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> Multi-media marketing


We were there at the start The AmbITion Approach Working with photographers

> A picture is worth a thousand words

> Lights, camera, action …

> Hallé Play

> Multi media marketing We were there at the start ..............................6 Case study: A picture is worth a thousand words ................................................8 The AmbITion Approach................................ 10 Case study: Hallé Play....................................... 14 Case study: Lights, camera, action … ....... 16 Working with photographers........................ 19

JAM is published by

Cover image: Uncle © Estate of Nam June Paik from a retrospective of the artist’s work at Tate Liverpool, January to March 2011 – see p23

Research round-up

We were there at the start

60 A picture is worth a thousand words

This issue of JAM was compiled and edited by Helen Bolt and Julie Aldridge. e JAM is published by the Arts Marketing Association 7a Clifton Court, Cambridge CB1 7BN t 01223 578078 twitter @amadigital e w Designed by Sugarfree t 020 7619 7430

Make JAM for the AMA JAM is always on the lookout for new writers with good ideas for case studies and features, especially from some of those smaller organisations out there. If you would like to contribute, please e-mail:

2 > JAM 41

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Lights, camera, action...

Just a minute


> Regulars Spotlight ................................................................. 3 Research round-up . ........................................... 4 Member research moments...........................12 Just a minute . .................................................... 21

© Roger Sinek, Tate Liverpool 2010


JAM is published four times per annum. UK subscription rates £37 per annum Overseas subscription rates £57 per annum 6-month trial membership: receive JAM and benefit from member rates for training events, workshops and conference for just £53 + VAT. e © Arts Marketing Association, 2011. All rights are reserved and reproduction of any parts is not allowed without the written permission of the publishers. Opinions expressed in JAM are not necessarily those of the AMA and no responsibility is accepted for advertising content. Any material submitted for publication may be edited for reasons of style, content or available space. Meanings will not be altered without permission from the author. ISSN 1474-1172

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Tooled up


Leo Cinicolo

he wealth of tools available to us to enhance our marketing is now immense. You can do it online, offline, on a shoestring, with a fantastic budget, by yourself, with a team, with consultants and professionals or a bit of all of it. The main thing is that you do what’s right for you and your organisation. Try it out, figure out why it worked or didn’t work and build on the things that work best for you. This issue of JAM aims to demystify some of the latest technological developments that marketers have been presented with at a bewildering pace of change over the last year or so while keeping our eye on the important basics.  On page 6, Sam Scott Wood introduces YouView – where TV meets the internet; on page 8 Angharad Wynne explains how good images for attracting allimportant attention require thought, creativity and a keen eye, and page 10 explores the AmbITion Approach to digital development. Joseph Harrison of the Hallé reveals the relationship between Britain’s longest-established symphony orchestra and some of the newest media applications on page 14 and Roberta Doyle writes about the integral role filmed material is playing as part of the marketing toolbox at National Theatre Scotland (page 16). Turn to page 19 for a guide to working with photographers from the Association of Photographers along with some useful web links around copyright and licensing. In Heather Maitland’s regular research round-up she asks how you decide the best images to use and brings us some research to show what a powerful tool they are and how they

work in unexpected ways. The middle pages of this issue give an insight into the AMA member research from last autumn – who the members are, what they like and what they think about the AMA – and Just a minute on page 21 gets to know Jodi Bennett at Welsh National Opera. Helen Bolt Editor, JAM e


Spotlight on Jo Taylor


still remember my first hit. Running the university festival, I got an amazing buzz seeing the queue for our first sell-out concert. Sitting in the audience having helped create this shared experience felt incredible. As Marketing Assistant at Bath Festivals, inspired by my boss, I joined the AMA, attended conference, and my passion for audience development was born. Back then, we were installing the first computerised ticketing systems. The potential of all this new audience intelligence was mind-blowing and the AMA/CIM Advanced Certificate in Arts Marketing further whetted my appetite. At St George’s Bristol, newly refurbished and re-launched, we went all-out to engage new audiences who enlivened this intimate chamber venue. As Head of Marketing at WNO I discovered my biggest artistic passion. I’ve always cherished live performance and with opera you get the lot: visual arts, music, drama. We moved into WNO’s first proper home – Wales Millennium

Centre – seizing the chance to pull down barriers, offering opera to a wider audience. At Wales Millennium Centre my enthusiasm for arts and audiences has come full circle. Designed to create a closer relationship between the audience and the art, programming and marketing are placed in one department. My utopia is the arts and audience-focused organisations: one that harnesses this synergy, empowers audiences and gains strength and inspiration from them. We’re not quite there yet, but I do think we’re facing in the right direction. Jo Taylor, Chair of the AMA Board (until end Feb) Head of Marketing and Communications at Wales Millennium Centre (from March) Jo Taylor Arts and Audience Development e t @joeytaylor JAM 41 > 3


Visual persuasion

Heather Maitland asks, ‘How do you choose the best image to use?’


esearch shows that images are the most powerful tool we have, working in some unexpected ways. Banking websites that have no images are seen as untrustworthy.1 The image on that postcard sent by friends or family evokes strong emotions which really do make us want to travel.2 Emotive images inserted in political TV ads for just 30 milliseconds impact on viewers’ evaluation of candidates.3 Why do they work so well? Neuroscientists have found that emotions are used as a kind of indexing system for memories. The reaction is physical: when our potential attender, visitor or participant looks at an emotionally arousing picture, their blood sugar level rises which means they remember it. Images that are merely pleasant don’t have this effect.4,5 Images need to be this powerful. Packets in a supermarket catch a consumer’s eye for just three-tenths of a second yet in that time each has to grab attention, say what is inside, appeal to the consumer’s psyche and show how the contents will meet their particular needs.6 Sandra Niehause suggests these guidelines for choosing an effective image: • Does it convey the right feeling for your brand and message? • Does it add information? • Is it (at least fairly) unique? • Can you crop out any unnecessary details and make sure the key element is front and centre?7 But it’s much more complicated than this. 4 > JAM 41

