Final Design Dissertation Date of Submission: 18.01.2016 Qin Shi // 15098950 P30035 // Research-led Design Supervisor: Dr. Igea Troiani Oxford Brookes University MarchD
Glitch: 6 7
// Chapter 1: Introduction
// Chapter 2: Aesthetic of glitch
Definition Language Elements
Phenomenon // Chapter 3: Experiments
Data bending Code testing // Chapter 4: Practice
Visual art performance Textile design Glitch in space // Conclusion
With thanks to all the contributors and supporters without whom this dissertation would not have been possible. Especially, I would like to thank Dr. Igea Troiani for her precious support and patience. Additionally, I would like to thank my classmates and Dr. Andrea in Research-led design specialisation for their help in motivating me to engage with this difficult research topic. I am greatful for generous support and guidance from my friends Federico Zavanelli, David femia, Ding Chenchen, Li yi and Du nan.
Introduction This is a thesis about the glitch art, composed from art and architecture design points of view. It is essential to express because, while the glitch progressively interrupted into our daily contaction of digital, its potential critical discussion or investigation in architecture is still valuble for researching. The aim of this design research proposal is to have a general review and study of the already explored glitch art in some art architecture samples of glitch art which can show this essential
area. Go into the previously research region, there are not so much
modern atmosphere. Obviously, trying to explore the digital method and developing the aesthetic of glitch art which can be utilized in
Main study area will be concentrated on Experimental music,
videos, fashion design as well as technology of architecture. Research started with series of image and video collections which can give a clear definition of Glitch Art. Understanding technological communication in art would help to develop more conceptionsabout the interaction between human and machenism, past and present. The glitch discussion depends on more general reflections on errors and accidents. While accidents and bugs have been spreaded into art since a long time, but reccently this concept just has been accepted to contemperory digital culture. The eletronic musician Kim Cascone writes:
Indeed, 'failure' has become a prominent aesthetic in many of the arts in the late 20th century, reminding us that our control of technology is an illusion, and revealing digital tools to be only as perfect, precise, and efficient as the humans who build them. (Cascone, 2000)
architecture design turn out to be the mainly purpose of this thesis. It is true that we need to rethink of the value of digital technology. + This study focuses on 2 combing words (Glitch + Art). The
It is not only an advaced tool to help us reach our goals easily
aestheticization of digital or object failure, not only oddly errors.
and effeciently, but also makes us think about the potential behind the digital system. Many artists have taken part in exploring the
This written research will try to explore and study how artists utilise
phenomenon of the glitch, some of them have also engaged in turning
glitch to create new phenomenon; demonstrating what happens
its cultural implications into positive and motivate aspacts.
in the breakdown between human thought and computer logic; Understanding the digital error interrupts the smooth functioning of
A l t h o u g h , s o m e p e o p l e m ay t h i n k g l i t c h m a k e s t h e m fe e l
media and raises questions which extend beneath the surfaces.
uncomfortable in visial or auditory sense because of its disorder, rough and harsh feeling. Famous Russian Suprematism artist Kazimir
The design research will be an opportunity to rethink the components
of the image, sound and space by disassambling and recombing. Applying this method helps us to discover more design possiblities in order to expand our imagination as well as critical thinking about architecture, landscape, society and humanity.
Art no longer cares to serve the state and religion, it no longer wishes to illustrate the history of manners, it wants to have nothing further to do with the object, as such, and believes that it can exist, in and for itself, without "things" (that is, the "time-tested well-spring of life").
Glitch is an unpredictable accident, a fault in a system. Artists did not wait for the malfunction, instead, they allow a glitch appear with purpose to reach their results. As a matter of fact, failure creates disorder and disorder makes original item into vague and distortion. The exciting moment you captured is not only failure itself but also the memory. For example, when you are trying to review the previous memory, something is interrupting and creating a new memory. Glitch art first been used into electronic music producing, it inspired musician to compose their work a lot. It has great contribution to experimental music, especially noise music. Even if musicians changed sounds by glitch the tracks, the music still has body which means structure. It is a fantasitc creating experience.
a trend. Some of architects and designers have already undertaken
From design and architecture point of view, futuristc design becomes this kind of design, especially in digital fabrication. Machine and
technology started to lead people thinking about what and how to express. Otherwise, most of materials in the world have their own pattern, by using glitch method may help us to discover more possiblities to change the patterns and shapes, create a special phenomenon. Life is like a loop of shaping and reshaping in different time and space. Glitch, must be the essensial component to connect the loop, it leads to reshape which means reborn. It is not just a mistake. When we think glitch as a positive way, we have to love it trust it and let it take you where you are going.
