WORLD YOGA DAY SPECIAL
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RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561
Vol-1 | Issue-27 | June 19 - 25, 2017 | Price ` 5/-
Good News Weekly for Rising India LIFETIME AWARD
Bharat Gaurav Award conferred on Dr Bindeshwar Pathak for his work in sanitation and social work
From generating solar power to This 16-years old boy has setting up bio-toilets Railway is developed a software for trying to check climate change digital literacy of the poor
3RD ANNIVERSARY WORLD YOGA DAY
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s untiring efforts have catapulted Yoga to global stage with business worth hundreds of billion dollars and international recognition to boot. Lets take a look at Yoga’s journey from ancient scriptures to the current global fad...
...Continued on Page 2
02 Yoga Goes Global
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WORLD YOGA DAY SPECIAL
Quick Glance 51000 people to perform Yoga with PM & CM in Lucknow The event to be celebrated with gusto the world over All communities to come together to celebrate the occasion
Yoga is integrating
the world. Come, become a Yogi in the movement to make Yoga popular and create a better and healthier society: Narendra Modi
CELEBRATING YOGA LUCKNOW
THE GALA EVENT IN LUCKNOW Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath will kick off the celebrations at a grand function in Lucknow. A look at the preparations the world over... SSB BUREAU
EDNESDAY, June 21, will mark the third World Yoga Day. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has called on the people to make the occasion a memorable one. He himself will perform yoga at Ramabai Ambedkar Maidan, Lucknow. Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, Senior Bharatiya Janata Party ministers and yoga gurus along with nearly 51,000 people are expected to take part in the event in Lucknow. Senior citizens, aanganwadi workers and around 500 specially-abled people will be participating in the event. More than 100 secondary education students from all over UP will participate. The Government
will provide lodging, food and return transportation for the students. Senior citizens, aanganwadi workers and around 500 divyangs will also be motivated to participate in the International Yoga Day celebrations. Participants will be given mineral water bottles, along with T-shirts specially designed for the event. This is the first time Uttar Pradesh Government will be participating in Yoga Day celebrations as Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Government had not participated in the International Yoga Day celebrations for the last two years even when it was organised by different central departments at KD Singh Babu stadium in Hazratganj area of
Lucknow. Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh and BJP leaders and workers were active participants on both the occasions. In Delhi, seven main events are being planned in different places in association with NDMC, DDA and Yoga organisations. Apart from this, yoga events will be held in different parts of the country as well as main cities like Paris, London and New York across the globe. The Ayush ministry, has requested the people visiting the web page related to International Yoga Day to take a pledge to make yoga an integral part of their daily life. Prime Minister himself tweeted recently, â€œThe world will come together to mark the 3rd Yoga Day. Let us all make this occasion a
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memorable one”. PM Modi also said that he will be sharing different aspects of Yoga starting today till June 21. Sharing a video of him talking about Yoga and its benefits, Modi tweeted, “Yoga is integrating the world. Come, become a Yogi in the movement to make Yoga popular & create a better & healthier society.” He also shared a prayer spoken before practising Yoga. Prime Minister Modi, an ardent follower of Yoga, with intention of creating a healthier society said that till June 21, he would be sharing different aspects relating to the physical, mental and spiritual practices involved in Yoga. “Yoga is integrating the world. Come, become a Yogi in the movement to make Yoga popular & create a better & healthier society. “YogaDay,” he tweeted. PM Modi also shared a video showing people praying ahead of performing the Yoga. “Let us begin with a prayer, which is always suggested before practising Yoga. #YogaDay,” he said. He appealed the society to become a ‘yogi’ and create a better country as the world observes the third International Yoga Day on June 21. Earlier last week, speaking on Mann Ki Baat, the Prime Minister pitched for Yoga and appealed to families to post pictures of their three generations performing asanas together on the third International
Yoga Day on June 21. He also asked them to upload the pictures on ‘Narendra Modi App’ or ‘MyGov’ to give the occasion a new dimension. “Grandparents, parents and children should together perform yoga and also upload their photos. It will be such a pleasant blend of yesterday, today and tomorrow — lending a new dimension to yoga,” Modi said. “These pictures will be a guarantee of a brighter tomorrow,” he added. In 2014, soon after Narendra Modi came to power at the Centre, the United Nations General Assembly, after a call by PM Modi, announced June 21 to be celebrated every year as International Yoga Day (IDY).The first International Yoga Day celebration was organised in New Delhi on June 21, 2015, and in this representatives of more than 190 countries had participated. Again in last year, the International Yoga Day celebrations took place in Chandigarh. STUDENTS IN NEW YORK A group of students from Lucknow will perform various yoga asanas at the United Nations headquarters in New York on the occasion of International Yoga Day 2017 on June 21.
Yoga Goes Global
A 72-member team of City Montessori School (CMS), Lucknow, has left for the United States for a live performance at the UN headquarters. The group had staged a special performance before Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath at his official resident on May 19. The students were applauded for their performance and were even awarded. The event at the UN headquarters will see the
A group of students from Lucknow will perform various yoga asanas at the United Nations headquarters in New York
The UAE will
celebrate it a day before – on June 20 - in view of the holy night of Lailat-ul-Qadr falling on June 21
04 Yoga Goes Global
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BENEFITS OF YOGA Yoga is now in the list of UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. “Yoga is like music. The rhythm of the body, the melody of the mind, and the harmony of the soul creates the symphony of life,”says well-known yoga guru B.K.S. Iyengar. Its benefit goes beyond improved balance and flexibility… Healthier Heart: Yoga is not just breathing techniques and sitting still, it also includes fast-paced routines, which are great for the heart. Practising yoga lowers the risk of cardiac diseases. Yoga can slower heartbeat and lower blood pressure level. Lowers Stress: Yoga is one of the best ways for stress management. The breathing technique learnt in yoga helps regulate stress and body energy. Practising yoga ever day for at least 35 minutes will help lower the chances of a person getting stressed. Decrease Depression and Anxiety: It boosts the quality of life. Decrease anxiety and depression. 10-weeks of yoga will decrease the level of depression. It also improves cognitive-behavioural performance. It also helps women during menopause. Improves Concentration: The breathing technique
businessmen and busy housewives who can’t attend classes, call instructors at home to practice yoga, a sure cure for at least 11 maladies
in yoga helps in calming mind and stay focused. One will be more attentive and will be able to better deal with stressful situation. Yoga helps brain function better. Teach kids yoga to improve their concentration. Improves Immunity and Accelerate Healing: Yoga improves immunity, causes changes that help in boosting the immune system. Yoga has a better effect on immunity system than going on a hike. The entire process of better breathing techniques and movements lead to improved body function. Improves Strength: Practising yoga styles like Power yoga and Ashtanga yoga helps to gain physical strength, while Iyengar yoga helps improve stamina. The various movements and stretches will increase overall strength. One will also see a marked improvement in flexibility. Regulates Adrenal Gland: Yoga helps regulate adrenal gland and the level of cortisol, which is a stress hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. Increased level of cortisol is also associated with depression, osteoporosis and food cravings. It causes binge eat junk food and weight gain.
participation of 72 students from different classes. The performance will also be witnessed by UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres.
Street meeting was also held at Wabagai Lamkhai, Lamjao, Langmeidong, Waikhong and Sugnu too.
MOTOR CYCLE RALLY As part of the International Yoga Day observance, a Mega Motor Cycle rally was carried out from Kakching to Serou as an awareness campaign by Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya Kakching since May 21 and will continue through June 21, 2017. The Rally was flagged off by Retd IGP Mayanglambam Sushilkumar from Brahma Kumaris, Peace Palace Kakching of Kakching Wairi Khongnang Lamtei. Rajyogini Brahma Kumari Nilima, in-charge of Brahma Kumaris Manipuri, Brahma Kumari Rupa, in-charge of Brahma Kumaris Kakching and other officials took part in the flag off. The rally was organised to give awareness and usefulness of Yoga for the month long international yoga day observance by by Prajapita Brahna Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya Kakching from May 2 to June 21, 2017 as part of the International Yoga Day celebration.
DUBAI: A DAY IN ADVANCE Thousands of yoga enthusiasts will mark the 3rd International Yoga Day in Dubai on June 20. The day is observed on June 21 but this year, the UAE will celebrate it a day before in view of the holy night of Lailat-ul-Qadr falling on June 21. Top diplomats at the Indian Consulate in Dubai announced that the mission will celebrate the day with events organised at different venues, in line with the motto of “Yoga at Your Doorstep”. Dubai has been an important overseas venue where the Day was celebrated with the participation of tens of thousands of residents in 2015 and 2016. At a press conference the Indian Consul General in Dubai, Vipul, said the main events in Dubai this time will be held in association with yoga schools from 8 pm onwards at Burj Park, Zabeel Park and Burhani Complex, instead of one venue unlike in the past. He said the Burj Khalifa Park was chosen as an iconic venue and
Zabeel Park was chosen to give access to more people for the celebrations. “We thought that it will not suffice if we organise it only at these places. So we have involved other community organisations, associations and schools so that people can go to the nearest venue in Dubai or The Northern Emirates to participate in the events. These events will take place on 20th and 21st,” he said. W hile 3,000 attendees are expected at the Burj Park, around 500 members of the Bohra community will take part in the event at the Burhani Complex in Al Nahda. Various individuals and private institutions are also conducting activities to mark the day. “Even if one cannot come to any venue, I urge everyone to do yoga at home like how we observe the Earth Day,” said Vipul. He added that the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi had written to all world leaders thanking them for their encouragement for the IYD and soliciting their support for this year’s event. In the UAE, he has written to His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, and His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces. ASANAS AND PRANAYAM But more and more Muslims have been adopting yoga to stay fit as a fiddle after many clerics and scholars gave their thumbs-up to yogic techniques and asseverated that there was nothing un-Islamic about the ‘asanas’ (postures), ‘pranayams’ (breathing techniques) and ‘shatkarmas’ (cleansing processes). Says Lucknow’s Shiite cleric Maulana Yasoob Abbas: “Yoga is for everyone. I don’t think yoga is associated with any religion. Islam is not so weak that it should feel threatened by yoga”. Yoga training centers, including run-of-the-mill classes and hightech studios, which have mushroomed across Indian cities in the past two years to cash in on the yoga craze, have been welcoming Muslim aspirants of all ages bent on maintaining their muscle tone and flexibility as also getting rid of their common ailments. After all, the myriad institutes teach different types of yoga like
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Yoga Goes Global
pre-natal yoga, hatha yoga, power yoga, hot yoga, Iyengar yoga, traditional yoga, vinyasa yoga, restorative aerial yoga and ashtanga yoga, which have mesmerised even Bollywood actresses like Nargis Fakhri, Kareena Kapoor Khan and Malika Arora Khan. AWARENESS GROWING If well-known naturopath and seasoned yoga expert Meena Brahmbhatt is to be believed, Muslims’ awareness about yoga has zoomed from a mere 4 per cent to an incredible 40 percent after June 21 was declared as the International Yoga Day by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 2014.“Muslims are already familiar with namaz-like vajrasana and hence quickly get hooked to yoga. They hate medicines and so are ready to follow the yoga regimen and even shun non-vegetarian food”, says Brahmbhatt who has also trained and treated citizens from Dubai and Abu Dhabi as well as other foreigners. FIRST PRIVATE YOGA UNIVERSITY High-flying businessmen and busy housewives who cannot attend classes, call instructors at home to benefit from yoga, a sure cure for at least 11 maladies like obesity, depression, insomnia, allergy, back pain, blood pressure disorder, etc. No wonder, with the demand for yoga coaches escalating, ambitious youngsters like Imran Khan Salat wanting to make a career in yoga have been pounding books to pursue a degree course in India’s first government-accredited, full-fledged, self-funded private yoga university on the outskirts of Ahmedabad, the Lakulish Yoga University (LKU), which has now started attracting Muslim students for its degree, diploma and short-term certificate courses. Poojaba Jadeja Zala, an LKU lecturer and assistant registrar, told this correspondent that yoga increases the power of the immune system, sharpens mind and memory, gives peace, and expands one’s capabilities, adding that even Modi, a dyed-in-the-wool yoga aficionado, does ‘sudarshan kriya’, a rhythmic breathing technique, regularly even when he is travelling abroad. MUSLIMS JOINING IN HORDES Hundreds of Indian Muslims are ready to bend it like Beckham and join Prime Minister Narendra Modi to celebrate the International Yoga Day on June 21 in Lucknow, the
capital of the largest state of Uttar Pradesh, where yoga is now part of the school curriculum. On the same day in Ahmedabad in Modi’s home state of Gujarat, countless men, women and children from among the country’s 180 million Muslims will also be present when yoga guru Baba Ramdev leads a 5,00,000 - strong group at a massive 2.8 million square feet venue in a bid to set a world record for the biggest yoga demonstration. For the past several years, a large section of the minority community has been learning this ancient Indian system of physical, mental and spiritual exercises that help one to control and relax both mind and body. FREE CAMPS “The university not only imparts
scientific training in age-old yogic techniques but also now and then conducts free camps which are attended by many Muslims,” says Zala. According to Dr Mehboob Kureshi, an international yoga expert, yoga is a science with physical, mental and spiritual exercises that keep one alert, smart and fit. “Yoga has nothing to do with religion and can be done even while observing Roza during Ramadan,” opines Dr Kureshi who has been doing a yeoman’s service in Ahmedabad’s Juhapura, Asia’s largest Muslim ghetto, by holding workshops to encourage the minority community members to undertake the spiritual journey of yoga for achieving enlightenment. CELEBRITIES GALORE Corporate honcho Anand Mahindra, Executive Chairman, Mahindra Group is also a Yoga enthusiast. He has been tweeting about the practice time and again. In fact, he had once trolled New York Times over a research study on breathing exercises. He tweeted a WhatsApp forward, on how to do Suryanamaskar while sitting at the desk. There are some Bollywood celebrities who swear by Yoga. Actors like Malaika Arora Khan, Kareena Kapoor, Shilpa Shetty, Nargis Fakhri and Lara Dutta practice Yoga to keep in shape. All of us know that Shilpa Shetty Kundra has been a yoga lover for years and her fabulous body is ample proof of her love.