Everyone has a different experience of the images we choose. It depends on pre-existing knowledge that comes from their cultural background and traditions, childhood experiences, previous advertising material they have seen, their understanding of the purpose of our marketing material and the social context in which they are reading it.8 This previous experience is important. Our readers prefer images that seem familiar because their brains have already built neural pathways to memories that have been processed in a similar way, have triggered similar emotions and are stored nearby.2 Where we give them a lot of information to process rapidly, we should put pictures on the left and words on the right because the part of the brain that deals with emotions more easily perceives material on the left-hand side. So, effective images need to trigger pre-programmed, emotion-laden responses to visual cues.9 But how can we choose images that will do this? Colour is a vital ingredient. Pink, peach, cream and lavender signal sweet tastes and scents while icy blue, green and blue-green are linked to cool refreshment.6 Ever wondered why fast-food outlets are themed in red and yellow? Because yellow attracts attention and red stimulates appetite. Posh restaurants want their customers to relax and linger so their décor uses hints of blue – but not too much as blue can be an appetite suppressant.10 We can’t rely on any kind of universal colour code, though, as response to colour is largely cultural: Chinese people associate red with royalty and happiness and purple with poison and

danger, but people of English origin associate red with danger and purple with royalty.11 The intensity of the colour (its saturation) and its brightness (whether it looks as though it has white or black mixed in) are also crucial. Ads with highly saturated colours trigger greater feelings of excitement and liking while pastel colours trigger feelings of relaxation.12 Cool pastels are most effective in getting people to trust online banking services.1 The placement of the viewer in relation to the objects or people in the picture plays a role, too. So does texture, for example blurring can be used to induce feelings of fear.13 Even the composition can trigger emotions: sharp angled shapes feel powerful and dynamic, right angles evoke solidity and stability and curves gentleness and smoothness.9 Simplicity, symmetry and unity mean that images are easier to perceive and so are more likely to trigger positive feelings of familiarity. But the most important emotional cue is the image content. Images with identical pigments, saturation, brightness, form and texture can trigger different emotions just because one shows a baby and the other a tiger.13 Images in advertising have two more roles apart from eliciting emotions: to represent an aspect of the product or experience and to make a less literal link between the product and something else.9 Although people perceive familiar images more easily and can more readily retrieve the positive emotions that are linked with them, too much familiarity is boring. The more novel / Sugarfree

and complex the image, the more exciting the viewer’s response and the more they engage with and like it. But only up to a point. Engagement and liking decrease if the image is too novel and complex.14 Headlines that give a clue to the meaning of complex visual metaphors increase viewers’ liking and comprehension. Headlines that explain the metaphor increase comprehension but viewers dislike them because they don’t get the joy of working it out for themselves. We use rhetorical tricks in our copy to make it more effective. Viewers respond more positively to images that use the same kinds of tricks like repetition, puns, metaphors and antithesis. They seem to have no problems understanding them, unless they are specific to a culture different from their own. This kind of visual rhetoric allows marketers to say the unsayable. Researchers have explored the limited success of anti-smoking campaigns. They found that cigarette advertisements using images that imply active, healthy lifestyles and pristine environments have created such a strong subconscious link that it undermines health warnings. When a tool is that powerful, it’s worth using well. So my New Year’s resolution is to spend a bit more time choosing images that are emotionally effective as well as visually appealing.

1. Jinwoo Kim and Jae Yun Moon, ‘Designing towards emotional usability in customer interfaces – trustworthiness of cyber-banking system interfaces’, Interacting with Computers, 10, no. 1, 1998, pp. 1–29 2. Atila Yüksel and Olcay Akgül, ‘Postcards as affective image makers: an idle agent in destination marketing’, Tourism Management, 28, no. 3, 2007, pp. 714–25 3.  Christopher Weber, ‘Subliminal priming and political campaigns: the impact of subliminally presented affective primes on campaign ad evaluations’, presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington D.C., 2005 4.  T.M. Blake, C.K. Varnhagen and M.B. Parent, ‘Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall’, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 75, no. 3, 2001 pp. 262–73 5. Margaret M. Bradley, Mark K. Greenwald, Margaret C. Petry and Peter J. Lang, ‘Remembering pictures: pleasure and arousal in memory’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory,and Cognition, 18, no. 2, 1992, pp. 379–90 6. Leatrice Eiseman, Pantone Guide to Communicating with Color, Grafix Press Ltd, 2000 7.  Sandra Niehaus, ‘How to choose effective website photos and images’, consulted at design/niehaus-choosing-images1. htm on 5/12/2010

8. Edward F. McQuarrie and David Glen Mick, ‘Visual rhetoric in advertising: text-interpretive, experimental, and reader-response analyses’, Journal of consumer research, vol. 26, 1999 9.  Paul Messaris, Visual Persuasion: The Role of Images in Advertising, Sage Publications Inc., 1997 10. Satyendra Singh, ‘Impact of color on marketing’, Management Decision, 44, no. 6, 2006, pp. 783–89 11. Artist, Fang Liu, quoted on the flyleaf of Heather Maitland (ed.), Navigating Difference: Cultural Diversity and Audience Development, Arts Council England, 2005 12. Gerald J. Gorn, Amitava Chattopadhyay, Tracey Yi and Darren W. Dahl, ‘Effects of color as an executional cue in advertising: they’re in the shade’, Management Science, 43, no. 10, 1997, pp. 1387–400 13. Jana Machajdik and Allan Hanbury, ‘Affective image classification using features inspired by psychology and art theory’, proceedings of the international conference on Multimedia 2010, consulted at citation.cfm?id=1873965, 5/12/2010 14. Pamela W. Henderson, Joseph A. Cote, Siew Meng Leong and Bernd Schmitt, ‘Building strong brands in Asia: selecting the visual components of image to maximize brand strength’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20, 2003, pp. 297–313

Heather Maitland Consultant and Associate Fellow at the Centre for Cultural Policy Studies, University of Warwick e w JAM 41 > 5

