A RESEARCH PAPER ON FACULTY SUPPLY CHAIN IN B-SCHOOLS: DYNAMICS OF CURRENT TREND Prof. Savitha G R
Faculty â€“HR & OB, Prin L N Welingkar Institute of Management and Research, Bangalore
Dr. Anand K Joshi
Dean â€“ Quality Systems, Prin. L N Welingkar Institute of Management and Research,Bangalore Abstract: The craze for Management Education has grown manifold; the Business Schools in the country are faced with an acute shortage of faculty. The problem is growing day by day as the Business Schools have to compete with their counterparts in India and abroad, in curriculum and teaching standards. Teaching in Business Schools as a profession has not yet fired the passion in many. The mushroom growth of Business Schools in the recent past and the limited pool of (quality) Ph. D holders, among others, is aggravating the problem. The interest of reputed Business Schools across the world in hiring Indian faculty had added one more dimension to this problem. The pool of available faculty in the country is limited. Both public and private institutions draw their faculty from the same pool. This research paper focuses and analyzes the factors affecting the Faculty Supply Chain and Faculty Job Decisions in B-schools. Keywords: Faculty supply chain, Relevance of curriculum, Quantitative research, Remuneration and Quality faculty. Introduction: In India, there is a mushrooming of Management colleges and an unprecedented exponential growth of Management Students. Even with high fee structure, lack of job opportunities and higher expectations from the employers, prospective number of students applying to B-Schools is increasing. Hence educational institutions are slowly facing a competition amongst themselves. To be in competition, institutions have to improve the quality of education and services they provide to the customers.
Hence, primary concern for management educational institutions is to provide a faculty in the numbers and quality required. The privatization has led to the increase in the number of institutions to match the supply of Management Students to that of the demand. However in most cases, direction, relevance, and quality of management education has been questioned. Talent Management inculcates a process of continuous improvement and dramatic innovation in students and employers and
achieves societal satisfaction by evaluating and refining systematically and collectively the system, practices and culture of engineering education institutions. Therefore, institutions need to engage in an active, on going system of self assessment and self renewal to sustain quality in teaching/learning process and to drift towards a learning organization. We need to take cue from these case studies and the need that is prevalent in the present circumstances. A study was carried out through a questionnaire survey amongst the Directors, Principals, Professors related to the aspects of Hiring, nurturing, retention, continuous improvement, assessment of skills emphasized in the college and so on. This research paper presents the questionnaire design, administration and the response analysis. The analysis of the survey responses enabled the development of framework for the Talent management implementation in B-Schools. It presents the inferences drawn and suggests some measures to overcome the constraints. Problem Statement: The academic market has changed dramatically over the last few years. Inception of new B-schools, recommendations by the 6th pay commission and an increase registration in full time doctoral programs have increased tenure requirements and put a greater premium on academic positions. As requirements tighten, more prospective candidates fail to enter teaching profession. This could lead to more experienced faculty competing for assistant professor positions that were once the domain of new post graduates-thus adding another dimension to the demographics of the job market. These changing conditions affect both new post graduates and
experienced faculty members. It is believed that it is important to measure the impact of changes that have taken place in the environment. Today, Educational Institutes can have the same kind of infrastructure, curriculum, and same kind of student selection process and may also put the same rigorous efforts towards placements but the only factor which differentiates and gives a competitive edge is the ‘Intellectual Capital’. One needs to look at different ways and means by which Educational Institutes in India, in Academic Sector are trying to keep their talent management process in place not only in order to acquire talent, but also to retain the talented people from moving out of their Educational Institute. This research seeks to empirically examine the process in which faculty identify academic positions, Perception of Fresh Post Graduates in entering teaching profession. Research Design: In order to develop an effective talent pipeline, the B-schools need to focus on nurturing, assessment, refilling, and monitoring to ensure that it continues to provide the right conditions through which the human talent can meet its potential and achieve strategic goals. For doing so, the Bschool needs to have its place a talent development system. This study would focus on providing a strategic framework for talent management system in the Indian Academic sector. This investigation identifies three different groups: a. Post graduates (currently pursing) b. Fresher’s (newly hired) assistant professors working at their first academic position and c. faculty who have changed positions in the last two years (labeled “experienced relocated faculty”). This investigation consists of both
quantitative and qualitative analysis. The quantitative data include statistics on the factors that the fresher’s and experienced faculty considered before taking a position, statistics on the factors that influenced relocates to leave their old positions, statistics on interviewing strategies, and on overall job satisfaction.
has been documented with meticulous care. Two sets of questionnaires was prepared respectively for,
Research Objectives: • To identify the factors affecting the Faculty supply chain in B-schools. • To showcase the perception of PG (Management) students 2005 Batch to 2010 Batch towards Teaching profession. • To understand the factors affecting Faculty Attrition in Management Education • To understand the factors affecting Faculty Relocating Decisions in BSchools
Data Collection: The primary data: was collected with the help of a non – disguised well structured questionnaire based on dimensions related to faculty selection. The questionnaire consisted of a five part written instrument designed to elicit program details such as hiring and retention criteria and demographic characteristics.