Yoga has nothing to
do with religion and can be done even while observing Roza during Ramadan, opines Dr Mehboob Kureshi, an international yoga expert
06 History of Yoga
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HISTORY OF YOGA
DOWN THE AGES A look how Yoga was discovered and how it evolved down the ages
DR. SWATI SONAL
Y Sun had highest
importance during the vedic period. Pranayama was a part of daily ritual and to offer the oblation
OGA is not merely physical exercise as many take it to be. It is essentially a spiritual discipline based on an extremely subtle science, focussing on bringing harmony between mind and body. It is an art of healthy living. The word ‘Yoga’ is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘Yuj’, meaning ‘to join’ or ‘to yoke’ or ‘to unite’. As per Yogic scriptures the practice of Yoga leads to the union of individual consciousness with that of the Universal Consciousness, indicating a perfect harmony between the mind and body, Man & Nature. Modern scientists claim that everything in the universe is just a manifestation of the same quantum firmament. One who experiences this oneness of existence is said to be in yoga, and is termed as a yogi, having attained to a state of freedom referred to as mukti, nirvana or moksha. Thus the aim of Yoga is Self-realization, to overcome all kinds of sufferings leading to ‘the state of liberation’ (Moksha) or ‘freedom’ (Kaivalya). Living with freedom in all walks of life, health and harmony shall be the main objectives of Yoga practice. “Yoga” also refers to an inner science comprising of a variety of methods through which human beings can realise this union and
Quick Glance Yoga originated long before the first religions or belief systems were born Shiva is seen as the first Yogi or Adiyogi & the first Guru or Adi Guru Yoga performing figures found in Indus-Saraswati Valley civilization
achieve mastery over their destiny. Yoga, being widely considered as an ‘immortal cultural outcome’ of Indus Saraswati Valley civilization – dating back to 2700 B.C., has proved itself catering to both material and spiritual upliftment of humanity. Basic human values are the very identity of Yoga. SHIVA, THE ADIYOGI The practice of yoga is believed to have started with the very dawn of civilization. The science of yoga has its origin thousands of years ago, long before the first religions or belief systems were born. In the yogic lore, Shiva is seen as the first Yogi or Adiyogi, and the first Guru or Adi Guru. Several Thousand years ago, on the banks of the lake Kantisarovar in the Himalayas, Adiyogi poured his profound knowledge into the legendary Saptarishis or “seven sages”. From here it spread to different parts of the world. Scholars have noted the close parallels found
between ancient cultures across the globe. Agastya, the Saptarishi who travelled across the Indian subcontinent, crafted this culture around a core yogic way of life. A number of seals and fossil remains of Indus Saraswati valley civilization have been found yoga performing figures. The phallic symbols, seals of idols of Mother Goddess are suggestive of Tantra Yoga. The presence of Yoga is available in folk traditions, Indus Valley civilization, Vedic and Upanishadic heritage, Buddhist and Jain traditions, Darshanas, epics of Mahabharat and Ramayana, theistic traditions of Shaivas, Vaishnavas, and Tantric traditions. In addition, there was a primordial or pure Yoga which has been manifested in mystical traditions of South Asia. This was the time when Yoga was being practised under the direct guidance of Guru and its spiritual value was given special importance. It was a part of Upasana and yoga sadhana was inbuilt in their rituals. CODIFIED BY PATANJALI Sun was given highest importance during the Vedic period. The practice of ‘Surya namaskar’ may have been invented later due to this influence. Pranayama was a part of a daily ritual and to offer the oblation. Though
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Yoga was being practised in the preVedic period, the great Sage Maharshi Patanjali systematised and codified the then existing practices of Yoga, its meaning and its related knowledge through his Yoga Sutras. After Patanjali, many Sages and Yoga Masters contributed greatly to the preservation and development of the field through their well-documented practices and literature. Surya Namaskar Historical evidence of the existence of Yoga was seen in the pre-Vedic period (2700 B.C.), and thereafter until Patanjali’s period. The main sources, from which we get the information about Yoga practices and the related literature during this period, are available in Vedas (4), Upanishads(108), Smritis, teachings of Buddhism, Jainism, Panini, Epics (2), Puranas (18) etc. GYAN, BHAKTI, KARMA YOGAS Tentatively, the period between 500 BC - 800 A.D. is considered as the Classical period which is also considered as the most fertile and prominent period in the history and development of Yoga. During this period, commentaries of Vyasa on Yoga Sutras and Bhagavad Gita etc. came into existence. This period can be mainly dedicated to two great religious teachers of India –Mahavir and Buddha. The concept of Five great vows – Pancha mahavrata- by Mahavir and Ashta Magga or eightfold path by Buddha - can be well considered as early nature of Yoga sadhana. A more explicit explanation is found in Bhagawadgita which elaborately presents the concept of Gyan Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga. These three types of yoga are still the
History of Yoga
highest example of human wisdom and even today people find peace by following the methods as shown in Gita. Patanjali’s Yoga sutra besides containing various aspects of yoga, is mainly identified with eight fold path of Yoga. The very important commentary on Yoga sutra by Vyasa was also written. During this very period the aspect of mind was given importance and it was clearly brought out through Yoga sadhana, Mind and body both can be brought under control to experience equanimity. POST-CLASSICAL PERIOD The period between 800 A.D. - 1700 A.D. has been recognized as the Post Classical period wherein the teachings of great Acharyatrayas-Adi Shankracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhavacharya-were prominent during this period. The teachings of Sur Das, Tulasi Das, Purandar Dasa, Mira Bai were the great contributors during this period. The Natha Yogis of Hathayoga Tradition like Matsyendaranatha, Gorkshanatha, Cauranginatha, Swatmaram Suri, Gheranda, Shrinivasa Bhatt are some of the great personalities who popularized the Hatha Yoga practices during this period. MODERN PERIOD The period between 1700 - 1900 A.D. is considered as Modern period in which the great YogacharyasRamana Maharshi, Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Paramhansa Yogananda, Vivekananda etc. have contributed for the development of Raja Yoga. This was the period when Vedanta, Bhakti yoga, Nathayoga or Hathayoga flourished. The Shadanga-yoga
of Gorakshashatakam, Chaturangayoga of Hathayogapradipika, Saptanga-yoga of Gheranda Samhita, were the main tenents of Hatha-yoga. Now in the contemporary times, everybody has conviction about yoga practices towards the preservation, maintenance and promotion of health. Yoga has spread all over the world by the teachings of great personalities like Swami Shivananda, Shri T. Krishnamacharya, Swami Kuvalayananda, Shri Yogendara, Swami Rama, Sri Aurobindo, Maharshi Mahesh Yogi, Acharya Rajanish, Pattabhijois, BKS. Iyengar, Swami Satyananda Sarasvati and the like. IYENGER YOGA B.K.S. Iyengar was the founder of the style of yoga known as “Iyengar Yoga” and was considered one of the foremost yoga teachers in the world clearing misconceptions. For many, the practice of yoga is restricted to Hatha Yoga and Asanas (postures). However, among the Yoga Sutras, just three sutras are dedicated to asanas. Fundamentally, hatha yoga is a preparatory process so that the body can sustain higher levels of energy. The process begins with the body, then the breath, the mind, and the inner self. Yoga is also commonly understood as a therapy or exercise system for health and fitness. While physical and mental health are natural consequences of yoga, the goal of yoga is more far-reaching. Yoga is about harmonising oneself with the universe. It is the technology of aligning individual geometry with the cosmic, to achieve the highest level of perception and harmony. Yoga does not adhere to any particular religion, belief system or community; it has always been approached as a technology for inner
Yoga Education was
imparted by knowledgeable, experienced, and wise persons in the families and then by the seers in ashrams
08 History of Yoga
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realization leading to transcendence is considered as the essence of Yoga Sadhana.
wellbeing. Anyone who practices yoga with involvement can reap its benefits, irrespective of one’s faith, ethnicity or culture.
Now, everybody has
conviction about yoga practices towards the preservation, maintenance and promotion of health
TRADITIONAL SCHOOLS These different Philosophies, Traditions, lineages and GuruShishya paramparas of Yoga lead to the emergence of different traditional Schools of Yoga e.g. Jnana-yoga, Bhakti-yoga, Karma-yoga, Dhyanayoga, Patanjali-yoga, Kundalini-yoga, Hatha-yoga, Mantra-yoga, Layayoga, Raja-yoga, Jain-yoga, Buddhayoga etc. Each school has its own principles and practices leading to ultimate aim and objectives of Yoga. The widely practiced Yoga Sadhanas are: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana (Meditation), Samadhi, Bandhas & Mudras, Shat-karmas, Yukta-ahara, Yukta karma, Mantra japa, etc. Yama’s are restraints and Niyama’s are observances. These are considered to be pre-requisites for the Yoga Sadhanas (Practices). Asanas, capable of bringing about the stability of body and mind, is about adopting various psychophysical patterns, giving the ability to maintain a body position - a stable awareness of one’s structural existence- for a considerable length and period of time as well. PRANAYAM Pranayama consists of developing awareness of one’s breathing followed by willful regulation of respiration as the functional or vital basis of one’s existence. It helps in developing awareness of one’s mind and helps to
establish control over the mind. In the initial stages, this is done by developing awareness of the ‘flow of in-breath and out-breath’ (svasaprasvasa) through nostrils, mouth and other body openings, its internal and external pathways and destinations. Later, this phenomenon is modified, through regulated, controlled and monitored inhalation (svasa) leading to the awareness of the body spaces getting filled (puraka), the spaces remaining in a filled state (kumbhaka) and it’s getting emptied (rechaka) during regulated, controlled and monitored exhalation (prasvasa). Pratyhara indicates dissociation of one’s consciousness (withdrawal) from the sense organs which helps one to remain connected with the external objects. Dharana indicates a broad based field of attention (inside the body and mind) which is usually understood as concentration. Dhyana (Meditation) is contemplation (focused attention inside the body and mind) and Samadhi – integration. Bandhas and Mudras are practices associated with pranayama. They are viewed as higher Yogic practices mainly consisting on adopting certain body (psycho-physical) patterns along with (as well as) control over respiration. This further facilitates control over mind and paves way for higher yogic attainment. Shat-karmas are detoxification procedures, help to remove the toxins accumulated in the body and are clinical in nature. Yukt Ahara (right food) advocates appropriate food for healthy living. However, practice of Dhyana (Meditation) helping in self-
YOGA’S FUNDAMENTALS Yoga works on the level of one’s body, mind, emotion and energy. This has given rise to four broad classifications of Yoga: Karma Yoga, where we utilise the body; Bhakti Yoga, where we utilise the emotions; Gyana Yoga, where we utilise the mind and intellect; and Kriya Yoga, where we utilise the energy. Each system of Yoga we practice would fall within the gamut of one or more of these categories. Every individual is a unique combination of these four factors. All the ancient commentaries on Yoga have stressed that it is essential to work under the direction of a Guru. The reason being that only a Guru can mix the appropriate combination of the four fundamental paths, as is necessary for each seeker. THE TRAINING Traditionally, Yoga Education was imparted by knowledgeable, experienced, and wise persons in the families and then by the seers in ashrams. Yoga Education aims at taking care of the individual. It is presumed that a good, balanced, integrated, truthful, clean, transparent person will be more useful to oneself, family, society, nation, nature and humanity at large. Yoga education is ‘Being oriented’. Details of working with ‘being oriented’ aspect have been outlined in various living traditions and texts and the method contributing to this important field is known as ‘Yoga’. Today yoga education is imparted by various institutions, colleges, universities, departments in the universities, naturopathy colleges and private trusts & societies. Many yoga clinics, yoga therapy and training centres, preventive health care units of yoga, yoga research centres etc. have been established in hospitals, dispensaries, medical institutions and therapeutic setups. Different social customs and rituals in India, the land of Yoga, reflect a love for ecological balance, tolerance towards other systems of thought and a compassionate outlook towards all creations. Yoga Sadhana of all hues and colours is considered panacea for a meaningful life and living. Its orientation to a comprehensive health, both individual and social, makes it a worthy practice for the people of all religions, races and nationalities. (Writer is Assistant Professor in Hindi Dept. of Vanasthali Vidyapeeth, Rajasthan)
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Gurus of Yoga
GURUS OF YOGA
INDIAN GURUS WHO POPULARISED YOGA Though Shiva is called the Adi Guru of Yoga, there have been numerous Gurus who have not only been training people but also innovating the art. Iyengar redefined Patanjala’s yoga sutras to create Iyengar Yoga. He is adored by millions of followers and his book ‘Light on Yoga’ is often referred to as the Bible of Yoga.
OON after the United Nations recognised the benefits of Yoga in December 2014 and called for its wider spread across the world, it adopted Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s proposal to declare June 21 as ‘International Day of Yoga’. Much before Modi’s efforts to popularise India’s 5000-year-old connection with Yoga, other Indian gurus helped spread the word about Yoga. Here’s a look at some of the most popular gurus through the ages. ADI SHANKARACHARYA Adi Shankaracharya was born in a small village called Kaladi in Kerala in 788 AD. At a time when the Vedas had lost their hold on the common man, Adi Shankaracharya revived them and led to the advocacy of Advaita Vedanta and travelled across the country to propagate his teachings. He believed that the purity of mind achieved through Yoga could help to gain Moksha knowledge.
TIRUMALAI KRISHNAMACHARYA T Krishnamacharya is often called as the father of modern Indian yoga. He is also credited with reviving Hatha Yoga and developing Vinyasa. Krishnamacharya was known to mix his knowledge of Yoga as well as Ayurveda to heal those who came to his help. He spread Yoga across India under the patronage of Mysore’s Maharaja. B. K. S. IYENGAR B. K. S. Iyengar was one of the most renowned Indian practitioners and one of the foremost exponents of yoga in the world. His school of yoga, called Iyengar Yoga, is credited with bringing yoga to the masses as well as popularising it among sceptics. Named one of the top 100 influential people in the world in 2004 by Time magazine, B. K. S.
DHIRENDRA BRAHMACHARI One of the most wellknown yoga gurus of m o d e r n I n d i a , Dhirendra Brahmachari was best known for being Indira Gandhi’s Yoga teacher. He was also responsible for promoting Yoga on state channel Doordarshan and also introduced Yoga as a subject in Delhi administered schools and owned Vishwayatan Yogashram in Delhi. He also wrote books in English and Hindi to spread Yoga and had a lavish ashram in Mantalai in Jammu complete with a private airstrip and a zoo. SWAMI SIVANANDA SARASWATI S w a m i Sivananda Saraswati is the author of over 200 books on y o g a , Vedanta and other topics and spent a lifetime teaching yoga through his Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres. He was a doctor in Malaysia before renouncing his work to becoming a monk. Sivananda Saraswati spent his life doing intense Sadhana, learning the scriptures and teaching yoga. Calling his Yoga as the Yoga of Synthesis, Sivananda Saraswati combined Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Raj Yoga and spread it across the world.
Quick Glance Purity of mind through yoga could help to gain Knowledge of Moksha Dhirendra Brahmachari was famous for being Indira Gandhi’s yoga guru Sivananda Saraswati combined karma yoga, jnana yoga, bhakti yoga
Much before Modi’s efforts to popularise India’s 5000-yearold connection with Yoga, other Indian gurus helped spread the word about Yoga
10 Gurus of Yoga
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SWAMI CHIDANANDA SARASWATI Swami Chidananda Saraswati who took on a life of renunciation at the age of 20 after receiving his BA degree from the prestigious Loyola College in Chennai. He was initiated into monastic life by Sivananda Saraswati where he joined the Sivananda Ashram and was later appointed as the President of Divine Life Society in Rishikesh. Chidananda was instrumental in setting up the Yoga Museum in 1947 that housed the entire Vedanta philosophy and depicted Yoga Sadhana through pictures and illustrations.