We were there at the start Sam Scott Wood introduces YouView – where TV meets the internet


was introduced to YouView (or Canvas as it was called then) at The Media Festival Arts (TMFA) at the Roundhouse in September 2010. According to the website, ‘YouView will change the way you watch TV forever’. A bold claim, for sure, but one thing those involved stressed was that there are still plenty of unanswered questions: how it will look, how it will work, what the potential problems or opportunities might be. All of which makes YouView’s launch (scheduled for the first half of 2011) seem awfully close. I find the lack of connection between TV and the internet really frustrating. All the technology’s there, so what’s the problem? TV’s red button is slow and underused. Online on-demand services like iPlayer and 4OD are great, but I’d rather watch on a TV. And live-streamed content on a computer usually means low quality and frequent interruptions. There are exceptions, but in general it’s a fragmented and disappointing experience. Could YouView be the answer? At TMFA John Woodward (Chief Executive of the UK Film Council) described it as a ‘game changer’, and despite definite reservations from the panel and the audience there was also a sense of real excitement. Developed by a partnership of the BBC, ITV, Channel 4, Five, Talk Talk and Arqiva, YouView has been conceived as the successor to Freeview, as well as the UK’s first major IPTV platform. It’s already had its share of controversy, with Ofcom only recently deciding not to investigate a complaint from Virgin Media and IPVision. YouView consists of three elements: 6 > JAM 41

an open technical standard (think html, which is a technical standard for the web), an open technical platform and a user interface. Delivered via a set-top box and an internet connection, YouView will provide free-to-air digital TV from the partner broadcasters, plus previously aired programmes, and the facility to pause and record live television. In addition, because YouView has been built to open standards, any content producer will be able to build portals and add content (on-demand services like Lovefilm are already signed up). YouView will also allow developers to create apps providing access to and running alongside content. There might be an app that lets you share what you’re watching with friends, links to existing social networks like Twitter, apps with additional content sitting alongside programmes, and that’s just the start. The open platform means the sky’s the limit – just look at the explosion of the mobile app market. The key, as stressed by Kip Meek, Chair of YouView, will be for all this to be delivered via a simple user interface (features already announced include a search function and the facility to deliver regional and local content based on an IP address or postcode). So, it sounds great for consumers and broadcasters, but what could it mean for the arts? Arts Council England is firmly behind the project and at TMFA Liz Forgan announced that ACE will be developing practical classes and resources to help arts organisations engage with YouView, as part of a partnership with the BBC Academy. Getting arts content onto TVs in 19

million homes (YouView’s initial target market of current Freeview users) is certainly an attractive prospect, but will the arts end up a small fish in another big pond, as it has on TV and the internet? Anthony Rose, Chief Technology Officer for YouView, has made the point that one of its strengths is its limited size (it’s UK only and will focus primarily on media content), but unless you’re the Royal Opera House or the National Theatre will anyone find you? The user interface will make all the difference here. The danger is that arts content remains hidden and accessed only by those who know it’s there, a great boost to accessibility, but hardly reaching new audiences. A well-designed interface could open up all sorts of connections, not only across arts content, but also between arts content and content from the main broadcasters. There’s also still a major, and so far unanswered, question about cost. Kip Meek believes that making content provision cheap for the artistic community is a ‘deliverable objective’, but cheap is a relative term – it remains to be seen what this will mean in practice. There is certainly the potential for revenue development – content providers will be able to create and experiment with business models. Content could be free to air, pay-per-view; arts organisations could even create digital subscription or membership schemes. YouView could give audiences access to arts archives, documentation and all sorts of other existing material. Perhaps even more exciting is the potential to create new content and particularly live

> FEATURE / Sugarfree

broadcast, which until now has been out of reach for most of the sector. There might be opportunities for new collaborations, both to produce content and increase visibility; working collaboratively on portals might be one way for the arts to increase its YouView footprint. At TMFA someone leaned across to me and said, ‘If this comes off, in five years we’ll be saying we were there at the start.’ It’s still a big IF. IF the user interface is well designed and content can be easily found … IF the costs aren’t prohibitive … IF the take-up is as wide as YouView hopes …

If so, YouView really could be a game changer. It could offer new ways for us to engage and connect with audiences, new ways for audiences to encounter the arts, and even new artistic forms and experiences. With so much still unknown about what might be created on this platform, now is the time to think creatively about what we might do on YouView.

Resources All presentations from TMFA are available to watch online at whats-on/productions/live-now-the-mediafestival-arts

Sam Scott Wood Marketing and Development Manager Artsadmin e Twitter @samscottwood JAM 41 > 7

A picture is worth a thousand words Angharad Wynne explains how good pictures for attracting allimportant attention require thought, creativity and a keen eye


s the saying goes: ‘A picture is worth a thousand words.’ In today’s society where we’re constantly bombarded by media messages, a good picture that will attract attention has never been worth more. But what makes a good picture? In this digital age, when even the most average photographer can take a good enough picture and enhance it with some software, it seems that almost anyone can – and will – pass themselves off as a photographer. However, only a few very skilled creative photographers are actually worth investing in. A picture is only worth a thousand words when it captures a thousand words, i.e. a story. This requires more than simply shooting what is visible. It requires thought, a creative mind and keen eye to imbue the image with meaning. Portrait painters have been doing this for centuries. The portrait of Queen Elizabeth I known as the Armada Portrait was painted by George Gower in 1590. In this picture Elizabeth I is depicted with highly exaggerated shoulders and broad arms that powerfully remind the contemporary viewer of portraits of her father, Henry VIII. It also invites the viewer to think of her as broad shouldered and able to bear the responsibilities of royal office. She

wears many strings of pearls which symbolize virginity, purity and virtue and her narrow waist is a hint at her femininity, grace and attractiveness. In the portrait, the queen’s hand rests upon a globe. In fact, her fingers rest over North America, where just before this painting was created the first English child was born at the English settlement in Virginia. The windows behind Elizabeth depict two scenes that did not occur at the same time. The right-hand window shows the departure of the Armada from Spain; the left-hand window depicts its famous defeat at the hands of the English fleet in 1588, which began England’s long period of sea dominance. This portrait in fact depicts a queen in her 32nd year of reign when she would have been 59 years old. Nevertheless, she is portrayed as powerful, beautiful, youthful of figure and virtuous. It communicates to her subjects the image of a queen at the height of her powers and promotes the idea that her influence extends far beyond the boundary of her small island kingdom. In this one image, George Gower – a PR man before his time – has managed to communicate many messages to the viewer in one snapshot. In 2005 I was working as head of communications at the Wales

