultural expressions, handicrafts and traditional socio-economic practices under the inclusive heritage development. The heritage cell of the GHMC, which is

executing the project, has identified Monda Market and Old Jail, Pan Bazaar and Jagganath Swamy temple, Karwan Road and Musi revitalisation for development. However, the Government of India has selected the last one for improvement. Heritage upgrade of the area is also on the cards. As many as 35 structures of heritage relevance have been identified near the Musi river. Apart from their restoration, a heritage route, with access to the Charminar Pedestrian Project (CPP) precincts, is also proposed. The most important aspect - rather the defining element - of the project is facilitating better engagement of communities within the Musi Heritage Precinct.

Case Study #2 – Cheonggyecheon, Seoul, South Korea

ambitious stream recovery project and to flip through our gallery for pictures of the inspiring urban park. The Cheonggyecheon is embedded in Korean history. For centuries, the stream that flows from the west to the eastern part of South Korea through the presentday downtown Seoul has been a part of the everyday life of the people. The first refurbishment project of the stream to build a drainage system took place during the Joseon Dynasty, which ruled Korea for five centuries (from 1392 to 1897), at a time when it was called Gaecheon or open stream. Cheonggyecheon was so named by Japanese colonisers who tried very hard to suffocate it by covering it up, but could not gather enough funds to do so. The Cheonggyecheon project is remarkable for its dramatic transformation from a seedy industrial eyesore to a nature-filled public space. In the 1940s,

Cheonggyecheon ‘cover-up’ succeeded as an example of post-war rapid industrialisation At the heart of Seoul, South Korea lies one of the world’s greatest urban design successes -- the Cheonggyecheon River linear park. A green oasis in a concrete jungle, this inspiring urban renewal success underwent a dramatic transformation from a traffic-choked elevated freeway and concrete paved waterway into a lush, 3.6-mile-long “day-lit” stream corridor that attracts over 60,000 visitors daily. The restoration process has also provided huge boosts to local biodiversity and catalyzed economic development. Keep reading to learn the story behind Seoul’s

the Cheonggyecheon had deteriorated into an open sewer and was thus paved over with concrete for sanitation reasons. After the Korean War, more people, including those who migrated from North Korea, began to settle alongside the stream by setting up shabby makeshift sheds on stilts. Over the next few years, the weight of a large population living by it made the stream an eyesore. What the brutal Japanese colonial power could not do was achieved by the Korean government in 1968 when it constructed a 5.6 km long elevated highway over

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the Cheonggyecheon. The ‘cover-up’ succeeded in making the area an example of post-war rapid industrialisation and the modernisation of Seoul city. However, in mid-2003, the then Seoul mayor, Lee Myeong-Bak, initiated a project to remove the highway and restore the stream. The $281 million project became a humongous urban renewal act, attracting massive public criticism, and protests by residents and traders from the area. However, a proper rehabilitation project for those displaced was undertaken. At the turn of the millennium, however, then mayor and future president of Korea Lee Myung-Bak successfully campaigned on a promise to remove the freeway and restore the Cheonggyecheon. From 2002 to 2005, the government ripped out the road and replaced it with a 3.6-mile restored and planted stream with parallel roadways. The mayor also won support for the project by framing the project as a major flood relief channel and marketing the restoration as a highly visible, sustainable development that would boost Korea’s image around the world. To alleviate fears of traffic congestion, the government also invested heavily in public transportation, such as a dedicated bus lane. When Cheonggyecheon opened in 2005, locals and tourists were left in awe. The manager of the museum that exhibits the restoration project of the stream tells this correspondent that tourists from at least 30 countries visit it every year. Thanks to the project, the average temperature of the area has dropped by 3.6 degrees in comparison to other parts of Seoul. It also helped revive the traditional pedestrian route of the city by connecting the stream with the old resource areas like Bukchon, Namchon and Daehangro. The demolition of the highway also led to a 2.3-degree decrease in the number of vehicles entering downtown Seoul, and an increase in the number of bus and subway users. Flaunting artworks and graffiti on the walls that line the stream, open-air gyms and walkways, separate areas for picnics, fishes swimming in the stream, birds and insects in the air, the Cheonggyecheon area has become the prime recreational hub for the residents today. Every year, the city hosts its lantern festival alongside the stream. The revival project in Seoul has successfully enhanced the opportunity for people to experience living ecosystems in the city. It was not just a restoration, but also the construction of a large piece of green urban infrastructure that was successful in providing people with benefits and inspiring others to think about green infrastructure and people, rather than car focused urban development.


excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

Towards Greater Responsibilities By sheer hard work, excellent organisational ability and exemplary humility in performing the tasks given by the party, Narendra Modi played an important role in the success of the Ayodhya Rath Yatra and the Ekta Yatra, the two mass mobilisations that contributed in many ways to the BJP's ascendancy in national politics.


aving spent 14 years (1971-1985) acquiring his ‘political’ baptism and cultural education under

the wings of the RSS, and brilliantly proving his credentials, Narendra Modi took his next step up the

political ladder when the RSS top brass assigned him to the BJP in 1985. In 1988, Narendra Modi was elected the BJP’s Organising Secretary for its Gujarat unit, which signalled his rise in state politics.

Madan Lal Khurana, Krishan Lal Sharma, Sahib Singh Verma, Lal Krishan Advani, Kedar Nath Sawhney and Narendra Modi leading the Swarn Jayanti Rath Yatra, July 15, 1997.

Contribution to BJP’s resurgence From this point onwards, Narendra Modi rose steadily through the party’s rank and file. His

formidable organisational ability was recognised by L.K. Advani, who included him in his core team for the Ayodhya Rath Yatra. The Yatra took off from Somnath

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”


Political Journey of

Narendra Modi Became General Secretary of the BJP’s Gujarat unit in 1988. Recognition as a key strategist for successfully ensuring the party’s electoral wins in 1995 and 1998 in Gujarat, which made BJP the ruling party of the state.

Narendra Modi hoisting the Indian flag in Srinagar in 1992.

in Gujarat in September 1990 and worked its way to Ayodhya via Central India. The idea of a chariot at the head of a moving procession was a great mobiliser for Hindutva enthusiasts who rang temple bells, beat thalis and shouted slogans to welcome the rath. Some smeared the rath with tilak, while others smeared dust from its wheels on their foreheads. In his autobiography My Country My Life, Advani refers to that SeptemberOctober event as an exhilarating period in his political life. The movement catalysed into a chain of events that resulted in the demolition of the Babri Masjid in December 1992. Communal clashes broke out in Gujarat, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. L.K. Advani was arrested in Samastipur on October 23 on the orders of the then chief minister of Bihar, Lalu Prasad Yadav, before he could take part in the Kar Sewa in Ayodhya on October 30. The Ayodhya Rath Yatra whipped up strong Hindu sentiment and increased the party’s strength in the Lok Sabha from 85 seats in 1989 to 120 in the 1991 general elections. Advani’s phenomenal Rath Yatra

changed the BJP fortunes from a political party that could just manage two seats in parliament in 1980, to a viable political alternative to an electorally dominant Congress party. For Narendra Modi, the movement was a test of fire from which he emerged triumphant. By the end of the Yatra, he had acquired a reputation in BJP circles and was able to win the senior leadership’s complete confidence. Ayodhya Rath Yatra followed by Ekta Yatra The success of the Ayodhya Rath Yatra was followed by the Ekta Yatra ( Journey for Unity), led by another BJP stalwart Murli Manohar Joshi in 1991–92. The strategy of this event was formed in the late 1980s, when in the BJP leadership’s view, the nation was passing through an unprecedented and systemic denigration of its sovereignty. As a response, Dr. Joshi decided to embark on the ‘Ekta Yatra’ from Kanyakumari, the place where Swami Vivekananda found the purpose of life, to Lal Chowk in Srinagar, where he was to hoist the national tricolour. According to a biography of Narendra Modi, the task of

Successfully organised two challenging events at the national level: Somnath to Ayodhya Rath Yatra, a long march led by L. K. Advani, and another march, Ekta Yatra, from Kanyakumari (southern tip of India) to Kashmir (the northern tip) undertaken by Murli Manohar Joshi. These two events are considered to have contributed to bringing the BJP to power at the Centre in 1998. In 1995, Narendra Modi was appointed as the National Secretary of the BJP. Narendra Modi credited for having successfully revamped the party organisation in different states. In 1998, Narendra Modi was promoted as National General Secretary and held that position till October 2001. Narendra Modi became Chief Minister of Gujarat for the first time in October 2001 after his predecessor Keshubhai Patel resigned following the BJP's defeat in by-elections.

preparing for the Ekta Yatra lay squarely on Modi’s shoulders, given that he had acquired a huge reputation for his organisational skills. Employing his mind, organisational acumen and indefatigable energy brilliantly, Modi made elaborate arrangements within a very short span of time, braving huge risks. He visited every place to be covered by the Ekta Yatra, met party workers, galvanised them and generated patriotic fervour that laid a solid ground for the Yatra’s success.

The Ekta Yatra commenced on December 11, 1991. It raised prominent issues, insisting on removing what the BJP termed as divisive and violent votebank politics, an end to the menace of terror in Kashmir and the politics of “pseudosecularism.” Narendra Modi watched with pride and joy as the tricolour was finally unfurled in Srinagar on January 26, 1992. Narendra Modi, thus, showed his ability to deliver under any circumstances at a remarkable pace. He came across as a quick decision maker in challenging situations.


excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

NARENDRA MODI’S SIMPLE AND SPLENDID ROUTINE AS BJP GENERAL SECRETARY As BJP General Secretary, Narendra Modi lived at 9, Ashoka Road, adjacent to the Bharatiya Janata Party’s national headquarters in New Delhi. He stayed there from 1998 till 2001 when he became chief minister of Gujarat. According to Tejpal Singh, the BJP’s district president for Mayur Vihar, Modi would wake up at 5 a.m. and begin his day with a walk in the park. There were times when he met people at that early hour. Singh says Modi was simple in terms of habit and had indefatigable energy, working through the day and often going to sleep at 10 p.m. But, if by chance, people came to meet him at that late hour, he would never hesitate to meet them, warmly. Balwant Singh, BJP staff member at that time, recalls that Modi used to eat in the mess that BJP secretary Govindacharya used to run for party workers. He never used the party’s cars that were available to him, recalls a driver at the BJP headquarters. He would use public transport, and in emergencies, he would ride in a friend’s car.

Narendra Modi with Murli Manohar Joshi during the Ekta Yatra.

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

Taking up more responsibility within the party As party secretary, Modi’s effective electoral strategy ensured a resounding BJP victory in the November 1995 Gujarat state assembly elections. Of the 182 assembly seats, the BJP secured 121, an absolute majority, while the Congress Party won 45 and independents 16. This electoral result catapulted Modi to the national stage. He was elected BJP General Secretary and was transferred to New Delhi. As a General Secretary he was in-charge of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh from 1996 to 1999. Under his watch BJP formed Government in these states, either themselves, or with allies. In 1996, Shankersinh Vaghela, a prominent BJP leader in Gujarat, defected to the Congress party after losing his parliamentary seat. It was a development not taken too kindly by the BJP top brass. Narendra Modi used Vaghela’s defection to push for support to BJP state leader Keshubhai Patel. His sole objective was to end the factionalism rising in the Gujarat unit of the BJP. His strategy paid off when the BJP won 117 of the 182 seats that it contested in the 1998 Gujarat state assembly elections, while the Congress won only 53 of the 179 that it contested. At the top of the BJP organisational structure The excellent election result in Gujarat enhanced Modi’s reputation further and he was promoted to the post of BJP General Secretary (Organisation) in May 1998. As General Secretary, his prime responsibility was to oversee the affairs of several state units, including the sensitive and crucial state of Jammu and Kashmir and the equally sensitive north eastern states. He revamped the party organisation in several states and emerged as an important spokesman for the BJP on important occasions.

During this period, he also travelled extensively across the world, interacting with eminent leaders of several countries. These experiences helped him develop a global perspective. Role in the 1999 General Election On April 17, 1999, the BJP-led coalition government headed by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee failed to win a confidence vote in the Lok Sabha by a single vote due to the withdrawal of one of the government’s coalition partners—the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). It became untenable for the Vajpayee led government to remain in power at the Centre. The BJP went into election mode almost immediately. The BJP based its campaign, as the head of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), a coalition of over 20 parties, on the need to create an acceptable and credible alternative to the Congress and its allies. The success of the campaign led to the formation of the NDA Government under Atal Bihari Vajpayee. It was a great achievement and a pointer to the hard work of those involved in the election campaign. Narendra Modi was one of the key figures entrusted with sensitive responsibilities all through the campaign period. The election for 13th Lok Sabha is of historical importance as it was the first time that a united front of opposition parties managed to achieve a majority and form a government that lasted for a full five years term, thus ending a period of political instability at the national level. Unstinted loyalty to the organisation, utmost humility and unquestioning obedience in performing all duties entrusted by the party leadership, building of bonds and relationships and always keeping national interest first were the defining qualities responsible for Narendra Modi’s spectacular rise in the leadership hierarchy of the BJP.

This series to be continued in the next issue of ssb

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

Kanota Museum


Kanota Museum

89 Volumes Of Handwritten Diaries, 44 Of Recipes It looks like a temple of knowledge housing a vast collection of books which date back to the 19th century was unconscious after falling from a horse. The Waterman-penned entries diaries comprise the 89 volumes of Amar Singh’s writing, which encompass observations on regular, daily life and affairs related to social, political, military and family. They also provide captivating insights into the lavish lives of the princely states during the British Raj. Besides the diaries, the library houses 50 European cookbooks as well as 44 volumes of recipe diaries in Hindi. Amar Singh was passionate about food and hospitality and hence this museum retains the stories of his interest in food which extended from cooking and savouring to the origins of recipes, food history and culture.