Hypothesis H1 : There is no relationship between factors affecting Faculty Attrition Decision and Faculty Relocating Decisions. H2 : Fresh post graduates not keen in taking teaching as a profession Research Methodology: The methodology adopted in the study was both qualitative and quantitative research; To study the research questions, a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods is used. The aim is to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors affecting new hires and relocated faculty in Teaching profession. The data is generated through structured questionnaire blended with personal interviews with the key personnel. The Personal Enquiry Notes is the rewarding phase of the research. This
A] Relocated Faculty (faculty who have changed jobs in last 2years) B] New Hires (first assignment as a faculty)
For hiring and retention, questions were asked about degree requirements, field of knowledge, evaluation criteria, number of academic journal articles required by rank and other basic standards. The evaluation criteria, which consisted of basic criteria and sub criteria, were as follows: research (academic journal articles, conference presentations, proceedings etc), teaching, service, consulting and others. Respondents were asked to allocate 100 points among the criteria and sub criteria for each rank (assistant professor, associate professor and professor) based on the importance of the criteria in hiring and retention decisions. The secondary data: represents various standards and criteria in place as per AICTE regulations. Apart from the questionnaire being used for data collection, personal discussions were also conducted with the respondents to get the essence of qualitative Information. Certain Statutory Manuals from AICTE and UGC, Standing Orders of the institute, MAGAZINES, Websites, etc. was also considered.
Sample Size And Technique: BTOTAL Students(final year) Nature of the data SCHOOL FACULTY pursuing BA/PGDM Karnataka (Core) program POPULATION 192* 1170 7020 As per AICTE rd Gulbarga,Belgaum,B 2/3 of the population SAMPLE 78 780 angalore,Mysore simple Random *as per AICTE website Aug 2010
30 Head of the Institution and 50 visiting professors were taken also into consideration for the study. The qualitative data from all samples is subjected to applicable statistical treatment and inference is drawn accordingly. Appropriate qualitative statistical tools would be applied; the selection of the tools depends on the nature of the data collected. Research Limitations: • Availability of Deans/Principals for interview and their level of openness in discussing talent management process pertaining to their respective institution. • The hesitancy of the Deans/Principals in sharing their internal documents with the researcher. • The study is purely based on the opinion and perception of the stakeholders which might change in due course. H1: There is a strong relationship between factors affecting Faculty Attrition Decision and Faculty Relocating Decisions.
FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DECISIONS Respondents were given a list of 32 factors/criterion on a four point scale as follows: 1=not important, 2=slightly important, 3=quiet important, 4=extremely important. Mean Job Importance Scores and Rankings Assistant prof Associate/Prof. FACTORS N=30 N=30 +15 Mean rank Mean Rank 1 Teaching load 3.27 1 2.38 6,7 2 compatibility with other faculty 3.13 2 2.28 9 3 support available for research, research assistance 3.1 3 2.86 1 4 release time for research 2.84 8 1.76 20,21 5 flexibility - day to day work schedules 3 5 2.1 12 6 criteria used for promotion and tenure decisions 2.96 6 2.48 5 7 library, research database and computer facilities 2.83 7 2.57 4 8 scope for experimenting new pedagogy 3.03 4 2.17 11 9 Geographical location 2.73 9 2.72 3 10 availability of funds for travel to meetings 2.7 10 to 12 1.72 22,23,24 11 B-school Ranking 2.7 10 to 12 2.24 10 existence of a PhD programs or tie-ups with 12 university 2.7 10 to 12 2.38 6,7 13 availability of