Yogi was known for teaching Transcendental Meditation Technique to Indians and the world
MAHARISHI MAHESH YOGI Maharishi Mahesh Yogi was renowned in the world for t e a c h i n g Transcendental Meditation Technique to Indians and the world. Famous as the Yoga Guru of The Beatles, Beach Boys and other celebrities, Mahesh Yogi’s fame spread throughout the world along with his teachings. Sri Sri Ravi Shankar is a disciple of Mahesh Yogi. PARAMAHANSA YOGANANDA Paramahansa Yogananda is best known for his famous book ‘Autobiography of a Yogi’ that introduced millions of Westerners to meditation and Kriya Yoga. Yogananda was the first major teacher of yoga who spent a major part of his life in the US, paving the way for others to follow him.
Born into a Telugu family in 1957, Jaggi Vasudev is one of the most well-known Indian practitioners of yoga alive today. His non-religious, non-profit organisation Isha Foundation is well known for teaching yoga across the world and is run entirely by volunteers. From life-term prisoners to corporate gurus, Jaggi Vasudev and his form of Yoga have touched many people across India and the world. SWAMI RAMA Swami Rama was best known as the first yogi to have been studied by Western scientists as he claimed he could control his body processes like blood pressure, heartbeat and body temperature. Born in Garhwal, Swami Rama founded the Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy after becoming the holder of the Sankhya Yoga tradition. One of his significant achievements is the establishment of a large medical facility in the Dehradun to serve millions of poor people. His institutes with branches in Europe and India and headquarters in the USA live on through his teachings of yoga. K PATTABHI JOIS Many Hollywood actors were keen proponents of K Pattabhi Jois’s Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga. His brand of yoga is popular as Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga that is based on the ancient text cal led Yoga Korunta and which attracted celebrity loyalists like Madonna, Sting and Gwyneth Paltrow. SRI SRI RAVI SHANKAR Hindu spiritual leader Sri Sri Ravi Shankar acknowledges his followers
at an Art of Living Foundation function in Buenos Aires. The founder of the Art of Living Foundation has popularised the rhythm is breathing practice which is called Sudarshan Kriya. It came to him “like a poem”, as he describes it, while he was practising silence for a 10-day long period on the banks of the Bhadra River, in Karnataka. BIKRAM CHOUDHURY Bikram Yoga is performed in a hot room for around 90 minutes during which time the participants sweat out. His famous 26 types of postures that are meant to be practised in a hot environment of 40 degree Celsius are derived from Hatha Yoga and are designed to bring the body back to the brain. Each pose benefits a definite part of our system (body). This is called Bikram Yoga. BABA RAMDEV
No list would be complete without Swami Ramdev. His mass yoga camps kind of brought back Yoga to the mainstream. His watch-andpractice yoga programmes on TV are a hit and that have made Yoga a household name in India. The credit of us religiously practising Kapalbhati and Anulom-vilom goes to this man too. In short, he made us believe that yoga is not only for yogis but for commoners as well.
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TOP 10 YOGA RETREATS IN INDIA One can practice Yoga anywhere but performing under able guidance of a guru in Goa or in a Himalayan retreat could be sheer pleasure for body and the mind
Quick Glance As with many things in India today, yoga doesn’t come cheap Meditation, breathing, cleansing techniques with asanas for Yoga Comfort’s loss is authenticity’s gain in an ashram
NDIA is a dream destination for many yogis, but with so many ashrams and courses, how do you choose wisely? From the hardcore to the boutique, we select 10 of the best places to practise yoga Though this list includes some of the best ashrams, retreats and shalas India has to offer, there are three notable omissions: BKS Iyengar’s school in Pune, Pattabhi Jois’s in Mysore, and the pan-Indian Sivananda Centre, excluded on account of their existing popularity and fame. They are highly recommended nonetheless. Several other places were vetoed on account of various scandals and disputes, and we have also excluded luxurious and obscenely priced retreats. As with many things in India today, yoga doesn’t necessarily come cheap but all of these are the very good value given the quality of teaching on offer. Be advised that customer service in India isn’t always the best, and some of the more traditional places might prove hard to contact. But be patient, persevere, switch to “Indian-time” and, if you must, see it as the first step in letting go of your ego. One last thing: while Yoga in the West focuses almost exclusively on the physical postures and sequences (asana), in India, particularly in traditional ashrams, asana is only one aspect of a wider whole. In this case one can expect a greater emphasis on meditation, breathing and cleansing techniques, along with devotional practices such as mantra chanting, tuition in philosophy, and karma yoga (community service).
asana. So alongside classes expect hours of Seva (service) – including gardening, kitchen work and toilet cleaning – supplemented by cold showers and a simple diet. It may sound daunting, but comfort’s loss is authenticity’s gain, and former students attest to the lifealtering qualities a stint in this ashram can give. Days begin at 4 am and end with Twilight satsangs (discourses) or kirtans (mantra chanting) before lights out at 8 pm. Many yoga styles are taught, including Hatha, Raja (mental discipline), Kriya (breathing, chanting and ritual gesture) and yoga therapy, as well as Yoga Nidra, a deep meditative technique lulling the mind into a state neither awake nor asleep, developed by the ashram’s founder Swami Satyananda Saraswati.
BIHAR SCHOOL OF YOGA, MUNGER, BIHAR At the sprawling Bihar School, yoga is a lifestyle, not a practice, and karma yoga is given precedence over
PURPLE VALLEY, ASSAGAO, GOA If you’re a modern yogi craving India plus detox juices and fast Wi-Fi, with access to the world’s best Ashtanga teachers ( John Scott,
At the Bihar School of Yoga, Munger, Yoga is a lifestyle, not a practice, and Karma Yoga is given precedence over asana Petri Raisanen, Alexander Medin), Goa’s Purple Valley is your place. Despite its hardcore reputation, beginners are not only welcome but encouraged, making it a great place to kick-start your Ashtanga training, with Mysore-style self-practice in the morning and special classes in the afternoons, including philosophy, yogic living, kirtans and pranayama. The retreat is spread over two Portuguese-style houses and
12 Yoga Retreats
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landscaped gardens with a tropical forest feel. Two international and one Ayurvedic chef prepare buffet meals that include the likes of masala millet crepes and soy burgers. Consultations with Ayurvedic doctors and massage therapists are also offered. Once the preserve of foreign students, Purple Valley now has a growing Indian following.
Think of him as a
cantankerous old kung-fu master whose tough love hides a deep-seated desire for his students to prosper
KAIVALYADHAMA ASHRAM, LONAVALA, MAHARASHTRA Set within 180 acres of parkland at Lonavala, a hill station between Mumbai and Pune, this ashram, designed as a yogic research centre when it opened in 1924, is the kind of place you can spend days, months or even years immersed in its myriad programmes. The ashram’s school offers diplomas and fully accredited degrees for yoga teachers, along with shorter courses for both beginners and advanced students, while the health centre – where Gandhi was an early patient after a breakdown in 1927 – has week-long packages that include yoga with a focus on either relaxation, naturopathy or Ayurveda. You’ll stay within the leafy, old-fashioned campus, at the health centre or in the rooms of the main hall, some of which are air-conditioned. The diet throughout is organic Indian vegetarian. MYSORE KRISHNAMACHARR YOGA SHALA, MYSORE, KARNATAKA Mysore, in the southern state of Karnataka is one of India’s most popular yoga destinations. BNS Iyengar, who has taught quietly in his Mysore shala for the last 38 years, was one of the original students of “super-guru” Krishnamacharya, the teacher of the famous BKS Iyengar and Pattabhi Jois, founders of Iyengar and Ashtanga yoga respectively. His classes include Ashtanga yoga
asanas (the sequence differs from the main Ashtanga institute’s, with a 55 minute primary series) pranayama (breathing), kriya (breathing, chanting, gesture), neti and dhauti (cleansing techniques), meditation and philosophy, all of which are taught as part of a teacher training course. BNS has a steady following despite or perhaps because of his “brutal” style. Think of him as a cantankerous old kung-fu master whose tough love hides a deepseated desire for his students to prosper. Students are required to register for a minimum of one month. Accommodation is provided nearby at extra cost, otherwise, there are plenty of rooms to rent around this yoga-friendly city. HIMALAYAN IYENGAR YOGA CENTRE, DHARAMKOT, HIMACHAL PRADESH & ARAMBOL, GOA A do in Arambol, the former hippy beach in northern Goa is wide quiet, perfect for practising yoga. An old student of BKS Iyengar, Sharat Arora became well-known in yoga
circles for his serious and dedicated approach to the tradition. His school, the Himalayan Iyengar Yoga Centre (HIYC), spends summers in Dharamkot, a picturesque Himalayan village above the Tibetan refugee settlement of Mcleodganj, and winters in Arambol, the former hippy beach town in the far north of Goa. All students, regardless of ability, must first complete the compulsory five-day course before progressing onto teacher training and specialised courses such as yoga therapy, yoga for Vipassana, and yoga with Ayurveda. Besides the respected teaching, the centre’s summer location, a mountain in the shadow of glaciers, set amid oak, rhododendron and pine forests – not to mention the Dalai Lama’s nearby residence – is a real draw. PHOOLCHATTI, RISHIKESH, UTTARAKHAND Built beside an ancient pilgrimage route on the banks of the river Ganges, 5 km up river from
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Rishikesh’s famous Laxman Jhula suspension bridge, the ashram taps into the holy town’s spiritual vitality while eschewing its chaotic hustle. Though the ashram is under the stewardship of Swami Dev Swarup Nanda, most classes are led by yoga director Sadhvi Lalitambay, who has lived here since she was 15. The seven-day yoga course includes meditation, mantra chanting, netipot cleansing (a nasal cleaning technique), pranayama, asana practice, prayer, kirtans and plenty of discussion around yoga philosophy. Meditative walks, hiking and river dips are also included. The ashram itself is over 100 years old but the building was renovated recently, so rooms come with some modern comforts, including hot showers. Couples can share rooms. Outside treats are permitted, but the food prepared in-house is very good. MYSORE MANDALA, MYSORE, KARNATAKA With a tranquil, century-old house and charming cafe supplied by the owners’ organic farm, this is Mysore’s prettiest yoga space – closer to a western style studio than a traditional ashram, but no less authentic for it. Ashtanga is the focus (this is Mysore after all) but there’s a wide range of other classes to choose from, including hatha,
shatkriya (cleansing), backbending and pranayama as well as instruction in Sanskrit and lessons in the yoga sutras. Teacher training is very highly regarded here; led by a team of nine teachers, it includes the aforementioned branches, alongside classes in anatomy and Ayurveda. OMKARANANDA PATANJALA YOGA KENDRA, RISHIKESH, UTTARAKHAND Swiss born Usha Devi is a strict adherent of BKS Iyengar and his
famously precise but therapeutic style, and the ashram in which she teaches, on the banks of the Ganges just outside Rishikesh, is as functional and austere as her instruction is straight from the source. You won’t find any teacher training or certifications here, only daily drop-in classes (for beginners and intermediate) for which no early registration is required, and a nine-day intensive course for which three years regular practice in Iyengar yoga is a prerequisite. Rooms are available on site, and the nearby town is teeming with guesthouses. INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR YOGA EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, PUDUCHERRY This coastal gurukul (guru centre) is arguably the most traditional and immersive on this list, teaching a classical style that embraces all
eight limbs of yoga. Famous for their six-month teacher-training course – which requires the completion of a year-long correspondence course before you’re even eligible to apply, and to which only 10 students per year are accepted – this is not for the casual yogi, but, for the bold, the rewards are abundant, with a depth and breadth of teaching that’s remarkable. Having said all that, they run a three-week course on Yantra, “the science of number, name and form”, alongside daily yoga and pranayama practice. All courses are residential, with a strict vegetarian diet, a no-alcohol, no-drugs policy, and very limited contact with the outside world. THE YOGA HOUSE, MUMBAI, MAHARASHTRA & VARANASI, UTTAR PRADESH Morning prayers on the ghats of the river Ganges in Varanasi, that most holy of Indian cities. A modern, bright and welcoming space in the lively Mumbai neighbourhood of Bandra, which seeks to link traditional Indian knowledge and practice with a contemporary health-conscious lifestyle. If you’re coming from, say, London or New York, or are desperate to discover “the real India” (whatever that might be) it could feel a little too close to home, but you’d be
foolish to dismiss this place. The Yoga House is a sanctuary, the teaching is first-rate, and the cafe food (both western and Indian vegetarian) is exceptional. What’s more, they recently opened a new shala and boutique hotel in Varanasi, that most holy of Indian cities. Styles (for beginner and advanced) include Hatha Vinyasa, Iyengar and Ashtanga. Daily drop-ins and monthly class passes are available. They also run retreats around the country.