Thakur of an estate and a member of erstwhile Rajput nobility wrote religiously and chronicled the life and times of the royal age. Sounds unbelievable, but it’s true. Amar Singh, Thakur of Kanota and Commander of the erstwhile Jaipur State Force, wrote diaries for 44 years -- between 1898 and 1942 -- without fail, except for one day when he had fallen from a horse and was unwell. His passion for writing diaries has eventually gone on to become a world record as the longest diaries ever written. Those diaries can still be found preserved at Kanota Museum, located some 15 km east of Jaipur, on the Agra highway. Generally, the museums of erstwhile royals showcase a rich collection of arms and ammunition, hunting records of royal clans and the lavish decors which once might have decorated the big plush palaces. However, this museum is quite different. It looks like a temple of knowledge housing a vast collection of books which date back to the 19th century. This museum houses a library which initially started as a study room and

then later grew into a personal library when the collection of books started expanding, courtesy the reading habit of Amar Singh. He was the grandson of the founder of KanotaThikana, Zorawar Singh, and a protege of Idar’s Maharaja Pratap Singh. Perhaps he is the only member of the Rajput clan who maintained a huge set of diaries which offer a fascinating glimpse into magnanimous royal courts, captivating colonial encounters and mesmerising and enthralling tales of Rajasthan. By all accounts, he was a remarkable man. His military career witnessed the British Raj as well as frees India and took him to different service locations in China, France and Afghanistan, among others. Travelling across distant locations, he developed a deep love for reading and writing. He started writing these diaries in his Meerut College exercise books. The fact that surprises all is that he did not miss an entry for a single day except for that one occasion when he

The museum also displays a beautiful collection of tea sets, pickle jars, liquor glasses, whisky bottles, old tiffins and other utensils of that bygone era. Going further, the museum beautifully showcases rich paintings, informative maps, random pictures, interesting books and household accounts, along with carriages, arms, armour and firearms. Around 150 maps, some of which are featured in Colonel Tod’s “Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan”, and other maps of agricultural land divisions, documents the topographical and

Quick Glance Kanota Museum is located some 15 km east of Jaipur Amar Singh wrote diaries for 44 years without fail The credit for maintaining this unique library goes to Man Singh

revenue details of the erstwhile era. Tucked into the thick walls of Castle Kanota, this museum maintains the rich legacy since its construction in 1872. Currently, the palace is occupied by Thakur Sahib Man Singh Kanota, Thakurani Sahib Sandhya Kanwar, Kunwar Pratap Singh Kanota and Kunwarani Vidushi Pal Singh. The fortified walls of the castle continue sharing the rich history of the oncerich estate. The members of the family have restored the elegant past with most earnest care. Says Vidushi, the wife of Amar Singh’s grandson: “Everything inside this abode is valuable to our family. However, the most valuable part is Dada Sahib’s (Amar Singh) handwritten diaries. “They exist in 89 volumes and it is something which is very close to our hearts. There are lots of emotions attached to these diaries as they reflect his feelings and emotions. What he might have felt each day in those 44 years is all well-documented here.” The credit for maintaining this unique library at the KanotaThikana goes to Man Singh, who proudly says: “General Amar Singh was my grandfather and my father always dreamed of building a museum and library around his unique personality. Hence, I decided to bring this museum to the world.”


Letters From Mahatma Gandhi

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

Letters from MAHATMA GANDHI It may be a difficult time for humanity, but there is still a ray of hope. That may come to us by embracing and practising Bapu’s philosophy and thoughts. It would be hard for future generations to believe that such a man ever existed and hence archiving his words is one of the ways to break the myth and prosper his teachings.

Nadiad July 29, 1918 Beloved Kastur, that y with me. I feel, though, sta to ing pin are u yo ow I kn ht that tasks. At present, it is rig we must go on with our the all . If you but look upon you remain where you are se to feel n, quite soon you will cea children there as your ow do as one This is the least one can . ter lat the of ce sen ab the them, you to love others and ser ve gets older. As you come make it ld from within. You shou will have a joy welling up y be morning all those who ma a point to visit early in the red or ecial food should be prepa sick, and nurse them. Sp ould visit sh u Yo d. o needs such foo kept apart for anyone wh e them tak or , amuse their children the Maharashtrian ladies no are y ld make them feel that the out for a walk. You shou ould improve. strangers. Their health sh ts, Nirmala on useful subjec You should converse with her to ask y rs and the like. You ma that is, on religious matte thing you. She will even find the read out the Bhagavat1 to vice of ep yourself busy in the ser ke s thu u yo If . ng sti ere int joy. And nd will always be full of others, believe me the mi and other als k after Punjabhai’s me you must not omit to loo requirements. Mohandas a Gandhi, Vol. XIV p. 514) (Collected Works of Mahatm

Bombay April 5, 1919

Dear Gurudev, This is an appeal to you against our mutual friend, Charlie Andrews. I have been pleading with him for a message from you for publication in the national struggle which, though in form it is only directed against a single piece of legislation, is in reality a struggle for liberty worthy of a self-respecting nation. I have waited long and patiently. Charlie’s description of your illness made me hesitate to write to you personally. Your health is a national treasure and Charlie’s devotion to you is superhuman. It is divine and I know that if he could help it he would not allow a single person, whether by writing or his presence, to disturb your quiet and rest. I have respected this lofty desire of his to protect you from all harm. But I find that you are lecturing in Benaras. I have, therefore, in the light of this fact corrected Charlie’s description of your health which somewhat alarmed me and I venture to ask you for a message from you —a message of hope and inspiration for those who have to go through the fire. I do it because you were good enough to send me your blessings when I embarked upon the struggle. The forces arrayed against me are, as you know, enormous. I do not dread them, for I have an unquenchable belief that they are supporting untruth and that if we have sufficient faith in truth, it will enable us to overpower the former. But all forces work through human agency. I am therefore anxious to gather round this mighty struggle the ennobling assistance of those who approve it. I will not be happy until I have received your considered opinion on this endeavour to purify the political life of the countr y. If you have seen anything to alter your first opinion of it, I hope you will not hesitate to make it known. I value even adverse opinions from friends, for though they may not make me change my course, they serve the purpose of so many lighthouses to give out warnings of dangers lying in the stormy paths of life. Charlie’s friendship has been to me on this account an invaluable treasure, because he does not hesitate to share with me even his unconsidered notes of dissent. This I count a great privilege. May I ask you to extend at this critical moment the same privilege that Charlie has? I hope that you are keeping well and that you have thoroughly recuperated after your fatiguing journey through the Madras Presidency. Yours Sincerely, M. K. G. (Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. XV pp. 179-80 The letter was written to Rabindranath Tagore)

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

Letters From Mahatma Gandhi

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Birla House, New Delhi April 2, 1939

My Dear Subhash, I have yours of 31st March as also the previous one. You are quite frank and I like your letters for the clear enunciation of your views. The views you express seem to me to be so diametrically oppos ed to those of the others and my own that I do not see any possibility of bridg ing them. I think that such school of thought should be able to put forth its views before the country without any mixture. And if this is honestly done, I do not see why there should be any bitterness ending in civil war. What is wrong is not the differences between us but loss of mutual respect and trust. This will be remedied by time which is the best healer . If there is real nonviolence in us, there can be no civil war much less bitterness. Taking all things into consideration, I am of opinion that you should at once form your own Cabinet fully representing your views. Form ulate your programme definitely and put it before the forthcoming A.I.C.C. If the Committee accepts the programme all will be plain- sailing and you should be enabled to prosecute it unhampered by the minority. If on the other hand your progr amme is not accepted you should resign and let the Committee choose its Presid ent. And you will be free to educate the country along your own lines. I tender this advice irrespective of Pandit Pant’s resolution. My prestige does not count. It has an independent value of its own. When my motive is suspected or my policy or programme rejected by the country, the prestige must go. India will rise and fall by the quality of the sum-total of her many millions. Individuals, however high they may be, are of no account except in so far as they represent the many millions. Therefore let us rule it out of consideration. I wholly dissent from your view that the country has been never so non-violent as now. I smell violence in the air I breath. But the violence has put on a subtle form. Our mutual distrust is a bad form of violence. The widen ing gulf between Hindus and Mussalmans points to the same thing. I can give further illustrations. We seem to differ as to the amount of corruption in the Cong ress. My impression is that it is on the increase. I have been pleading for the past many months for a thorough scrutiny. In these circumstances I see no atmosphere of non-violent mass action. An ultimatum without effective sanction is worse than useless. But as I have told you I am an old man perhaps growing timid and over-cautious and you have youth before you and reckless optimism born of youth. I hope you are right. I am wrong. I have the firm belief that the Cong ress as it is today cannot deliver the goods, cannot offer civil disobedience worth the name. Therefore if your prognosis is right, I am a back number and played out as the generalissimo of Satyagraha. I am glad you have mentioned the little Rajkot affair. It bring s into prominent relief the different angles from which we look at things. I have nothing to repent of in the steps I have taken in connection with it. I feel that it has great national importance. I have not stopped civil disobedience in the other States for the sake of Rajkot. But Rajkot opened my eyes. It showed me the way. I am not in Delhi for my health. I am reluctantly in Delhi awaiting the Chief Justic e’s decision. I hold it to be my duty to be in Delhi till the steps to be taken in due fulfilment of the Viceroy’s declaration in his last wire to me are finally taken . I may not run any risk. If I invited the Paramount Power to do its duty, I was bound to be in Delhi to see that the duty was fully performed. I saw nothing wrong in the Chief Justice being appointed the interpreter of the document whose meaning was put in doubt by the Thakor Sahib. By the way, Sir Maurice will examine the document not in his capacity as Chief Justice but as a trained jurist trusted by the Viceroy. By accepting the Viceroy’s nominee as Judge, I fancy I have shown both wisdom and grace and what is more important I have increased the Vice regal respo nsibility in the matter. Though we have discussed sharp differences of opinion betwe en us, I-am quite sure that our private relations will not suffer in the least. If they are from the heart, as I believe they are, they will bear the strain of these differ ences. Love, Bapu (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, p. 62-65)

Valmiki Madir Reading Road, New Delhi April 2, 1946 Dear Lord Lawerence, Our mutual friend Sudhir Ghosh tells me that you would like me to reduce to writing the points I told him to discuss informally with you and Sir Stafford. One is universal among all independence-minded people as distinguished from the dumb millions, whether Congressmen or other. It is the immediate release of political prisoners irrespective of the charge of violence or non-violence. They cannot be a danger to the State now that the necessity for independence has become common cause. It seems to be ridiculous to keep, say Shri Jayaprakash Narayan and Dr. Lohia, both learned and cultured men of whom any society would be proud, nor is there any occasion for beating any person as an underground worker. To leave the question of discharge for disposal by the incoming national Government would be a step no one will understand or appreciate. Independence will lose its grace. The other affects the masses. I refer to the salt tax. As a means of raising revenue, it is insignificant. As a means of harassing the masses, it is a measure of which the mischief is indescribable. The masses will hardly appreciate independence if the burden of the salt monopoly continues to afflict them. I must not weary you with argument. I mention the two measures as a preparation of the Indian mind for independence. They will produce a psychological effect. I may mention that I discussed both the measures in a different setting with Mr Casey and I am now in correspondence with the present Governor of Bengal. I may add that I have today heard from Mr Abell in regard to the salt tax that “the Government do not find themselves able to accept the suggestion”. Yours sincerely, M. K. Gandhi The Rt. Hon’ble Lord Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of state for India, New Delhi (Mahatma Gandhi-Correspondence with the Government - 1944-’47, pp. 156-57)


Letters From Mahatma Gandhi

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018


Segaon February 3, 1938

Sabarmati After February 10, 1918 love and your ms to praise you. Your ter at wh in ow kn t no tion. I am I do also your self-examina so d an e m ate cin fas r ate and characte accept your own estim I . rth wo ur yo re su ea not fit to m m almost to have a father to you. You see assume the position of r is, in fact, a ine. In my view a fathe m of sh wi t fel glon a tue. A met who surpasses him in vir n so a s ha he en wh ly her has father on proves on what the fat im o wh e on is , ise ew real son, lik compassionate, thful, firm of mind and done; if the father is tru is what you a greater measure. This in is th all be ll wi n so evement the that you owe your achi see n’t do I f. sel ur yo e ad to me have m cept the role you offer ac I , ce en H . ine m of t to any effor and, if ever I strive to be worthy of it; as a gift of love. I shall pectfully as akashipu, oppose me res ny ira H r he ot an e m co be , disobeyed him. Prahlad, who loved God am, you ough outside the Ashr th at, th say u yo as e It is tru ubted that you ved its rules. I never do have scrupulously obser ages, read out by I had your written mess es, sid Be n. ur ret uld wo r the uplift long life, and use you fo u yo t an gr od G ay M Mama. of India. just yet. Do r changes in your diet I don’t see any need fo rar y, increase the e present. On the cont th r fo ilk m up e giv t no quantity, if necessary. . Satyagraha is required About the railways, no on rry igent workers to ca W hat is wanted is intell graha may in Kheda District, Satya ue iss e th In . da an ag op pr mp these I am something of a tra d. ere off be to ve ha possibly Delhi. shall have to leave for days. In a day or two, I rward to seeing . Ever yone is looking fo More when you arrive you. Blessings from, Bapu 188-89 a Gandhi, Vol. XIV pp. atm ah M of rks Wo ed ect (Coll Vinoba Bhave) The letter was written to

