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Delivering Equality & Embracing Diversity

Overview of Equality Law for the University Court & Senior Management University of St Andrews: Human Resources Equality & Diversity Inclusion

Updated: 26 October 2011


Delivering Equality & Embracing Diversity

Legal Compliance = Public Funding = £££s Public Sector Equality Duty (April 2011) /ŶŽƌĚĞƌĨŽƌƚŚĞh Ŷŝǀ ĞƌƐŝƚLJƚŽĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƚŽƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůůLJĐŽŵƉĞƚĞ ĨŽƌƉƵďůŝĐĨƵŶĚŝŶŐĨŽƌƚŚĞĚĞůŝǀ ĞƌLJŽĨŚŝŐŚĞƌĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ research, the University Equality & Diversity Inclusion Policy is aligned with this legal duty. dŚĞh Ŷŝǀ ĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ŝŶƚŚĞĞdžĞƌĐŝƐĞŽĨŝƚƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ŵƵƐƚŚĂǀ ĞĂŶĚ ƐŚŽǁ ĚƵĞƌĞŐĂƌĚƚŽƚŚĞĨŽůůŽǁ ŝŶŐ͚' ĞŶĞƌĂů ƵƟĞƐ͛ ƌĞůĂƟŶŐƚŽƚŚĞ Single Equality Act (2010):  eliminate ĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ͕ ŚĂƌĂƐƐŵĞŶƚĂŶĚǀ ŝĐƟŵŝƐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ other conduct prohibited by the Act  ĨŽƐƚĞƌŐŽŽĚƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐbetween people from different groups ƚŚŝƐŝŶǀ Žůǀ ĞƐƚĂĐŬůŝŶŐƉƌĞũƵĚŝĐĞĂŶĚƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ between people from different groups  advance equality of opportunity between people from different groups - this involves considering the need to: 

remove or minimise disadvantages suffered by people due ƚŽƚŚĞŝƌ͚ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ͛

ŵĞĞƚƚŚĞŶĞĞĚƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞǁ ŝƚŚ͚ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ͛

ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞƉĞŽƉůĞǁ ŝƚŚ͚ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ͛ ƚŽ ƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƚĞŝŶƉƵďůŝĐůŝĨĞŽƌŝŶŽƚŚĞƌĂĐƟǀ ŝƟĞƐǁ ŚĞƌĞƚŚĞŝƌ ƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶŝƐůŽǁ

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Delivering Equality & Embracing Diversity

Single Equality Act (2010) The Act consolidates and replaces most of the previous equality ůĂǁ Ɛ͕ ĐŽǀ ĞƌŝŶŐĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚĂŶĚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞĨŽůůŽǁ ŝŶŐĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐŬŶŽǁ ŶŝŶƚŚĞ Act as ‘ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ’ (replacing the term equality strands):         

Age Disability Gender reassignment Marriage and civil partnership Pregnancy and maternity Race Religion or belief Sex ^ĞdžƵĂůŽƌŝĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ

dŚĞĨŽůůŽǁ ŝŶŐŬĞLJĂƌĞĂƐƌĞůĂƚĞƚŽƚŚĞƵƉĚĂƚĞĚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ criteria in equality law:      

 ŝƌĞĐƚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ  ŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶďLJ ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ  ŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶďLJWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ /ŶĚŝƌĞĐƚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ Harassment s ŝĐƟŵŝƐĂƟŽŶ

^ŽƵƌĐĞ͗ , ZƋƵĂůŝƚLJĐƚŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚŽĚĞŽĨWƌĂĐƟĐĞ Page 3


Delivering Equality & Embracing Diversity

 ŝƌĞĐƚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶс  ŝƌĞĐƚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĐĐƵƌƐǁ ŚĞŶĂƉĞƌƐŽŶƚƌĞĂƚƐĂŶŽƚŚĞƌůĞƐƐ favourably than they treat or would treat others because of a ͚ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐ͛ . If the employer has treated a worker ‘less favourably’, a comparison is checked with how they have treated other workers or would have treated them in similar circumstances. If the employer’s treatment of the worker puts the worker at a clear disadvantage compared with other workers, then it is more likely that the treatment will be less favourable. For example, a ĨĞŵĂůĞǁ ŽƌŬĞƌ͛ ƐĂƉƉƌĂŝƐĂůĚƵƟĞƐĂƌĞǁ ŝƚŚĚƌĂǁ Ŷ ǁ ŚŝůĞŚĞƌŵĂůĞĐŽůůĞĂŐƵĞƐĂƚƚŚĞƐĂŵĞŐƌĂĚĞĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƚŽĐĂƌƌLJ out appraisals. Although she was not demoted , she feels demeaned in the eyes of those she managed and in the eyes of ŚĞƌĐŽůůĞĂŐƵĞƐ͘ dŚĞƌĞŵŽǀ ĂůŽĨŚĞƌĂƉƉƌĂŝƐĂůĚƵƟĞƐŵĂLJďĞ ƚƌĞĂƟŶŐŚĞƌůĞƐƐĨĂǀ ŽƵƌĂďůLJƚŚĂŶŚĞƌŵĂůĞĐŽůůĞĂŐƵĞƐ͘ /ĨƚŚĞůĞƐƐ favourable treatment is because of her sex, this would amount to ĚŝƌĞĐƚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ͘ 

 ŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶďLJ ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶс If an employer treats a worker less favourably because of the ǁ ŽƌŬĞƌ͛ ƐĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶǁ ŝƚŚĂŶŽƚŚĞƌƉĞƌƐŽŶǁ ŚŽŚĂƐĂ͚ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐ͛ ͘  t ŚĞƌĞďLJĂǁ ŽƌŬĞƌƚƌĞĂƚĞĚůĞƐƐĨĂǀ ŽƵƌĂďůLJďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ with a pregnant woman, or a woman who has recently given ďŝƌƚŚсƐĞdžĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ͘ Page 4


Delivering Equality & Embracing Diversity

 ŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶďLJWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶс If an employer treats a worker less favourably because the employer mistakenly thinks that the worker has a ‘protected ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐ͛ ;ŶŽƚĂƉƉůLJŝŶŐƚŽƉƌĞŐŶĂŶĐLJ͕ŵĂƚĞƌŶŝƚLJ͕ŵĂƌƌŝĂŐĞŽƌ civil partnership). For example, if an internal job applicant has been unsuccessful due to disclosing that they have a caring responsibility for a disabled child, parent or partner, regardless of whether or not the job applicant is disabled.

/ŶĚŝƌĞĐƚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶс &ŽƌŝŶĚŝƌĞĐƚĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶƚŽƚĂŬĞƉůĂĐĞ͕ ĨŽƵƌƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐŵƵƐƚ be met: 

the employer applies (or would apply) the provision, criterion ŽƌƉƌĂĐƟĐĞĞƋƵĂůůLJƚŽĞǀ ĞƌLJŽŶĞǁ ŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞƌĞůĞǀ ĂŶƚŐƌŽƵƉ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐĂƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌǁ ŽƌŬĞƌ͖

ƚŚĞƉƌŽǀ ŝƐŝŽŶ͕ ĐƌŝƚĞƌŝŽŶŽƌƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƉƵƚƐ͕ Žƌǁ ŽƵůĚƉƵƚ͕ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁ ŚŽƐŚĂƌĞƚŚĞǁ ŽƌŬĞƌƐ͚ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐ͛ ĂƚĂ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌĚŝƐĂĚǀ ĂŶƚĂŐĞǁ ŚĞŶĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚǁ ŝƚŚƉĞŽƉůĞǁ ŚŽĚŽ ŶŽƚŚĂǀ ĞƚŚĂƚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐ͖

ƚŚĞƉƌŽǀ ŝƐŝŽŶ͕ ĐƌŝƚĞƌŝŽŶŽƌƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƉƵƚƐ͕ Žƌǁ ŽƵůĚƉƵƚ͕ ƚŚĞ worker at that disadvantage; and

the employer cannot show that the provision, criterion or ƉƌĂĐƟĐĞŝƐĂƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶĂƚĞŵĞĂŶƐŽĨĂĐŚŝĞǀ ŝŶŐĂůĞŐŝƟŵĂƚĞ aim. Page 5


Delivering Equality & Embracing Diversity

s ŝĐƟŵŝƐĂƟŽŶс /ƚŝƐǀ ŝĐƟŵŝƐĂƟŽŶĨŽƌĂŶĞŵƉůŽLJĞƌƚŽƐƵďũĞĐƚĂǁ ŽƌŬĞƌƚŽĂ detriment because the worker has done a 'protected act' or because the employer believes that the worker has done or may do a protected act in the future. ǁ ŽƌŬĞƌŶĞĞĚŶŽƚŚĂǀ ĞĂƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐŝŶ ŽƌĚĞƌƚŽďĞƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĂŐĂŝŶƐƚǀ ŝĐƟŵŝƐĂƟŽŶƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞĐƚ͖ ƚŽďĞ ƵŶůĂǁ ĨƵů͕ǀ ŝĐƟŵŝƐĂƟŽŶŵƵƐƚďĞůŝŶŬĞĚƚŽĂ͚ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĂĐƚ͛ ͘ 

Harassment = When a person engages in unwanted conduct which is related to ĂƌĞůĞǀ ĂŶƚ͚ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐ͛ ĂŶĚǁ ŚŝĐŚŚĂƐƚŚĞƉƵƌƉŽƐĞ or the effect of:  

ǀ ŝŽůĂƟŶŐƚŚĞǁ ŽƌŬĞƌ͛ ƐĚŝŐŶŝƚLJ͖Žƌ ĐƌĞĂƟŶŐĂŶŝŶƟŵŝĚĂƟŶŐ͕ ŚŽƐƟůĞ͕ ĚĞŐƌĂĚŝŶŐ͕ ŚƵŵŝůŝĂƟŶŐŽƌ offensive environment for that worker.