Millennium Centre in Cardiff. The Centre had recently opened and we’d generated a good deal of media coverage from a run of exclusive UK performances that year by the world-renowned Kirov Ballet. Shortly afterwards, the less well-known Australian Ballet were due to visit with their contemporary production of Swan Lake. It was difficult to get the media to take note. In their eyes, they’d just done the big ballet story for Wales Millennium Centre, and we’d attracted so much attention during the opening a few months earlier that, understandably, the media felt that they should focus on other venues. However, internally, the pressure was on to get editorial coverage for Swan Lake and support ticket sales. The images supplied by the company had been used in the pre-publicity months earlier, the story angles had also been used up so we needed something else to raise awareness. Photography provided the answer. I had been working with a number of excellent photographers, but for this occasion I contacted Neil Bennet with whom I’d worked on a number of shoots in the past. We came up with the idea of creating an image to publicise the production that would be a literal representation of the ballet, i.e. a swan ballerina on an actual lake. It was a great idea and

Neil placed the clear plastic table just beneath the water line and, in his waders, carried our Odette in full swan costume and ballet pumps across to it. Once in place, she went gracefully into pose, and then, magically, the lake’s community of swans became interested in our antics and gathered around.

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Neil Bennett

technically possible, if challenging. Photography permission was obtained from the local council and the park manager agreed to open the gates to us around dawn. Neil purchased a clear plastic coffee table and a pair of good waders and the obliging prima ballerina and her dresser turned up for the shoot along with a beautiful swan costume. The weather was with us. It was a bright, dry morning and the lake looked calm and serene. Neil placed the clear plastic table just beneath the water line and, in his waders, carried our Odette in full swan costume and ballet pumps across to it. Once in place, she went gracefully into pose, and then, magically, the lake’s community of swans became interested in our antics and gathered around. The image was stunning. It made the front page of a national Welsh newspaper, a magazine and two

regional papers. In addition to promoting the performances, the image generated editorial copy about how it was achieved. It was also taken up as a captioned photo story by three national UK quality broadsheets, one mid-market paper and numerous websites. In all, investment in the image had been a few hundred pounds, creative thought, a few hours organising the shoot, one set of ruined used ballet pumps and a very early morning call! At the time we calculated that the PR value that the image generated was close to £10,000. Working with photographers should be a joy and it should be cost effective. Good photography is an investment. Don’t just use photographers you’ve inherited from your predecessor. Ask around – speak to regional newspapers, media and design consultancies about freelance photographers they rate then meet

those photographers and look through their portfolios. Decide what you feel they’re good at and educate yourself on the difference between really clever PR photography and someone who just snaps what’s they’re given with a digital camera – there’s a world of difference. And one last thing: make sure you have a clear agreement with the photographer about how you can use the image. In most cases you will be purchasing a licence to use that image for marketing and PR purposes, but you cannot use the image to make money, so including it in a saleable calendar or even a saleable brochure may not be covered. If you need more advice on these licensing issues and how to go about creating an agreement with a photographer, check out the Association of Photographers website which has lots of free practical advice as well as paid-for downloads of relevant chapters from its in-depth publication Beyond the Lens. More than anything, enjoy working with photographers and developing your skill at identifying photographic opportunities and images that really will tell a thousand words and more.

Angharad Wynne Angharad Wynne Marketing and Communications e JAM 41 > 9

The AmbITion Approach to digital development / Sugarfree


is a digital development programme for artists and cultural organisations of any art form and scale. By involving themselves with the programme, cultural organisations begin, continue or become experts in how to maximise digital opportunities across their artistic practice, audience development, business models and operations. Most organisations engage by following the AmbITion Approach – the methodology developed by the programme team and evaluated as highly successful by the University of Cambridge. Initially, AmbITion started life in England as a pilot programme for the arts and cultural sector in the North West and East regions. Funded by Arts Council England, led by Hannah Rudman of Rudman Consulting and Manchester Digital Development Agency (MDDA), the AmbITion pilot ran from 2007 to 2009. It now runs in Scotland as a national programme funded by Creative Scotland, still delivered by Rudman Consulting – this time together with Culture Sparks. AmbITion has a great and vast suite of online resources: these are for cultural organisations anywhere in the world thinking about digital development. There are topic and art form specific tools, stories, case studies, guidelines, how-to … guides. See what you can find at Anyone can join AmbITion’s thriving online network – – it hosts current topics of debate; horizon scans emerging technologies that might have opportunity for the cultural sector; and announces news, digital job opportunities and events relating to digital development in the cultural sector. Finally, you can use the online toolkit to take your own organisation through the AmbITion Approach to digital development: available here 10 > JAM 41


An overview of the AmbITion Approach: User guide The AmbiTion approach to digital development has been specifically developed for use by arts organisations of any size and in any art form which are looking to ‘develop digitally’. Audit your organisation The general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person, organisation, system, process, enterprise, project or product. Audits are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability of information, so right here at the beginning of the AmbITion process, be brutally honest with yourselves about where you are at now. By understanding the complete picture of your situation now, you’ll be able to see what your starting point is and so plan accordingly. Diagnose your needs Having identified where your organisation is at in relation to digital development through the audit, the next step of the AmbITion process is to think about where you would like to be, what you would like to achieve and to diagnose what IT and digital developments you will need to implement to get to where you want to be. Develop your business case The AmbITion approach asks you to develop a business case for your digital development. A business case is equally appropriate to notfor-profit organisations as it is for revenue businesses. In many cases an arts organisation may have a mix

of funding and revenue generation. A business case clearly states what it is that you want to do, and why it will achieve your aims. Manage your implementation Once your business case has been agreed you will need to plan and manage your implementation. You may already have a well-established process for managing projects. The AmbITion approach is flexible enough to allow you to use whatever project management techniques you would usually use. Reflect and evaluate The AmbITion approach requires organisations and individuals to undergo a process of continual reflection and evaluation. The various steps in the approach provide natural pauses where this can take place.