Dear Mr. Jinnah, Pandit Nehru told me yesterday that you were complaining to Maulana Sahib about the absence of any reply from me to your letter of the 5th November in reply to mine of the 19th October. The letter was received by me when I was pronounced by the Doctors to be seriously ill at Calcutta. The letter was shown to me three days after its receipt. Had I thought it necessarily called for a reply even though I was ill I would have sent one. I read the letter and I still think there was nothing useful that I could have said in reply. But in a way I am glad you awaited a reply and here it is. Mr Kher told me definitely he had a private message from you. He delivered it to me when I was alone. I could have sent you a verbal message in reply but in order to give you a true picture of my mental state I sent you a short note. There was nothing to hide in it. But I did feel, as I still do, that the way in which you used it came upon me as a painful surprise. Your complain of my silence. The reason for my silence is literally and truly in my note. Believe me, the moment I can do something that can bring the two communities together nothing in the world can prevent me from so doing. You seem to deny that your speech was declaration of war, but your later pronouncements too confirmed my first impression. How can I prove what is a matter of feeling? In your speech I miss the old Nationalist when in 1915 I returned from my self- imposed exile in South Africa. Everybody spoke of you as one of the staunchest nationalists and the hope of both the Hindus and Mussalmans. Are you still the same Mr Jinnah? If you say you are, in spite of your speeches, I shall accept your word. Lastly, you want me to come forward with some proposal. What proposal can I make except to ask you on bended knees to be what I thought you were? But the proposals to form the basis of unity between the two communities surely have got to come from you. This again is not for publication but for your eyes; it is the one of a friend, not of an opponent. Yours sincerely, M. K. Gandhi (Famous Letters of Mahatma Gandhi, pp. 108-09)

Letters From Mahatma Gandhi

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

today that is the sampad was much the stronger of the two. Even ing example of the ideal we cherish. Europe provides the most strik predominance of the asuri sampad. ness, Bhaishri Shankarlal, Both these forms of strength are preferable to weak they are in Here a. agrah Saty t abou ideas my know to word want after You to what we know by the rather plain but much popular awakening brief: r ‘cowardice’. Without either, Swaraj or genuine powe the est sugg not does ” ance resist ive “pass gh resort to The English phrase is impossible. Swaraj achieved otherwise than throu . Satyagraha can have aj Swar I wish to write about; “Satyagraha” is the right word Such aj. one or the other will not be true Swar is essentially it e Sinc gth. stren d arme to sed oppo as , brought be force ot is soulno effect on the people. Popular awakening cann life of way al ethic the to ned incli men only on, the leaders say an ethical weap about without strength, without manliness. Let is. agrah Saty were rs othe and bai, Mira lad, st, unless they can use it wisely. Prah what they like and the Government strive its utmo were under fire a, the methods agrah At the time of the Morocco fighting, the Arabs Saty of forces believed, solely and we, all of us, strengthen the they as ing, fight were s Arab The . guns ch y. They are Fren danc from of violence are bound automatically to gain ascen ing runn nced adva they lives, their of less Reck ion. of Satyagraha for their relig like weeds which grow wild in any soil. The crop there , Here ”.2 Allah “Ya of cries with guns e spirit by towards the French requires willingness to exert oneself or a venturesom ch gunners to be likely are was no scope at all for fighting back to kill. The Fren lings seed way of manure. Just as, moreover, the caps, ran to their up ing throw and, s Arab these on also will so fire to out, ed ed refus lost among the weeds if the latter are not pluck ple exam an is This joy. of ts shou with s Arab of brave free land embrace these weeds of violence keep growing unless we keep the not were s Arab The ve. achie can it ss succe those which of Satyagraha and the by tapaschar ya and, with compassion, pluck out them death face to ready got They e. Satyagrahis by deliberate choic the help of Satyagraha win over in their hearts. have already grown. We can, with love no had and lse, impu g stron a of ure on and anger press r unde those young men who have been driven to desperati in anger, life his down lay not does ill, ill-w no bears i ernment and A Satyagrah by what they think to be the tyranny of the Gov use beca essor oppr or y” “enem his to it subm their capacity but refuses rather to utilize their courage and their mettlesome spirit, therefore, have a agraha. It is Saty of he has the strength himself to suffer. He should, ad the daivi samp nate nature. Imam for suffering, to strengthen assio comp and ving forgi a and t spiri us propagated is a ageo cour therefore very much to be desired that Satyagrah an that felt They . boys two ly mere were ain3 Huss of the rulers and Hassan and as quickly as it can be. This is in the interest both , nder surre to upon d calle n Whe . them to ernment injustice had been done . The Satyagrahi desires to harass neither the Gov ruled the death mean d woul this that time st deliberation they refused. They knew at the nor anyone else. He takes no step without the fulle tice, they injus to it subm to were they ver, howe from If, . away them for He is never arrogant. Consequently, he will keep In these ion. relig their y betra and hood man their ace as a matter of would disgr ‘boycott’ but be always firm in the vow of Swadeshi of s head The . death of ace embr the to ed yield r can intimidate circumstances, they duty. He fears God alone, so that no other powe my view, Islam a duty undone. leave these fine young men rolled on the battlefield. In nt, shme him. He will never, out of fear of puni d but entirely swor the of r powe the by ness great its n to Satyagraha attai t not resor did I need hardly say now that it is our duty to e to er-lik soldi is It s. fakir its of on olati imm selfand her cothrough the to secure the release of the learned Annie Besant on d swor the use to not d, swor a by down cut n of hers is allow oneself to be workers. Whether we approve of every or any actio y of murder, of some ove appr another. When he comes to realize that he is guilt not do another question. I, for one, certainly forever sorry feel will g, wron the in been has ent is he if , ernm killer Gov the of them; all the same, her incarceration by the but ing noth d gaine have will ver, howe , victim The course, that after wards. a great mistake and an act of injustice. I know, of a agrah Saty . death ting cour in gly wron acted be the people victory even if he had the Government does not think it a mistake. May ed, indeed it is has acted ent is the way of non-violence. It is, therefore, justifi ernm Gov are wrong in desiring her release. The r of arms is powe The s. place all and s time all at se, ss their cour expre right to the according to its lights. What can the people do who those Even ions. relig all in such as ed emn cond when one’s violence and outraged feelings? Petitions, etc., are good enough no are e Ther it. on s limit us vario put arms is no remedy advocate the use of suffering is bearable. When it is unbearable, there placed by the e will they, arabl limits on Satyagraha, or rather, none except those unbe it but Satyagraha. Only when people find tary suffering. volun for 4 ya, char tapas for city capa all, body, i’s their agrah te Saty and only those who find it unbearable will, devo of such ity legal the t abou s issue raise to vant nt. irrele is it Besa Annie Obviously, mind and possessions, to securing the release of may rvers Obse e. decid to i agrah Saty the g. It is my Satyagraha. It is for This will be a powerful expression of popular feelin easure will not even the fice judge Satyagraha after the event. The world’s displ sacri selfa unshakable faith that before so great ld be started shou a agrah Saty not or ther Whe i. agrah inly restrain Saty a certa deter power of an emperor will give way. People may ves that belie who man A rule. ical emat math any by ed Mr Montague. is not decid their feelings in view of the forthcoming visit of of ces chan the hing weig after only ed start justice. If she Satyagraha may be That will be an expression of faith in his sense of inty of victory, our duty to be will defeat and victory and assuring oneself of the certa it al, is not released, however, before his arriv t man, but he is ligen intel an or ician polit gh enou d shrew Government a the be may resort to Satyagraha. We do not want to provoke usly. taneo spon acts i agrah Saty A i. agraha, we no Satyagrah or put difficulties in its way. By resorting to Saty time from use in been both have by serve the Satyagraha and arms reveal the intensity of our injured feelings and there scriptures. They immemorial. We find them praised in the extant Government. the other of the 517-20) are the expressions, one of the daivi sampad5 and (Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. XIII, pp. the daivi India in s time er form in that ve belie We ad,6 asuri samp September 2, 1917

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Hind Swaraj

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

“It is ‘Swaraj’ when we learn to rule ourselves”


It is a book which can be put into the hands of a child. It teaches the gospel of love in place of that of hate. It replaces violence with selfsacrifice ssb bureau


andhi’s era, his ideals and his invocation have completed a century long journey in many cases. His principle and ideas first came to the world in the form of ‘Hind Swaraj’ booklet in 1909. This booklet is a key to Gandhi’s idea. Gandhi himself has admitted that he regards ‘Hind Swaraj’ as his understanding and ideal. In the current materialistic period, the crisis we are facing, Gandhiji had identified it a century ago. Let’s read how in the ‘Hind Swaraj’, Mahatma Gandhi has kept his opinions on different issues with which boldness and logicalityThe call for swaraj represents a genuine attempt to regain control of the ‘self’ - our self-respect, selfresponsibility, and capacities for self-realization - from institutions of dehumanization. As Gandhi states, “It is swaraj when we learn to rule ourselves.” The real goal of the freedom struggle was not only to secure political azadi (independence) from Britain, but rather to gain true swaraj (liberation and self-rule). Swaraj lays stress on governance not by a hierarchical government, but self governance through individuals and community building. Equality for all I will try for India, in which the poorest of the poor will feel that it is their country, their voice is important in its creation. I will try for India, which will not distinguish between upper and lower classes and in which there will be complete peace in different communities. In India, there can be no

place for the curse of untouchability or alcohol and other intoxicants. Women will have the same rights as men in it. Since our relationship with the rest of the world will be of peace, that is, neither we will exploit anyone nor let anyone exploit us. Duties of a Newspaper One of the objects of a newspaper is to understand popular feeling and give expression to it; another is to arouse among the people certain desirable sentiments; and the third is fearlessly to expose popular defects. Discontent and Unrest Unrest is, in reality, discontent. This discontent is a very useful thing. As long

as a man is contented with his present lot, so long is it difficult to persuade him to come out of it. Therefore it is that every reform must be preceded by discontent. We throw away things we have, only when we cease to like them. What is Swaraj? In effect, it means this: that we want English rule without the Englishman. You want the tiger’s nature, but not the tiger; that is to say, you would make India English. And when it becomes English, it will be called not Hindustan but Englistan. This is not the Swaraj that I want. Civilization Formerly, men were made slaves under

Quick Glance Passive resistance is a method of securing rights by personal sufferings Real home-rule is self-rule or selfcontrol We who seek justice will have to do justice to others

physical compulsion. Now they are enslaved by temptation of money and of the luxuries that money can buy. There are now diseases of which people never dreamt before, and an army of doctors is engaged in finding out their cures, and so hospitals have increased. This is a test of civilization. This civilization takes note neither of morality nor of religion. Civilization seeks to increase bodily comforts, and it fails miserably even in doing so. Civilization is not an incurable disease, but it should never be forgotten that the English people are at present afflicted by it. Civilization is like a mouse gnawing while it soothing us. Fearlessness Is Strength Strength lies in absence of fear, not in the quantity of flesh and muscle we have in our bodies. Evil Has Wings, Good Takes Time Those who want to do good are not selfish, they are not in a hurry, they know that to impregnate people with

Hind Swaraj

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 good requires a long time. But evil has wings. To build a house takes time. Its destruction takes none. We Indians Are One We were one nation before they [The English] came to India. One thought inspired us. Our mode of life was the same. It was because we were one nation that they were able to establish one kingdom. Subsequently, they divided us. And we Indians are one as no two Englishmen are. Only you and I and others who consider ourselves civilized and superior persons imagine that we are many nations. Concept of Swadeshi God set a limit to man’s locomotive ambition in the construction of his body. Man immediately proceeded to discover means of overriding the limit. God gifted man with intellect that he might know his Marker. Man abused it so that he might forget his maker. I am so constructed that I can only serve my immediate neighbors, but in my conceit I pretend to have discovered that I must with my body serve every individual in the Universe. India Is A Nation India cannot cease to be one nation because people belonging to different religions live in it. The introduction of foreigners does not necessarily destroy the nation; they merge in it. A country is one nation only when such a condition obtains in it. That country must have a faculty for assimilation. India has ever been such a country. Religion and Nationality Not Synonymous In reality, there are as many religious as there are individuals; but those who are conscious of the spirit of nationality do not interfere with one another’s religion. In no part of the world are one nationality and one religion synonymous terms; nor has it ever been so in India.

”I believe that you want the millions of India to be happy, not that you want the reins of government in your hands. If that be so, we have to consider only one thing: how can the millions obtain self-rule?”

The force of love is the same as the force of the soul or truth. The fact that there are so many men still alive in the world shows that it is based not on the force of arms but on the force of truth or love.

Patriotism My patriotism does not teach me that I am to allow people to be crushed under the heel of Indian princes if only the English retire. By patriotism I mean the welfare of the whole people, and if I could secure it at the hands of the English, I should bow down my head to them.

Non-Violence Is Superior To Violence Kings will always use their kingly weapons. To use force is bred in them. They want to command, but those who have to obey commands do not want guns: and these are in a majority throughout the world. They have to learn either body-force or soul-force. Where they learn the former, both the rulers and the ruled

Sacrifice Is Bravery

What we need to do is sacrifice ourselves. It is a cowardly thought, that of killing others. Dhingra was a patriot, but his love was blind.

Swaraj Is Self-Rule It is Swaraj when we learn to rule ourselves. It is, therefore, in the palm of our hands. But such Swaraj has to be experienced, by each one for himself. One drowning man will never save another.

Brute Force Vs. Love-Force A petition of an equal is a sign of courtesy; a petition from a slave is a symbol of his slavery. A petition backed by forced is a petition from an equal and, when he transmits his demand in the form of a petition, it testifies to his nobility. Two kinds of force can back petitions. “We shall hurt you if you do not give this,” is one kind of force; it is the force of arms. The second kind of force can thus be stated: “If you do not concede our demand, we shall be no longer your petitioners. You can govern us only so long as we remain the governed; we shall no longer have any dealing with you.” The force implied in this may be described as love-force, soul-force, or, more popularly but less accurately, passive resistance. This force is indestructible.