+ What can we learn from Glitch Art? + What is the expectation of our future architecture design? Figure.1 "Extending, a disordered way in a ordered structure" Qin Shi, Design work, new pattern of Bodleian Library, Oxford UK. (10. 2015)
Analysing and understanding the concept of the producers turns out
At the third stage, I started to produce some gifs and images by using
tuo be an essential part of developing my own theory and aethetic
Glitch applications and other digital methods. Obviously, through these
attitude of Glitch art. However, the beginning is not always that easy.
efficient and useful technology, my scope has been totally opened.
Difficult to find the resources about glitch theory, not be able to find
Due to the already known approach of making glitch visial art, many
the potential solution and even no idea how to proceed my research.
different types of options can be easily concluded. Such as, changing
There are numbers of questions and doubt inside my brain, and it
colour channel, scan the path, liquifying the image and so on. What I
seems my proposal maybe is a real glitch. After a long time, I almost
should do is not only change the code in program, but also redesign
have not done anything till one day I suddenly remembered my
the original image of memory. An object can also be reshaped by
supervisor Igea once told me that glitch exists in daily life. Exploring
extremely twisted, shaked, smashed and even destroyed. Testing a
more areas of glitch defenitely becomes my first real helpful step in
wide range of the approach of failure effect makes me more creative
my research. Series of glitch images, music and videos have been
and sensitive than before. It is amazing and surprising to see the
collected. I did photograph in nature and my living environment as
result, which I never expected. This must be the main meaning of
well. Discovering new things including books, photo, scene and people
behaviors everyday is the most motivative process in my research. Max 7 as an important software for artists to produce varieties of Using glitch method to create new images is the second step
visual performance is now becoming a research tool. As we define
of my research. Watercolor painting is the most effecient and
glitch as an machenised accident, this would be a proper platform to
helpful method to enhance my notion of glitch art design. With the
visualize the errors and interruptions in machine. Also, it's abundant
concept of beautiful failure, it helps me to define my works could
patching and programmings helped me to feel the interaction between
be randamly, chaotic but colourful. It is nessasery to be mentioned
human and machine. Glitch becomes not only a stable image, but also
watercolor can be washed, which means even if we made mistake
a movement which can be recorded or even lively in front of people.
on paper we still can repain it again and again untill satisfied. On the
The value of research on Max 7 is not just to fulfill the knowledge of
other hand, pigments also have space shaping function, by putting
computer science or create art pieces. The more important meaning
different volumn of pigment would create diversity of layers. Thus, I
is to find more potential design methods for future architecture. Glitch
started to paint pictures which similar to databinding by combining
can exist in the process for people to interact instead of watching the
different colors and metarials. Destroyed and interupted the previous
memories of an object or scene. In the proccess, some digital glitch tools such as Glitche/Photoshop/ImageGlitch had been utilised to observe more possiblities for my further design.
Aesthetic of glitch
Language Accident // Interruption // bending
“The glitch aesthetic may be rooted in the look of malfunction, but when it comes to actual practice, there’s often not much glitch in glitch art. But this is also not algorithmic art as we ordinarily think of it – it is a more demented form of generative art: zombie algorithms stripped of their ordinary purpose or built with no clear purpose at all, set loose to twist data into strange new patterns, or to expose side-effects unwanted by their original designers. Glitch art becomes a study of the dialogue between us and the machine – how we relate to logical systems and what happens in the breakdown between human thought and computer logic.” Digital artist Daniel Temkin demonstrated in his paper Glitch & Human/Computer Interaction (2014).
In a proper way, glitch can be regarded as a sort of accident in a logical system, which might be a positive way to help artists create their artworks. As the different areas of art and design showed that, glitch can be heard, visualized and even
Error // Random // Unpredictable
touched. Glitches. The original difinition can be the short temporary bugs occured
In sound area, glitch is a style of experimental Electronic
in digital system. We have all seen them: a sudden impact of pixelated,
music that uses the sounds created by malfunctioning digital
hallucinatory barbed lines spreading over our TVs and PC screens. A digital
technology - bugs, crashes, system errors, hardware noise,
failure cracks the picture we are looking at, for a disappointing minute;
CD skipping, and digital distortion - as main technique of
interrupt with the film, video games or photo before it comes back to ordinary.