This is not for the
casual yogi, but, for the bold, the rewards are abundant, with a depth and breadth of teaching that’s remarkable
14 Types of Yoga
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TYPES OF YOGA
THE VARIOUS FORMS OF YOGA
Different types of yoga might be best for different people Hatha yoga refers to the one that teaches physical postures Iyenger yoga is more about precision, details and body alignments
There are about 30 forms of Yoga being taught currently. What are these forms and how is one different from the other. A cursory look.... SSB BUREAU
Like cross training,
incorporating a variety of types of Yoga into your regular practice can help keep you balanced
OU’VE decided to finally start doing yoga — but after Googling classes in your area, your head is spinning. Should you try Ashtanga or Iyengar? And what’s the difference between hot yoga and Vinyasa? The array of options can be enough to scare newbies off the mat for good. But here’s why you shouldn’t be scared: Like cross training, incorporating a variety of types of yoga into your regular practice can help keep you balanced, says Nikki Vilella, senior teacher at Kula Yoga Project and co-owner of Kula Williamsburg. “Try a few different studios, teachers and styles. Then, stick with the one that resonates with you for a good amount of time and be dedicated to the practice,” says Vilella. “The first day you don’t like a class shouldn’t be a reason to bolt and try something new.” Yoga isn’t necessarily a ‘one-size-fitsall’ practice, either. Different types of yoga might be best for different people. “A 20-year-old and a 70-year-old probably don’t need the same things,” Vilella says. “Someone who is hypermobile and flexible doesn’t need the same thing as someone who’s muscular and stiff.” So with all the choices out there, where do you start? Don’t lose your Ujjayi breath (that’s yogi speak for calming inhales and exhales). We’ve got your definitive list — plus, tips for identifying the style you might like best. HATHA It’s all about the basics in these slower moving classes that require you to hold each pose for a few breaths. In many studios, hatha classes are considered a gentler form of yoga. However, the Sanskrit term “hatha” actually refers to any yoga that teaches physical postures. “It’s a practice of the body, a physical practice that balances these two energies. So, in reality, it is all hatha yoga,” Vilella says. Best for: Beginners. Because of its slower pace, hatha is a great class if
you’re just starting your yoga practice. VINYASA Get your flow on in this dynamic practice that links movement and breath together in a dance-like way. In most classes, you won’t linger long in each
pose and the pace can be quick, so be prepared for your heart rate to rise. Teachers will often pump music, matching the beats to the sequences of the poses. Best for: HIIT lovers. Intense exercisers might enjoy Vinyasa because of its faster pace. Runners and endurance athletes are also drawn to Vinyasa class because of the continuous movement. IYENGAR It’s all about precision and detail, as well as your body’s alignment in each pose. Props, from yoga blocks and
blankets to straps or a ropes wall, will become your new best friend, helping you to work within a range of motion that is safe and effective. Unlike Vinyasa, each posture is held for a period of time. If you’re new to Iyengar, even if you’ve practiced other types of yoga, it’s good to start with a level one class to familiarize yourself with the technique. Best for: Detail-oriented yogis. If you like to geek out about anatomy, movement and form, you’ll love Iyengar — teachers share a wealth of information during class. Iyengar can also be practiced at any age and is great for those with injuries (consult with a doctor first), Vilella notes. ASHTANGA If you’re looking for a challenging yet orderly approach to yoga, try Ashtanga. Consisting of six series of specifically sequenced yoga poses, you’ll flow and breathe through each pose to build
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internal heat. The catch is that you’ll perform the same poses in the exact same order in each class. Some studios will have a teacher calling out the poses, while Mysore style classes a subset of Ashtanga, require you to perform the series on your own. There will always be a teacher in the room to offer assistance if you need it. Best for: Type-A folks. If you’re a perfectionist, you’ll like Ashtanga’s routine and strict guidelines. Celebrity devotees including actor Russell Brand have given Kundalini a cult-like following. BIKRAM Prepare to sweat: Bikram consists of a specific series of 26 poses and two breathing exercises practiced in a room heated to approximately 105 degrees and 40 percent humidity. All Bikram
studios practice the same 90-minute sequence so you’ll know exactly what to do once you unroll your mat. Remember, the vigorous practice combined with the heat can make the class feel strenuous. If you’re new to Bikram, take it easy: Rest when you need to and be sure to hydrate beforehand. Best for: Amateurs. Those who are newer to yoga might like Bikram because of its predictable sequence. HOT YOGA Hot yoga is similar to Bikram in that it’s practiced in a heated room. But teachers aren’t constrained by the 26-pose Bikram sequence. While the heat will make you feel like you can move deeper
into some poses compared to a nonheated class, it can be easy to overstretch, so don’t push beyond your capacity. Best for: Hardcore sweat lovers. If you love a tough workout that will leave you drenched, sign up for a beginnerfriendly heated class. KUNDALINI Celebrity devotees including actor Russell Brand and author Gabrielle Bernstein have given Kundalini a cultlike following. Yet, this physically and mentally challenging practice looks very different from your typical yoga class. You’ll perform kriyas —repetitive physical exercises coupled with intense breath work — while also chanting, singing and meditating. The goal? To break through your internal barriers, releasing the untapped energy residing within you and bringing you a higher level of self-awareness. Best for: People looking for a spiritual practice. Those who are seeking something more than a workout may enjoy Kundalini due to its emphasis on the internal aspects of yoga, including breath work, meditation and spiritual energy.
YIN YOGA If you want to calm and balance your body and mind, this is where you’ll find your zen. The opposite of a faster moving practice like Ashtanga, Yin yoga poses are held for several minutes at a time. This meditative practice is designed to target your deeper connective tissues and fascia, restoring length and elasticity. You’ll use props so your body can release into the posture instead of actively flexing or engaging the muscles. Like meditation, it may make you feel antsy at first, but stick with it for a few classes and its restorative powers might have you hooked. Best for: People who need to stretch and unwind. Keep in mind, Yin yoga is not recommended for people who are super flexible (you might overdo it in some poses) or anyone who has a connective tissue disorder, Vilella says. RESTORATIVE
While it may feel like you’re not doing much in a Restorative yoga class…that’s the point. The mellow, slow-moving practice with longer holds gives your body a chance tap into your parasympathetic nervous system, allowing you to experience deeper relaxation. You’ll also use a variety of props including blankets, bolsters and yoga blocks to fully support your body in each pose. Best for: Everyone. In particular, Vilella says it’s a good yoga practice for anyone who has a hard time slowing down, who has experienced insomnia or who struggles with anxiety. It’s also great for athletes on recovery days.
Types of Yoga
Yoga is to break
through your internal barriers, releasing the untapped energy residing within you and bringing you a higher level of selfawareness
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Yoga is the “ Journey of the
self, through the self, to the self ”
A retired Lutheran pastor, he is adjunct professor at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary in Evanston
Lord Krishna, Bhagawat Gita
INDIA, THE WORLD YOGA GURU Yoga is contributing significantly in rising India’s global stature
OGA today is truly a global phenomenon. It is one of the five fastest growing economic activity in the world. At least 30 crore across the world, people practice Yoga every day. Yoga is now a $ 17 billion industry in the USA where 15 million people have taken up Yoga. Be it Far East, Middle East or the West, Yoga is the current fad everywhere. Yoga has also catapulted Ayurved and Khadi to the global centre stage. Yoga and Ayurved products’ market is valued at approx Rs 12000 in India alone. The number of Yoga practitioners has risen by 35 per cent. Yoga dress and Yoga mattress manufacturing companies too have seen a steep rise in their fortunes. Prime Minister Narendra Modi established an Ayush ministry after taking over in May 2014. He also exempted all Yoga products from all kinds of taxes in next Union budget presented in February 2015. Ever since the practice has registered a 100 per cent annual growth. Most importantly, Yoga has created a niche space for India in the international arena. The country which has given the world basics of mathematics, science and medicine, has been contributing significantly to keeping a major part of world population hale and hearty.
YOGA IS RELIGIOUS NEUTRAL One can even practice yoga as a devotion offered to Christ instead of Krishna
OGA has been growing rapidly in popularity in America. Now it is even being introduced in public schools because it is a good form of exercise and it calms the mind. Yet this has not been without controversy. There was a law suit filed by parents in Encinita, California to exempt their children from yoga because of its basis in Eastern religion. But a California Appeals Court judge has ruled that the yoga offered in the school system doesn’t violate religious freedom because it has been so diluted of religious content that it is not an affront to anyone’s faith. Yoga is not a religion in itself. It is a practice that unites body and mind and its techniques have been used by several religions…and by practitioners who espouse no religion. I am a Christian pastor and theologian who practices yoga. In my view the breathing techniques (pranas), poses (asanas), and meditation practices are religiously neutral, but one can bring religious or spiritual beliefs to them. One can even practice yoga as a devotion offered to Christ instead of Krishna. Is this cultural or religious appropriation? Yoga classes may be suspended in one or another university over issues of “cultural appropriation”, but yoga has become a global phenomenon practiced by millions of people around the world and a billion dollar industry. It is not going to be rolled back. Cultural appropriation occurs when a culture that’s seen as an oppressor borrows or steals elements of a culture they’re oppressing.. But it’s hard to see how the charge of colonizing applies to Yoga in North America and the West because yoga was not borrowed, stolen, or even imported from India; it was exported by Indians to the West.
YOGI HIMSELF A YOGI
KUMAR DILIP Edited, Printed and Published by: Monika Jain on behalf of Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation, owned by Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation Printed at: The Indian Express Limited A - 8, Sector -7, NOIDA (UP) Published at: RZ - 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam - Dabri Road, New Delhi - 110045 (India) Corporate Office: 819, Wave Silver Tower, Sector - 18, NOIDA (UP) Phone: +91-120-6500425 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
WORLD YOGA DAY SPECIAL
In terms of mass marketing, Indian prime minister Narendra Modi beat them all by getting the United Nations to recognize International Yoga Day on June 21 (the summer solstice), which was celebrated with mass yoga demonstrations worldwide. Prime Minister Modi is clearly a yogi. The yoga asanas performed during the International Yoga Day at Rajpath were according to
the Common Yoga Protocol, which has been put together by the AYUSH ministry (Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy), which organized the celebration along with the External Affairs ministry. Around thirty-five asanas and pranayamas were performed. Modi clearly intends for yoga to be promoted internationally. “Yoga has the power to bring the entire humankind together!” he tweeted after pitching the idea of an International Yoga Day in his speech at the U.N. General Assembly in 2014. The charge that yoga has been “cultural appropriated” or “colonized” by the West is complicated because the British occupiers despised the yogis and the yoga that the Indian gurus exported to the West had already been westernized. Just so, Indian gurus strove to make yoga appealing to the West. The yoga we are practicing has not only been adapted to the West, but also to modern life in India with its health and wellness concerns.
PATANJALI STILL RELEVANT
Yoga teachers continue to try to make Patanjalian yoga relevant to modern householders in North America. But Indian teachers have been doing the same. We are all learning from historical studies that modern postural yoga is not the kind of yoga codified in Patanjali’s Yoga sutras. But I think very few of us are likely to join the ranks of India’s naga sadhus (naked holy men) and live in a cave in the Himalayas. There’s no question that yoga is rooted in Indian culture. As Mircea Eliade wrote in
Yoga is not a
religion in itself. Its a practice that unites body and mind..
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Yoga has been exported
for millennia. Tibetan Buddhists have practiced yoga for millennia Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, it meets “all the deepest needs of the Indian soul.” That should definitely be recognized and respected. And yoga teachers who make use of symbols rooted in Indian culture have an obligation to get them right. It is also possible to teach yoga in studios that do not display Indian symbols, which is often the case when yoga is taught in fitness and health clubs, YMCAs, and other facilities not devoted exclusively to yoga. This avoids some of the worst transgressions of “cultural appropriation.” But it is also possible to use yoga symbols rooted in Indian culture with integrity. Yoga has been exported for millennia. Tibetan Buddhists have practiced yoga for millennia—which indicates that yoga can also be practiced outside of India and apart from Hinduism. Some Hindus think it can’t be or should not be. Dr. Aseem Shukla, cofounder of the Hindu American Foundation, lamented that “yoga has thrived, but Hinduism has lost control of the brand.” The Hindu American Foundation, whose mission is to shed light on any form of prejudice against Hindus or Hinduism, has initiated a Take Back Yoga movement in an effort to assert yoga as a Hindu religious contribution to civilization. But if yoga has been practiced for 5,000 years, it was practiced before it became systematized in Hinduism. Perhaps a case can be made that Hindus were the first “colonizers” of yoga.
REVERING THE BLOOD
The author is a graduate in Computer Science from BITS, Pilani. He is presently helping to settle a migrant community, focusing on their education needs
Menstruation is a taboo in India society today. But, if we look at our past, it was not always so.
OMETH June 22nd and the roads to Nilachal Hill in western Guwahati will be thronged with devotees and saints. It will mark the beginning of Ambubachi Mela, when lakhs of Hindu worshippers would congregate at Kamakhya Devi temple, one of the most important shakti-peeth of Hindu religion, to commemorate the menstruation of presiding deity of the temple, who is in the form of a yoni-shaped (vagina shaped) stone. According to the belief, during the menstruation period, fertility of the mother earth increases, and River Brahmputra flows in all its might with swelling water, as it coincides with the arrival of monsoon. For three days, a piece of red cloth covers the yoni, after which it is cut into small pieces and handed out as prasad. The devotees clamour to get a piece of the menstrual cloth tied to their hand. In the same country, millions of girls and women are shunned during their menstrual period for the fear that the natural, biological
phenomenon will pollute the surroundings. One in every four Indian girl has to miss out on her precious school time during their ‘period’. While 12% of women use commercially available sanitary napkins, there are others who use other sanitary methods for managing menstruation. However, more than 40% of Indian females opt for unsanitary and unhygienic ways for their menstrual flow, using hay, sand, dirty clothes, cow-dung cakes, etc. Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high incidence of reproductive tract
infections and one of causes for high dropout rate of girls. While government’s efforts has led to increase in usage of sanitary napkins among schoolgoing, adolescent girls, many organisations like Goonj, Sulabh Foundation are ensuring that the taboo surrounding the menstruation are dispelled away and rightly so. Along with the multiple awareness campaigns across media, the entertainment sector has taken upon itself to raise this pertinent topic. TV serials are not sweeping the topic under the carpet and making a bold statement by quelling the hush around it. Two notable movies, one by Akshay Kumar on the biopic of Menstruation Man Arunachalam Muruganantham and another, Phullu on similar topic, has caught everyone’s attention. Hopefully, one day many more Ambubachi Melas will be celebrated in our society.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
DOZENS OF YOGA STYLES
There’s no question that in America yoga has exploded into dozens of styles (and still counting), each with a brand, just as religions in America have exploded into hundreds of denominations. It’s unfair to be judgmental about those who practice a style different from mine that may be more recent. There’s no question that yoga has become a big business. But if I find that offensive I can decide not to participate in the yoga consumer culture. Stripped to basics, what more do I need to practice yoga than my body, a pair of flexible pants for modesty, and maybe a carpet to sit on. As for yoga in the public schools, school children could be subjected to a lot worse things than learning how to breathe, calm their minds and bodies, and chant together in unison. Our public schools should be promoting cultural diversity in all its particulars rather than striving for an insipid sameness that offends no one. Yoga can be taught in the schools just for its value in health and fitness and calming and focusing the mind. But there is surely no harm in also teaching students its background-even its religious background - in Indian culture.
true that we cannot imagine a life without sight and the difficulties and the limitations that assail our dreams due to it. Of course, all credit goes to those who have overcome the absence of visual sight to attain ‘insight’ into life. The efforts of people like Swagat Thorat in bringing out magazines in Braille is praiseworthy. More importantly, his advice that there should be a conscious effort to think and feel like the visually impaired if anybody wants to contribute towards this goal. Rohit Khanna, Delhi
BRAILLE ARTICLE The article on Swagat Thorat is not an “ eye-opener”, I would say it is a gateway to our sense of duty towards our fellow men and brothers. It is
CHEAPER TOILETS NEEDED Thank you for the article on the initiative by Mitsuko Trust, the NGO in Panaji, which has encouraged children to help in building dry toilets. The only aspect that worries me is the cost
factor. I am not sure if the people can afford to spend 20,000 to 50,000 on building toilets. This is the point at which the government and voluntary organisations should step in and find a way out for the common man. I hope some cheaper solution will come out soon. Sumi Kumar, Mumbai GREEN WINGS It sounds interesting, also humorous, but a ‘smart dustbin’ is just the thing we need in today’s busy life! It is good that you have published an article about the same. Pawan Kumar who came up with the idea of a smart dust bin.The best thing about it is that it is cost effective.The least I want to do in these expensive times is to spend money on disposal of trash.We are certainly living in a smart age! Suresh Kumar, Sitamarhi
Please mail your opinion to - firstname.lastname@example.org or Whatsapp at 9868807712
18 Photo Feature
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
WORLD YOGA DAY SPECIAL
International Yoga Day Prime Minister Narendra Modi has taken such keen interest in propogating Yoga that he himself has been participating in International Yoga Day. On the eve of this important day, here is a look back how International Yoga Day was celebrated last year...
Photos: PRABHAT PANDEY
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Urban Development Minister M Venkaiah Naidu and Baba Ramdev performing Yoga on Boat Club lawns on Rajpath in New Delh in last year. People gathered everywhere - from their neighbourhood park to Connought Place for Yoga.