supplemental research grants 2.63 13 to15 1.97 16, 14 likelihood of obtaining tenure (change in designation) 2.6 13 to15 2.76 2 15 available recreational and cultural activities 2.6 13 to15 2.03 14, 16 location of school 2.53 16 to 17 1.79 18,19 17 amount of administration work 2.53 16 to 17 1.52 29 18 job opportunities for spouse 2.4 18 2.07 13 19 salary history and projections 2.37 19 to 20 2.34 8 20 compatibility with departmental head 2.37 19 to 20 1.79 18,19 21 geographical location 2.3 21 2 15 Infrastructure. Eg. Classrooms, pick and drop facility 22 etc 2.27 22 1.72 22,23,24 23 fringe benefits package 2.2 23 1.66 25,26 24 opportunity to teach desired courses 2.1 24 1.66 25,26 25 quality and motivation of students 2.07 25 to 26 1.55 28 26 compatibility with dean 2.07 25 to 26 1.45 32 27 support for further studies and foreign trips 2.03 27 1.76 20,21 28 distribution of decision making power 1.96 28 1.61 27 29 back ground and research orientation of other faculty 1.8 29 1.86 17 30 class size 1.73 30 1.72 22,23,24
31 corporate tie-ups and opportunity for networking 32 consulting and MDP Assignments
S.no. Value Rank1 Rank2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
3.27 3.13 3.1 3.03 3 2.96 2.83 2.8 2.73 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.63 2.6 2.6 2.53 2.53 2.4 2.37 2.37 2.3 2.27 2.2 2.1 2.07 2.07 2.03 1.96 1.8 1.73 1.5 1.47
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 13 14 14 16 16 18 19 19 21 22 23 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 31 32
32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 21 21 21 20 18 18 16 16 15 13 13 12 11 10 9 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Correction Actual factor Rank(a) 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 1 11 1 11 1 11 0 13 0.5 14.5 0.5 14.5 0.5 16.5 0.5 16.5 0 18 0.5 19.5 0.5 19.5 0 21 0 22 0 23 0 24 0.5 25.5 0.5 25.5 0 27 0 28 0 29 0 30 0 31 0 32
Actual Correction Rank1 Rank2 Value S.no. Factor Rank(b) 0.5 6 26 6.5 2.38 1 0 9 24 9 2.28 2 0 1 32 1 2.86 3 0.5 20 12 20.5 1.76 4 0 12 21 12 2.1 5 0 4 29 4 2.57 6 0 5 28 5 2.48 7 0 11 22 11 2.17 8 0 3 30 3 2.72 9 1 22 9 23 1.72 10 0 10 23 10 2.24 11 0.5 6 26 6.5 2.38 12 0 16 17 16 1.97 13 0 8 25 8 2.34 14 0 14 19 14 2.03 15 0.5 18 14 18.5 1.79 16 0 29 4 29 1.52 17 0 13 20 13 2.07 18 0 2 31 2 2.76 19 0.5 18 14 18.5 1.79 20 0 15 18 15 2 21 1 22 9 23 1.72 22 0.5 25 7 25.5 1.66 23 0.5 25 7 25.5 1.66 24 0 28 5 28 1.55 25 0 32 1 32 1.45 26 0.5 20 12 20.5 1.76 27 0 27 6 27 1.61 28 0 17 16 17 1.86 29 1 22 9 23 1.72 30 0.5 30 2 30.5 1.48 31 0.5 30 2 30.5 1.48 32
-5.5 -7 2 -16.5 -7 2 2 -3 6 -12
30.25 49 4 272.25 49 4 4 9 36 144
4.5 -3 6.5
20.25 9 42.25
0.5 -2 -12.5 5 17.5 1 6 -1 -2.5 -1.5 -2.5 -6.5 6.5 1 12 7 0.5 1.5
0.25 4 156.25 25 306.25 1 36 1 6.25 2.25 6.25 42.25 42.25 1 144 49 0.25 2.25
0.954194159 0.045806 Std Error = 0.179605302 Z1 = 5.312728236 Alpha = 0.01 So Z(acctp) = 2.33 since Z1 > Z, there exists a positive correlation
H2: Fresh post graduates are not interested in taking teaching as their profession: Teaching As A Profession
a. Reasons for taking up teaching as a profession b. Reasons for top graduates not opting up teaching as a profession Human aspect plays an important role in the teaching learning process. Teacher’s role as a mentor is very vital, it is more important than the infrastructural developments. In the preceeding section of continuous improvement, the professional attitude towards the teaching a s a profession was not encouraging. Faculty members need to work for the students as instructors, advisors and counselors, continually improve their knowledge and skills to enhance the teaching capacity, as the rate of obsolescence of knowledge is much rapid especially in disciplines like Information Technology. So, the panelist’s opinion was sought, on how “teaching as a profession” is considered in the Indian Context. Since many of the panelists had the experience ob being on the selection panel and were controlling the activities of the faculty, they were asked to respond to the following issues.