Is glitch a ghost inside the computer or machine? In digital media people act
This unusual method of musical creation arguably began in
through machine. Glitch’s inside critical moment – a notion to illustrates the
Germany in the early 90s, with artists like Oval combining
potential of modulating or totally damaging the techno-culture. Perhaps our
the technique with ambient music to help cement its place
future will depend on this sort of concept being utilized to infinite shape and
in modern electronic music history. At the other end of the
Glitch spectrum, Japanese musician Yasunao Tone's use of damaged CDs created dense, extreme walls of sound, with
Exploring the process of reshaping an object is valuable for creative design.
Solo for Wounded CD perhaps being the best example. Modern
This experience of past and present, ordered and chaotic,
glitch tends to use software to recreate these sounds, as
unpredicted makes great contribution to contemperory art and design. Shifting
opposed to genuinely defecting technology, and this increased
our original notion and view of observing an object into another dimenstion
ease of creation has resulted in the genre spreading out into
becomes more and more important.
other areas, such as Glitch Pop and Glitch Hop.
Figure. 2 ‘Digital TV Dinner’ Video Still JPEG
"Bad artists copy. Good artists steal." -- PabloPicasso
Figure. 3 ‘Digital TV Dinner’ Video Still JPEG
‘Digital TV Dinner’ is the earlier experiment of glitch art in New media area in 1970's. In that age, computer technology is still in a developing status. Obviously, glitch is easy to happen in digital system. Artist Jamie Fenton and Raul Zaritsky used the console Figure. 4 video game console JPEG
game to generate unusual patterns. When pressing the reset button, it was possible to remove the cartridge from the system and induce difeerent memory dump pattern sequences. This is the same platform as electronic music compose, because it also accompanied
‘Digital TV Dinner’ 1978 (early stage of Glitch art). Created by Jamie Fenton and Raul Zaritsky. This video was made by manipulating the Bally video game console and recording the results on videotape. Source: https://youtu.be/Ad9zdlaRvdM
with glitch in sound. The artists were aiming to present their comprehension of digital accident by experimenting with ways of aesthetically translating digital glitches through video game machine to express an unpredictable, mystic and funny phenomenon.
Elements Pixel // Colour // Time
Glitch art underscores the computer as an apparatus indifferent to the
readability or quality of the resulting image. The tension in the form does not come from risk of damage or failure, but from the surrender of the image to an unpredictable system, the collaboration with the machine. Screens are founded of pixels. Pixel as the basic components of images, plays an important role in contempary new media art. Pixel can create series of fantastic geometry which is beyond people's imagination. Daniel Temkin explained his design work Glitchometry strips as below: Each image begins as a series of black and white stripes. They are sonified -- imported into an audio editor. Sound effects are added to individual colour channels, as if they were sound, transforming the image. Because the tool is used in an unconventional way, there is no immediate way to monitor the effect. The image manipulator has a sense of what each effect does, but no precise control over the result. Although the process is very similar to Glitchometry, the look of the Stripes series is more heavily influenced by Op Art works, such as those of Bridget Riley and Victor Vasarely. By using simpler sound effects more sparingly (delay and flanger), the output is less noisy, and more crisply graphic. My piece for nooart explains more about this take on the glitch style.
Figure. 5 Glitchometry strips JPEG Figure. 6 Glitchometry strips JPEG
Phenomenon Memory // Flux // Imagination
Without time there is no memory. Experiences from past to present are similar to make a glitch on time. To visualize the passing time, we always use photo to recall our memories. Data bending and combinning helps to draw people's attention on the strange pattern which might be same as blur and broken memories.
“I wanted to create an algorithm which needs time to modify the image. More precisely in memory (=image) the traces of the passing of the time is visible. The characteristics of the feedback memory is attempted to be visualized, as it can be told that the process of melting is really similar sometimes, creating linear like visual elements. This is how I imagine the passing of the time in the operation of the memory.” – Pixel Noizz (2015)
Figure. 7 Astronauts JPEG
OK GO is an American alternative rock band founded in 1998. They are famous for their music video which created different strong visual shocks and psychedelic scenes. The band’s video for “Here it goes again” won a Grammy Award for Best music video in 2007. In this video, it presents a continuing movement of members of band. In this video, it presents a continuing movement and changes of people, space and objects. This kind of funny and interesting performance style
Jack and Jacob were friends for a long time. they spent their childhood together, they went to the same school, and finally they both became astronauts, but… but there was just one place left in the spaceship.
reflected the inside spirit of joking, and a bit creepy. However, this video utilized digital failure to capture every single elements including pattern, colour and shapes. People and objects became the essential part to visualize the glitch video instead of the pixel and matrix.