WORLD YOGA DAY SPECIAL
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
Laughter is the best medicine, they say. That is why laughter is an integral part of yoga, as much as relaxation and breathing is. Besides, Yoga is all about making body stronger and more flexible,
20 Lifetime Achievement Award
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
NEW YORK DR BINDESHWAR PATHAK
‘Lifetime Achievement’ Award for Dr Pathak in US An organisation of Non-Resident Indians has conferred Bharat Gaurav Award on Dr Pathak in recognition of his service to the cause of sanitation and social reforms
OUNDER of Sulabh Sanitation and Social Reforms Movement, Dr Bindeshwar Pathak was conferred with prestigious Bharat Gaurav Award along at UN headquarter in New York on June 9. The award was conferred on him by Sanskriti Yuva Sanstha, an organisation of Indian diaspora in the United States of America, for “encouraging each and every one to bloom into a next idol of tomorrow”, the award citation read adding, “ You are the pride of our country and we feel privileged to hand over the Fifth “Bharat Gaurav” Lifetime Achievement Award”. Along with Dr Pathak other
Dr Pathak announced to name a village in Mewat
region of Haryana after US President Donald Trump to give a fillip to India-US relationship prominent dignitaries to be awarded were spiritual leader Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Late Kalpana Chawla, filmmaker Madhur Bhandarkar, Acharya Lokesh Muni. In another function Dr Pathak announced to name a village in Mewat region of Haryana after US President Donald Trump. He said the village will be named after the US President to give a fillip to IndiaUS relationship. “I announce to name one village in India as Trump
Village,” Dr Pathak announced at a community event organised in the suburbs of Washington DC. Dr Pathak urged the IndianAmerican community to help realise the goal of sanitation and cleanliness in India while giving his presentation to local leaders about his forays into affordable toilets. Republican leader from Virginia, Ed Gillespie, who reportedly took interest in Sulabh International’s technology highlighted the crucial
Quick Glance Dr Bindeshwar Pathak conferred Bharat Gaurav Award on June 9 The award function was organised at UN headquarters in New York The award recognises his yeoman’s service for sanitation the world over
role played by the Indian-American community in the US, saying, “The US has a very strong relationship with India.” Virginia Republican Puneet Ahluwalia, underscoring the high cost of maintenance in rural Virginia, said, “Several officials from both Virginia and Maryland have expressed their interest in adopting it locally so as to bring the cost down.”
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
VILLAGE PADMASHREE AWARDEES
THE LEGACY CONTINUES Jitwarpur village is the home of the famous Madhubani paintings and three Padma Shri awardees, a feat that no Indian town can boast of SANJEEV KUMAR
T is a matter of pride for a state as one of its residents are awarded Padma Shri. The village of Jitwarpur has all the reasons to be called Jewel of Bihar as the village has produced not once or two but three Padma Shri awardees. The place is always given a special mention when Indian Arts & Heritage is discussed on national and international podiums for its Legacy Madhubani paintings. The saviours of this great heritage have passed the batons successfully and now all 800 families in the village are committed to taking the art form to new heights. When the news of the announcement of Padma Shri for Baoa Devi reached the village of Jitwarpur it was a proud moment for the village, it was also a moment of acknowledgement that the art form has attention from not only art enthusiasts across the globe but also from the important quarters of the country. All the 800 families from this village, which is a part of Rahiqa block are dedicated to promoting Madhubani paintings. The city that thrives on Madhubani paintings is now witnessed to European cars and the global customer base that just goes to prove the kind of economic independence this legacy art has brought to its contributors. Sita Devi, the pioneer of reviving the Mithila Art or Madhubani paintings was born around 1914 and passed away in 2005. She dedicated her life for the revival and expansion of the art form to the national and international stage. The whole Jitwarpur village is trained in Mithila painting and tattoo painting mode. More than seven hundred people have joined this art and have made their name in the country and abroad. This artwork is practised in every house of the village. The art is ingrained in every member of this community of the village. The Mithila School of Art, which is the contribution of the women to this village, is incomparable. To preserve this art, the women of Jitwarpur have sacrificed their entire lives. Viewed from a perspective of these relentless saviours of their Legacy, this award has not come soon enough. For nearly sixty years Baoa Devi is
associated with Mithila painting. Baoa Devi had got a National Award in 198586. She has gone to Mithila Museum in Japan 11 times. The vibrant artwork of Mithila painting has been exhibited in Japan’s museum. According to Baoa, she has been doing Mithila painting from a young age. After getting the National Award, and till now, she has always found success at every stage. She has been honored from every organization from all corners of the country. Madhubani or Mithila painting was first used for community celebrations, such as folk festivals, marriages, and births in the village, especially in the
who renewed the art was Sita Devi, she brought the old style of Mithila painting to the new style. The paintings made on the walls of village courtyards and the walls of village homes started appearing in the drawing rooms of the cities. The sole person to be credited for this achievement is Sita Devi. Sita Devi was also called the mother of Jitwarpur. Sita Devi involved more than a thousand people in this art. The village which was not seen mortar roads was transformed into a modern village with pucca roads, all due to Sita Devi. Whenever Sita went to Delhi for the painting exhibitions, she used to live in Pragati Maidan and whenever a
Baoa Devi, third Padma Shri awadee from the village of Jitwarpur successfully takes the baton of Legacy Madhubani paintings from Sita Devi & Jagdamba Devi form of decoration. But when the President of the country approved the name of Jagadamba Devi for Padma Shri in 1975, then suddenly Mithila art emerged on the international canvas in its real identity. The interest in the local people towards this art has increased. Countless people went on to join this art. She was 92 years old when Sita Devi breathed her last, in 2005. The country’s first President Dr Rajendra Prasad was very impressed by this artist. Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi and Babu Jagjivan Ram all the leaders admired her art. Sita Devi was very much appreciated. The first lady
leader came to see her exhibition or to meet her, she would talk about the development of Jitwarpur. At the time of death, the only wish of Sita Devi was that the tradition of this art should continue forever. Her whole family is dedicated to this art. Her two sons Amaresh Kumar Jha, Vimalesh Kumar Jha and three daughters Ramrita Devi, Savita Devi and Navita Jha have become well versed in Mithila painting. Although, the real recognition of Sita Devi came when she was awarded the Padma Shri in 1981, before that Sita Devi had already been honoured at the state level in 1969 and at national level in 1975. She was also given Bihar-
Quick Glance The Padma Shri awardees are Sita Devi, Jagadamba Devi & Baoa Devi Jitwarpur, with almost 800 families, is now known for just Mithila paintings Indira Gandhi had appreciated Sita Devi for bringing the art to world
Ratna award in 1984. Before Sita Devi, Jagadamba Devi had used the latest technology and style to enhance Mithila paintings. In Madhubani painting, basically five styles, shailiya bharni, kachani, tantric godna and kohab are often seen from beginning till later. Primarily Brahmins and Kayastha women used to practise this art. It was based on mythical themes, especially about gods and goddess. But now Madhubani painting is very much about globalization. Now this art is not confined to any religion, caste or individual, in fact many foreign artists have tried their fingers on this art. It is not wrong to say that Jitwarpur dominated the Madhubani painting world in the initial period. But with time, many other great artists were able to make their mark at national level and internationally due to this art. After this, many more women artists got the national-international honours. Beginning in 1969, when state level honours were received by Sita Devi in Bihar for the first time, Mithila paintings have been in the limelight, have got the due recognition, and after that the prize-ritual seems to be in full swing. The special campaign that Jagdamba Devi, and Baoa Devi started from Jitwarpur, became the inspiration for many other people.In the year 1984, Ganga Devi, and in 2011 Mahasundari Devi was given the Padma Shri. National honor was given to Yamuna Devi, Shanti Devi, Chano Devi, Vindevari Devi, Chandrakala Devi, Shashikala Devi, Lila Devi, Godavari, Ambika Devi, Manisha Jha and Bharati. The journey started by three Padma Shri awardees of Jitwarpur, is set to go a long way, through many golden moments and is ready to get many more honors. It will not be unreasonable to say ‘ Jitwarpur you are very extraordinary!’.
22 Good News
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
GOOD NEWS IN BRIEF
INDIAN RAILWAY’S GREEN WHISTLE
To reduce its carbon emissions intensity by 35%, Indian railways is leaving no stone unturned to achieve the target and how
DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR GENETIC DISEASES The software could help doctors analyse patients’ genetic data in order to diagnose diseases caused by mutations IANS
EEPING physicians in mind, researchers have developed a simple and intuitive open-source software tool that could help doctors analyse patients’ genetic data in order to diagnose diseases caused by mutations. Developed by Raony Cardenas and colleagues at Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil, the description of the tool called “Mendel,MD” was presented in the journal PLOS Computational Biology. “We designed the software to be simple and intuitive enough to be used directly by physicians, even those who are not proficient in bioinformatics,” said study coauthor Sérgio Pena. The software needed to analyse these sequences caused by the changing of the structure of a gene is often costly or too complex for many doctors to use. Cardenas’ team developed Mendel,MD specifically for easy use by physicians and free of charge. The researchers had the tool tested by researchers and students at their own university, as well as at GENE - Núcleo de GenéticaMédica in Brazil and the Children’s University Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. As the results suggested that Mendel,MD is reliable, simple and efficient in identifying disease-causing mutations in patients, Pena and the team “expect Mendel, MD to be adopted in other research centres and laboratories around the world”.
NDIA’S railways is the world’s largest rail network and, it consumes more electricity than the whole of Sri Lanka. It’s no surprise then that Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu was quoted recently as saying that “identifying a costeffective energy system with least environmental impact is essential.” Under the Paris climate agreement, India pledged to reduce its carbon emissions intensity by 35% by 2030. Since then, the Indian government has been pushing to green the country’s vast railway network by installing 1,000 megawatts of solar energy and working towards having at least 10% of its energy come from renewable sources by 2020 as set out in its Vision 2020 strategy. Despite a plethora of obstacles, including, but not confined to, delays in the tendering process for new projects, maintenance issues, difficulties in managing performance of devices and regulations of prohibiting cross-border transport of power, India has already taken some grand steps towards achieving these ambitious goals. Solar power tariffs have plummeted in India in recent months. Media recently reported that solar tariffs had fallen well below those of power from thermal plants using new coal, suggesting that renewable energy sources
Solar power to be
produced by the Indian Railways to bring down carbon emissions by thirty five percent by 2030 could very well be on their way to becoming a cheaper alternative to coal overall in the near future. The solar generation potential for India’s railways is enormous and the government has plans to install 500MW of solar power from rooftop solar installations on railway stations, administrative buildings and vacant land. According to Climate Home, 7,000 stations have been targeted for solar panels so far, 90% of which are smaller rural stations where solar energy could be a game-changer as grid-connected panels are not always viable. It is also thought that the benefits could be wider-reaching as any excess solar energy has the potential to be sold to local business and residents. Vishakapatnam in Andhra Pradesh has one of 300 railway stations where work to green the railways has begun. From August 1
Quick Glance Railways to generate 1000 megawatt solar power by 2020 2,428 Rain Water Harvesting systems have been installed Railways has 49,000 bio toilets across 900 operational trains
2017, a 1 megawatt solar roof-top will power LEDs for the platforms, two locomotive sheds, a hospital, and numerous offices and smalls shops. Besides lowering carbon emissions, the pioneering project is expected to save the station as much as Rs 20 lakh every year compared to running on grid electricity. In recent years, Indian Railways and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) have partnered to develop environment-friendly bio-toilets for its passenger coaches where human waste is collected in tanks below the toilets and decomposed by a consortium of bacteria, as opposed to being released directly onto the tracks. At last count, the railway network had almost 49,000 bio-toilets in over 900 operational trains across India. Last year, the 141-km-long Okha-Kanalus route and the 34-kmlong Porbandar-Wansjaliya sections in Gujarat became waste disposalfree when all trains passing through these lines became equipped with bio-toilets. 10 passenger trains consisting of 286 coaches moving over the 114-km long RameswaramManamadurai section of Tamil Nadu were also provided with bio-toilets. As many as 2,428 rainwater harvesting systems have been installed by the railways at different locations, including station buildings across the country. In place of steel sleepers on steel bridges, environmentally friendly composite sleepers made of recycled plastic waste are being used over all girder bridges to collect rainwater, which is mainly used for maintenance of wagons/coaches and cleaning of stations. Indian Railways has a target of planting a total of 5 crore trees across along the track and rail land across the country. In 2016, the Forest Department of Haryana & Punjab along with the Union Ministry of Railways signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for planting around 5 lakh trees alongside railway track land. The Haryana government also decided to team up with the railways to take up an afforestation drive on vacant land along the railway lines in the state.
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
DEHRADUN NAPKIN VENDING
THE PROGRESSIVE SOCIAL EXPERIMENT
Dehradun city has installed a napkin vending machine and is keenly monitoring public response before scaling the project citywide
For Rs 10, the vending machine will give 3 sanitary napkins
ARMY’S SUPER-40 IN KASHMIR STRIKE BIG Army arranged for coaching of 36 Kashmiri students, nine of whom were selected to IITs
lack of basic infrastructure. Ramesh Chauhan, a nigam official, said, “We installed one such machine in the nigam’s premises in the women’s toilet but it is difficult to do this in other parts of the city because the condition of public toilets is not good. This idea can only be
KIDS TO SCALE MOUNTAIN FOR SOCIAL CAUSE They will conquer highest European peak for Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao
IANS RMY Chief met and complimented the students from Army’s Super-40 coaching initiative that has been training local children to take Engineering Entrance Examination. ine students from the Indian Army’s Kashmir Super-40, a coaching initiative for the youth of Jammu and Kashmir, have cleared the JEE Advanced entrance exam for admission to the IITs. According to an Army spokesperson, there were thirty six students in the batch out of which nine cleared the exam. The successful candidates also interacted with Army Chief Gen Bipin Rawat in New Delhi on Tuesday. The nine qualifiers from the Kashmir Super-40 initiative are Aqib Amin, Mohammad Mussa, Bashir Ahmed, Nasir Ali, Imtiyaz Hussain, Feroz Ahmed, Maisam Ali, Shahid Sultan and Jahangir Shakeel. “The success achieved this year was overwhelming with 9 out of a 36-student batch having qualified,” the Army spokesman said. The ‘Kashmir Super-40’ is being conducted by the Army at Srinagar in coordination with Centre for Social Responsibility and Learning (CSRL), and Petronet LNG Ltd (PLL) since 2013. It provides a platform for underprivileged children from the state. “Free lodging and boarding along with coaching is provided to the selected 40 students of J&K for 11 months,” the spokesman said. Twenty six boys and two girls out of the batch had earlier cleared the JEE Mains examination. Five girls were part of the Super-40 this year who for the first time – two of which are eligible for admission to Jamia Milia Islamia College for engineering.