Swaraj For Everyone

Love / Soul / Truth-Force

Weak Unity is Fragile A clay pot would break through impact, if not with one stone, then with another. The way to save the pot is not to keep it away from the danger point but to bake it so that no stone would break it.

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It is merely an instrument, and an instrument may be well used or abused. Therefore, whether you take elementary education or higher education, it is not required for the main thing. It does not make men of us. It does not enable us to do our duty. In its place, it can be of use and it has its place when we have brought our senses under subjection and out our ethics on a firm foundation. Our ancient school system is enough. Character building has the first place in it and that is primary education. A building erected on that foundation will last. Real Home-Rule (Conclusion)

“It is bad habit to say that another man’s thoughts are bad and ours only are good and that those holding different views from ours are the enemies of the country” become like so many madmen; but where they learn soul-force, the commands of the rulers do not go beyond the point of their swords, for true disregard unjust commands. Peasants have never been subdued by the sword, and never will be. Fearless Is Strength A warrior without fearlessness cannot be conceived of. It may be thought that he would not need to be exactly truthful, but that quality follows real fearlessness. When a man abandons truth, he does so owing to fear in some shape or form. One who is free from hatred requires no sword. True Education What is the meaning of education? It simply means knowledge of letter.

“I will take the liberty of repeating: 1. Real home-rule is self-rule or selfcontrol. 2. The way to it is passive resistance: that is soul-force or love force. 3. In order to exert this force, Swadeshi in every sense is necessary. 4. What we want to do should be done, not because we object to the English or because we want to retaliate but because it is our duty to do so.” Gandhiji’s Commitment To Swaraj “In my opinion, we have used the term ‘Swaraj’ without understanding its real significance. I have endeavoured to explain it as I understand it, and my conscience testifies that my life henceforth is dedicated to its attainment.”


Good News

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 evolution

Chemist Discovers New Recipe For Early Life Every aerobic organism, from flamingoes to fungi, relies on the citric acid cycle to release stored energy in cells SSB Bureau


team of chemists led by an Indian-origin researcher at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have developed a fascinating new theory for how life on Earth may have begun. The experiments demonstrate that key chemical reactions that support life today could have been carried out with ingredients likely present on the planet four billion years ago. “This was a black box for us. But if you focus on the chemistry, the questions of origins of life become less daunting,” said Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, Associate Professor of Chemistry at TSRI and senior author. For the study, described in the journal Nature Communications, Krishnamurthy and his co-authors focused on a series of chemical reactions that make up what researchers refer to as the citric acid cycle. Every aerobic organism, from flamingoes to fungi, relies on the citric acid cycle to release stored energy in cells. In previous studies, researchers imagined early life using the same molecules for the citric acid cycle as

life uses today. The problem with that approach, Krishnamurthy explained, is that these biological molecules are fragile and the chemical reactions used in the cycle would not have existed in the first billion years of Earth -- the ingredients simply didn’t exist yet. The new study started with the chemical reactions first. They wrote the recipe and then determined which molecules present on early Earth could have worked as ingredients.


New AI technology may boost kidney disease prognosis Could lead to development of a software application for diagnosing kidney disease and predicting kidney survival

and efficient. “The chemistry could have stayed the same over time, it was just the nature of the molecules that changed,” said Krishnamurthy. “The molecules evolved to be more complicated over time based on what biology needed.” Making these reactions even more plausible is the fact that at the centre of these reactions is a molecule called glyoxylate, which, studies show, could have been available on early Earth. Krishnamurthy said more research needs to be done to see how t hese chemical reactions could have become as sustainable as the citric acid cycle.

frameworks, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN) for object recognition tasks, is proving to be valuable for classification of diseases as well as reliable for the analysis of radiology images including malignancies. To test the feasibility of applying this technology to the analysis of routinely obtained kidney biopsies,

the researchers performed a proof of principle study on kidney biopsy sections with various amounts of kidney fibrosis (also commonly known as scarring of tissue). The machine learning framework based on CNN relied on pixel density of digitized images, while the severity of disease was determined by several clinical laboratory measures and renal survival. CNN model performance then was compared with that of the models generated using the amount of fibrosis reported by a nephropathologist as the sole input and corresponding lab measures and renal survival as the outputs. For all scenarios, CNN models outperformed.



he ability to quantify the extent of kidney damage and predict the life remaining in the kidney, using an image obtained at the time when a patient visits the hospital for a kidney biopsy, now is possible using a computer model based on artificial intelligence (AI). The findings, which appear in the journal Kidney International Reports, can help make predictions at the point-of-care and assist clinical decision-making. Nephropathology is a specialization that analyzes kidney biopsy images. According to the researchers, the application of machine learning

Quick Glance

The new study outlines how two non-biological cycles -- called the HKG cycle and the malonate cycle -- could have come together to kickstart a crude version of the citric acid cycle. The two cycles use reactions that perform the same fundamental chemistry of a-ketoacids and b-ketoacids as in the citric acid cycle.  As they ran these reactions, the researchers found they could produce amino acids in addition to CO2, which are also the end products of the citric acid cycle.  The researchers think that as biological molecules like enzymes became available, they could have led to the replacement of non-biological molecules in these fundamental reactions to make them more elaborate

The new study started with the chemical reactions first The key chemical reactions could have been present 4 bn years ago The two cycles use reactions of a-ketoacids and b-ketoacids

Good News

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

15 07

himachal pradesh

Himachal Starts Nutrition Scheme For HIV-positive Children The state has also made it mandatory for every expectant mother to go for a HIV test

The initiative would be providing nutritional supplement and boosting the immunity of over 400 youth up to the age 18

SSB Bureau


imachal Pradesh Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur launched a state-level nutrition scheme for HIV-positive children during a campaign organised here by the State AIDS Control Society

on the occasion of National Youth Day. He said this initiative would go a long way in providing nutritional supplement and boosting the immunity of over 400 youth up to the age 18. The state would also provide every possible support to these children to

enable them to live a normal and healthy life, he said. F r o m this year, the Chief Minister said, the state has also made it mandatory for every expectant mother to go for a HIV test. Expressing concern over the rising cases of AIDS, nearly 5,700 in the state, Thakur said there was need for massive awareness about the disease up to the village level.

NGOs and individuals would have to come forward in supplementing the efforts of the Health Department in making every citizen aware about HIV. He said the awareness campaign should be intensified in schools and colleges besides putting special focus on organising skits and street shows, which were effective modes of communication among the masses. Education Minister Suresh Bhardwaj said the Education Department would work with the Health Department to provide education to HIV-positive children across the state.


All 11,000 Trains, 8,500 Stations To Have CCTV Surveillance Coach will have eight CCTV cameras covering the entry gates, aisle and vestibules SSB Bureau


n its endeavor to provide a safe and secure travel experience to passengers, India Railways is pitching for the procurement of about 12 lakh CCTV cameras to ensure stateof-the-art surveillance systems in all trains and stations across the country. The Railways will make a provision of around Rs 3,000 crore in its budget for 2018-19 to install CCTV systems in all 11,000 trains -including premier and suburban services -- and all the 8,500 stations in the Indian rail network, to provide safety and security at rail premises. As per the plan, while each coach will have

eight CCTV cameras covering the entry gates, aisle and vestibules, all crucial points at stations will have the systems. Currently, there are about 395 stations and about 50 trains that are equipped with CCTV systems. “All mail/express and premier trains, including Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Duronto and local passenger services, will be equipped with the modern surveillance systems in the next two years,� said a senior Railway Ministry official. Railways are exploring various options to fund the installation of the CCTV surveillance systems -- and may even raise resources from the market if needed.

Given the increased number of derailments last year, the Rail Budget this time is slated to give top priority to safety and prevention of accidents -- followed by improving passenger amenities to make the journey pleasant. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley would roll out the details of provision for strengthening safety mechanism in train operations in his Budget 2018-19. Besides track defects, unmanned levelcrossings are among the reasons for a maximum number train accidents. It has been decided to eliminate all unmanned level crossings by 2020, the official said.


Jan 29 - feb 04, 2018

Good men have no desire for worldly pursuits. They desire withdrawal from them, that is, moksha. Mahatma Gandhi

mahatma gandhi’s Speech On The Eve of The Last Fast 12-01-1948

To live is to help to live The biggest disease today is not leprosy or tuberculosis, but rather the feeling of being unwanted


aoul Follereau is credited to organize the World Leprosy Day in 1954. He said, “so that people affected by leprosy could be cared for like all others who are ill and so that those in good health could be cured of their absurd and often criminal fear of this disease and those who are affected by it”. The particular day, the final Sunday in January, was chosen to commemorate the death of famous Indian nationalist leader, peace activist and celebrated global icon, Mahatma Gandhi, who once said, “Eliminating leprosy is the only work I have not been able to complete in my lifetime.” Through World Leprosy Day, we hope that we can move closer to finish the work that Gandhi could not. We can’t do it without you. We need you to help raise awareness. World Leprosy Day is not-yet-recognized by the United Nations. In order to eliminate the disease, the ‘people in charge’ need to see that leprosy is an important issue to many of us around the world. Leprosy is a major disease affecting millions of people all over the world. The worst aspect about this disease is that, there is a visible discrimination against the patients. They are deprived of their basic rights. Not just society but also the family members of the people affected by leprosy are accused of discrimination against these innocent souls. This day aims to foster respect for the rights and dignity of those who are affected by this disease.


Kumar Dilip Edited, Printed and Published by: Monika Jain on behalf of Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation, owned by Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation Printed at: The Indian Express Limited A - 8, Sector -7, NOIDA (UP) Published at: RZ - 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam - Dabri Road, New Delhi - 110045 (India) Corporate Office: 819, Wave Silver Tower, Sector - 18, NOIDA (UP) Phone: +91-120-6500425 Email:,

My Fast as a Protest One fasts for health’s sake under laws governing health, fasts as a penance for a wrong done and felt as such. In these fasts, the fasting one need not believe in Ahimsa. here is, however, a fast which a votary of non-violence sometimes feels impelled to undertake by way of protest against some wrong done by society, and this he does when as a votary of Ahimsa has no other remedy left. Such an occasion has come my way. When on September 9th, I returned to Delhi from Calcutta, it was to proceed to the West Punjab. But that was not to be. Gay Delhi looked a city of the dead. As I alighted from the train I observed gloom on every face I saw. Even the Sardar, whom humour and the joy that humour gives never desert, was no exception this time. The cause of it I did not know. He was on the platform to receive me. He lost no time in giving me the sad news of the disturbances that had taken place in the Metropolis of the Union. At once I saw that I had to be in Delhi and ‘do or die’. There is a apparent calm brought about by prompt military and police action. But there is storm within the breast. It may burst forth any day. This I count as no fulfillment of the vow to ‘do’ which alone can keep me from death, the incomparable friend. I yearn for heart friendship between the Hindus, the Sikhs and the Muslims. It subsisted between them the other day. Today it is non-existent. It is a state that no Indian patriot worthy of the name can contemplate with equanimity. Though the

Voice within has been beckoning for a long time, I have been shutting my ears to it, lest it may be the voice of Satan otherwise called my weakness. I never like to feel resourceless, a Satyagrahi never should. Fasting is his last resort in the place of the sword–his or other’s. I have no answer to return to the Muslim friends who see me from day to day as to what they should do. My impotence has been gnawing at me of late. It will go immediately the fast is undertaken. I have been brooding over it for the last three days. The final conclusion has flashed upon me and it makes me happy. No man, if he is pure has anything more precious to give than his life. I hope and pray that I have that purity in me to justify the step. Worthy of Blessing I ask you all to bless the effort and to pray for me and with me. The fast begins from the first meal tomorrow. The period is indefinite and I may drink water with or without salts and sour limes. It will end when and if I am satisfied that there is a reunion of hearts of all the communities brought about without any outside pressure, but from an awakened sense of duty. The reward will be the regaining of India’s dwindling prestige and her fast fading sovereignty over the heart of Asia and there through the world. I flatter myself with belief that the loss of the hope of the aching, stormtossed and hungry world. Let no friend, or foe if there be one, be angry with me. There are friends who do not believe in the method

Jan 29 - feb 04, 2018 of the fast for the reclamation of the human mind. They will bear with me and extent to me the same liberty of action that they claim for themselves. With God as my supreme, and sole counsellor, I felt that I must take the decision without any other adviser. If I made a mistake and discover it, I shall have no hesitation in proclaiming it from the housetop and retracing my faulty step. There is clear indication, as I claim there is, of the Inner Voice, it will not be gainsaid. I plead for all absence of argument and inevitable endorsement of the step. If the whole of India responds or at least Delhi does, the fast might be soon ended. No Softness But whether it ends soon or late or never, let there be no softness in dealing with what may be termed as a crisis. Critics have regarded some of my previous fasts as coercive and held that on merits the verdict would have gone against my stand but for the pressure exercised by the fasts. What value can an adverse verdict have when the purpose is demonstrably sound? A pure fast, like duty, is its own reward. I do not embark upon it for the sake of the result it may bring. I do so because I must. Hence, I urge everybody dispassionately to examine the purpose and let me die, if I must, in peace which I hope is ensured. Death for me would be a glorious deliverance rather than that I should be a helpless witness of the destruction of India, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. That destruction is certain if Pakistan ensures no equality of status and security of life and property for all professing the various faiths of the world, and if India copies her. Only then Islam dies in the two India’s, not in the world. But Hinduism and Sikhism have no world outside India. Those who differ from me will be honoured by me for their resistance however implacable. Let my fast quicken conscience, not deaden it. Just contemplate the rot that has set in beloved India and you will rejoice to think that there is a humble son of hers who is strong enough and possibly pure enough to take the happy step. If he is neither, he is a burden on earth. The sooner he disappears and clears the Indian atmosphere of the burden the better for him and all concerned. I would beg of all friends not to rush to Birla House nor try to dissuade me or be anxious for me. I am in God’s hands. Rather, they should turn the searchlights inwards, for this is essentially a testing time for all of us. Those who remain at their post of duty and perform it diligently and well, now more so than hitherto, will help me and the cause in every way. The fast is a process of selfpurification. Harijan, 18-1-1948