Figure. 8 OK GO - WTF music video. Video Still
Figure. 10 OK GO - WTF music video. Video Still
Figure. 9 OK GO - WTF music video. Video Still
Figure. 11 OK GO - WTF music video. Video Still
Figure. 12 Decim8 pattern testing 1 JPEG
I am inspired by the process and culture of digital imaging technologies. Before I started testing glitch tools, the only impression of tools in my mind is just electronic equipment, such as camera, video game player, TV set and computer. But, people who are interested in glitch art had already developed series of Apps for smartphone and computer. By directly associating with this existing valuable platform, I created my own glitch work instead of sitting in front of computer to look at othersâ€™. Additionally, I promoted my comprehension on context of fine art and the positive thinking of glitch which could beyond our imagination.
Figure. 13 Decim8 pattern testing 2 JPEG
Figure. 14 Decim8 pattern testing 3 JPEG
Figure. 15 Decim8 pattern testing 4 JPEG
Figure. 16 Decim8 pattern testing 5 JPEG
It is worth to mention that with more and more people became interested in new media art, some advanced applications and softwares have been invented by artists and computer engineers. This is a good way to enhance public to focus on new technology and culture phenomenon. Involving
Figure. 17 Glitche "Blocks of Brighton seaside" JPEG
people to participate art creation by themselves also demolishs the boundary between contemporary art and normal people who doesn't have enough knowledge about it. Everyone can produce an imagine that unique. The process of creating new images is like cooking. All the materials you have already prepared. Glitch is the ingredients that you need to add in the dishes. And the way you want to represent is the fire you need to control. From my point of view, mechanised error is that unpredictable, but it still has a region which could be seperated into different types. Those glitch application helps people rethink what they saw before and also brings something new that they can hardly imagine. FAs mentioned in the last chapter, glitch has specific elements and phenomenon which can provide a range of disordered but beautiful results. Furthermore, this must be one of the positive meaning s of glitch art.
Figure. 18 Glitche "Seven Sisters" JPEG
Code testing Codes typically serve three main purposes. They are used for communication, clarification, or obfuscation. In computer programming, code is used to control the operations of a computer. Visual programming languages offer an alternative way of thinking with code. Using a visual programming language to write a program is similar to making a diagram instead of writing a text. One of the most popular visual programming languages within the arts - MAX was influenced by the way sounds and images are constructed using patch cables attached to analog synthesizers. Visual programming languages make it easier to generate and filter images and sounds.
Dirty signal is a computer visual programm based on MAX 7 platform. The
operation form is quite similar as grasshopper, which needs to be connected
with different orders. Some codes of orders are changable, even can be disturbed. For example, if turn on the
button, the computer will get the signal
to open the front camera. The current image will appear in both the small screen and big screen. The camera is capturing what is happening in that moment. Then, you can fix the numbers in "hnoise" and "distance" options to make some special disturbing. The data starts to bend and rebuild new shapes and colours; images flow immediately by the volumes you modified. While you are sitting in front of the camera, but the images are telling you something artistic and vague that you want. This kind of effection is so called dirty signal. By randomly changing the number of volumes, something really in a glitch way appears. It reminds people that in the past, the television and broadcast did not so advanced, some unpredictable signals always showed on screens and speakers. Which you cannot see it very often in current age.
Figure. 19 MAX 7 Dirty Signal Screen shot
Practice Visual art performance According to wikipidia: Ryoji Ikeda (born 1966) is a Japanese sound artist. His music is concerned primarily with sound in a variety of "raw" states, such as sine tones and noise, often using frequencies at the edges of the range of human hearing. Rhythmically, Ikeda's music is highly imaginative, exploiting beat patterns and, at times, using a variety of discrete tones and noise to create the semblance of a drum machine. His work also focuses on the relationship between the digital glitch pattern
and large public space experiences. Exploring the interaciton between
humanity and machine is mainly purpose of him as well. Many of his works have been presented in world famous exhibitions or personal shows.