‘BETI BACHAO BETI PADHAO’ CLIMBING EVEREST
WO Indian kids are all set to try to conquer Europe’s highest peak, summit, Mount Elbrus in Russia’s Caucasus, with their parents to support the cause of ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’. Accompanied by their parents Sarika and Jignesh Mehta, 9-yearold Dhanshree and her 13-year-old
GOOD NEWS IN BRIEF
This will promote use of sanitary napkins in poor women
The initiative is a part of Swachh Bharat Mission
PRESS TRUST OF INDIA HE Dehradun Nagar Nigam would sell 3 napkins for Rs 10 from these machines Dehradun Nagar Nigam has approved a proposal for installing vending machines in the city for dispensing sanitary napkins. The proposal was to install the machines at important areas in the city, including near Gandhi Park, as part of the Centre’s Swachh Bharat Mission.The machines, which would dispense three sanitary napkins for Rs 10, were meant to promote use of sanitary napkins among women from economically weaker section of the society. The cost of installing these machines is estimated at Rs 60,000. The machines were to be installed by the Nigam with the help of Hindustan Lifecare Ltd, a government empanelled company. Nigam officials said that the plan was stalled due to
brother Janam will start the journey on June 10. Both the kids love adventure and have the zeal to do something for the society. “We have been a part of a lot of social activities in the past and want to continue doing so further,” Dhanshree said in a statement on Friday. “My inspiration is my mother who is a psychologist by profession. She has also done many expeditions for social causes,” she said.
executed in places which follow high standards of hygiene and sanitation. The machines will also require electricity to run.” Mayor Vinod Chamoli said, “We have installed just one machine on an experimental basis and were to evaluate the response of people”.
Quick Glance Dhanshree, 9 & Janam 13 years will be accompanied by their parents They will conquer Europe’s highest peak, Mount Elbrus in Russia For the past 5 months, the family has been on strict schedule
“I have grown up watching her climb Drang Drung Glacier, Island Peak, Kongma La Pass, Base Camp Everest, Kala Patthar, Chadar Frozen River Track, and Mount Kilimanjaro. I want to be like her,” she added. A task like this needs a lot of preparation and these kids are at it day in and day out. “The preparations are rigorous. For past five months, we have been getting up at 4.30 a.m. for our training of breathing, cardio, hill climb and then breakfast,” said Janam. “Then, we go to school and return home by 3.30 pm. After lunch and a power nap, we attend our coaching classes. In the evening, there is again a small training followed by dinner and school homework,” he added. “Whenever we have time, we go for our hill and rock climbing practice. Now, we are all very excited and all set to take up the challenge.”
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
SHE GOT 70 TOILETS BUILT IN A REMOTE VILLAGE A young Delhi University graduate transforms two Karnataka villages as part of a fellowship project IANS
POST graduate from Faculty of Social Sciences, Delhi University and a UPSC aspirant, Ushma Goswami had always wanted to use her knowledge to help society. She had been studying the various social differences between the urban and the rural, castes, and the privileged and underprivileged sections. And now, she wanted to implement her knowledge to help erase these differences. So she decided to give one year of her life to do so before getting into what she calls a rat race of a UPSC rank or a job. In 2016, Ushma was selected for the SBI Youth for India Fellowship and chose to work in the area of governance. While Ushma was born and brought up in Chandigarh and had been in Delhi for the past five years, she chose to work with DHAN Foundation, which mostly works in the southern part of India. “I wanted to come out of my comfort zone and work. I have never been to a village before this and I had no clue of the languages spoken in the southern regions of our country. As I aspire to apply for foreign services in UPSC, I wanted to take up the challenge of the language barrier too. I am glad I did that as you get to know how blessed you are to communicate through a language only when you cannot use it,” she says. Ushma reached B. Seehalli Panchayat in Bannur Hobali Village of Mysore District on August 19, 2016 and language indeed became a barrier in her work.She was assigned to open a paralegal clinic here to provide small scale legal advice and resolve small issues at the panchayat level rather than going to the courts. However, for the first three months, she was the only SBI fellow in this village. The villagers did not understand her language nor did she understand theirs. She would wait for hours for the panchayat to come and join her in the paralegal clinic, but no one would turn up. By November 2016, Ushma had thoughts of running back home, but a small voice inside motivated her to stay.
Ushma landed a fellowship to work in areas of governance She was asked to provide legal help in a Karnataka village Ushma scaled language barrier to get 70 toilets built there
Ushma aims to build at least 200 toilets in both the panchayats before the end of her project this year
Ushma then started going to the village’s Anganwadi where she would mingle with the kids and slowly started connecting with the language too. She learnt Kannada and even started communicating with the kids’ parents. Meanwhile, she was also joined by another SBI fellow and had some support now. By speaking to the villagers she understood that they had no interest in getting legal lessons. So she decided to divert her area of work. “I knew I had only one year to do something for these villagers. There were numerous problems to be worked upon but I had to choose something that was the need of the hour. This is when someone from Kodagahalli Panchayat of the same village approached me for building toilets in their Panchayat,” Ushma says. Ushma agreed immediately and without wasting any time, she started with the survey of both the panchayats. She would go door to door and check
about the toilets and found that nearly 400 households were without any. The next task was to convince the villagers to build a toilet at their homes. People would give various reasons to avoid building a toilet. Women would say that they go in groups to defecate in the jungle and that was their only chance to come out of their houses and socialize. Ushma would counter them by talking about hygiene and the problems they would face during pregnancy and with a newborn. “If nothing worked, I would tell them that everyone else is going to build a toilet and then they would be all alone to go to the jungle, which would be so unsafe and boring,” laughs Ushma. Ushma would also go to the school to spread awareness about sanitation. When she came to know that there was no teacher to teach English to the class 10 students, she and her cofellow took up this task too. Ushma proudly shares the result of the students today, saying that the highest
scorer in English scored 85%. This helped them in connecting with their parents even better. Ushma had to go through lot of difficulties to convince the villagers to get toilets but she did finally win many of them over. But the problems did not end here. The next challenge was collecting the documents to build the toilets. Many villagers did not even have a ration card or Aadhaar card and caste certificates. Ushma then went on to apply for these documents. She also arranged for a loan of Rs. 20,000 each to 38 villagers who did not have money to build a toilet, which they could return once they got subsidy from the government for the same toilets. Today, after 10 months of twists and turns, Ushma has succeeded in her mission. She has helped to build toilets for 70 households in Seehali and Kodagahalli Panchayat. These households are now eligible for the subsidy. Meanwhile, once Ushma gained the trust of the villagers, she also explained to them the importance of paralegal clinics and was successful in opening one in Seehali panchayat and participated in more than 10 RTI campaigns as part of a UNfunded panchayat project of Dham Foundation.Ushma aims to build atleast 200 toilets in both the panchayats before the end of her project this year. She is also focusing on the decision-making branch of governance within the panchayat. “Yes one person cannot change the world but take out just one year of your entire life and do something for society. Even if you can make a difference in 10 people’s lives it will really matter. You might forget those 10 people but they will never forget you,” says Ushma.
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
ANDHRA PRADESH OPEN DEFECATION
688 CITIES DECLARED ODF, CLAIMS NAIDU 531 of these cities have even been independently verified AGENCIES
NION Urban Development Minister M Venkaiah Naidu today said Swachh Bharat Mission has gained significant momentum over the past last three years and 33,76,793 Individual Household Toilets and 1,28,946 Community Toilet Seats have so far been built. Mr Naidu, who inaugurated the 9th foundation day of the Foundation for Restoration of National Values (FRNV) here, said 688 cities have been so far declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and 531 of them have been independently verified and certified as ODF. Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat have declared all cities and towns as ODF, he said. Mr Naidu said 100 per cent Door to Door collection and transport of Municipal
Solid Waste has been achieved in 43,200 wards out of the total 81,015 urban wards. Addressing the gathering, Mr Naidu complimented FRNV for selecting ‘’Swachh Bharat’’ as the theme for its foundation day. ‘’The lack of cleanliness and unhygienic living conditions that we see in India today is a reflection of rapidly declining values and fading culture. Mounds of garbage on the road, littering in public places,
GUJARAT DR JYOTI LAMBA
A PROFESSOR WHO BUILT 6,000 TOILETS Dr Jyoti Lamba worked overtime to get 6,000 toilets in 34 villages in Gujarat
UNIVERSITY professor from Gujarat, Dr Jyoti Lamba visited a village and discovered that there was not a single toilet available, she didn’t just go home and lament. Instead, she built 6,000 toilets in 34 villages during next
4 years, often at her own expense. She has faced backlash, criticism, skepticism, ridicule, not including other practical obstacles, yet this has not stopped her from achieving an incredible and very inspiring feat. Her story was picked up by ‘Humans of Amdavad’ and deserves the utmost recognition! “Since last three decades, I am a professor at one of the most prestigious University in the city. Teaching and interacting with students is something which has always made me happy and my life also used revolve around them, until Gandhi Padyatra happened to me in the year 2013. Our university had organised a Gandhi Padyatra where students and faculties visit villages and understand about their problems. During the visit to different villages, I realized that villagers don’t have toilets in the villages and women are the most affected. Women have to wait till evening, until it gets dark to
NEWS IN BRIEF
Swachh Bharat Mission has gained significant momemntum during past three years, says M Venklaiah Naidu He was speaking at the foundation day of an organisation FRNV Cleanliness shall start from our heart, home and our surroundings, he said
destroying forests, clearly reflect that there is complete lack of respect for others and basic human values,’’ he said. ‘’There is a need to radically change our perception of ‘waste’ as ‘assets’ or ‘resources’ rather than something to be discarded,’’ Mr Naidu said. ‘’Swachh Bharat Mission, launched in October, 2014, is the biggest ever mass mobilisation undertaken, to make our country clean,’’ he said. During the event, Mr Naidu also released a Souvenir, which contains the case studies on Waste Management. President, FRNV, Dr E Sreedharan said Swachh Bharat Mission is more important than some of the economic reforms ushered in the country. ‘’Swachh Bharat initiative deserves all our support and assistance. Cleanliness shall start from our heart, our home and our surroundings,’’ he added.
go for loo and this really saddened me. Once we were back from the trip, our Vice Chancellor Dr Sudarshan Iyengar called and asked me to start a project of building toilets in the villages. This was a huge opportunity to serve my Nation and be a part of making my mother earth clean so I immediately agreed. In January, 2013, I started my journey of educating and encouraging villagers of Gujarat to build toilet in their homes. Villages were in a big mess and no one was ready to build toilets and as a woman it was tough for me to explain the male villagers about the benefits of having a toilet in their house. It took me seven months to convince villagers to build toilets under the Government Program. It has been 4 years since I have been doing this work without taking a day off and so far, I have helped build 6000 toilets in 34 villages of Gujarat. I have helped build toilets in those villages where there wasn’t a single toilet since Independence. In many villages, I also kept competition stating those who will build toilets will get prize from me. I buy such prizes from my own savings by cutting down my personal expenses. There have been people who have laughed at me saying look how lower work this professor is doing, but that doesn’t stop me because for them it might be lower work but for me it’s an opportunity to serve my Nation.”
MANY FACILITIES IN INDIAN BULLET TRAINS The first ever bullet train project comprising the E5 Shinkansen series of trains will have BreastFeeding Rooms & Baby Toilets AGENCIES
LATED to function in the Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed corridor, the Indian Railways, under its ambitious bullet train project with a total estimated cost of Rs. 1 lakh crore, will have all sorts of facilities which will be more inclusive and cater for not just regular commuters but mothers with babies. These trains will have changing rooms for babies that will include baby toilet seats, tables for diaper disposal and a low raised washbasin for children. Apart from providing child-friendly sanitary facilities, the trains will also be equipped with a whole new range of toilet systems comprising urinals, western-style toilets with hot water and washing closet seat facility and separate washrooms for men and women equipped with triple mirrors for make-up. Close to 25 bullet trains, that have a seating capacity of 731 passengers, will be acquired by the government from Japan, with an estimated budget of Rs. 5,000 crore. The E5 series, which fall under the new generation high–speed train category of Japanese make, will also have multi-purpose rooms that can be used by mothers for breast-feeding as well as a sick room. The 10-coach train will also cater to the differently-abled with two extraspacious toilets for wheelchair-bound passengers. “Facilities of separate restrooms and toilets for men and women while introducing wall-mounted type urinals for men in the high-speed train are in the offing for the first time in Indian Railways”, said a senior railway ministry official associated with the project.
26 Science & Technology SCIENCE NEWS IN BRIEF
WILDFIRE SMOKE MAY BE BAD Carbon particles from burning trees can cloud the rays from the Sun IANS
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
OLDEST HUMANS EXISTED IN NORTHERN AFRICA
Fossils found in latest excavations in Morocco are at least 3 lakh years old, the researchers claim
MOKE from wildfire worldwide could impact the atmosphere and climate much more than previously thought, new research using data collected during NASA airborne science campaigns has found. Brown carbon particles released into the air from burning trees and other organic matter are much more likely than previously thought to travel to the upper levels of the atmosphere, where they can interfere with rays from the Sun -- sometimes cooling the air and at other times warming it, the findings showed. “Most of the brown carbon released into the air stays in the lower atmosphere, but we found that a fraction of it does get up into the upper atmosphere, where it has a disproportionately large effect on the planetary radiation balance
Quick Glance AGENCIES
- much stronger than if it was all at the surface,” said Rodney Weber, Professor at Georgia Institute of Technology in the US. The research used air samples collected during two airborne science missions supported by researchers from NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The two missions together made observations in the central, southeast and western US. The researchers found surprising ly high levels of brown carbon in the samples taken from the upper troposphere -- about seven miles above the Earth’s surface -- but much less black carbon, according to the study published online in the journal Nature Geoscience. While black carbon can be seen in the dark smoke plumes rising above burning fossil or biomass fuels at high temperature, brown carbon is produced from the incomplete combustion that occurs when grasses, wood or other biological matter smolders, as is typical for wildfires.