Hannah Rudman e The toolkit was written by Hannah Rudman of Rudman Consulting and Adrian Slatcher of Manchester Digital Development Agency, the English pilot programme’s project manager. Adrian Slatcher e

For more information, please contact JAM 41 > 11

Member research moments (2010) Last autumn 235 AMA members (representing approx. 15% of the AMA membership at the time) responded to our survey telling us about their reasons for being part of the AMA, their views on the events and services we offer and details of their organisations, their jobs and their career paths. Member’s salaries (see table 1 opposite) The results of the 2010 survey show that just under a third of respondents earns between £18,000 and £24,999 (28%); just over a fifth (21%) earns between £25,000 and £30,000; and a third earns £30,000 plus. It is positive that comparison with findings in previous membership surveys shows an upward trend: the proportion of members earning under £18,000 is decreasing and higher proportions of members now earn £30,000 or over. For 2010 we added the top two salary bands to show a breakdown of the salaries above £40,000. For more on salaries in our industry, ArtsProfessional has a useful salary calculator on its ArtsJobFinder website: and the Museums Association has best-practice salary guidelines at

Marketing budgets We are always interested to see how much AMA member organisations are allocating to marketing activity and how the values of budgets available to respondents vary. Not surprisingly the research shows a strong relationship between the turnover of an organisation and its marketing budgets. • 62% of respondents with a turnover of less than £49,999 don’t have a dedicated marketing budget. • 50% of respondents with a turnover of £50,000 to £99,999 have a marketing budget of less than £4,999 •

 0% of respondents with a turnover of £10m to £15m 5 have a marketing budget of £250,000 - £499,999

 0% of respondents don’t have a dedicated 1 marketing budget although 40% of these had a turnover of less than £49,999 and 10% don’t know what the turnover is.

I use the mentoring service, which has been really excellent and I think the conference is wonderful for keeping up with trends, learning buzz words, getting ideas, sharing anxieties, meeting industry experts. When I am planning I think the case studies are worth a dip, for insider knowledge – and I like the JAM section that gives a profile on members, always interesting to see how people got into the arts. Nancy Davies, Marketing and PR Manager, Chester Performs All pictures: Leo Cinicolo

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> member research

table 1




under £18,000




£18,000 to £24,999




£25,000 to £29,999




£30,000 to £39,999




£40,000 to £49,999


£50,000 or above


Future thinking In the current economic situation it is good to see that most of our respondents are fairly positive: • 67% of respondents believe that audience numbers for their organisation will increase or stay the same.

years and 22% working 15 years or more in the industry The main reason they give for being an AMA member is keeping up to date with current issues and best practice in arts marketing and audience development.

• Most people (62%) find it easy to secure a marketing budget in their organisation.

When asked to give ALL reasons for being an AMA member, answers included: • 67% feel they should be a member of the professional body for the industry.

 2% agree or strongly agree that most of their 6 colleagues understand what marketing is about and how it contributes to the organisation’s objectives – slightly up on 53% from the last survey.

In 2008 the percentage of respondents stating that they were revising or had a digital marketing strategy in place was 40% – in 2010 that figure has risen to 55%. New to this year’s survey we asked about AMA members’ usage of a range of social networks and media: • 15% of respondents stated that they read / watch / listen to content on Twitter while 65% occasionally or regularly upload content. •

 1% occasionally or regularly upload content to 8 Facebook while 12% read / watch / listen to content.

• 43% upload content occasionally / regularly to LinkedIn while 41% know it but don’t use it. • 88% of respondents regularly or occasionally use social media sites for audience development / engaging with audiences. The AMA team use Twitter at @amadigital for communicating news about the organisation and are currently looking at how using other social networks might enhance the work of the AMA. Positive results Respondents to this survey come from a fairly even spread of experience in the industry with 30% working 1 to 5 years, 24% working 6 to 9 years, 20% working 10 to 14

 1% want to benefit from training opportunities, 7 e.g. workshops, master classes and day conferences.

61% would like to develop skills relevant to their job.

73% belong to further their professional development.

 3% are members in order to network with other arts 7 professionals.

 8% see the opportunities for professional 7 development offered by the AMA as good or excellent.

 1% rate membership as good or excellent with 7 regards to relevance to their workplace.

87% rate JAM (arts marketing journal) as good or excellent.

77% found the annual conference good or excellent.

82% found AMA workshops good or excellent.

 4% of respondents agree that they will renew their 8 membership when it expires.

 0% agree that the AMA is relevant to them 8 throughout their careers.

 7% agree that the AMA is a good source of new 7 ideas and current thinking.

Thanks to those who took the time to complete the survey and add their comments in order to help us continue improving your AMA.

JAM 41 > 13

Hallé Play

Joseph Harrison reveals the relationship between Britain’s longestestablished symphony orchestra and the newest media applications.


stablished in 1858, the Hallé performs around 75 concerts a year in its home, The Bridgewater Hall in Manchester, and around another 30 in cities including Bradford, Nottingham, Sheffield (where the Hallé is resident orchestra), Leeds, Stoke, Hull, Blackburn, Warwick, Carlisle, Lincoln and Gateshead. The orchestra performs a broad range of concerts that attract a wide range of audiences, often as distinct as the concert series themselves. The introduction of a new student ticket in 2007 has proved very successful, and prompted the Hallé to re-examine its marketing priorities.

A podcast management system sits behind Hallé Play, which allows administrators to log in and easily upload new content. The system creates an RSS feed which is picked up by the media player on the site. Generating RSS feeds means that it becomes incredibly easy for users to subscribe to the content. One way of accessing this information is through iTunes, which then allows people to sync their iDevice and receive new content as it becomes available. The site will also enable information to be shared via social networking sites including Facebook and Twitter and a range of other social media applications.

Background Digital media is constantly presenting us with new ways to distribute information and communicate with our audiences. Many of these innovative new channels can seem very exciting – certainly to someone who works with new media. This is a world without guidelines, or prescribed methods of doing things ‘the right way’. We have at our disposal an ever-growing array of powerful audience engagement tools, which many of us use, adapted to suit each differently resourced organisation. The Hallé are using a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) with The Open University in order to gain greater insight into this vast new digital world. The KTP is a twoyear project that aims to bring expertise and imagination into the Hallé’s digital vision. The principal goal is to identify how new and emerging technologies can enhance the Hallé’s work and deliver both increased income and participation. Hallé Play has emerged as part of this project, and signifies the start of a long-lasting relationship between an orchestra currently presenting its 153rd season, and the newest media applications.