Figure. 20 center Pompidou
Figure. 21 The transfinite
MAX as a great platform for visual and sound artists to realise their artific thinking, it provide an interface in a technology way. By exporting sound information into computer, the matched images are attached instantly. In a alternative way, this program can change images into sound as well. Any live performance could allow glitch happen. In famouse American composer John Cage's work "4'33", we could see he kept this silent moment to allow audience to participate his performance. The same concept, when people entered this space and had some interaction with Ryoji's pattern projection the images are changed. People became a glitch element. As well as the patterns, if artist made different scales of pixels and project them on the surface where people stand in front of, some visual glitch happend. By zooming in and zooming out, sometimes it is hard to define how big you are and how deep the space is. That is the most interesting part of glitch.
Figure. 22 Data path
Figure. 23 " Pattern tests"
Figure. 24 Audiovisual installation
Audiovisual Installation for Toyo Ito Exhibition Concept : Toyo Ito Creative Direction : 000studio Music : Ryoji Ikeda Producing : Kayoko Ota Cooperation : ICC Figure. 25 Audiovisual installation
ÂŠ 2000 Toyo Ito & Associates,Architects,000studio,and Ryoji Ikeda
Textile design Glitch in knitting Glitch, as a nalstagical digital langruge has been utilized in fashion
Figure. 26 Glith knitting process
design area. Digital knitting as an textile technology is a very good physical sample to visialised this kind of emotional and technological sense. After innovation turned out to be promptly developed we have been thinking of our personal machines with a curiosity that comes naturally to the creative mind and leads us to discover new visual languages that we can use to express ourselves.
Glitches in digital data can create amazing pixels and colour that we may not be able create by ourselves. These beautiful new patterns and colour fusions are of particular interest and excitement to artists and designers whose colour wheels may have spun dry and seek a new aesthetic. Japanese designer Nukeme has co-created a melting pixel overcoat (see lead image) in collaboration with Tokyo programmer and hacker UCNV.
Figure. 28 Glitch knitting scarves
Making gltich scarves became his main method to express his comprehension of glitch art. Before starting to use knitting machine, he changed the code of pattern on computer by randomly. It is like an interruption of a normal design process, but the resaults turn n out to be perfect. His works show a feelinng of waving, floating, freedom, which escape from the normal thoughts.
Figure. 29 Glitch knitting pillow case
" Knitting machine hack and Glitch kint" Collection artworks by Nukeme, Japan.
Figure. 27 Knitting machine
Firgure. 30 Matthew Adams Dolan ss15 fashion fitting
Glitch in space A void in the centre represents the "living area", with formal entrances at either side and lots of other access points if "one doesn't mind lowering their head," said a statement from Fujimoto.
"The floating masses of Many Small Cubes create a new experience of space, a
Figure. 31 "Nomadic house installation" Sou Fujimoto
rhythm of flickering shadows and lights, as being under the trees," said Fujimoto. In this instalation we could see Fujimoto wants to creat a nomadic house with some individual steel cubes and plants. Also similar to the method of glitch art, which is to decompose the original sense into pieces, and then resamble them into another special sense.The cubes and trees grow in a random but beautiful statues, also get along with the surroundings, bringing the whole architecuture closer to nature. It reminds me to rethink should modern architecture have clear boundries?
Figure. 32 "Nomadic house installation" Sou Fujimoto
Figure. 33 Lanxi Curtilage facade Archi Union Architects Inc
Figure. 35 Lanxi Curtilage facade Archi Union Architects Inc
The Lanxi Curtilage is situated at the International Intangible Cultural Heritage Park in Chengdu, China (2011). It is an understanding of conventional Chinese construction modeling through the language of advanced digital manufacture methods. The design concept of the ripple wall came from a digital interpretation of water. By copying the movement of water, designer use digital method to interrupt the original bricks pattern in order to make the concept into reality. This flexible facade refelected the relationship between buildings and nature. The design focuses on developing an artistic p a t t e r n a s we l l a s o n c r e a t i n g a fe a s i b l e Figure. 34 Lanxi Curtilage facade Archi Union Architects Inc
56 Figure. 37 nitro-cellulose lacquer on iron
Esther Stocker An Italian female artist created a series of fantastic visual work in the world. Looking at her works, she concentrated on certain feature such as colour, surface, shapes or gestures. The artist seems to exploit the ostensible robustness of Figure. 36 What kind of objects are those that we presuppose? Wood construction
geometrical forms in order to dismantle that robustness completely. It is not a complex world, it is the way we see the simplest structures which makes us doubt about everything. This is exactly what glitch wants to be expressed, mysterious and doubtable.