N a surprising and controversial geographic twist, researchers claim that the earliest known remains of the human species, Homo sapiens, have turned up in northwestern Africa. Fossils attributed to Homo sapiens and stone tools unearthed at Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, date back to apprximately 300,000 years ago, an international team of researchers reported in two papers in prestigious science journal Nature. Until now, the oldest human fossils came from East Africa and dated to around 195,000 years ago. Although Homo sapiens might have emerged in East Africa, some researchers also categorize a previously discovered fossil skull from South Africa, tentatively dated to about 260,000 years ago, as Homo sapiens. The Morocco fossils indicate that humankind’s emergence involved populations across much of Africa, and started about 100,000 years earlier than previously thought, says paleoanthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. He led the research along with Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer of the National Institute of Archaeology and Heritage Sciences in Rabat, Morocco. “Long before the out-of-Africa dispersal of Homo sapiens [70,000 to 60,000 years
Fossils unearthed at Jebel Irhoud, Morocco are of Homo sapiens Dating techniques found them to be 3 lakh years old Until now, oldest human fossils were 1.95 lakh years old
ago], there was a dispersal within Africa,” Hublin says. What’s now the Sahara was inhabitable around 300,000 years ago, so early forms of Homo sapiens in northern African could have reached other parts of the continent and interacted with different Homo sapiens groups, he suspects. Excavations at Jebel Irhoud in the 1960s produced six Homo fossils, initially classified as Neanderthals, as well as stone tools resembling those at European Neanderthal sites. Researchers initially dated the remains to about 40,000 years ago. A 2007 report later estimated one fossil, a child’s jaw, was about 160,000 years old. In one new paper, Hublin and colleagues describe 16 new fossils unearthed at Jebel Irhoud from 2004 to 2011. Remains of at least five individuals — three adults, an adolescent and a child — include a partial skull, a lower jaw, a partial upper jaw, six isolated teeth and several limb bones. Using CT scans, researchers generated 3-D reconstructions of the Jebel Irhoud fossil skull and lower jaw. Hublin’s team compared measurements of these finds
Long before the out-of-Africa dispersal of Homo sapiens, there was dispersal within Africa
with those for Homo erectus, Neandertals and other Homo species from between around 1.8 million and 150,000 years ago, as well as H. sapiens fossils from the past 130,000 years. CT scans of fossils from a Moroccan site were used to produce composite reconstructions of a skull that some researchers attribute to the earliest known Homo sapiens. The skull displays a modern-looking face, left, combined with a braincase, right, shaped like those of older, now-extinct Homo species. Facial characteristics of the Jebel Irhoud skull and teeth closely match those of people today, despite being larger, the scientists say. The Jebel Irhoud lower jaw also shares much in common with H. sapiens. All 22 Jebel Irhoud fossils qualify as H. sapiens, the scientists conclude. Yet three Jebel Irhoud braincases — consisting of the new skull and two previously excavated, less complete specimens — are relatively long and low in height, compared with taller, rounded braincases typical of H. sapiens. Jebel Irhoud braincases more closely resemble those of earlier species, including H. erectus. Facial and dental traits of H. sapiens were established by around 300,000 years ago, whereas brain shape has continued to evolve since then, the researchers propose. Paleoanthropologist Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in St. Louis disagrees. Homo fossils dating to between around 600,000 and 200,000 years ago typically contain some features recalling older species and other traits foreshadowing later H. sapiens, Trinkaus says. Some of those fossils probably came from populations that were ancestors of people today. But that doesn’t mean those specimens, or the Moroccan finds, were H. sapiens, he contends. In fact, many of those Homo fossils have eluded consensus about their species identity. Along with fossils that might be the earliest examples of Homo sapiens, recent excavations in Morocco yielded sharpedged stone tools that have often been considered typical of Neanderthals. In a second paper, Max Planck geoscientist Daniel Richter and colleagues date 14 stone artifacts found in and just above sediment that held the new fossil discoveries, allowing the researchers to narrow down the fossils’ age to approximately 300,000 years ago. Those artifacts, along with many of the 306 more excavated by Hublin’s team, showed signs of having been heated in the past.
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
Science & Technology
SPACE TECH PROFESSOR VEENA SAHAJWALLA
TURNING E-WASTE INTO GOLD
UNSW Professor Sahajwalla has developed technique to turn e-waste into valuable metal alloys
PILOT micro-factory that safely transforms toxic electronic waste (e-waste) into high value metal alloys is soon to be unveiled at the University of New South Wales, offering a unique low-cost solution to one of the world’s fastest-growing waste burdens. The breakthrough new process, invented by UNSW ARC Laureate Professor Veena Sahajwalla, recovers the considerable wealth of resources embedded in e-waste while overcoming the challenges of toxicity and the often prohibitively high costs of conventional industrial-scale recycling.
Pro f es s o r Sahajwalla’s solution will enable the safe, cost-effective ‘mining’ of e-waste stockpiles locally, anywhere in the world. The US$1 trillion global electronics industry generated about 42 million tonnes of obsolete equipment in 2014, a potential loss of some US$52 billion worth of embedded resources, according to a recent United Nations Environment Program report. Although e-waste contains a range of valuable metals, it is especially challenging to recycle due to the presence of toxins and the complex mix of materials. Currently, large volumes of e-waste are exported from industrial economies like Australia to developing nations, where hand processing to recover metals exposes poor communities to dangerous contaminants. “The world urgently needs a safe, low cost recycling solution for e-waste. Our approach is to enable every local community to transform their e-waste
Quick Glance 42 million tonnes of e-waste was produced in 2014
into valuable metal alloys, instead of leaving old devices in drawers or sheds, or sending them to landfill,” said Professor Sahajwalla. Prof Sahajwalla uses precisely controlled high-temperature reactions to produce copper and tin-based alloys from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), while simultaneously destroying toxins. A programmed drone is able to identify PCBs from within crushed e-waste, and a simple robot is used to extract them, overcoming the risks of contamination, before the PCBs are fed into the furnace. “A tonne of mobile phones (about 6,000 handsets), for example, contains about 130kg of copper, 3.5kg of silver, 340 grams of gold and 140 grams of palladium, worth tens of thousands of dollars. “We already understand the value of sourcing green energy from the sun, similarly we can source valuable green materials from our waste.
Quick Glance There are several cases when mothers don’t lactate after delivery Lactating mothers could voluntarily donate milk to this centre
HERE are often problem for non-lactating mother of a new born. To resolve the issue Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has set up a ‘Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh’, a National Human Milk Bank and Lactation Counselling Centre at the Lady Harding Medical College (LHMC) in New Delhi. Secretary of the ministry C K Mishra inaugurated the centre last week. “Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh” opened at Lady Harding Medical College in collaboration with the Norwegian government, Oslo University and NIPI Newborn Project, is a national human milk bank and lactation counseling centre that will
The centre will provide mother’s milk to such new born
collect, pasteurize, test and safely store milk that has been donated by lactating mothers and make it available for infants in need. In addition, this facility will protect, promote and support breastfeeding of their own healthy mothers by providing lactation support to mothers through dedicated lactation
YOUR DATA BEING SHARED A study found that 70 per cent of the smartphone apps share your data with third party companies
This will be cost-effective tech which will also deal with toxicity
SUCCOR TO NON-LACTATING MOTHERS IANS
A UNSW Prof of Indian origin has developed technique to recycle it
NEW DELHI MILK BANK
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare sets up a National Human Milk Bank and Lactation Counselling Centre in New Delhi
counsellors. This project will not only act as a dedicated centre to support breastfeeding and improve infant survival but also act as the teaching, training and demonstration site for other milk banks to be established under the Ministry Of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The secretary congratulated the LHMC, Delhi for this initiative and said that this would be the largest human milk bank and lactation counselling centre availablein the public sector.
ORE than 70 per cent of smartphone apps are reporting personal data to thirdparty tracking companies like Google Analytics, the Facebook Graph API or Crashlytics, warns a new study. When people install a new Android or iOS app, it asks the user’s permission before accessing personal information. Some of the information these apps are collecting are necessary for them to work properly: A map app wouldn’t be nearly as useful if it couldn’t use GPS data to get a location. But once an app has permission to collect that information, it can share your data with anyone the app’s developer wants to -- letting third-party companies track where you are, how fast you are moving and what you are doing. To get a picture of what data are being collected and transmitted from people’s smartphones, the researchers from IMDEA Networks Institute in Spain developed a free Android app of their own, called the Lumen Privacy Monitor. It analyses the traffic apps send out, to report which applications and online services actively harvest personal data. Because Lumen is about transparency, a phone user can see the information installed apps collect in real time and with whom they share these data. This unique access to data allowed the researchers to study how mobile apps collect users’ personal data and with whom they share data at an unprecedented scale.More than 1,600 people who have used Lumen since October 2015 allowed the researchers to analyse more than 5,000 apps. 70 per cent of the apps were connected to one tracker, and 15 per cent of them were connected to five or more trackers.
28 Tribal Development
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
TRIBAL ARTS DAHANU
COMMITTED TO TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT Bharat Vikas Parishad is set to change the situation of tribals in Maharashrtra
Quick Glance Just 110 kms from Mumbai, Dahanu tribals are still undeveloped Warli pantings of these tribals are famous worldwide Bharat Vikas Parishad is trying to provide succour to them
EW people know that like Madhubani paintings of Bihar, Kalamkari of Andhra Pradesh and Phad paintings of Rajasthan; Warli paintings of Dahanu also has its special place in the world of art. This painting has attracted the attention of the world. That is why this area has found a place on the map of tourism. But after going to the villages of this taluka, one comes to know that despite being only 110 kilometers away from Indiaâ€™s economic capital Mumbai, this area is extremely backward. In Palghar district, the tribals population is in abundance. But the most tragic situation is that despite being an industrial zone this tribal-dominated area is still craving for basic infrastructure. Education, employment, malnutrition and health facilities are a major problem here. Though the efforts of government schemes and private institutions are getting good results but still it is not enough to satisfy expectations. Though this area has rich production of coconut, chikoo and chili, the poverty of tribals here is worrying. Even today, they live in huts with thatched roof. They do farming, but their earning is not enough to enroll their children into good schools. Last year Maharashtra
The council in collaboration with other
organizations is arranging for mass tribal marriages every year Education Minister Vinod Tawde arrived at a function organized at Acharya Bhise, at Dahadu. He said that the education imparted to the children should be such that they can get a job or any other employment immediately after finishing school. Acharya Bhise Shikshan Sanstha has been educating tribal and poor children for the last 35 years. The Christian missionary organizations are also active here. But in the meantime a meaningful initiative has been made by the India Development Council. The Mira Road Branch of the Council has started implementing the plan at Palghar and Dahanu to motivate the children to go to school, especially for the children of brick kiln laborers. A hostel for these students is on the cards. The efforts of Council President Harshad Joshi, former president Santosh Sharma and Mr Chaturvedi have been remarkable in this direction. Harshad Joshi says that the most serious problem in tribal areas is faced
by brick kiln workers. Their children are also forced to work for wages. These labourers do not live in any one place. They keep on moving around in search of work. In this process, the place of their homes is also changed. The biggest disadvantage is for their children. They do not go to school. After the survey, India Development Council felt that if hostels were made available to them, their studies could be made possible. Their parents could stay anywhere but the childrenâ€™s studies will not be interrupted. Parishad is constructing the first hostel in the village of Dhaniwadi, where one hundred children will be accommodated. They will be admitted to nearby district council schools. At present, the development council is now trying to convince tribal families and children to understand how education is necessary for them. Workers of Bharat Vikas Parishad regularly visit the villages of Dahanu and Palghar to assess the conditions there
and implement the scheme to help the residents. In the past, the decision for the renewal of Paljgaon Municipal Municipal School was made after noticing the broken structure of the school. After repairs, the building was painted all over again. Today it has become safe to run a school. The schools which had their electricity supply disconnected due to non-payment of electricity bill will get it back; the council is in constant touch with the officials and the power department so that electricity can be restored because it is finally the students who have to bear the brunt of the loss of education. In many of those schools, where there was no toilet facility, the same were provided. Last winter, council members distributed about five hundred blankets and sweaters among the school children. The Meera Road Bharat Vikas Parishad is active not only in this area but also in the Mahajanwadi, another tribal area. Firstly, there was the responsibility of renovating the school here, which had been inaugurated in 1951 by the countryâ€™s first President Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Morarji Desai. They had planted a tree in the school premises then, which is still present there. This school was started by the Tribal Service Board in 1946. Initially, it was run in a hut which was later converted into a building. But that too had reached a worn-down condition. The development council not only gave the school a new look but also made a digital classroom. Computers and laptops are also provided. Last year, notebooks, books, shoes, etc. were distributed among children of this school. The Council recognises that the tribal children were left behind because the society did not care for them properly. People forgot their responsibility towards them in the scramble to look to the Government.
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
BIG SUPPORT TO FARMERS The Assam government has planned to strengthen the agriculture sector by doubling farmers’ income by 2021
T This branch of the
council is also supporting the run-away children housed in Titwala The council in collaboration with other organizations is arranging for mass tribal marriages every year. Mr. Joshi said that traditionally tribal couples here don’t get married but live together without marriage. Such couples often separate after a time. Both lives get ruined in the process. But the experience shows that after the committing to stay together for life in presence of fire, increasingly they have developed faith in the institution of marriage. The chances of staying permanently with each other have increased. The cost of marriage per couple goes up to four thousand rupees. This expenditure is made by the Council members. Some members also contribute the full wedding expenses of many couples as a part of social responsibilities. This branch of the council is also supporting the run-away children housed in Titwala. The children are either working as daily-wagers or are falling in wrong hands. Those children have no arrangement for themselves. Attempts are being made that their parents should be informed and those who have no knowledge of their families should be given education.The initiative is being supported by the Jiwan Sanwardhak Foundation. This foundation has been active in different areas for many years and is providing shelter to such children. The upcoming plan of the council is to adopt a village, where it will provide every facility including electricity, water. By training people in skill development, they will enable them to make a living for themselves. Bharat Vikas Parishad is making a meaningful effort to change all this and set things right.
HE Assam Government has planned big succour to farming community by taking several steps for agriculture and its allied sectors. Briefing the media, agriculture minister Atul Bora elaborated the series of decisions that have been taken as also the steps taken to curb nepotism and misgovernance. Bora said that one lakh shallow tubewells, 10,000 solar pumps and around 400 small rice mills would be distributed and set up in the state within a year. A meeting would be held in Guwahati on June 12 where top department officials and agriculture experts and scientists will brainstorm on the means and strategies to make the farm sector more vibrant in Assam, he added. “There has been a bumper harvest of paddy and potato in the state this year and the government has fixed Rs 150 crore for price stabilization. This is to ensure that farmers do not have to resort to distress sale,” the minister explained. “The Assam State Agricultural Marketing Board (ASAMB) has already purchased over 17,000 quintals of potato from farmers. Potato farmers in some areas had to face loss and the government is working on estimating the exact quantum of loss.” Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of Assam contributing more than 30 per cent to the state domestic product. Successive government have assigned very high priority to agriculture. This was reflected through a quantum jump in rice production to 39 lakh tonnes in 1999-2000 from the level of 33.82 lakh tonnes and 32.54 lakh tonnes in 1997-98 and 199899. This was achieved through the creation of assured shallow tubewell (STW) irrigation with the assistance of World Bank (ARIASP) and NABARD
Quick Glance 1 lakh tubewells, 10,000 solar pumps & 400 rice mills to be distributed Rs 150 crore fund created to ensure price stabilization of paddy and potato 50 bigha of land at Silchar spared to set up Inter State Terminal Market
Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of
Assam contributing more than 30 per cent to the state domestic product (Special Kishan Yojana) scheme. Although regular flood, drought, heavy population pressure on land and infrastructural weakness are the impediments to growth, yet the farmers have started to increase production through technological innovations and appropriate government policies. At the same time, agricultural development in the state is crippled by many constraints. Low availability of farm power has become one of the constraints to double or multiple cropping. This has been acutely felt after expansion of area under irrigation through a large-scale installation of shallow tube-wells. The North eastern states are not self-sufficient in the production of required seeds except for paddy and mustard. The post-harvest handling of summer rice viz. threshing, drying and milling will continue to remain a problem in Assam till some innovative measures are introduced. In the horticulture sector, there is a huge postharvest loss due to lack of technology, product information and inadequate processing infrastructure. Another major bottleneck is marketing. The problem of poor storage facilities is compounded by the lack of adequate
cold storage units. Finally, floods take a heavy toll on the crop area every year and it is estimated that around 3 lakh hectares of land in Assam are subject to annual flood. The minister claimed that all these issues were being examined and the administration streamlined to prevent leakages and misgovernance. He informed that prosecution sanction against a number of officials accused of various charges had been granted which was in addition to the eight officials under his department who have also been suspended for alleged involvement in illegal activities. Bora also spoke about the special emphasis on popularising the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana. A senior official of the department gave details about three new cold storage facilities in Assam which were being set up at Chaigaon, Kharupetia and Sutarkandi. He informed that the state government has handed over 50 bigha of land at Silchar for setting up an Inter State Terminal Market, which will be the first one of its kind in the North Eastern region. A similar venture would also come up in Guwahati as also about 20 small markets all over the state.