a. Teaching as a profession in Indian context. b. Why the top notch students do not pursue the teaching. The questionnaire was designed with fourteen items related to teaching as a profession and 9 items for teaching not being pursued by brilliant graduates. These items of the questionnaire were designed based on the literature review and on the informal information obtained from the faculty members of different colleges through interview. The panelists were asked to respond either yes or no (if they considered it as a reason/not reason respectively) for the fourteen parameters. They were asked these questions from two different perspectives, one in their own perspective, secondly, what generally prevails presently in the colleges (since most of the panelists were part of the interview panel of selection of graduates for the teaching profession). The details of their responses are shown below:
Reasons for taking up teaching as a profession Sl. No . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Reasons for taking up teaching as a profession
YES (%) Enjoy Teaching 89.4 Enjoy Learning 78.9 Noble Profession 73.7 More flexible environment in terms of working 70.6 Respected job by the society 64.7 Geographical location 44.4 No interest in working for industry 38.9 Tensionless job 36.8 Family background 35.3 Family conditions compelled 38.9
NO (%) 10.6 21.1 26.3 29.4 35.3 55.6 61.1 63.2 64.7 61.1
Generally Prevalent now YES NO (%) (%) 41.2 58.8 35.3 64.7 47.1 52.9 73.7 26.3 58.8 41.2 52.9 47.1 41.2 58.8 72.2 27.8 31.3 68.7 35.3 64.7
1 5 6 2
11 12 13 14
First job available on hand By chance/accident (fate) Lucrative job Career growth
Surprisingly the reasons from their own (panelists) perspective and the prevailing perspectives were significantly different. Only the top five were accepted with more than 50% of the panelists. These parameters were directly related to the professional attitude. This could well be ascertained considering the fact that the salary structure in teaching was quite meager, compared not only to that of the industry, but also to other professions. Though significant difference does exist with respect to industry, but applies mainly to software jobs. On the contrary
Sl. No . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
31.6 22.2 11.8 11.8
68.4 77.8 88.2 88.2
61.1 64.7 29.4 35.3
38.9 35.3 70.6 64.7
the top six reasons (accepted with more than 50% of the respondents) for teaching as a profession prevalent now, does not favor the professional outlook. Hence it is necessary to find out the possible reasons for not taking up teaching profession by meritorious graduates with teaching capabilities. The respondents were asked to comment on a five point scale (strongly agree – 5 to strongly disagree -1). 6 of the 9 parameters were accepted with a mean greater than 3.32.
Reasons for top graduates not taking up teaching as a profession Strongly Disagree (1) – Disagree (2) – Neutral (3) – Agree (4) – Strongly agree (5) Factors Standard Ranked by Mean Deviation Respondents Under paid as compared to that 4.45 1.01 1 of industry Lack of fringe benefits 3.91 1.27 2 (Tranportation, Loan Etc) Quality of work is not being 3.73 1.03 3 assessed properly Slow promotions or conditional 4.05 1.13 3 promotions Organizational growth 4.18 1.01 4 possibilities are very few. Sense of complacency grows 3.32 1.25 5 once you take up the profession Teaching does not offer a 3.09 1.15 6 chance to be creative Do not enjoy respect 3.00 1.20 8 Profession not challenging and 2.50 1.01 7 interesting
From the responses compiled in the above table there are different reasons for graduates to pursue teaching job, it
can be ascertained from the fact that now the growth of B-schools is exponential, while there is no similar development
taking in the industrial segment. This has resulted in the lack of avenues for Management students. So, many of them look towards teaching as a means of job security, and do not land in teaching with interest. Added to it, after joining teaching profession, graduates emphasis still lies to look out for a job else where in industry, negating the teaching , which as further made teaching as a stopgap occupation rater than being accepted as a profession. The software boom too, with its very lucrative salary, promotions, and a platform for traveling around the globe, made teaching least sought after or sought temporarily. This can be seen from the above table for the raking given for graduates not taking up teaching profession. THE NANDA COMMITTEE: Nanda Committee was the first committee that reviewed the working of the three Management Institutes of Management at Ahmadabad, Kolkata and Bangalore, to make recommendations for the promotion and development of management education in India. The Nanda Committee suggested a series of measures in 1981 for strengthening management education in India: •
Adequate funding for research to be provided without soliciting project funding. Consultancy research should cover both basic and applied types. IIMs should act as mother institutes and foster growth of other management institutions in the country. There is urgent necessity to develop expertise in international management and offering of educational and training
programme in international management. Government control should be progressively reduced as each institute becomes more and more self reliant. Management education has to be research based, and utility based, the institutes should become self reliant and the government must relinquish control over the years.
The Kurien Committee: Government of India appointed a second review committee under the chairmanship of Mr.V Kurien in 1991, to look into the direction and functioning of the four institutes of management. The committee submitted its report in 1992. The salient recommendations were: The mission of the Institutes of Management to strengthen management in business, industry and commerce is still relevant. The mission statement however, needs to be expanded to emphasize the IIM’s commitment to public service and public management. •
The inter relatedness of teaching, research and consultancy needs to be better emphasized for greater synergy. Choices in approving research and consultancy must be exercised to strengthen their interconnectedness and mutuality. There should be a much greater emphasis on the development of relevant teaching materials and research. Appropriate policies and rewards should be initiated to strengthen this aspect of IIMs functioning.