Glitch: 58 59
“Many artists do see glitch as a tool for critiquing popular culture, but many see it simply as a nostalgic–8bit generation–aesthetic, others as digital psychedelia, others as a lens through which to dissect language + linguistics, and others yet, as a purely structuralist/materialist practice.” Nick Briz, American digital artist (2015).
“We’re comfortable looking at screens and connecting to networks that show nothing but beauty and an obsession with perfectionism. To this end, distortion is closer to the reality of our fractured, temporal information society.” Travis Stearns, a UK-based designer and glitch artist (2015).
"A kiss has been many things in many places. The kiss offers to architecture, a field that in its traditional forms has been committed to permancence and mastery, not merely the obvious allure of sensuality but also a set of qualities that architecture has long resisted: ephemerality and consilience. However long or short, however socially constrained or erotically desiring, a kiss is the coming together of two similar but not identical surfaces, surfaces that soften, flex, and deform when in contact, a performance of temporary singularities, a union of bedazzling convergence and identification during which separation is inconceivable yet inevitable.' Sylvia Lavin (2011).
As the potential for error marks the potential for the new and the unforeseen,
Contradiction exists every kind of culture. Apparently, Glitch Art is an
we can see that an error or an accident in itself may be creative. An error
insistence. As a positive thinking, glitch has great potential to open our
may be utilized to create the unforeseen within traditional systems, such
scope of design, demolish the limitatio of our notion. Recently, glitch as
as routine computer use, musical compositions, or visual art practice even
a nostalgic language went back to our view, which can bring us more
creative and motivate power for designing.
In these instances, as the unique generative qualities of errors and
Glitch is no longer only existed in computer and machine, opposit, it can
accidents are actualized, the artists can no longer be thought of as the
be touched and reshaped. While the more glitch thinking opened my
sole creative force. Additionally, it is now the artist's role to provide the
scope of observing the world, the more I can think something not just rely
circumstances for an error to emerge. The bugs fill the potentiality of a
system with meaning, whether intended or unintended by the designers. We have seen that the aesthetics of the glitch involves an unfolding
more kinds of surfaces than anything else: outside, inside, soft and hard,
or becoming-situated within particular pre-scripted for preprogrammed
there's a surface for everyone.
Space is hard to get a hold on. Architecture also has more surface and
conditions. Furthermore, the works showed here are at their core works that are performed over time by a set of processes.
The interaction between human, nature and machine which brings people some new understanding is always meaningful. It helps to look for the
In the begining of glitch research, I only undertook some related new media
missing memories and potential possibilities that we usually ignored.
art collection to enhance my understanding of glitch. With some expansion of knowledge, I found that glitch has great positive meaning to the future
As my analysis of future architectural design trend, participation and
design. Some have already been tested in fashion design and architectural
randomness which glitch brings to us could be an essential part of design.
Offering a suitable platform such as programm to involve people to design their own pieces of work and show to the public must be the interesting
As a metter of fact that it is true nowadays HD massive screen, high speed
method. In addition, some randomness always exists in nature, such as
internet, smart phone and computer exist everywhere. The messege which
the growing of plants and the shape of the waterfall. Glitch might be the
is spreaded through the perfect images wants to tell us we are safe, rich
proper method to attach on the spaces and surfaces.
and perfect. These new iterms of desire, sometimes, can not reflect the real world which is unpredictable, disordered, fragiled and even dirty. The more
Last but not least, there can be more ways and angles to represent the
chaotic, the more realistic.
world, if we use glitch!
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Spuybroek, L. (2009) Research & design : the architecture of variation. London: Thames & Hudson.