What is it trying to achieve? The internet is not about digital complexities. It is about people. Understanding your audience and how they will use your organisation’s digital resources is vital. Rather than just recording a concert and making it available online, Hallé Play focuses on providing additional material that backs up the Hallé’s offline activities, allowing our audience to build closer connections to key members of the orchestra and learn much more about the pieces that they come to listen to. An important driver when developing this media space has been to develop a way to connect more emotionally with our online audience, particularly those who are unable to or have not yet been physically involved with the Hallé.

What is Hallé Play? Hallé Play is a dedicated online area that provides our different audiences and anyone interested in our work with the opportunity to connect more with what we do. Users can access the site directly at or by clicking through from the Hallé website. There are two distinct areas of the site, Performance and Participate. The Performance area contains video and audio content that relates specifically to the Hallé’s concerts or CD releases, and the Participate area provides content that relates to the Hallé’s educational and ensemble activities. 14 > JAM 41

Creating content in a sustainable way The backbone of any online media platform is the content. Building a sustainable content delivery programme that provides fresh material throughout the season will keep people coming back for more. The majority of content produced for Hallé Play comes from a newly formed relationship with the University of Salford. Students from MA Documentary Production help film and produce each short video. The collaboration provides valuable work experience for the students involved and allows them to apply many of the specialist skills developed throughout their time at university. The students are working to a very high standard producing content that is exceeding our expectations. The future We expect Hallé Play to develop in two main areas:


2) We will continue to develop the area based on user feedback, which not only relates to the functionality of the site but also to the type of content that is created. Continuous development of Hallé Play along with our other online platforms will help to inspire visitors to engage with the Hallé, and fundamentally represents the Hallé as a welcoming, entertaining, lifelong experience.


1) The amount of content available will continually expand, so we will ensure that is it easily searchable by using tags within the metadata. This will hopefully build a useful repository of rich multimedia content that presents a valuable library for our more committed followers, and will also act as a great educational resource.

Joseph Harrison New Media Associate Hallé e

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Lights, camera, action … or, how the movies came to the theatre Roberta Doyle takes a look at the filmed material becoming an integral part of the marketing toolbox at National Theatre of Scotland.


re you not entertained? Are you not entertained? Is this not why you are here?’ Quick, name that film.* Is it just me or have you noticed that there is an ever-increasing convergence between what we’d previously thought of as live performing arts and the moving image? For the sake of this article, I’m not going to cover the use of film and video within performances or visual art works. What I mean is how the moving image is steadily making its way into our arts marketing world, something that even five years ago would have seemed highly improbable. In this era of content-rich online worlds, of trailers, of live feeds and of downloads, we are increasingly seeing the need for filmed material of our organisations’ work to be made available through multiple channels. A growing generation of ‘digital natives’ is changing the way media are consumed and, although people are accessing media content more often, we are accessing it in smaller, bite-size pieces, especially online. It has long been observed that we all read less online, have less patience for large chunks of complex information in written form and that websites are increasingly reliant on the moving image rather than the word. This is where video can have a dynamic emotional and creative impact. Why read about an upcoming performance when you can see a clip of it? Interviews with actors take on a whole other layer of resonance when you can see their faces, hear their voices. At the National Theatre of Scotland, we’ve increasingly been making use of the moving image in marketing for nearly five years. We worked with a freelance digital artist when the company was set up in 2006 and began to realise that, more and more, filmed material was becoming an integral part of the marketing toolbox. In response to this, we began, 18 months ago, to research the need for a full-time post in order to be more strategic about how we manage our filmed resources. A business case for the creation of an in-house role was presented to our Senior Management team and, since last summer, we now have a Video Producer, Seth Hardwick, as part of our External Affairs team. Seth’s job is to manage a year-round programme of filming, editing and archiving

across the full range of the National Theatre of Scotland’s activity, from main-scale touring productions to oneoff events. He is responsible for producing high-quality material for use by our own team, our colleagues in other departments, partners, the media and other external stakeholders. For any project, the process begins with a discussion involving the Marketing, Press and Audience Development Managers in collaboration with the Web and Publications Editor and the Video Producer. They thoroughly discuss audience objectives, targeting and the marketing plan. They also consider issues of audience segmentation across the various technological platforms. In addition, the Press Manager sets out her objectives for press and media work and the need for broadcast material based on her campaign objectives. In response to this, a film content plan is devised which covers a variety of usages. These are always based on objectives set out in campaign plans and adhere both to our 3 Year External Affairs plan and to our brand guidelines. For our signature production of Black Watch, our content plan began with a series of three videos based on interviews with cast and creative team members, taking audiences through the different aspects involved in putting the show together. When the show was at dress rehearsal stage, we produced a 90-second production trailer for our own website and YouTube channel, and subsequently created or adapted different versions to accommodate the requirements of our touring venues (logos, title cards, etc.). Closer to the opening-night performances, Seth prepared broadcast-quality footage for TV and press as well as sound clips for radio. With all this material in the bag, we are well equipped to accommodate any future requests from local media keen to feature Black Watch once the show is touring. We disseminate all this information using existing channels: our YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, etc. Furthermore, the flexibility of the material we create allows venues to embed material within their own sites, or to use it front of house on plasma screens or in projection. For broadcast, material filmed during the media call is rendered in high definition and the files made available online for download.