The Government should take a flexible view in providing financial support to the different IIMs and encourage the institutes to vigorously pursue revenue generation, cost cutting, and fund raising efforts. The non plan maintenance grants may be provided as Block Grant for a period of five years. After the institutes have become financially self supporting with the creation of the corpus fund and the package of measures for augmenting its internal resources and cutting down cost, the government grants may be limited to programmes considered high priority and of social relevance by government including the area of public system management.
institutions came up and during the 1985-2000 period, 673 new institutions came up.
IIMs reoriented their operations subsequent to this report. They revised the fee structure and started raising resources through industrial consulting. This helped the IIMs to become financially self sufficient.
Among all the action areas, faculty development was considered the most critical. It was proposed that 8 to 10 institutions should focus on this. Though the committee gave its report in 2001, there were no major initiatives from AICTE for faculty development or development of teaching materials so far. Subsequent to this, a committee was constituted by AICTE to review management education in India.
THE ISHWAR COMMITTEE:
Many management institutes came up between the years 1995 and 2000. Government of India appointed another committee to develop future perspectives of management education in the light of the fast changing economic, social and business environment. The main challenge in management education has been triggered by globalization of economies, rise of market economy, rapidly changing technology and developments in communication. During 1950-1980, about 118 management
Most institutions that were set up during 90s did not follow conditions prescribed by AICTE in respect of faculty strength, library, computer facilities and the like. They did not promote research, development of faculty or of the teaching material. Due to rapid expansion of teaching institutions, AICTE was unable to develop an adequate mechanism for enforcing standards. The teaching methodology shows inadequate concerns for applying cumulative knowledge in dealing with managerial problems.
THE MANAGEMENT EDUCATION REVIEW COMMITTEE: AICTE appointed a committee in 2003 to come up with a policy and action plan for the development of management education in India, in the context of our current national requirements and national trends.
This committee suggested the following steps for strengthening management education, viz: • Increase the focus on under managed sectors such as cooperatives, forestry, urban management, infrastructure, rural development, education and legal system. • The admission of students in management schools should be only through recognized tests organized on an all India basis and used for short listing candidates for group discussions and interviews. • Accreditation is one of the major means of assuring quality. Only 15 PGDM programmes and 30 MBA programmes out of the 927 MBA/PGDM programmes approved by the AICTE have been accredited. • In spite of having some excellent institutions, research output, by and large, of even the more prestigious institutions has not been adequate. This needs to be rectified. Over the next decade, research has to get its rightful place in the activities of management schools. While the accreditation process will help in improving the quality of teaching and training, it is imperative that research also figures prominently as a major element in the portfolio of accredited institutes. • In order to have a better global exposure, to suit the requirements of industry under globalization there is a pressing need for globalization of management education. • Another element which is important for globalization
would be to keep our country open to the presence of foreign business schools and universities. It is necessary for Indian Institutions to work out strategies to go abroad, and allowing foreign universities to come to India, without too many obstacles. That there is a severe shortage of faculty in the entire technical education system is well recognized. In management education, the problem is more acute.
All the four committees have unequivocally indicated that management education in India faces the following systematic problems. •
Shortage of faculty, and quality of faculty are the most critical aspects that need to be remedied soon. Most of the management institutions have been neglecting research. There has been very little attention provided for preparing course materials specific to the Indian context. Library and computer infrastructure has been poor, except in the top management institutes. Management institutions did not develop interactions with industry and this acted as a vicious circle giving merely non practical education Management institutions invested very little for faculty development even though most of the committees earlier had identified this as a major lacuna.
These recommendations broadly indicated the lacunae in management education in India. Before a management development roadmap can be prepared, some of the issues that management education is facing are delineated. A number of committees have looked into management education in India in the past. This section attempts to identify the systemic issues faced by management education as identified by the earlier committees. Most of the problems identified by the committees continue to be there as no major corrective measures have been initiated, hence a revisit to understand the current dynamics.
It was found in the research that designation plays a vital role in hiring and retaining a faculty. Faculties tend to leave organization if they are not placed in the right designation. Surprisingly teaching load took a back seat for relocated faculty. Respondents are not affected much with teaching load but they are highly concerned about the distance. Many good B-schools situated at the outskirts of the city are not able hire teaching faculty as distance factor ranks 2 amongst the respondents. It was found that people are eager towards the implementation of 6th pay commission. But there is confusion in reshuffling the grades as per the new recommendations. There is a lot of disparity in pay scales when compared to new hires and experienced faculty.