Breaking The Chains Of Tryannical Past

Prof. K J Nath

Chairman, Science & Technology, Sulabh International Social Service Organization


Raja Rammohun Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar breathed new life into a fossilised Bengali society of 19th century


aja Ram Mohan Roy (1772 – 1833) is widely regarded as the father of the Indian Renaissances. He is particularly remembered for his pioneering role in the epoch making religious, social and educational reforms. Bramho Samaj which was founded by him played a major role in reforming and modernizing the Indian society. He relentlessly fought and successfully campaigned against “Sati” the inhuman practice of burning widows. He was instrumental in popularizing modern educational system in the country. His ideas of religion actively sought to create a fair and just society by implementing the humanitarian practices and thus legitimizing Hinduism in the modern world. Pandit Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820-1891) was a legendary figure who played a significant role in all aspects of Indian life – be it education, culture, religion, social ethics for literature. Perhaps, Vidyasagar’s greatest legacy is his unflinching resolve to change the plight of Indian women especially in his native Bengal. Being a devout Hindu himself,

he sought the transformation of orthodox Hindu society from within. He was deeply moved by the plight of the widow in the society - polygamy, ban on widows from remarrying, child marriage, gender inequalities, keeping women away from the light of education, depriving them from property rights, etc. The enactment of the Act of 1856, legalizing widow remarriage and the civil marriage act of 1872 abolishing polygamy and child marriage and encouraging widow remarriage, owed a great deal to Vidyasagar, whose writings and activities has helped to create a strong public opinion in favour of these

social issues. Vidyasagar travelled all over the Bengal in the capacity of Inspector of school. Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak is a multidimensional action sociologist of our time, who has made epoch making contributions in many spheres of our life. He is an iconic global leader of sanitation movement, innovating the appropriate technology for human excreta disposal and country wide scaling up of the same. His lifelong crusade against untouchability and social discrimination against the scavengers is known all over the country and abroad, he is also championing the cause of the hapless widows in Vrindaban. It is in fairness and fitness of things that he has taken up initiative to perpetuate the memories of the great social reformers of the country, Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Pandit Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and continue their legacy of emancipation and empowerment of widows in particular and women in general. The Foundation he has founded proposes to work to achieve these objectives.

letters to the editor

Women empowerment The article ‘No Girl! No Woman! Thus No Life’ is a very motivational article. Something similar was quoted by the famous

actor Akshay Kumar during the promotion of his movie Padman. He stated that we spend a lot of money on defence in India but we forget to protect the women of our country. He added that if women of our country are fit, healthy and are treated equally only then can this nation succeed further. Many readers like us do agree with this statement. We need to change our narrow-minded and conservative views and must realize that unless half the population in the country is educated and cared for, we cannot become a progressive nation. Priyanka Manral, New Delhi Youth for the needy The article ‘ A Gift From Students To Villagers’ was an

inspiring article for readers like us. We feel proud that the young generation of this wonderful nation is also understanding the needs of the nation and are working hard in their own ways to help others, or those who are in need of support. When these three could help the needy, why could not those who have a surplus of resources do the same? instead of showing off their wealth in purchasing expensive and exclusive items, they should also contribute to the nation’s development. We need to pursue others to also contribute and take the nation’s development to newer heights and wish to be able to see India as a well-developed nation with no poverty, crime and corruption. Swadesh Pandey, Lucknow

Please mail your opinion to - or Whatsapp at 9868807712


Photo Feature

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

Pageantry of the Republic The colour and pomp are symbols of the world’s largest democracy Photo: sipra das

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

Martial prowess combined with cultural cornucopia makes the Republic Day a heart-warming national spectacle

Photo Feature




Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018


Asia’s Biggest Banana Market Set To Go Digital About 60 km from Guwahati, Darrangiri in Assam’s Goalpara district is billed as Asia’s biggest banana market n Raj Kashyap


o far, Darrangiri has just been a meeting place for buyers and tribal farmers, many of come descend from the adjacent hills of Meghalaya as well. It had lacked even the basic facilities for transacting business in this digital age. Online transactions had been a myth in this market, and it has also not qualified for a nationalised bank branch or an ATM. The nearest ATM today is located about 12 km away in Dudhnoi. However, with digitalization fast catching up in the country, Darrangiri is set for a turnover. These local fruit growing entrepreneurs are bracing to get into the electronic mode of marketing to boost their trade across the continent. State’s Agriculture commissioner Amlan Baruah said the government is planning to streamline the banana market. “We have already asked the Assam Agriculture Marketing Board (AAMB) to see the facilities of banana stocking and grading. Accordingly, they have submitted their plan. After such facilities are made available, we can start stocking, grading and the process of e-marketing of the bananas can be started simultaneously,” Baruah added.

The monthly turnover of Darrangiri is four crore while it is the highest in the three months of September, October and November with about 50 trucks getting loaded with bananas every day. Bananas from here reach the markets as far as Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bhutan and even Nepal. During season time, 150200 trucks transport the fruit out of the State every week. “The market is held on Mondays and Thursdays. Some 500 traders from various states pour down in this otherwise sleepy town during the banana season. Some buyers stay here permanently. We have arranged quarters for their accommodation,” Ranjit Kumar Bose, president of the DarrangiriAnchalikUnnayan Committee said. The committee, which looks after the banana market, was registered way back in 1976 and has braved odds to promote the market. The committee has arranged a few sheds for the sellers in a 7-bigha plot along the highway which was brought around ten years back. Those sheds and

a few quarters for the traders are the only infrastructures the market boasts today. The Agriculture commissioner said that marketing has to be perfect as this instant energy-giving fruit is also popular in the neighbouring countries of Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The electronic marketing for bananas will help the traders to get updated information about market rates of bananas in another part of the continent. At the same time, the State agriculture board will also be able to let people of other countries know about the price of bananas in Darangiri. The Commissioner further said that earlier the government and farmers used to focus more on production. But now with ample production, they are focusing more on marketing and distribution. The work for e-marketing of Darrangiri banana market is at its initial stage. Once the process goes full swing both the traders as well as the consumers will be able to reap

With digitalisation fast catching up in the country, Darrangiri is set for a turnover

Quick Glance Entrepreneurs are embracing the electronic mode of marketing The monthly turnover of Darrangiri is four crore The banana market is held on Mondays and Thursdays

the benefits towards the fag end of 2018. The Assam State Agriculture Marketing Board has planned to set up a marketing complex, with an auction centre, banking and other online facilities, restaurant, etc. “There is so much scope for trade and employment here. Today you will find bananas in every household in and around the area. Associated industries like wafers, etc., could have flourished, but due to lack of infrastructure there has been no investment,” the optimistic growers say.The Unnayan Committee is also in the process of writing to the Asia Book of Records for the official recognition of the market as the biggest in Asia.


Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

21 23

river atlas


Manipur Zoo Scripts Conservation Success Manipur Zoological Garden (MZG) has earned accolades for successful breeding of nine of its inmates

First ever River Atlas Initiative for flood and erosion management in Assam. Sonowal asks implementing agency to bring depth of sand layer and deforestation within its ambit ssb bureau

Quick Glance Infant development is being closely monitored at the zoo The survival rates of new born ungulates is 75 per cent Sufficient roosting place and bedding is provided for breeding

n ssb bureau


here were as many as ninebirths - Manipur Brow Antler Deer (Sangai), Hog deer (Kharsa), Spotted deer, Sambar (Sajal), Barking deer, Purple swamphen- during OctoberDecember. While the mothers are protective of their babies and secretive in hiding its babies from strangers, the young ones are now out of its hiding

majauli / assam

Ayurvedic Hospital At Majuli

Govt aims to make Majuli as a hub of traditional medical practices: Assam CM n RAJ KASHYAP


ssam Chief Minister SarbanandaSonowal laid the foundation stone of a 50 bedded Ayurvedic Hospital to be set up under

place and are actively exploring their exhibits, a zoo official said. The official said sufficient roosting place and bedding were provided for the breeding species and dietary habits were improvised as per the animal requirements. Infant development is being closely monitored and their dietary needs by a team of Veterinary unit as per guidelines of Central Zoo Authority, Ministry of Forest, Environment & Climate Change, Government of Manipur. The survival

rate of the new born ungulates is 75% and they can be bred successfully in the facility, the official said. The facility, located at Iroisemba, also received a five day one Barking deer from Tengnoupaldistrict handed over by one Sh. Ngamkhulal Mate and team of Tengnoupal Range Office. The barking deer was abandoned by its mother in the wild. The rescued baby barking deer was given neonatal intensive care and hand reared with formulated milk by a team of Veterinary unit and dedicated animal attendants. Now, the baby barking deer is a healthy two month old calf. The Zoo authority also received three month old barking deer from Kangpokpi Forest Division officials.

National AYUS Mission at SriramChapori in Majuli district. On the occasion, the Chief Minister stressed on the need to preserve and sustain the age old ayurvedic methods of medical treatment for a healthy and disease free life. Informing that the Ayurvedic Hospital would be completed within a period of 18 months, which would be built with an expenditure of Rs. 10.5 crore, the Chief Minister said that various initiatives have been taken up by the state government to improve the health sector of Majuli. “For this purpose, the Majuli Sub-Divisional Civil Hospital will be upgraded to a District Hospital with total cost of Rs. 21 crore and a blood bank would also be set

up with an expenditure of Rs. 5 crore”, he added. Sonowalsaid that the state government is planning to make Majuli as a hub of traditional medical practices apart from its initiatives to make this seat of satriya culture as India’s first carbon neutral district. He also urged the people to remain alert against all divisive forces and promote harmony and unity amongst all communities.


ssam Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal has mooted the idea of preparing a comprehensive database of all major and minor rivers of Assam along with their tributaries in the form of River Atlas. Assessing the preparation of the Atlas, Sonowal asked implementing agency to bring quantity and depth of sand and sand layer on the river bed within the ambit of the study. This is the first river Atlas to be prepared in Assam. Sonowal said that the project should encompass depth of sand layer within the parameter of its study along with identifying sand bars above the Highest Flood Level (HFL). He said that identification of sand

bars above the HFL would help the state government’s possible bid to use the sand bars as ‘Solar Parks’. Chief Minister Sonowal also said that the River Atlas once complete would give the proper database of the length of the rivers, the embankment details of the entire 5000 km network of embankment in the state. Besides, the River Atlas would also give reading on river flood level. Sonowal also stressed that the study should bring within its ambit the reported deforestation which might attribute to reduced water flow in some rivers in the state. He further added that if a proper database is obtained for the deforestation induced reduced water flow in the rivers, state government can take the remedial steps for adequate aforestation.



Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 Hepatitis-B vaccine

Birth Dose Of Hepatitis B Vaccine May Not Be Necessary: Study The study concluded that the birthdose vaccination might not be necessary because infants already have antibodies against Hepatitis


n Dr. Aditi Jain

new study by a group of Indian Pediatricians shows that many newborns are protected from Hepatitis B infection by antibodies they receive from the mother and therefore hepatitis B vaccination at birth may not be necessary. Hepatitis B, a viral infection which causes liver cirrhosis or liver cancer, is a cause of one lakh deaths per year in India. This disease spreads by contact with infected blood or body fluids and can pass from mother to baby, child to child, through blood

transfusions and unprotected sexual contact. Over 40 million Indians are chronically infected with Hepatitis B. Many people can live without symptoms for years and once they realize they have an infection, it is often too late for treatment. Infants (below 1 year) are most susceptible to this virus accounting for 90% of cases. Therefore, theNational Immunization Policyrecommends a pragmatic vaccination schedule wherein the vaccine is given at birth for institutional deliveries and at 6 week to children born outside such health-care settings (due to practical


Slow Down Ageing With AntioxidantRich Food Consuming antioxidant rich foods like dark chocolates, nuts, and beans reduces slows ageing


inabilities). This research study, funded by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), was conducted to examine if the birthdose is crucial for attaining full immunity against hepatitisB infection. For the study, blood samples from 1-5-year old children from five states - Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Gujarat - were collected to measure antigen and antibodies of Hepatitis B virus. Among these, 880 children were completely immunized and were given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, 686 were completely immunized but were not given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine and 844 were unvaccinated. It was found that children who were given complete vaccination (with or without birth-dose of hepatitis B vaccine) had a similar level of protection against infection. This means birth dose may not be necessary for full immunization to this virus. A large number of children who were unvaccinated also showed the presence of antibodies. The present study together with earlier evidence suggests that these antibodies are passively acquired from mothers and give protection to newborns (without a birth dose) and those who remain unvaccinated.