Links https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glitch (accessed: 15.01.2016). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryoji_Ikeda (accessed: 15.01.2016). Menkman, R. (2011) The Glitch moment(um). Available online:http:// networkcultures.org/_uploads/NN%234_RosaMenkman.pdf (accessed: 15.01.2016). Smith, G. (2012) A glitch architecuture possibilities primer. Available online: http://gilesspsmith.com/downloads/A%20Glitch%20Architecture%20 Possibilities%20Primer%20-%20G%20Smith.pdf (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Glitch architectures. Available online: http://glitcharchitectures.tumblr. com (accessed: 15.01.2016). http://letsglitchit.glitchartistscollective.com/post/94348506680/yuvformat-sonification (accessed: 15.01.2016). The Lanxi Curtilage. Available online: http://photo.zhulong.com/ proj/detail62942.html (accessed: 15.01.2016). http://nooart.org/post/73353953758/temkinglitchhumancomputerinteraction (accessed: 15.01.2016). http://danieltemkin.com/Glitchometry/Stripes (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Betancourt, M. (2015) Critical glitches and glitch art. Available online: http://www.hz-journal.org/n19/betancourt.html (accessed: 15.01.2016).
https://pixelnoizz.wordpress.com/2013/11/12/failed-memories-the4th-selection/ (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Textile technology - Season of the glitch. Available online: http://journal. fashionspyder.com/textech-glitch/ (accessed: 15.01.2016).
http://www.matthewadamsdolan.com/ss15-collection-fittings/ (accessed: 15.01.2016).
The distorted truth in Glitch. (2012) Available online: http://roberturquhart. com/category/glitch-art/ (accessed: 15.01.2016).
O K G O - W T F y o u t u b e : h t t p s : / / w w w. y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=12zJw9varYE (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Sou Fujimoto stacks aluminium boxes to form "nomadic" house installation in Paris. (2014) Available online: http://www.dezeen.com/2014/10/22/soufujimoto-many-small-cubes-installation-paris-jardins-des-tuileries-fiac-artfair/ (accessed: 15.01.2016). http://archinect.com/news/article/29024088/post-card-ideological-icons (accessed: 15.01.2016). Wanner, A. (2014) Mechanical drawing machines and the glitch - misualizing technology through its failures. Available online: http://2014.xcoax.org/ pdf/xcoax2014-Wanner.pdf (accessed: 15.01.2016). http://www.theartissue.com/issue/glitchart/ (accessed: 15.01.2016). http://www.taac-us.org/c-yehj/ (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Illustration Figure. 1 personal design work. Figure. 2-3 https://youtu.be/Ad9zdlaRvdM (accessed: 15.01.2016). Figure. 4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_console (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Figure. 24-25 https://www.pinterest.com/gabrielasipiora/ryoji-ikeda/ (accessed: 15.01.2016). Figure. 26-29 http://journal.fashionspyder.com/textech-glitch/ (accessed: 15.01.2016). Figure. 30 http://www.matthewadamsdolan.com (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Figure. 5-6 http://danieltemkin.com (accessed: 15.01.2016)
Figure. 31-32 http://www.dezeen.com/2014/10/22/sou-fujimoto-many-small-cubesinstallation-paris-jardins-des-tuileries-fiac-art-fair/ (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Figure. 7 https://pixelnoizz.wordpress.com (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Figure. 33-35 http://photo.zhulong.com/proj/detail62942.html (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Figure. 8-11 O K G O - W T F y o u t u b e : h t t p s : / / w w w. y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=12zJw9varYE (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Figure. 36-37 http://www.estherstocker.net (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Figure. 12-19 Personal design work. Figure. 20 http://www.paris-art.com/marche-art/datamatics-[ver-20]/ikedaryoji/6176.html (accessed: 15.01.2016). Figure. 21 http://www.novastructura.net/wp/ryoji-ikeda-the-transfinite/ (accessed: 15.01.2016). Figure. 22 http://espacio.fundaciontelefonica.com/2013/09/09/data-path-laexposicion-de-ryoji-ikeda/ (accessed: 15.01.2016). Figure. 23 http://www.ryojiikeda.com/archive/exhibitions/ (accessed: 15.01.2016).
Reflective dissertation Epilogue Date of Submission: 18.01.2016 Qin Shi // 15098950 P30035 // Research-led Design Supervisor: Dr. Igea Troiani Oxford Brookes University MarchD
75 // Design studio brief
// Design project
" The dreamland of Villa Litta Lainate " // Plan of work // Bibliography
Design studio brief The main purpose of this Research-led Design Studio is to practice Glitch as a design method in architecture, also tend to discover more potential in future design trend. As which is mentioned before in research dissertation, Glitch has special features such as timing and randomness. In this studio, digital and physical experiments will be needed as an important method to represent glitch concept. Through the process of testing on glitch art will begin to understand the relationship between human and machine. Something reactive and participative that we are not able to control by ourselves. On the other hand, looking for a suitable place to practice the glitch concept becomes the
important consideration. The design period will last approximately 4 months; including site visiting, conceptual design, film making, model making and portfolio producing.