General Criteria: Statistics on the factors fresherâ€™s and experienced faculty considered before taking a position. Associate & Professor Criteria Research Change in designation/promotion Geographical location Library facility, database etc
Assistant professor criteria Teaching load Compensation Research facility Administering new teaching pedagogy
Rank 1 2 3 4 Rank 1 2 3 4
Perception of respondents towards the preliminary requisites to become assistant professor When respondents were asked about their view on the preliminary requisites, 34% of the respondents expressed that the hiring process is not at all scientific. 30% of the respondents felt that the
preliminary requisite to enter teaching profession is too rigid. They felt that criteria like doctoral degree as a must for the career growth is illogical.
Particulars Non scientific Too rigid Requires relaxation Requires redesign Any other (specify) Few respondents perceived that 1st class in PG course (as a must) to enter teaching profession requires relaxation to a certain extent. They felt it is hard to score in few courses like MA literature, Professional courses like ICWAI,CA GRADE COMPONENT RESEARCH Academic Journals Conference Publications Case Study publication TEACHING LOAD SERVICE Community service CONSULTING OTHERS TOTAL
Response 34% 30% 16% 20% 0% and CS. There were many instances where it was found that the faculty was highly accepted by the students in the classroom delivery criterion but failed to get offer due PG 1st class criteria.
Basic Evaluation Criteria Associate Assistant professor professor current Expected current expected 1% 24% 1% 28%
Professor current 1%
Table No.9 â€“ Criteria/Factors considered by the institute in selecting faculty (Rank) 1= not considered 2= considered only as a formality 3= considered only if there is a competition/more number of required candidates 4= considered as a preference 5 = considered as a mandate Criteria/Factors 30 institutions- presented in percentage 1 2 3 4 5 Qualification as per AICTE nil nil nil Nil 100% Experience as per AICTE Nil nil nil nil 100% Quality of Teaching 30% 34% 6% 15% 5% Interest in Research Area Nil 12% 18% 61% 9%
Team player capabilities Gender Age group Extra curricular activities Reference/Influence Corporate Net work (strength) Personality/Physical appearance Previous Publication Previous Institution (Status/Rank) Number of jobs changed by the candidate Communication skill Student feedback (post demo lecture) Salary compatibility (individual vs institution) Expectation/demands of the candidate towards Research Benefits Distance/Geographical location Family Size and Background Subject compatibility Industry experience PG from Top B-Schools Alumni of the institute Administration work load Research component: The basic research criterion was generally found to be most important evaluation components for all ranks. The sub criterion of academic journal articles was the most important individual research component, particularly at the higher ranks. The differences between the importance of this criterion at succeeding ranks was acceptable except for the comparison between the associate professor and professor ranks for hiring decisions. The second most important research component was conference presentations which decreased with rank for hiring and increased with rank for retention. The reason for the difference cannot be readily determined, although it again might be due to the makeup of current faculty. Most of the B-schools today
20% 40% Nil 100% 59% Nil 2% 4% Nil nil nil 34% Nil
72% 46% 47% nil 6% 9% 70% Nil 4% Nil Nil 28% Nil
2% 12% 9% nil 32% 17% 8% 23% 21% 17% 8% 7% 4%
6% 1% 42% nil 1% 58% 16% 35% 62% 72% 72% 29% 10%
Nil nil 2% Nil 2% 16% 4% 38% 13% 11% 20% 12% 86%
Nil 82% 36% nil 12% 30% Nil
8% 13% 6% Nil 12% 8% nil
2% 5% Nil 6% 26% 7% 24%
86% nil 58% 67% 32% 42% 43%
4% Nil nil 27% 18% 13% 33%
emphasizing on case study publication and expect the respondents at various ranks to publish more cases compared to conference proceedings. Teaching Component: The second most basic evaluation criterion was for teaching. The new hires prefers to take more of teaching load when compared to other components in the evaluation criteria. But B-school motivates faculty to contribute more towards research as compared to teaching component. The importance of teaching declined with academic ranks. Except at the assistant professor rank, teaching was of greater importance for hiring decision than it was for retention decisions. Consulting component:
Consulting was typically allocated only a small percentage for Associate professor and the assistant professor was not at all considered for this component for evaluation. The importance did increase at the higher academic ranks, and the difference between the importance at the assistant and associate professor ranks for hiring was found. The main reason for this difference at the assistant professor rank, based on respondent comments, was the importance of the completion of the doctoral dissertation by the faculty member, particularly for retention. Importance of Research Research methodology includes a command of the methods, issues, and responsibilities that create knowledge in the discipline, subject area, or larger area of inquiry. Some B-schools emphasized on quantitative approaches, while others focus on the qualitative. The research results indicate that a great deal of
importance is attached to published research in both the hiring and retention decisions and particularly for academic journal articles. Respondents were asked to indicate on what basis these journals were evaluated. It was found that most of the B-schools focused on publication in recognized quality of journal followed by seminars and conferences. Few respondents, however, did not provide any determination of journal stature. Other Evaluation Standards Respondents were asked to provide any other evaluation standards used in their B-school in hiring and retention decisions. Most of the responses were “professionalism”, “research and publication” , “frequency of job shift”, “innovation in teaching”. A small number of responses were given for “initiatives of the faculty”, “students’ likeability”, “Team player” etc. Few Bschools however did not provide any additional evaluation standards.