Unwanted conduct covers a wide range of behaviour, including ƐƉŽŬĞŶŽƌǁ ƌŝƩ ĞŶǁ ŽƌĚƐŽƌĂďƵƐĞ͕ ŝŵĂŐĞƌLJ͕ŐƌĂĸ Ɵ͕ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ŐĞƐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ ĨĂĐŝĂůĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ŵŝŵŝĐƌLJ͕ũŽŬĞƐ͕ ƉƌĂŶŬƐ͕ ĂĐƚƐĂī ĞĐƟŶŐ a person’s surroundings or other physical behaviour. /ŶĚĞĐŝĚŝŶŐǁ ŚĞƚŚĞƌƵŶǁ ĂŶƚĞĚĐŽŶĚƵĐƚŚĂƐĂŶĞŐĂƟǀ ĞĞī ĞĐƚ͕  ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂƟŽŶŝƐŐŝǀ ĞŶŽŶŚŽǁ ƚŚĞĐŽŶĚƵĐƚǁ ĂƐƌĞŐĂƌĚĞĚŝŶƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨǀ ŝŽůĂƟŶŐƚŚĞŝƌĚŝŐŶŝƚLJŽƌĐƌĞĂƟŶŐĂŶŝŶƟŵŝĚĂƟŶŐĞŶǀ ŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕  is taken into account.

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Delivering Equality & Embracing Diversity

, ƵŵĂŶZŝŐŚƚƐĂŶĚWƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶĨƌŽŵ, ĂƚƌĞĚ Freedom rights = 

 ƌƟĐůĞϵ͗ Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

 ƌƟĐůĞϭϬ͗ Freedom of expression

 ƌƟĐůĞϭϭ͗ &ƌĞĞĚŽŵŽĨĂƐƐĞŵďůLJĂŶĚĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ

WƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶĨƌŽŵŚĂƚƌĞĚƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƐĞƌŝŐŚƚƐс 

 ƌƟĐůĞϭϰ͗ ZŝŐŚƚƚŽƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶŽĨŚĂƚƌĞĚ

Examples of Hate Crime ƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐŝŶĂĐƌŝŵŝŶĂůŽī ĞŶĐĞ;ƌĂĐŝƐŵ͖  religious hatred and homophobia): X h ƐĞŽĨƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶŝŶŐ͕ ĂďƵƐŝǀ ĞŽƌŝŶƐƵůƟŶŐǁ ŽƌĚƐŽƌďĞŚĂǀ ŝŽƵƌ X  ŝƐƉůĂLJŽĨĂŶLJǁ ƌŝƩ ĞŶŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůǁ ŚŝĐŚŝƐƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶŝŶŐ͕ ĂďƵƐŝǀ ĞŽƌ ŝŶƐƵůƟŶŐ X WƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶŽƌĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶŽĨǁ ƌŝƩ ĞŶŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůǁ ŚŝĐŚŝƐ ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶŝŶŐ͕ ĂďƵƐŝǀ ĞŽƌŝŶƐƵůƟŶŐ X Public performance of a play which involves the use of ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶŝŶŐ͕ ĂďƵƐŝǀ ĞŽƌŝŶƐƵůƟŶŐǁ ŽƌĚƐŽƌďĞŚĂǀ ŝŽƵƌ X  ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ͕ ƐŚŽǁ ŝŶŐŽƌƉůĂLJŝŶŐŽĨĂƌĞĐŽƌĚŝŶŐŽĨǀ ŝƐƵĂůŝŵĂŐĞƐ ŽƌƐŽƵŶĚƐǁ ŚŝĐŚĂƌĞƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶŝŶŐ͕ ĂďƵƐŝǀ ĞŽƌŝŶƐƵůƟŶŐ X WŽƐƐĞƐƐŝŽŶŽĨǁ ƌŝƩ ĞŶŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůŽƌĂƌĞĐŽƌĚŝŶŐŽĨǀ ŝƐƵĂůŝŵĂŐĞƐ ŽƌƐŽƵŶĚƐǁ ŚŝĐŚŝƐͬ ĂƌĞƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶŝŶŐ͕ ĂďƵƐŝǀ ĞŽƌŝŶƐƵůƟŶŐ͕ ǁ ŝƚŚĂ ǀ ŝĞǁ ƚŽƚŚĞŝƌĚŝƐƉůĂLJ͕ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ͕ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶŽƌƉůĂLJŝŶŐ

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Sukhi Bains Equality & Diversity Officer Human Resources University of St Andrews Email: sb104@st-andrews.ac.uk Website for further Equality & Diversity Inclusion resources: www.st-andrews.ac.uk/hr/edi

dŚŝƐĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚŝƐĂůƐŽĂǀ ĂŝůĂďůĞŝŶ͚ůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀ Ğ Format’.

Equality Law Leaflet  

Overview of Equality Law written for Court members.