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
BIHAR ASLAM PARVEZ
THE PERFUMER Shunning the path of militancy Aslam Parvez’s fragrances are wafting globally
ORN in Pali in Patna district, Aslam Parvez is known as ‘Perfume Man of Bihar’. However, Aslam, who has studied only till Matriculation, is not able to believe it to be true. Today he does not need any introduction. It is not just Parvez’s personal success and fame but a whole new world, an entire society, which has achieved a lot, only due to his efforts. Parvez is now an example to be followed.... In the area of Bihar, where Naxalites have a sway, militancy has become a habit through which everyone tries to grab a slice of power and clout. Parvez was no different. He too wanted to join a Naxalite organisation. But fortunately, he did not choose that road. The path of hard work that he adopted, became a unique gift for him, and Aslam Parvez became the
sharer, the supporter and example of a new life for thousands of families. Due to his failure to perform well in the matriculation examination, Parvez was dejected and had even thought of taking a life of militancy. But, the desire to bring a positive socio-economic change came to his mind, thanks to Aamir Khan’s film “Qayamat to Qayamat Tak”. Everything changed after that. Born into an ordinary family, Aslam resolved to bring about a transformation in the life of his father, his family, home, and society. The hands that once wanted to pick up arms now began to contribute to the building of a new social picture.
Quick Glance Aslam Parvez, after matriculation wanted to take up militancy A formula in his uncle’s diary led him to become a perfumer Ever since, his efforts have inspired thousands to take up the job
It was his maternal grandfather’s diary which inspired in him a desire for a new change, and showed him a way- ‘perfume making’- through which he could arrive at, and attain, many goals. The smell of gunpowder which sent shivers of fear in people was replaced therefore with the fragrance of ‘ittar’ (perfume) which began wafting henceforth in the garden of his life. Parvez learned the process of making perfumes and this changed Parvez’s world forever. But it was not the end of the goal for him. Parvez wanted to touch the open skies like a falcon. And it was possible only when he could get the help and the support of many more others like him. Parvez began teaching the skills, and transferring the talent that he had learnt to other people. Thousands of hands have joined him today. His father, a small government servant, has met with a successful son. From just three thousand rupees, Parvez started a small business. When he entered the world of perfume, the entire region became fragrant, many more people became interested. According to the different needs and demands of consumers of different ages and the as per the requirements of the weather, Parvez began making various kinds of perfumes and fragrances. The fragrance of his perfumes spread from this area and town to other parts of the state, and the demand for the perfumes began to grow so much so that a large number of people are reaching there to select perfumes of their choice. Parvez became a well-known and famous name for his talent at making perfumes. Slowly other people too began to show a keen interest and expressed their willingness to learn this skill. After some time he decided to spread this skill among more people. He opened a workshop in a small room in his house. Neighborhood girls came up with
Enslaved by the burqa and the purdah for ages, Hundreds of Muslim girls have broken these shackles to learn perfumery
great enthusiasm.. Hundreds of Muslims girls have so far received training from Parvez to create perfumes and their numbers are increasingly growing. The first woman to help him was young Razia, with whom Parvez got married in 2002. This partnership continues even today. They have joined hands to achieve newer and bigger goals in life. But Parvez was not the one to stop at one goal; he wanted to gain even more. He started making other things as well, like the incense sticks, ‘agarbattis’. The business of aroma and fragrance expanded so much that those who joined Parvez also started thinking of taking up this profession. By now Parvez had attained a position from which he could think of doing something new. So Parvez began cultivating herbal and Ayurvedic plants and began training people in this direction. In his house he planted these plants upon an open piece of land, making a small garden, and started teaching the values of Ayurvedic cultivation to the learners on this very garden. Parvez has worked to change the picture of a society which was earlier not ready to open the door of even a closed courtyard. He is still engaged in the campaign to help women who are prevented from going out of the house. But today Parvez has shown that he has achieved what was so difficult. Parvez has not stopped in his mission, he has the determination to walk further. There is no dearth of honors and awards being given to him, but the most important reward for him is to do his best in work. This, he believes, is the greatest honour for him. In the training camp at TCS (Technical Support Center) in 2006, for the first time he got the opportunity to give proper training in the Small Industries Service Institute. After that, there has been a continuous rise in this kind of work. Beside the Nehru Yuva Kendra, Parvez has joined other organisations to work with others to provide training to people. There is a plan to create a perfume research centre in Bihar. Apart from this, many other training programs for making talcum powder, phenyl, pesticides, candles etc. are being offered to people to generate maximum employment. Former President APJ Abdul Kalam is his idol as far as hard work is concerned. In matters of idealism, Parvez wants to give a strong message to the society and youth by following the path of Swami Vivekananda.
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
URDU NEWSPAPER THE MUSALMAN
World’s only ‘hand-written’ newspaper Started in the year 1927 in Chennai, the newspaper is handwritten in Urdu by skilled calligraphers
‘The Musalman’ is all
about the the beautiful art of calligraphy. If you switch to a computer what is there different between ‘The Musalman’ and other newspapers INDIRA SEAL
N the age of instant messaging, news portals, digital printing and 24-hour news channels, news has never travelled faster. It has changed the very way of journalism globally. However, in a resilient and elegant corner of bustling Chennai in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the traditions of generations past are being kept alive by the 88-year-old Urdu language newspaper - the world’s last hand-written daily newspaper. At 324, Triplicane High Road in Chennai, the staff of the Urdu language evening paper ‘The Musalman’ literally writes the headlines every day. This 4-page newspaper is published daily by a team of a meagre staff of three reporters, three calligraphers, and an editor. Three of them are katibs – writers dedicated to the ancient art of Urdu calligraphy.It’s adherence to tradition is viewed now as a matter of life and death for its editor Syed Arifullah, who took over control after the death of his father. ‘We have been maintaining the tradition for the last 88- years, and after my first three years in charge I decided to dedicate my life to Musalman,’ said Arifullah, who has done an MBA in marketing. The paper was founded in 1927 by Mr Arifullah’s grandfather, Syed Azmathullah, and he passed on the editorship to Mr Arifullah’s father, Syed Faizullah, who was editor until he died, aged 76, after a lung infection. From a family of three brothers and four sisters, Syed Arifullah took on the role of editor in 2008, after his father Syed Fazlullah passed away. While his siblings don’t work at the newspaper, Arifullah said “everybody is together” when it comes to the family business.
“The Muslaman is all about the calligraphy, everybody is attracted by the calligraphy, if you switch to a computer what is there different between us and other newspapers? Calligraphy is the heart of Musalman. If you take out the heart, there is nothing left,” Arifullah added. Made up of four crafted pages, it caters to its audience through 21,000 copies daily. The paper, which is delivered to subscribers, is also available on newsstands for less than one rupee, 75 paise to be exact. The subscribers are located all across India, with copies being delivered to Delhi, Mumbai and even Kolkata. The editor says readers of The Musalman are not limited to Muslims; “Many Hindus also read the newspaper, because they know the Urdu language.” Most of its advertisements come from agencies and the government, although a few also come directly from private organisations. “They are enough to sustain the newspaper”, he says adding: “While some of the advertisements are sent digitally, others are hand-drawn whenever needed.” The newspaper is largely in black
and white, but if an advertisement calls for a coloured copy, they comply. “It is my love for Urdu which is keeping me attached to this paper”, says Mr Usman Gani, sub-editor. The paper covers news across a wide spectrum including politics, culture and sports. People chatting, horns blaring and a bustling city in the background accompanied our conversation with Syed Arifullah, the editor of India’s only handwritten newspaper, The Musalman. Nestled in the lively city of Chennai in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the 88-yearold Urdu language newspaper is made up of a meagre staff of three reporters, three calligraphers, and an editor. The staff working at The Musalman has been around for 30-35 years. “We treat them like family. If someone makes a mistake everyone stands up to help. No one points a finger at anyone,” cheerfully cites Arifullah. There are three male reporters who cover all aspects of news - be it political, cultural and even sports. Of the three calligraphers, two are women. It takes two hours for a calligrapher to
Quick Glance The newspaper Musalmaan was launched in Chennai 88-years ago The paper is currently being edited by the third generation of its owners Many top police officials of the state were also participants in the programme
complete one page written with a quill and ink. If anything goes wrong, most likely the page would have to be worked on all over again. The form then is turned into a negative, after which it goes to printing. But a confident Arifullah says: “My calligraphers are experienced. They have been doing this for the last 25 to 30 years. Nothing goes wrong.”A look at the printed sheets may seem like a simple job but it truly is laborious. Divided into four parts, the front page carries local and national news; page two makes space for international news and editorials. On the third page are quotes from the Holy Quran. The last page usually has everything else, including other local news and advertisements. The main focus of the daily is to publish teachings from the Holy Quran and sayings of the Prophet, also called hadith. Arifullah receives many calls from readers who ask for hadiths to be published and he also receives letters of appreciation often for publishing them. He receives about 20 calls a day from readers, some with queries and others to offer gratitude. While email is where most of his readers contact him, he says he also gets a few letters in the post, once in a while. “Over the years a lot (in the publishing industry) has changed,” says Arifullah, “but if The Musalman changes, I will not be unique anymore, I will lose respect and credibility.” Many have often asked the only Urdu language newspaper in Tamil Nadu to switch to computers, but “the readers are happy”, and that’s what matters. He says that as soon as computers made way for Desktop Publishing many news houses advanced to it. “Urdu is a sweet language. Everybody understands it,” he says while explaining what a beautiful language it is and why it is best hand-written. On the social media spectrum, the newspaper does have a Facebook page but hasn’t been active since 2012. Like his father, Arifullah too says, “he will work at The Musalman to the very end.” He doesn’t know what the future holds or who will be next in line to take the family business forward. He has just settled down in life and looks forward to keeping his “grandfather’s dream alive”.
KARTIKEYA THIYAM SUNDARAM
Sixteen years old Sundaram has developed a simple manual to introduce computers to the underpriviledged
JUNE 19 - 25, 2017
32 Unsung Hero
OTIVATED worked there to by the spread computer Digital literacy among HERO India Programme underpriv ileged helmed by Prime children and adults. Minister Narendra Modi, Within a span of just 30 16-year-old Kartikeya days, Kartikeya comprised a Thiyam Sundaram has has step-by-step introduction to developed a simple yet learning the basics of digital comprehensive manual to technology like handling a introduce computers to the computer, typing, graphical underprivileged. Kartikeya user interface, file wants to contribute to this management. Besides this he initiative a d d e d within his The manual also contains illustrations and means, so he guidance notes for teachers links to publicly independently a v a i l a b l e to deliver the course to designed the YouTube videos students and relevant course and that explain each content in both concept in simple images Hindi and Hindi language. English. A student of GD Goenka The manual also contains World School Sohna, Kartikeya guidance notes for teachers to has been supported in his deliver the course to students and endeavor by The Utsav relevant images and test papers to Foundation where he volunteered evaluate and certify the knowledge during winter vacations He of the students..
ER N ENW MA SSM EW AKK ESR S
WINGS OF FREEDOM Author of two best-sellers has been fighting for women rights for NRI women in Britain
2-YEAR-old Jasvinder Sanghera is becoming a pivotal pillar to those helpless women who want to get rid of the clutches of forced marriage. Her nonprofit organisation Karma Nirvana helps women who are trapped in an abusive relationship or want to escape the prospect of forced marriage and are the victim of any
kind of “honour” based crime. She is a highly acclaimed international speaker and an expert advisor to the courts. Jasvinder is recognised as bringing the issue of forced marriage into the public domain. The author of two best-selling books- Shame, which described her own experiences, and Daughters of Shame, detailing the stories of some of the thousands of women who had been helped by the charity. Karma Nirvana took birth from her own turmoil. Jasvinder ‘s father left India’s Punjab in the 1950s to live in England. His values didn’t allow daughters to complain about the in-laws to her parents. Whenever they complained about the in-laws’ oppression or husband, they were advised to keep their in-laws happy. After five of her sisters had already been married off to men they had not chosen, Jasvinder refused to follow the same path. But Jaswinder’s mood was different. She was not in her nature to endure pain like her sisters. She wanted to live an independent life by reading and writing. So after leaving her home and spent many nights at different parks, Jasvinder found a motto to fight against this atrocity.
CAUGHT THEM OUT! Her hard work pays off as the Indian bowler becomes the highest wicket-taker in the world
T the time when Indian cricket team is making news in the international arena, Jhulan Goswami is also adding a feather to the Indian women cricket team. Jhulan has become the leading wicket-taker in Women’s One-Day Internationals with a record of 180 wickets. She surpassed Australian bowler Cathryn Fitzpatrick. But the journey as a cricketer was not easy for Jhulan. Born in the small town of Nadia district of West Bengal Jhulan was the longest girl in her town. If she walked on the road, then people will look back and see. The cricket became an obsession for her since childhood. Her father who worked in Air India did not have the particular interest in cricket. Although he never stopped her daughter from playing cricket. But her mother did not like her to bowl with the boys in streets.
JHULAN GOSWAMI As a child, she used to play cricket on the road with neighbouring boys. In those days, she used to bowl very slow. Therefore, the boys used to easily hit fours and six sixes on her ball. Many times jokes were also made on her. The boys used to tease her, saying, ‘Jhulan, you should stay away from the ball.’ These jokes and teasing hurt Jhulan so much that she decided to be a fast bowler in life. She started her career with women’s cricket in 2002. Although not very strongly built, she bowls with a smooth, easy run-up. Jhulan’s strength lies in the fact that she generates movement off the pitch when she lands the ball on the seam and is now the fastest female bowler in the world, bowling at 120kph. She is also ICC Women’s Cricketer of the Year 2007, Arjuna Awardee and Padma Shri winner.
RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561, Joint Commissioner of Police (Licensing) Delhi No. F. 2 (S-45) Press/ 2016 VOLUME - 1, ISSUE - 27 Printed by Monika Jain, Published by Monika Jain on behalf of SULABH SANITATION MISSION FOUNDATION and Printed at The Indian Express Ltd., A-8, Sector-7, NOIDA (U.P.) and Published from RZ 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam-Dabri Road, New Delhi – 110 045. Editor Monika Jain