One of the unexpected benefits of having an in-house Video Producer is the freedom to be more creative – a licence to play. 16 > JAM 41


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One of the unexpected benefits of having an inhouse Video Producer is the freedom to be more creative – a licence to play. No freelancer fees stacking up, no editing suite hire charges. Seth’s very first task in his new appointment was devising viral teasers for Little Johnny’s Big Gay Wedding, our summer 2010 show. There were six teasers, based on Johnny McKnight’s ‘bridezilla’ character, a series of demented how-to ... videos that Seth and Johnny improvised together. They gave audiences a sense of the show without having to worry about representing what it was going to look like in front of a live audience. Instantly popular, these viral teasers pointed us towards a new way of making promotional videos that didn’t have to rely on dress rehearsal or performance footage, as we had done in the past. Having a full-time Video Producer also allows the company to really use its imagination in thinking about how to integrate the processes of video recording, editing and dissemination with the ephemerality of a live event. We explored that potential at 2010’s Exchange, the National Theatre of Scotland’s annual week-long gathering of young theatre-makers. Seth assembled a dedicated full-time crew of eight young budding film makers aged between 16 and 20 whose brief was to produce a daily seven-minute video feature about the events at Exchange. These features were shown daily on a plasma screen in the foyer of the Byre Theatre, St Andrews, and simultaneously made available to mobile devices via our dedicated ExchangeTV YouTube channel and a podcast delivered via iTunes. We also broadcast the videos using Bluetooth. These daily transmissions allowed the Exchange participants to see their work reflected back to them and added a layer to the experience of creating theatre normally reserved for the pros – in other words, seeing themselves on TV. Additionally, the members of the young film crew quickly gained a level of valuable experience in working with a professional video producer to very strict deadlines, as well as daily planning sessions, editing, scheduling, interviewing, and even presenting to camera. Working full time within the External Affairs department allows for the Video Producer to be key to the setting of marketing, press and audience development objectives for the organisation and to be integrated into the planning processes that underpin them. In addition, by developing close working relationships with members of the production 18 > JAM 41

and creative teams, and by having his ear closer to the ground, our Video Producer is able to gain trust from artists and react quickly to opportunities that may present themselves. We also have as a bonus the amount of time that Seth can spend with a camera inside the rehearsal room to capture the best and most illuminating moments in the process of making a piece of theatre. For our 2011 season we will, for the first time, be creating a video of the Artistic Director introducing the work of a full year to be distributed in tandem with our season announcement to the press. This filmed season preview will complement the content of the printed season brochure and will sit alongside film of our season brochure being signed in BSL for deaf and hearing-impaired users of our website. My prediction is that there will be more and more demand for performing and visual arts organisations to create video content as the world increasingly looks online for its nourishment. It is only with high quality, high impact media that we can engage with this brave new world and say, ‘Is this not why you are here?’ All our videos are on our YouTube channel – youtube. com/NTSonline including Exchange tv on NTSExchangeTV * Gladiator

Roberta Doyle Director of External Affairs, National Theatre of Scotland e

Colin Clark Web and Publications Editor, National Theatre of Scotland e


Working with photographers

This basic guide from the Association of Photographers reveals good photographic practice


he Association of Photographers is a professional association with more than 1800 members working in commercial photography around the world. The AOP brings professional photographers together, protecting their rights and promoting photography. They campaign for all photographers and their awards promote the best in photography. They also provide information services, education programmes, exhibitions and publications to support these activities. As imagemakers respond to globalisation, the AOP is building an effective network of communications with photographers from around the world.

How to find the right photographer Not every professional photographer can do every type of photography. Professional photographers nearly all have websites so putting your requirements into a search engine will give you access to their sites and allow you to see their style and area of photography before you contact them. Their website is an ideal first stop but every experienced photographer will have a portfolio to demonstrate their work, this is their main representation and shows their skills and experience in a proven package. We strongly suggest you ask the photographer to bring in their portfolio so you can see the quality of the images in an enlarged form as well as meeting them. A good relationship with the photographer is very important for both you and your business. (

other factors to determine the cost including: • Where the work is to be used e.g. on packaging, billboards, national press, website • The length of time the work is to be used by you • The territory or territories in which the work is to be used Discuss tight budgets with your photographer who can advise if the project is realistic and what you can expect for your proposed budget. / Sugarfree

Why use a professional photographer? As cameras grow in digital sophistication it is becoming easier for everyone to get pleasing results for apparently little cost. However, using an amateur to take an important picture can be a false economy. The impact a professionally taken image has on a client’s market is far stronger than that of a quickly grabbed snap from a digital camera. A professional understands how to capture images that are right for a client’s business and convey the message required. Their experience enables them to obtain successful results in any situation. As a proportion of your budget, the cost of getting the original imagery as good as it can be is tiny. When commissioning a photographer the images they produce will be exclusive to you.

Images bought from a photographic library will only be exclusive for the specific area you have bought a licence for. Unless you negotiate an exclusive deal with the library other companies will be able to licence the same image and use it for their own products or company. Negotiating exclusivity with a library is often more expensive than commissioning a photographer.

How do photographers charge? There are no set rates in commercial photography. The majority of commercial photographers will charge a day rate. Some may charge by the hour. The type of commission and specialisation will generally dictate the fee – photographers will also take into account a number of JAM 41 > 19


Useful links AOP Image Folio A collection of AOP members’ portfolios / Sugarfree

Be aware that if other professionals are needed these will be charged on top of the photographer’s fee, as will film and processing or digital capture. The photographer should estimate these extra costs for you. There is a misconception that if the images are shot digitally, rather than on film, this is a cheaper way of producing images. Some photographers will still shoot on film but deliver the images in a digital form while others will shoot and deliver digitally. Both methods incur costs. In order to produce high quality digital images a lot of time and skill is necessary after the shoot, in preparing the images for presentation to the client and ultimately for reproduction. Why don’t I get the right to use the images wherever I want? It is rare for a client to insist on unlimited use of the images they have commissioned, as this can be a costly affair. The price of the job includes the agreed media – an unrestricted licence would include every possible media including billboards, videos, TV, CD’s, t-shirts etc – worldwide for the term of copyright, which is 70 years after the photographer dies. The price for this type of licence would be enormous and you would be paying for use you do not need. To be fair to the client and ensure they get the rights they need, a system has been agreed with commissioners for negotiating licences. Go to Licensing_Guidelines.pdf for AOP guidelines on negotiating licences

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Beyond the Lens In-depth information on the laws surrounding photography, ethics, standards of practice, different types of photography etc DACS (Designers & Artists Copyright Society) The Copyright Collecting Society for the Visual Arts The Association of Photographers An extremely useful resource for all photographers and users of photography The Intellectual Property Office Responsible for Intellectual Property (copyright, designs, patents and Trade Marks) in the UK