The Results And Findings Factors Affecting Employees In The Teaching Profession: • •
Weak Recruitment process Lack of Research support Unhealthy Interviewing process Non compatibility of faculty Non-availability of doctoral candidates Lack of training need identification Non competitive Job Profile Lack of research interest Weak publications from doctorates shortage of doctorates Absence of knowledge transfer Aging workforce Lack of expertise in implanting innovative Transportation & Logistics Practices weak compensation & benefits Unscientific appraisals Jolts and Shocks
In connection with the above there were a few open ended questions pertaining to this perspectives: 1. How could teaching profession be made more attractive
2. How to make employees more dedicated to the position The responses for making teaching profession attractive are classified under different categories:
Reducing the Factors Affecting Faculty Supply Chain Through Talent Management Model: A Model of Talent Management
Staff: Take away my factory, money, land and organization but leave me my people and within 5 years, I will have it all back.” - Alfred Sloan, Fortune’s Businessman of the century. The words of wisdom from Sloan, who served as the President of General Motors Corporation for 14 years (19231937), speak volumes about the
importance of “human capital” in making or marring an economic activity. The utility of human capital in turn reflects his/her “talent”; an innate quality that needs to be fine tuned or nurtured to meet the growing expectations from employers in today’s economy. On Faculty Requirement: • Stop recruitment of fresh graduates • Standardize the selection process
Draw faculty from industry Avoid stagnation, contract basis appointment to be renewed on proving the efficiency
In general parlance, the natural aptitude or skill in an individual to perform a task efficiently and effectively is referred to as “talent.” Ken Shelton, the founder of Executive Excellence, a 16-year-old training and publishing firm in valuesbased personal and team development, ethical management, and principlecentered leadership, defines talent in the business context as 'capability applied to create value that is recognized and rewarded by primary stakeholders, owners, managers and customers' (Shelton, 1999). People with “talent” always know how their jobs fit within the value chain and excel in performing the routine tasks at the highleverage components of their jobs. They are a vital source lending comparative advantage to their employers in the global market. Transform: The next step towards managing “Talent Management” is to transform the creative talents to become star performers. Individual psychometric test results and student feedbacks can be analyzed to identify potential areas of improvement. Subsequently the hired talents can be put through modern methodologies and tools to impart knowledge. Using a performance management system individual roles and tasks can be aligned with the institutions overall goals and objectives.
Availability of Facilities • Pick and drop facility • Flexi timings • Remove fear and suspicion • Academic autonomy • Freedom • Availability of audiovisual aids • Standardized infrastructure Organization must also focus on improvement of faculty performance in the area of research and development. This is possible by giving continuous exposure and encouragement to participate at various national and international conferences. Faculty must also be highly recognized for their publications. Through a transparent feedback system the creative talents can be honed further to recognize their strengths and weaknesses and chart out their own development path within the educational institution. Attract: Upon aligning the creative talents to goals of the institute, the next step is to make the Work/job role attractive to them. Competitive compensation packages and people oriented Work culture continues to play a decisive role in attracting talent. Besides, Faculty are found to be more loyal to the institutes where management exerts a great amount of trust in them, where the highest standards in people-practices is set through work life balance. Faculty get more committed when their ideas and opinions are given due respect. Motivational Aspects • Facilities to improve and update knowledge
Higher pay scales and perks (adequate pay package) Promotions based on merit and performance
Some of the top Institutes have already introduced various motivating measures, namely, encouraging faculty to do doctoral programmes by extending its support to the fullest in the form of reimbursing the fee, flexible workload, assisting faculty in research material, participation of faculty in national and international conferences (in India and Abroad) with a sharp focus of building talent pool. Retain: The short supply of and high demand for doctorally qualified business faculty has resulted in a significant increase in turnover among faculty. This turnover involves movements of doctorally qualified business faculty from school to school within the profession as well as movements from academic to industry. Turnover is a function of the perceived desirability of one’s present job and the ease with which the person believes that he or she can move to another job. This perceived desirability, in turn, is a function of demographic variables (such as age) attitudinal variables (such as job satisfaction), the existence of viable job alternatives, the importance of psychological intentions to quit, task relevant ability and behavioral actions involving the actual job search. Now with this we need to find an answer for this question: How long the Institution would like faculty to stay on board? With the information received through informal discussion with various academic heads we can group the