Design project " The dreamland of Villa Litta Lainate "
Figure. 1 Villa litta lainate Glitch facaden
81 Figure. 2 Villa litta lainate Site view
Background The site of Villa Litta is located in Lainate, Italy, and extends over a total surface area of approximately three hectares. The creator of the entire complex was Pirro I Visconti Borromeo who, inspired by the Medicean villas in Tuscany, around the year 1585, transformed his estate in Lainate from an agricultural land estate into an estate for amusement and pleasure. In addition to the architectural asset, Pirro I landscaped the garden, and allowed the Nymphaeum be built. This building for refreshment (see the "Nymphaeum" section) can be considered one of the most important examples in Northern Italy
Figure. 3 Villa litta lainate Site view
for the richness of its decorations, and the variety of its water games.
Kissing is also a gentle way to say goodbye to an old architectural drama in which architecture is inevitably cast as a tragic figure, sometimes victim sometimes villain but always closer to failure than to success. - Sylvia Lavin. (2011)
Figure. 4 Villa litta fountain
Initial concept As the last tutorial of semseter 1, tutors and supervisor provided me some suggestion on how to design with glitch method. Especially, my concept of glitch gardon was accpeted as an great starting point. Looking through the design work of Jean Novel foundation center, Paris, 1997. Some interesting idea inspired me, such as architecture combines with plants and human behavior. Architecture should not have clear boundary, it is not just an
Figure.5 Gardon around theater
object. Interaction and blur is a great topic which need to be explored.
Randomness and participation would be my essential element involved in this
design project. It took a long time to search for a space to practice this glitch concept. In my point of view, this space should be something could reflect the time and also human behavior. Until this Christmas holliday, I visited Italy I found this "dreamland" - Villa Litta Lainate. This is a historical place and you can see different materials and random spaces. It used to be pavilions and theater, and now, it becomes a place for water game also exhibitons. Also, the emperty garden inside this villa need to be redesigned as a open place for people to participate the operas and live performances. I think this place must have great potential to have some glitch design, both indoor and outdoor. Contraction of morden contemprary art and historical heratagies is also need to be considerated. A place present the past and present, the place where people can get involved. Thinking of these, it is reasonable to realise the dreamland with glitch idea - A soft kiss. Projection, interaction installation and landscape all of them are possible.
Figure. 6 Indoor space
At that time I didn't know what I would make but this image clearly shows that I was unconsciously inspired by the site. With this pavilion, I wanted to create something between nature and architectre. - Fujimoto, S. (2013) 87
Figure. 7 Serpentine gallery pavilion
Figure. 8 Serpentine gallery pavilion
08/01 – 15/01
Site visiting Film shooting
18/01 – 29/01
Site information collecting Project definition Initial concept
Plan of work
01/02 – 03/02
Get feedbacks from final dissertation
04/02 – 08/02
Field trip to Casablanca
09/02 – 28/02
RLD Exploration portfolio producing
RLD Exploration portfolio presentation
01/03 – 18/03
89 Research on materials and structures 21/03 22/03 – 09/04
Design reviews Easter break Trip Film making
11/04 – 05/05
Development of project Portfolio producing
Final RLD studio project portfolio submission
17/05 – 26/05
Exhibition building External examinations
End of year exhibition
Bibliography Books Amoroso, N. (2012) Digital landscape architecture now. London: Thames&Hudson Ltd. pp. 48577. Antonelli, P. (2011) Talk to me: design and the communication between people and objects. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Baudrillard, J. (1996) The system of objects. London: Verso.
Borden, G, P. and Meredith, M. (2012) Matter: material processes in architectural production. London: Routledge. pp. 390-395 Fujimoto, S. (2012) Serpentine gallery pavilion 2013. Serpentine gallery. PP. 15 Lavin, S. (2011) Kissing architecture. Princeton: Princeton university press. pp. 4-26. Maeda, J. and Burns, R. (2004) Creative code. London: Thames & Hudson. Moradi, I and Scott, A. (2009) Glitch: Designing Imperfection. New York: Mark Batty Publisher. Nunes, M. (2011) Error: glitch, noise, and jam in new media cultures. London: Continuum. Rodgers, P and Smyth, M. (2010) Digital blur: creative practice at the boundaries of architecture, Design and Art. Oxford: Libri Publishing.
Published on Nov 28, 2016