What if I want to use it for things I don’t have a licence for? Should the commissioned work exceed your expectations and you wish to extend the use of the images then you can easily negotiate this with the photographer. Suggested guidelines as to how photographers may charge for extra usage has been negotiated with commissioners of photography and is available to download here. All photographers will negotiate extra use, whether they use our suggested guidelines or have a price list of their own. Go to Re-usage_Guidelines.pdf for AOP reusage guidelines If I’ve paid for the film, processing or digital files why can’t I keep all the work? If you buy a copy of a book, computer software or a CD, making that purchase doesn’t give you the rights

to make copies of it or broadcast to the public. That right remains with the copyright owner. There is a difference between the medium (e.g. transparency / negative / digital file) and the content (the image) but one is of no use without the other. If you were to claim ownership to the transparency this doesn’t mean you own its content. The image on the transparency is the copyright of the photographer and without a licence it would be illegal to reproduce it. If you need further reproductions they can be done by your photographer in a professional manner and to a high standard. As mentioned above – the images will be exclusive to you so there is no fear that the photographer will sell them on to another client while you have a licence to use them. Reproduced from with kind permission from

Just a minute


0 6


A column to get to know other AMA members in just six questions

What is your first memory of the arts? I was a budding performer as a child so I have many first memories of the arts. Most prominent are the countless dance classes and drama rehearsals I attended while my poor Mum waited patiently for me in the car outside. My earliest memory of the arts, from an audience perspective, is Mum collecting me from ballet one evening with a smart change of clothes and tickets for Diversions (now National Dance Company Wales) as a surprise. I remember very little about the performance, only that I adored getting dressed up and sitting in the flocked red chairs of the auditorium waiting for the curtain to rise.


How did you get into arts marketing? Three years at university flew by and I graduated in 2006 feeling unsure about my career path. I was always intrigued by a number of careers (I was once interviewed by a chess magazine and said my ambition was to be a ballet dancer or a solicitor!) and hoped a degree in English Literature would leave a number of doors open. I moved home and filled a ‘gap year’ with an MA in Audience and Reception Studies at Aberystwyth University. In the summer before the course began, I worked on the box office at Aberystwyth Arts Centre. Around six months later I expressed an interest in organising front-ofhouse posters, and that turned into a job as Marketing Assistant.


What attracted you to the arts sector? It was never in my plan to work in the arts. On reflection, I should have known that I would always stay involved in the arts in some way – it was a natural progression from my wonderful childhood filled with the performing arts. The minute I took up the post of Marketing Assistant I knew I’d found a career I could really enjoy – few people can genuinely say that about their job..


When and why did you join the AMA? When I became Marketing Assistant in 2007 I joined the AMA as a matter of course. Since day one it has been a fantastic organisation that has supported my continued professional development. I participate in the Chartered Institute of Marketing’s Chartered CPD programme and have recently become a chartered marketer – I could never have achieved that without the AMA’s expansive list of training and events.


What is your proudest moment? My proudest moment has to be passing my CIM Professional Diploma in Marketing. It was incredibly challenging and a huge commitment – I worked into the early hours of the morning and all weekend, with only a laptop and strong coffee for company, more times than I can remember. That said, I would do it all over again as it equipped me with a practical tool-kit and helped me gain confidence in performing my role to the best of my ability.


And what is your greatest indulgence? My greatest indulgence has to be going to the cinema. Armed with my Cineworld card, I will go and see just about any film with anyone who’ll go with me!


Jodi Bennett Marketing Manager (Campaigns) | Rheolwraig Marchnata (Ymgyrchoedd) Welsh National Opera Cenedlaethol Cymru e Jodi is AMA member rep for South Wales JAM 41 > 21

Starting out in marketing or CRM? As an arts marketer why not enhance your career with the Chartered Institute of Marketing’s Professional Certificate in Marketing? It is a comprehensive and practical syllabus where you will gain the underpinning theoretical knowledge of marketing and practical skills and find your confidence grows as you become fluent in the language of marketing and excel in your role. At CMC we understand that arts marketers face a unique set of challenges so in order to support our arts marketing delegates in translating the syllabus, we have Kate Sanderson as our Course Director. Example from current Certificate papers: ‘You have been asked to produce a research proposal for an organisation of your choice. Before allocating funding or the development of a new website, the organisation wishes to examine attitudes towards its current website. You have been asked to develop an appropriately structured research proposal that meets the following criteria: • To examine the attitudes of a range of current users towards the existing website • To determine how current users navigate through the existing website

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• To compare perceptions of the organisation’s website relative to the websites of its competitors • To identify the potential for enhanced features on the website • To assist in the selection of the overall design for the new website.’ Extract from Question One, CIM Professional Certificate Marketing Information and Research Paper, December 2010

You can see from the example that while you are writing an assignment towards a CIM qualification, the work is real, relevant and useful. Two of the four modules, Stakeholder Marketing and Marketing Information and Research, are assessed by assignment, which are generally based on ‘an organisation of your choice’. The modules assessed by examination are Marketing Essentials and Assessing the Marketing Environment. There are now four assessment periods in the year – September, December, March and June – and with distance learning you can commence your studying at any time. For entry criteria and more information call Katrina on 0844 2250510 or email Katrina@

PR and the changing media – a summit on the changing role of press and PR in the arts MEDIA PARTNER:

24 March 2011 Museum of London 10am to 5pm

It’s clear that the traditional role of press and PR in the arts has already changed dramatically. However, the new function is still looking pretty sketchy. What does the department now look like? What strategies will be effective in the year ahead? How will emerging technologies influence the way we share stories about the arts? And what will the landscape look like when the economy starts to recover and leaves a dramatically different media scene in its wake? Perhaps it’s not the end of the old view, but a convergence of old techniques with new opportunities? Join us to discuss, define and shape the future of press and PR.

£147 + VAT AMA members £207 + VAT non AMA members Book now at or email

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The Journal of Arts Marketing is the official publication distributed on a quarterly absis to all members of the AMA. The Arts Marketing As...

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The Journal of Arts Marketing is the official publication distributed on a quarterly absis to all members of the AMA. The Arts Marketing As...