creative talent into three. The first group consists of real geniuses – an employer will want to retain on a long-term basis. The second group consists of creative talents with specific skills which are in short supply. The last group will be doing easy-to fill jobs. The first group gets maximum priority when it comes to intensity of retention efforts and hence investment. Environment • Respect • Encourage free interaction and team spirit • Conduct seminars and conferences – encourage participation • Undertake government projects and other consultancies • Orientation towards research A successful talent management strategy takes care of both the top performers and average performers. The top performers are indispensable while the average performers are also needed to run the institution. Through a balanced talent management approach, B-schools can fine tune the “Talent Pipeline,” therein sustaining their competitive advantage. Conclusion: Creating a talented faculty pool is obviously a long-drawn task. One needs to focus more on research-driven programmes leading to Ph.Ds. The notso-robust Ph.D pipeline in the country would make the problem a long-term one. Apart from lucrative remuneration packages, there is a need for ‘extra-
economic incentives’ to attract and retain faculty. Setting aside more resources for research and publication activity could improve the situation in due course. The industry should also carve out a role for itself in this process by setting up endowments and other incentives.
institutions). To improve quality the institutions should be given freedom to appoint competitive faculty. Pay structure to be comparable with that of the Industry Proposed Recommendations: •
Hiring retired faculty on a contractual basis and giving them limited tenures, and allowing faculty close to retirement to continue in teaching without occupying their substantial position can be one suggestion. A great deal of flexibility regarding non-monetary and monetary incentives linked to additional deliverables would also be required. A major shortfall in this direction is the inability of our institutions of higher learning to attract and retain qualified and trained faculty of high order. As the bureaucratic process of administration continues to stifle Indian academia, it will further reduce the competitive edge of Indian higher education institutions.
Therefore, a need for institutes of higher learning, even in the public sector, to allow teaching staff more allowances, freedom to enter into consultancy arrangements and avail of attractive perks such as housing facilities in case higher salaries are not possible. Flexibility in appointment, in age limit and qualification is necessary to ensure quality Faculty especially at a time when such great expansion is taking place.
Due to wide variation in emoluments of industry and academics, private institutes face shortage of qualified and well-experienced faculty in almost all the disciplines (especially technical
Recruitment should begin early with students who show interest in teaching. They should be encouraged to tutor their peers and younger students as early as middle school, to be camp counselors in the summers, and to complete classes in education theory. They should be introduced to the option of teaching as a profession and exposed to role models. The atmosphere in the teaching profession has to be improved in a way that the young should see a bright future in it. Students should be encouraged to join the profession by having more inservice programmes, travel grants and promotional avenues in the discipline. Individual institutions should be given the necessary freedom and authority to devise and adopt appropriate policy changes such as flexible faculty recruitment policy. While recruiting the faculty, the cadre ratio may be kept flexible so that appropriate persons are recruited at whatever levels they are available. To facilitate the recruitment of qualified faculty, it is essential that the current scales of pay are significantly revised. Irrespective of whether such revision takes place immediately or not, the
Institutes should be given enough flexibility to decide upon the compensation package of the faculty. Faculty willing to take extra load as a result of expansion (Bschools increasing their in-take of students) should be given suitable compensation at least till such time as the required number is recruited to desired extent. The retirement age of the faculty must be relaxed to a greater extent: the faculty must be allowed to contribute to the field as long as he/she contributes to the institutional development. Such that retired employees can be re employed on contract basis. services of such senior research scholars, research associates and FPM fellows may be utilized for assistance in teaching material development and nurturing young research scholars. Teachers willing to take extra load may be allowed to do so with suitable compensation. Adhoc, guest and visiting faculty may have to be engaged in larger numbers. Corporate can be attracted to join the teaching profession or serve as Adjunct Faculty. The requirement of PhD as a mandatory eligibility condition for faculty should be waived in the functional areas so as to attract at least a few practicing managers from the industry. The IITs and IIMs are catering to the demands of the corporate world but not to the needs of the world of academics. They should have some research-based
activities, which would help to produce good teachers. The concept of research be introduced so that the undergraduate level and faculty members at IIT are assisted by teaching assistants so that senior members can focus on developing a strong research ecosystem.
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