“We found birth dose was not needed as infection rates were the same regardless of birth dose.However, if the mother is a hepatitis B carrier especially if she is e-antigen positive, the baby must be vaccinated at birth”, Dr. Jacob Puliyel, the study’s primary author and a pediatrician at St. Stephens Hospital in Delhi, told India Science Wire. Dr.Puliyel added “studies must be replicable before they can be accepted. We now have two studies, one from South India and this one from North India showing that many babies have acquired passive immunity that may be protecting them soon after birth when they are most vulnerable to develop chronic hepatitis. Further, studies may be done to confirm these findings.”

related diseases, which are caused in part by free radicals and inflammation. Antioxidants such as alpha lipoic and others found in pine bark and green tea. They produce valuable antiinflammatory results by increasing

circulation and cell metabolism. * Different antioxidants benefit different parts of the body: Beta carotene is beneficial to eye health. Lycopene is beneficial for helping prostate health. Flavonoids are beneficial for heart health. Spirulina has a variety of antioxidants and other substances that are beneficial in boosting immunity. It helps in enhancing both the non- specific and specific immune system. * A diet rich in antioxidants is important to keep the level of ageing low and in maintenance of good health.

n ssb bureau

low down ageing, reduce the risk of heart diseases and diabetes – these are some reasons why it is important to consume antioxidant-rich foods like dark chocolates, nuts, kidney beans, cranberries and tomatoes, suggest experts. Sonia Narang, Wellness Expert at Oriflame India and Mehar Rajput, Nutritionist at Fitpass, share tips: * The reason that antioxidants are often touted as “anti-aging” compounds is because they help protect from age-

Quick Glance Newborns already carry antibodies against Hepatitis Hepatitis B spreads with infected blood and bodily fluids The birth dose offers the same protection as without


Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 cancer


women’s health

A New Diagnostic Test On Cards For Prostate Cancer

Screening All Women For Cancer Genes May Be Cost Effective

A specific diagnostic marker has been identified for prostate cancer that differentiates between cancerous and non-cancerous enlargement

Screening all women over 30 years age for breast and ovarian cancer gene mutations can be cost effective

n Dr. Shikha T. Malik


group of Indian scientists have identified a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for prostate cancer that may differentiate between cancerous and non-cancerous prostate enlargement. Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. The commonly used diagnostic test is to check the level of ProstateSpecific Antigen, PSA, in serum. Though it is a reliable marker it is not confined to prostate cancer only. PSA levels increase in benign prostatic hyperplasia as well which is a non-cancerous increase in the size of the prostate gland. A team of researchers from King George’s Medical University, Centre of Biomedical Research,Lucknow University, and Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow have evaluated the usefulness of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (Mic1)protein in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Dr. Ashish Gupta and his team have identified a potential biomarker for prostate cancer. Researcherspropose

Quick Glance PSA is the Prostate Specific Antigen PSA is generally used to diagnose prostate englargement The new MIC-1 marker is more efficient than PSA in diagnosis

that MIC-1 is better in terms of specificity than the commonly used Prostate-Specific Antigen. Theyevaluated the levels of MIC1 in prostate cancer and benign prostate enlargement patients as well as healthy persons. Each group had about 80 persons.It was found that MIC-1 levels were significantly different in prostate cancer patients as compared to those with benign growth or healthy individuals. MIC-

The commonly used diagnostic test is to check the level of Prostate-Specific Antigen, PSA, in serum. PSA levels increase in benign prostatic hyperplasia

1 levels in the serum correlated with the grade of cancer. Higher levels in advanced cancers as compared to low-grade cancer. The study results have been published in journal Scientific Reports. Although further validation needs to be done on larger datasets, scientists believe MIC-1 could be a potential marker that might be routinely used in the laboratory for prostate cancer diagnosiswith or without PSA. With further analyses, MIC-1 screening might be clinically useful in distinguishing between grades of prostate cancer too. “Detection of prostate enlargement, which may or may not lead to prostate cancer, is largely based on serum PSA levels. But PSA level is not definitive marker and could sometimes be misleading. Therefore, additional and more definitive markers are still under investigation. The finding that MIC1 is consistently over expressed in prostate cancer patients could serve as a valuable marker, additional to serum PSA, and a correlation between the two could in future act as a valuable diagnostic tool,” commented Prof. UrmiChatterji of Cancer Research Laboratory at University of Calcutta, who was not connected with the study. “Howeverlevel of expression of MIC-1 in terms of a range of values in healthy individuals versus those with benign enlargement and cancer patients need to be ascertained for more specific diagnostic purpose.” The research included Navneeta Bansal, Deepak Kumar, Ashish Gupta, Deepak Chandra, Satya NarainSankhwar and Anil Mandhani. The study was funded by DBT, UGC and CSIR.



creening all women over 30 years age for breast and ovarian cancer gene mutations can be cost effective and could also prevent more of these cancers than just screening those at genetic highrisk, suggests a study led by an Indianorigin researcher. The most well-known breast and ovarian cancer causing genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2, and women carrying either of the gene mutation have approximately a 17-44 per cent chance of developing ovarian cancer and a 69-72 per cent chance of developing breast cancer over their lifetime. Conversely, for women who do not carry these mutations, the risk is two per cent for ovarian cancer and 12 per cent for breast cancer over their life time. The current clinical approach to genetic testing is based on having a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer. The new approach, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, showed that it is costeffective, and as a result can ensure that more women can take preventative action to reduce their risk or undertake regular screening and thus can provide huge new opportunities for cancer prevention and changes in the way how cancer genetic testing is delivered.



Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 Akkipeddi / bengaluru

When A Once-arid Village Becomes A National Model Akkipeddi, along with the villagers, has in four years transformed the barren piece of land into an inspiring model



ohn F. Kennedy said, “One person can make a difference, and everyone should try”. These words of one of America’s best-known presidents probably inspired a former engineer in India to try to transform what was once a bone-dry region into a green oasis simply by motivating its inhabitants to do what they earlier thought was impossible. Some 120 km from Bengaluru in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh, the village, of which little was known previously with no signboards even indicating its location to outsiders, has now become famous through its selfsustaining model. A dozen families here grow crops organically, meet their energy needs entirely by tapping wind power, harvest rain to conserve water and supply it to their homes with a solar-powered pump. What’s more, the village boasts of a Wi-Fi facility, provides entrepreneurial opportunities to farmers and has its own syllabus for children to hone their skills rather than learning by rote. Even as many parts of rural India still lack rudimentary amenities, the sustainable development model of this small hamlet makes it an example when it comes to water conservation, power generation, ending gender bias and even eliminating casteism. As water depleted in the rocky soil

Quick Glance The Village now offers fellowships to rural youth Food is cooked for all the families in a community kitchen The sense of contentment the villagers live with is infectious

kitchen by both men and women, irrespective of caste and creed. And they live as a joint family, with even men taking care of children. “In other villages, women are confined to their homes, cooking and rearing children. Here, I have the freedom to learn and do a lot of things, as others take care of my child,” Lakshmi, 28, who migrated to ProtoVillage, told IANS.

and farming became tough in the semi-arid zone, villages in the district despaired as people deserted them and migrated to cities for livelihood. That was when 39-year-old Kalyan Akkipeddi -- who gave up a lucrative job in the finance and marketing division at General Electric to travel around the country’s villages in search of knowledge -- arrived at remote Tekulodu. Inspired by the simple life of tribals that he had witnessed during his travels, Akkipeddi chose to “intern” with a farmer family in Tekulodu and helped them increase their income from Rs 7,000 a year to about Rs 14,000 a month by putting scientific practices to work and tapping natural resources like solar and wind power. In 2013, he bought a 12.5-acre plot of land a few kilometres from Tekulodu, on the forest fringe near his hometown Hindupur, in the same district of the Rayalaseema region. This has evolved into what he named Proto-Village -- the prototype of an ideal village. “I was so inspired by what I saw in the tribal communities. Their wisdom allowed them to live in synergy with their surroundings. I thought of demonstrating that kind of life-based on three simple

principles -- a deep respect for soil, air and water, inter-dependence and, as a result, self-reliance,” Akkipeddi told IANS. Applying scientific methods to farming and living sustainably, Akkipeddi, along with the villagers, has in four years transformed the barren piece of land into an inspiring model that is self-reliant, environmentally sustainable and socially cohesive. “We want to be in the place where knowledge resides,” said Akkipeddi. As part of developing the village, Proto Village’s inhabitants had initially built eight farm ponds in low-lying areas to store rainwater and had networked them. ProtoVillage is unique in other ways as well. Food is cooked for all the families in a community

Proto Village also houses a Rural Economic Zone (REZ), where farmers and others from the region can work on entrepreneurial ideas

The daily chores of the dwellers include working in the fields to grow crops, vegetables, fruits and flowers. In the evenings, apart from indulging in folk arts like music, dance or drama, “we all sit down to talk about the things we had learnt that day”, Akkipeddi shared. Not to be left behind, the children have a system of learning which goes beyond the classroom. They learn to build homes, have drafted their own constitution for the learning centre, tend animals and even know to code software. And they share their knowledge with nearby villages. The community aims at meeting nine basic needs: Food and water, shelter, clothing, healthcare, energy, connectivity, trade, education and disaster management, all in a sustainable manner. G. Govardhan, 22, a computer applications graduate from Tekulodu, takes greater pride in farming than doing a nine-to-five job. Inspired by the work on increasing the green cover, he mobilised people in the nearby villages to grow more trees. “This is my world, with the greenest of trees and farms. Why would I leave this and go to a crowded city for a job?” asked Govardhan. Proto Village also houses a Rural Economic Zone (REZ), where farmers and others from the region can work on entrepreneurial ideas. “We would like to create a support system for people from across the country, who wants to set up Proto Villages in their districts,” Akkipeddi added.


Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018


eat with hand

The Science Of Eating With Hands In Vedic tradition, every finger is an extension of the 5 elements of the Earth Quick Glance

The Hand Trick!

Eating with hands has been around longer than cutlery It heightens the senses of smell, taste and feel of texture Hands act as a very effective temperature sensor n swastika tripathi


ating with hands has been around longer than cutlery. It is a practice that was adopted by the most civilised of the civilisations like Indus Valley, Greek and the Egyptians. In Vedic tradition, hands are the most precious organs of action. The scriptures reveal how every finger is an extension of the five elements – space, air, fire, water and weather. It is believed that the five elements within begin to transform food and make it

digestible even before it reaches the mouth. This transformation of the food also heightens the senses so that

we can smell, taste and feel the texture of the foods we are eating. One can also hear the sounds of eating. All of

Humans eat not only to sustain, but also assimilate the universe’s energies within physical and emotional body

A handful of healthy reasons Stimulates digestion – The nerve endings on our fingertips are known to stimulate digestion. Feeling the food becomes a way of signalling the stomach that we are about to eat. No overeating – Eating with hands makes one eat slower and hence digest better because we become more aware of the process of eating as we experience it with all our senses. An exercise in disguise – Eating with hands increases the blood circulation in the body since it is sort of a muscle exercise. A gulp of immunity – The flora (a bacteria type) in the fingers is beneficial for health and protects us from many damaging microbes in the environment. Much satisfying - Researchers suggest that eating by hand promotes a sense of fullness and satiety as compared to eating with utensils. Prevents diseases like Type-2 Diabetes – Eating with forks and spoons co-relates with faster eating, which has been linked to blood-sugar imbalances in the body – contributing to the development of type-2 diabetes. More hygienic – Contrary to popular belief, eating with hands is way more hygienic than with utensils because of the simple reason that you wash your hands multiple times a day while we wash the utensils only once.

Many recent studies have shown how one can manage their meal portions using the ‘hand trick’. Instead of worrying about exact cup or ounce measurements, we can use the parts of our hand as a guide to serving sizes. The protein (meat, eggs and beans) should roughly equal the size of the palm, and the carbs (grains) should be just enough to fill the cupped hands. The serving of veggies should be the size of the fist, and the fat serving (butter) should be about the size of the thumb. While these guidelines may change a bit based on one’s size and gender (for males, double everything above), overall a person’s hand is a super useful and discrete way to know how much they should be eating.

these sensations are necessary to kickstart the digestion, since the body gets itself ready for the meal to come. Eating food with the hands feeds body, mind and spirit. Humans eat food not only to sustain the body, but also to assimilate the universe’s elements and energies within the physical and emotional body. Ayurveda tells us that disease takes hold in the body when the digestive fire is awry. The practice also protects the mouth from getting burnt. Hands act as a very effective temperature sensor. So when one touches the food, it becomes easy to gauge how hot it is and prevents scalding of the tongue. Plus, on an economic front, this also reduces the cost of production of forks and spoons. So the next time someone says, “Don’t eat with your hands!” you can enlighten them otherwise.



Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

cycle tour


Improving Bengaluru’s ‘Swachh’ Rankings In a bid to improve Bengaluru’s Swachh Bharat rankings, the civic administration is finally focusing on filling the gap in toilet infrastructure

The Solo Cycle Yagna A cyclist is touring to spread the message of Swachhta Hi Seva and the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan IANS


chartered accountant from Pakkad, Thiruvananthapuram, is cycling on a campaign tour to spread the message of Swachh Bharat Govindan started the ‘solo cycle yagna’, on December 1, 2017 from Pakkad. He went around colleges and schools spreading awareness about keeping the surroundings clean and plastic-free. Having already covered 1,440 kilometres, he now aims to finish 1,850 kilometres. He wants to travel back to Pakkad since he has already covered 17 districts in Tamil Nadu and over 6 districts in Kerala. Govindan’s journey has been going according to schedule. The 53-year-old cyclist even met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi briefly. During his travel, many schools and colleges coordinated with him and he interacted with the students and shared his experience with them. “Every day I wake up at 2:45 am and start doing my yoga and by 4 am I start riding my cycle,” said Govindan. His wife coordinates his programmes like arranging meetings with youngsters and school principals. When asked about his plans, he said, “Even though my solo trip ends in Palakkad on December 28, I will keep travelling through Kerala and Tamil Nadu frequently to promote his campaign for cleanliness and construction of toilets by conducting a survey with likeminded people who are willing to cooperate with me”.



engaluru is on war footing to improve its Swachh Bharat rankings. The civil administration in the city is now aiming to bridge the gap in toilet infrastructure. The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike has opted for a quick-fix solution and begun work to put up nearly 2,500 community toilets and 3,500 household toilets using mountable steel structures instead of building permanent ones in an effort to meet the March 31, 2018 deadline. Bengaluru ranked 210 in the recent Swachh Bharat rankings, a steep drop from 38 the previous year. One of the many reasons for the drop in rankings was that the evaluation procedure had earmarked 600 marks or 30% of the total 2,000 for making the city open defecation-free. Recently finishing a survey, the BBMP stated that it needs to fills gaps in infrastructure and that this would be the first step towards declaring the city free of open defecation (ODF). BBMP’s survey revealed that migrant labourers, especially

construction workers and children in slum pockets, were the most prone to open defecation. Based on findings of the report and certification by heads of all government schools in the particular wards, the BBMP council recently adopted a resolution declaring 109 of the 198 wards open defecationfree. All these are in the core city. Sarfaraz Khan, Joint Commissioner, Health, BBMP, said the survey revealed that over 3,500 households did not have toilets and there was a need for 2,500 community and public toilets. “Swachh Bharat programme provides subsidy to build toilets, which we are using and have already begun work to build these toilets,” he said. A household toilet costs Rs 14,000 for which the Union

Quick Glance The BBMP plans to construct 2,500 community toilets BBMP has opted for the Tata Steel’s toilet model They have finally shifted their focus to improving infrastructure

government provides most of the subsidy, and a community toilet costs Rs 94,000, of which the Union government bears Rs 54,000 and the rest the civic body and the State government pitch in, he said. Opting from a toilet model from Tata Steel, the BBMP has chosen a mountable steel toilet that can be installed in just two days. The model of the toilet and the vendor are both empanelled by Swachh Bharat Mission, sources said. Mr. Khan said individual households still had the option to opt for concrete structures. Soon, an app to locate public toilets soon The BBMP aims to utilise the data it recently gathered during the public toilet survey in the city to build an app to locate public toilets. The BBMP had geo-tagged locations of public toilets built by it, but not of toilets built and run by NGOs and private players and those in petrol stations. For the survey, BBMP officials acquired geo-tagged data of all such toilets in the city, which will later be mapped on the app, said Sarfaraz Khan, Joint Commissioner, Health, BBMP.

In order to meet the March 2018 ODF goals, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) has decided to ramp up infrastructure development


Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018




Sanitation Vehicles For Itanagar The Itanagar Municipal Council has distributed sixteen sanitation vehicles in different wards along with dedicated waste disposal vehicles

Swachh Survekshan cleanliness awards List includes cleanest Schools, Hotels, Hospitals and Resident Welfare Associations

Quick Glance 16 sanitation vehicles were provided to various districts IMC also provided waste disposal vehicles for the garbage Each division will have a dedicated vehicle for highway cleaning

n ssb bureau


ixteen new sanitation vehicles for Itanagar Municipal Council (IMC) were distributed among different wards. With these additional vehicles, all the 30 wards would have dedicated vehicles for garbage disposal. Capital Complex Deputy Commissioner Prince Dhawan said the initiative is part of the ‘Swachh

Survekshan’. Each subdivision of the IMC, consisting of five wards would have a dedicated vehicle for highway cleaning and a heavy duty excavator each. The DC further stated that new dustbins have been procured which would be distributed to enable segregation of wastes into dry and wet wastes at individual household level. All the waste collection points in the city would have two dustbins marked

with different colours for wet and dry waste. Separate garbage bags of two separate colours would also be made available for household segregation of waste. The DC appealed to the public to cooperate in keeping the city clean and participate in the ‘Swachh Survekshan 2018’. He also requested the public to pay civic charges and segregate wastes at household level. Details of the ‘Swachh Survekshan’ may be accessed on the website ‘www.’. Citizens have also been requested to download the Swachhata application from the Pay Store.

to Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal released the teaser, trailer poster and music of the film at Madhavadev International Auditorium, Srimanta Sankardeva Kalakhetra, Guwahati. Noted dignitaries including Dr. Siddharth Singh, Mission Director, Swacch Bharat Mission (Gramin), Saumya Kumar Baruah, Chief Engineer, PHE (Sanitation), Pratul Choudhury,

State Co-ordinator, Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin), Assam and VB Pyarelal, Additional Chief Secretary, Government of Assam attended the event. “Ajanite Mone Mone” is a full length Assamese film that revolves around the central theme of Sanitation. The film aims to strengthen the Swachh Bharat Mission movement by creating awareness amongst the masses and fulfil the vision of Prime Minister Narendra Modi towards complete Swachhata in India. Emphasizing on film as a medium to promote such causes, Dr Siddharth Singh mentioned, “This film exemplifies the seriousness of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin), Assam in taking the message of Swachhata to the grassroots levels and films are a fantastic medium to achieve this due to their huge audience base”.


A Film On Swachhata Teaser, trailer and music released n RAJ KASHYAP


he teaser, trailer and music of the Assamese film “Ajanite Mone Mone” (sometimes, silently) produced by Swacch Bharat Mission (Gramin), Assam and directed by noted film director Upakul Bordoloi, Ratna Productions was released in Guwahati. Hrishikesh Goswami, Media Advisor

ssb bureau


uwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) has announced cleanliness awards as part of the ongoing Swachh Survekshan 2018 initiated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India. Swachh Survekshan is a comprehensive examination undertaken by Government of India to assess development and achievement by cities against defined goals of the Swachh Bharat Mission. GMC conducted an extensive survey across schools, hotels, hospitals, resident welfare associations (RWA) and market associations to check cleanliness across various parameters like waste segregation, toilets, etc. A team comprising of Medical and Health Officers visited list of schools, hotels, hospitals, resident welfare associations and market associations to assess the cleanliness levels over the last couple of weeks since the announcement of Swachh Survekshan in Guwahati on 27 December, 2017. Don Bosco School, Pan Bazaar has been awarded as the cleanest school in Guwahati followed by Assam Jatiya Bidyalay, Noonmati & Maharishi Vidya Mandir, Silpukhuri. Amongst the Hotels, Vivanta by Taj, Guwahati has been awarded as the cleanest following all norms Swachh Survekshan process will examine various work done by the urban local body towards meeting Swachh Bharat Mission goals and then rate the cities across India on the basis of their performance and achievement.


Science & Technology

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018 Monitoring air & water

New Projects Launched For Real-Time Monitoring The Department Of Science and the Corporate Research Council of Intel launched four R & D projects for monitoring air and water n Sunderarajan Padmanabhan


our new research and development projects for real time monitoring of air and water quality were today launched jointly by Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Corporate Research Council of Intel. Among the proposed projects is an air quality monitoring test bed that would be able to report and visualise scientifically validated PM 2.5 and gas measurements from 40 locations in real time. After upscaling to 60 locations,

the monitoring technology is expected to cover 500 cities and towns across India. The project aims to collect air quality information to allow policy makers and citizens to deploy data-driven control and preventive mechanisms. The focus would be on low-cost PM2.5, Ozone, nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide sensors. The idea is to integrate hardware, communication and software stack, from local sensing to distributed analytics. For this, Indian Institute of


‘WhatsApp Business’ now available on Android in India WhatsApp has officially rolled out “WhatsApp Business” – a free-todownload Android app for small businesses



o help businesses communicate better with their customers in India, WhatsApp has officially rolled out “WhatsApp Business” – a free-to-download Android app for small businesses – in the country. The new app, available on Google Play Store, will make it easier for companies to connect with customers, and more convenient for its users to chat with businesses that matter to them.

Technology, Kanpur would work in collaboration withIndian Institute of Science,Bangalore, IIT-Bombay and Duke University, Durham. The second group would work on high resolution air quality monitoring and air pollutant data analytics. It would be led by Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore with Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani and University of Southern California. The researchers would aim to develop sensors as well as new techniques of sampling and calibrations to develop air quality index. The third team would work on developing an aquatic autonomous observatory. This project is also led by IIT-Kanpur, but with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). The team aims to design and develop low-cost, multi-parameter, water quality platforms with autosampling capabilities. The system would measure parameters like dissolved oxygen, conductivity, temperature, nutrients, carbon-dioxide and select heavy metals. A novel energy harvesting system integrating solar panel, piezo electric system and micro wind turbine is envisaged. The fourth team would work towards developing sensors for real- time river water monitoring and decision making. The project is co-led led by IIT-Delhi and University of California (UCR),

Riverside, along with other Indian and American partners. They would develop sensors for chemical oxygen demand, microbial indicators and water flow for determining water quality. Launching the projects, Minister for Science and Technology, Dr. Harsh Vardhan, expressed hope that they would help strengthen the government’s efforts to address the problem of air and water quality through missions like Namami Gange. DST Secretary Dr Ashutosh Sharma said the projects would be conducted over a period of five years. DST and Intel Corporate Research Councilwould provide a total Rs 30 crore to the four teams on 50:50 sharing basis. The programme will be administered by the Indo-USScience and Technology Forum. (India Science Wire).

“WhatsApp Business”, yet to come on Apple App Store in India, asks for a separate phone number from the one users have for their individual WhatsApp account. “People all around the world use WhatsApp to connect with small businesses they care about from online clothing companies in India to auto parts stores in Brazil,” the Facebookowned app had said in an earlier statement. “WhatsApp Business will make it easier for people to connect with

them, and vice versa, in a fast and simple way,” the company added. “WhatsApp Business” was launched last week in Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Britain and the US. The app will help customers with useful information such as a business description, email or store addresses and website. It will also save time with smart messaging tools -- quick replies that provide fast answers to frequently asked questions, greeting messages that introduce customers to your business, and away messages that let them know you’re busy.

Quick Glance The monitoring technology tracks 40 locations in real-time The technology will eventually cover 500 cities and towns The project aims to collect air quality information

Science & Technology

Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018


mercury-free lampo

Mercury-Free Lamp Developed For Water Purifiers A group of Indian scientists have developed a mercury-free ultraviolet lamp that can be used in water purifier

n Dr VaishaliLavekar


he use of ultraviolet lamps in water purifiers is common but the presence of mercury in these lamps could be potentially hazardous. Now a group of Indian scientists have developed a mercury-free ultraviolet lamp that can be used in water purifiers. Scientists have engineered an optimized dielectric discharge based mercury-free Vacuum UV/UV light source for water sterilization. The lamp

can produce desired level of wavelengths for deactivation of bacteria within ten seconds without the use of mercury. The lamp has been developed by scientists from two CSIR labs - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpurworking along with Birla Institute of Scientific Research (BISR), Jaipur. In addition to being mercury-free, the lamp has a filament-less light source and there are no end sleeves. Since it uses dielectric-barrier discharge or DBD source, start-up time is negligible. It has broader wavelength coverage due to dimer radiations and medium pressure. Naturally available water may contain pathogenic organisms and toxic compounds. UV radiation is preferable

for water purification over chemical treatment. UVradiation is widely used for water sterilization as it does not create any byproduct during treatment and does not alter the taste of water. It also does not eliminate minerals. But it has several disadvantages which include start-up time, filament failure, sleeve breakage, dimensional restrictions and non-reparability. Mercury containing UV-lamps generate a considerable amount of toxic mercury waste at the end of their life as a typical UV lamp contains 20 to200mg of mercury. “We have engineered an optimized dielectric discharge based mercuryfree VUV/UV light source with a novel structural design that produces strong spectral bands peaking at wavelengths 253 nanometer and 172 nanometer along with a weak band peaking at wavelength 265 nanometer, that has been tested on a few representative bacteria to show its usefulness for efficient water sterilization”, explained Dr. Ram Prakash from CEERI. The unique structural design of the lamp enables it to produce desired UV wavelengths. The lamp has been tested for five types of bacteria -E. coli,

Quick Glance Scientists have engineered an optimized dielectric discharge The lamp has been developed by scientists from two CSIR labs The lamp uses it uses dielectric-barrier discharge or DBD

Shigellaboydii, Vibrio, coliforms and fecal coliform. Within ten seconds, all bacteria got deactivated. “The lamp been tested further for water with turbidity level and its on-time efficiency has been found to be 200% as compared to standard equivalent mercury based UV-lamp”, added Dr. Ram Prakash. The results of the research work have appeared in journal Scientific Reports. The research team included Dr. Ram Prakash, Afaque M. Hossain, Dr. U. N. Pal, Dr. N. Kumar, Dr. K. Khairnar, and Dr. M. Krishna Mohan. (India Science Wire).


GSAT-11: Last Indian Satellite Launched By Foreign Rocket The 5.7-tonne GSAT-11 will be most probably the last heavy Indian satellite SSB Bureau


f things pan out as intended, the 5.7-tonne GSAT11 will be most probably the last heavy Indian satellite to be launched by a foreign space agency, according to K. Sivan, Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The GSAT-11 communication satellite will be launched by Arianespace’s Ariane rocket soon. “We are working on a dual concept: Increasing

the carrying capacity of our heaviest rocket -- the 640-tonne Geosynchronous Satellite Launch VehicleMk III (GSLV Mk III) to six tonnes – while producing high throughput and lower weight communication satellites,” said Sivan. He said nearly 60 per cent of the satellite weight consists of onboard chemical fuel and by opting for electric power for manoeuvring in space the mass of the satellite will be reduced. The Indian space agency had tried electric propulsion in its GSAT 9 satellite. At present, the

GSLV Mk III rocket has a carrying capacity of four tonnes. The Indian space agency is working on increasing GSLV Mk III’s carrying capacity to six tonnes. According to Sivan, the capacity enhancement is not restricted to GSLV Mk III alone but also to other rockets as it would bring down the overall launch cost. According to him, to increase the production of rockets, the space agency is looking at transferring the technology for making PSLV rocket to industries.




Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

nGeeta Singh

he relationship of Mahatma Gandhi, who taught the mantra of non-violence, still has been strong enough not only with politics but also with the film industry. For the internet generation still, many new documentaries and short films are being made to retell Gandhi’s story and his ideology. The contributions made by Gandhi and the events of his life have been shown very well in various feature films, short films and documentaries made in India and abroad both. Bapu was not just the biggest leader of Indian independence movement but also a face of it to the rest of the world. His philosophy of non-violence is still being preached all over the world. In the coming April, the Australian government will commence four-month long digital interactive exhibition showcasing the life and achievements of Mahatma Gandhi. It will be held in Australia’s Victoria state. More than 1,000 archival photographs, over 130 minutes of footage, 60 minutes of film clips and 20 voice recordings of Gandhi’s speeches would be shown in the exhibition at the Victoria’s Immigration Museum. Not only this, a documentarySabarmati Ashram: The Home of Gandhi’s Experiments with Truth, celebrating the centenary of Mahatma Gandhi’s Sabarmati Ashram was shown in London recently to retell Gandhi’s story with some interesting visual elements to the young people who relate themselves to the internet. Several filmmakers have captured the greatness of this incredible soul on the celluloid. Gandhi is yet a relatable subject for filmmakers. The complex and layered personality of Gandhi is seen as a great deal for any artist to portray. Let’s take a look at some of the movies that have been created till now, inspired by Bapu’s lives.


connection with Gen Z

A list of films made on the life and Values of Mahatma Gandhi and break the Salt Law. The film sheds light on Gandhi’s life in the Ashram. There was also an interesting eyewitness account of the famous Salt March by one of his disciples, Sumangal Prakash. He was one of the 78 Ashram residents whom Gandhi personally selected as his co-marchers. The film is written and produced by journalist Vijay Rana.

Ashram is very unusual and lesser known. It shows how Gandhi set up this ashram in 1917 on a 36-acre wasteland on the banks of Sabarmati River. It was full of snakes, and the first thing Gandhi said was that none of them was to be killed. The film also showcases Bapu’s life at the ashram. The film shows how some pro-British newspapers ridiculed his idea of Salt March. People in England wondered what harm could be done to the powerful British Indian government by picking up some salt from a deserted seashore. Nobody could imagine that on Gandhi’s call millions of Indians would come out on streets to defy the Raj

Sabarmati Ashram: The Home of Gandhi’s Experiments – In this documentary, the story of Sabarmati

Gandhi worshipped as Goddess A place in Andhra Pradesh where Mahatma Gandhi is still worshipped as a Goddess. Villagers in Kedaripuram, Andhra Pradesh, have been worshipping Mahatma Gandhi as a goddess for decades with the belief that the deity - Mahatma provides them with bumper yields.They celebrate the festival, named Gandhamma Sambaram in every Kharif season before beginning their work in the fields. The locals said their ancestors have been celebrating the festival after independence in 1947. “Our elders, inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, then staged a satyagraha and got the land freed from the inamdari system. The villagers used to organise a festival before starting cultivation in the inam fields to showcase their unity against the Inamdars. Thus we named the festival the Gandhamma Sambaram. A Gandhi Youth Association and a Gandhi-aided school were built in the villages,” said 65-year-old K Falguna Rao, sarpanch of Kedaripuram.

An Encounter with Mahatma: A 12-minute short film on Mahatma Gandhi was produced by Veershankar, Telugu producer and director. Based on the book written by Gandhiji ‘My Religion, M.K. Gandhi’, this short film ends with Martin Luther King’s speech where he talks about Gandhi. Mahatma: Life of Gandhi, 1879-1948 - This documentary film released in 1968 was based on the life of Gandhi and his search for his truth. This film is mostly presented with Gandhiji’s own words and it was shot in Black and White in the English language. The film has shown the struggle for Gandhiji’s life and his freedom of India. The film was directed by Vithabhai Jhaveri. Tis documentary was produced by the Gandhi National Memorial Fund in collaboration with the Film Division of the Government of India. This documentary is by far the longest tribute to the father of the nation with over a 5-hour length, and a 14 part series on YouTube. Gandhi: In feature films, Gandhi released in 1982 remains the best biographical movie of Mahatma Gandhi. Created by director Richard Attenborough Gandhi is still considered as a milestone. In this film, ‘Ahimsa Satyagraha’ has been shown by Gandhiji, which started with the Champaran movement of Bihar. This film made on Gandhi ji has also been honoured with an Oscar Award. Gandhi’s character was played by actor Hollywood actor Ben Kinsley. He had played the role of Gandhiji in the film and he was also given an Academy Award for the same role. This film made a little known Indian-origin British actor Ben Kingsley as one of the renowned actors in the world. Various actors were considered over the years for the all-important title role, but the actor who was finally chosen, Ben Kingsley, made the role so completely his own that there is a genuine feeling that the spirit of Gandhi is on the screen. Pandit Ravi Shankar

gave the music to the film and got the ‘Acquittal Award’ for Best Picture. The Making of Mahatma: Released in 1996 the film was directed by Shyam Benegal, the well-known director. The film was made on the book ‘The Apprenticeship of a Mahatma’ by writer Fatima Mir. The narrative is based on Mahatma Gandhi’s time in South Africa where he had a practice as a barrister. The time was before he came to India and joined the Independence movement. In the film, Gandhi’s South Africa philosophy was shown. Mahatma Gandhi raised a voice against racial discrimination with Indians in South Africa. And the circumstances that made Gandhi a Mahatma. Actor Rajit Kapoor got the National Award for Best Actor from this movie. The film also received a National Award for Best Feature Film. Lage Raho Munna Bhai: In the commercial outlook Raj Kumar Hirani directed movie Lage Raho Munna Bhai, released in 2006 showcased the ideology of Gandhiji through hero Sanjay Dutt. The most populous film ever made on Gandhi introduced Gandhiji’s nonviolent image and taught people the lessons of Gandhigiri. In the film, the role of Gandhi was played by actor Dilip Prabhavalkar Gandhi-My Father - (2007) National award-winning film was released in 2007. It was commercially hit. The story revolves around the troubled relationship of Mahatma Gandhi and his son, Harilal Gandhi. In the film, Gandhi’s son Harilal Gandhi feels that despite his father being the father of the whole country, he could not prove a good father for him. This film also shows the grief of Gandhi’s life. Darshan Jariwala played Gandhi’s character and his son Harilal, was played by Akshaye Khanna. This film was produced by Anil Kapoor and directed by Firoz Abbas Khan. There has been a great effort to show every aspect of the life Gandhi through the film medium. Some other lesser Known films are Nine Hours To Rama (1963): This film tells nine hours of the life of Nathuram Godse before killing a great man like Mahatma Gandhi. In this film, JS Kashyap played Gandhi. Horst Buschodge played the role of Nathuram Godse. Hey Ram (2000): The film focuses on the killing of Gandhi by the partition of India and Nathuram Godse. Naseeruddin Shah played Gandhi’s character. Writer, director and film producer Kamal Haasan played the role of Hindu Fundamentalist Saket Ram, who wanted to kill Gandhiji but later changed his mind and started apologizing. Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara (2005): Anupam Kher played the role of a retired Hindi professor Uttam Chaudhary. He gets madness and he starts believing that he is the killer of Gandhi.


Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018

events & more...


ACROSS 2. World’s largest underwater cave found in ___________. 7. Which country builds World’s Biggest Air Purifier recently?


11. Which city is hosting the 2017 World Youth Forum (WYF)? 12. The Homolographic projection has the correct representation of

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SSB crossword no. 6

13. Which state hosted the 12th International Film Festival on Art and Artist 2018? 15. Which company unveiled a partnership with NASA to develop flying taxis? 16. This bank becomes 1st Indian Bank to Cross Rs5 trillion Market Capitalisation. 17. The Arjuna Awards were instituted in the year 19. This company signs a $690 million deal from M&G Prudential. 20. Ricky Ponting is also known as what?


SOLUTION of crossword no. 6

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1. 1959 2. Bihar 3. India 4. 1911 5. Sanskrit 6. 1929 7. Assam 8. Novel 9. 25 10. Field

11. Bombay 12. Rajpath 13. Hockey 14. Chaucer 15. 1930 16. Nepal 17. President 18. Google 19. Onam 20. Jagmohan

1. The year 1985 was declared as the International Year of 3. In which Indian state did the game of Polo originate? 4. India won its first Olympic hockey gold in...? 5. January 15 is celebrated as the 6. Which country’s team has won the 2017 Women’s Hockey Asia Cup Tournament? 8. Which comapany is named as the world’s most admired company for 2018? 9. The ‘Dronacharya Award’ is given to...? 10. The nickname of wicketkeeping great Rod Marsh was what? 14. India’s first cartoon network theme park “Amaazia” will come up in which city? 18. The Muslim League as a political party was founded in16. Which of the following country bans Solo Climbing on Mount Everest recently?

19. In which of the following festivals are boat races a special feature?

solution of sudoku-6


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Jan 29 - Feb 04, 2018


The Life & Archives Of Mahatma Victoria to showcase India-special bond with digital interactive exhibition


ore than 1,000 archival photographs, over 130 minutes of footage, 60 minutes of film clips and 20 voice recordings of Gandhi’s speeches – come April, all these archives are on the cards of Australia in form of a four-month long digital interactive exhibition showcasing the life and achievements of Mahatma Gandhi at Victoria’s Immigration Museum, to build a cultural understanding about India among the residents. State Premier Daniel Andrews, who is currently on his first official visit to India, announced the same after touring the Mahatma Gandhi Exhibition in Delhi. “Mahatma Gandhi was an inspirational leader and I am thrilled that Victorians will be able to enjoy this incredible exhibition at the Immigration Museum,” he said.

Stressing that Victoria is home to Australia’s largest Indian population, the premier said, “This exhibition is an important way to acknowledge their cultural heritage and build the cultural understanding of India among the wider Victorian community.” “Showing the Mahatma Gandhi Exhibition in Victoria will help celebrate Indian culture in our state, and will bring visitors from interstate and overseas alike to our great city,” Andrews was quoted as saying in an official statement. The exhibition is currently on display at the Pravasi Bharatiya Kendra in Delhi, where it was launched in October 2016 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The exhibition is a part of the state government’s efforts to generate awareness of the special bonds it shares with India. It recognises that Gandhi was a member of the diaspora who migrated from India to England and then to South Africa before returning to India.

women contingent

India’s First Biker Women Contingent Breathtaking stunts and acrobatics to stun the nation this Republic Day


his Republic Day, brace yourselves for a new biker contingent which will be a part of the grand national parade which marches down Rajpath, India’s ceremonial boulevard. These bikers are gearing up to stun the country with their breathtaking stunts and acrobatics. As per tradition, the parade is concluded by either the BSF or Army contingent of men daredevils, on an alternative basis. But this year, an all-women biker contingent from the Border Security Force (BSF) will do the honours. Christened ‘Seema Bhavani’ or Border Bravehearts, the 113-member squad includes women aged between 25-30 years, who have been carefully chosen from different combat ranks of the force for the squad.

Led by Sub-Inspector Stanzin Noryang, a 28-year-old from Ladakh, the team comprises a diverse mix of bold and daring women from almost all the states in the country. While Punjab leads with 20 participants, the states of West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh closely follow with 15, 10, 9, and 8 members, respectively. There are 7 members each from Assam and Bihar, 6 from Odisha, 5 members each from Rajasthan, Manipur and Gujarat, and 3 from Jammu & Kashmir and Chhattisgarh each.There are 2 participants each from Kerala, Karnataka, Uttarakhand and Delhi, and lastly 1 member from Meghalaya and Himachal Pradesh each. As many as 15 of these members are married, while some are even mothers.

unsung hero

no airment Imp barrier

Professor Zarana Maheshwary battles the odds to fulfill her dreams


he was diagnosed with a genetic disorder of eyes at the age of two. The condition deteriorated when she was in grade 5. And subsequently, the partial impairment turned into complete blindness. But that did not stop Zarana Maheshwary from receiving her PhD in English Literature. Instead, she shone as the only second visually impaired woman in Gujarat to be awarded the degree. Zarana was diagnosed with Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). She struggled with schoolwork – what other children could do in 2-3 hours, took her 7-8 hours – but she persisted and finally secured 85 per cent in her grade 12 boards. She was ranked second in the arts stream in Palanpur. After that, there was no stopping her. She completed her BA degree, from Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University and secured a gold medal as well. She went on to acquire a Masters’ degree in English Learning Teaching and completed her MPhil from CUG. Today, she works as an Assistant Professor in the Center for Comparative Literature and Translation Studies at the Central University of Gujarat (CUG) and has been teaching academic writing to students pursuing their masters in English Literature, and comparative literature to students pursuing their MPhil, since the last five years. She uses a screen reader and text-to-speech converter to teach the students. Though, she faced a lot of discrimination in her school and college life with constant pull downs, it was her determination alongside the support of close ones that she fulfilled her dreams. Zarana wishes to see a world where people do not give respect to the differently abled just because of their condition, but because it is something they deserve.

RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561, Joint Commissioner of Police (Licensing) Delhi No. F. 2 (S-45) Press/ 2016 Volume - 2, Issue - 07 Printed by Monika Jain, Published by Monika Jain on behalf of SULABH SANITATION MISSION FOUNDATION and Printed at The Indian Express Ltd., A-8, Sector-7, NOIDA (U.P.) and Published from RZ 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam-Dabri Road, New Delhi – 110 045. Editor Monika Jain

Sulabh Swachh Bharat - Vol-2 - (Issue 07)  
Sulabh Swachh Bharat - Vol-2 - (Issue 07)