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26 29.V.1955 Raydon Wood S. Beaufoy [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 25 29.V.1957 Belstead S. Beaufoy [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 26 l.vi.1957 Raydon Wood S. Beaufoy ['Many', S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 25 27.V.1958 Bentley Woods A. E. Aston ['They fluttered near the ground in dozens' (Aston 1959)] 25 23.V.1959 Belstead S. Beaufoy [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 25 24.V.1959 Old Hall Wood W. S. George ['plenty ... probably there are hundreds ... on bĂźgle, or on the ground' (W. S. George, in lit.)]

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Aulacidea follioti (Barbotin) a gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) new to Suffolk Whilst searching for insects on the coast at Thorpeness, B.Suffolk, with Nigel Cuming on 1 Ith September 1998, a Single galled plant of Prickly Sow-thistle, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill was noticed at Ness Point (TM477606). On closer examination the galls proved to be those of Aulacidea follioti, a species previously known in Britain only from the coast of north east Essex. The next day, at Sizewell (TM477646) a second galled plant was found in a similar Situation on the Upper beach. A. follioti was first found in Britain on the grazing marshes at Fingringhoe, north-east Essex in 1996 and added to the British list in 1997 (Bowdrcy, 1997). It was described as new to science in France and is now known also from Spain. The galls are noticeable as irregulär swellings on the lower part of the stem, sometimes with smaller swellings on the branches of the upper stem. The yellowish larvae live in elliptical cells in the gall tissue, where they overwinter. In Britain, despite the widespread distribution of the host plant, the gall has so far only been found close to the sea. Galled plants appeared to occur at a much lower density on the Suffolk coast than at the Essex sites, perhaps reflecting the different nature of the coastline in the two counties. It would be interesting to ascertain how far northward the distribution of A. follioti extends. The author would be pleased to examine any material, especially that collected from north of Sizewell. If material is collected in late summer a short length of galled stem is sufficient for rearing and identification. Reference Bowdrey, J. P. (1994). A preliminary note on Aulacidea follioti Barbotin 1972 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), a species new to Britain. Cecidology 9: 54. Jerry Bowdrcy, Colchester Museums, 14 Ryegate Road, Colchester COl 1YG

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35



Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 35

Stewart, R. G. (1993). Swallowtails at Strumpshaw. White Admiral 25: 5-7. Thomas, J. & Lewington, R. (1991). The butterflies of Britain and Ireland. London: Dorling Kindersley. Richard Stewart (County Butterfly Recorder) Valezina 112,Westcrfield Road Ipswich IP4 2XW Notes on some bryophytes recorded in Suffolk during 1998 I suppose it is inevitable that when studying an 'unpopulär' group like bryophytes, new and interesting records should turn up regularly. Although new county records are always exciting it is perhaps more satisfying when species only seen once, turn up in other areas. Platygyrium repens, Cinclidotus mucronatus and Orthotrichum tenellum were each found for the second time, the latter again by David Strauss who also found Platygyrium repens near Thorpness, new to VC25. One of the most exciting discoveries was of the moss Leptodontium gemmascens, on decaying leaves and stems, amongst grasses on the 'denes' just North of Dunwich, the third record of this very rare plant from the county. New to the county list was Phascum floerkeanum from an arablc field at Raydon. This is a minute species, perhaps a millimetre tall and wide and is undoubtedly much overlooked. In December two remarkable discoveries were made. The first was during a meeting organised by the Cambridge Group to Mildenhall Woods when Dr R. A. Finch found the liverwort Lophocolea semiteres. This is a New Zealand species which in Britain had previously, only been known from the Scilly isles and an arboretum in Scotland. It is well established in Europe on the Dutch/Belgian border. Upon seeing it, Robin Stevenson realised that it was a plant he has found near King's Lynn that has puzzled him for some time, and I also realised that an odd plant that I had collected near Sizewell a few years ago is also this species. David Strauss has since found it on Dunwich Heath so it would appear to be well established in East Anglia as well. Only two weeks after all this excitement another Southern hcmisphere plant, the moss Hennediella stanfordensis was found during a local meeting to a disused chalk pit in Offton. First found in Britain on the Lizard peninsula in 1958 this is only the second record from Eastcrn England. Richard Fisk, 1 Paradise Row, Ringsfield, Beccles, Suffolk NR34 8LQ

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35 (1999)

101 1998 notes on Microlepidoptera The following spccics werc obscrvcd at Framlingham during thc period 26th July lo 3rd August. The spccies numbcrs follow Bradlcy (1998) and thc vcrnacular names are taken from the samc sourcc or from Heslop (1947). Notes on larval foods are based on Emmet (1991). Although moslof these spccies arc common, it was thought worthwhile to record thcir occurrcnce, if only to compare with thc comments of Morley (1937). 385 Anthophila fabriciana August

Linn. (Fabricius's Nettle-tap) on ncttles, 27 July, 2

644 Borkhausenia fuscescens Hb. (Faint-dotted Tubic) on dccaycd leaves in birds' nests, 28, 30 July, 2 August 647 Hofmannophila pseudospretella materials, 29 July

Stt. (Brown

House-moth) on dry

6b8 Carcina guercana Fabr. (Oak Long-horned Flat-body) on various trecs and bushes, 26 July 688 Agonopterix heracliana umbels, 26 July 868 Helcystogramma July, 2 August

Linn. (Comon Flat-body) on leaves and flowers of


Haw. (Wainscot Obscure) on grasses, 28, 30

870 Oegoconia quadripuncta Haw. (Four-spotted Obscure) on leaf litter, regarded as distinctly local by Morley, 26, 29, 31 July, 2 August 873 Blastobasis lignea Wals. (Furness Dowd) on vegetable matter, droppings, 31 July 937 Agapeta August


Linn. (Hook-marked Conch) on thistles, 29 July, 2

972 Pandemis heparana D. & S. (Dark Fruit-trce Tortrix), on various trees and shrubs, 26 July 994 Clepsis consimilana 31 July

Hb. (Saffron Twist) on privet, other bushes and trees

1016 Cnephasia longana Haw. (Long-winged Shadc) polyphagous on various herbaeeous plants, 2 August 1021 Cnephasia asseclana D.&S. (Flax Tortrix) polyphagous on various herbaeeous plants, 28, 29 July 1036 Acleris forsskaleana July

Linn. (Forsskal's Button) on maple, sycamore, 27

1048 Acleris variegana D.&S. (Gardcn-rose Tortrix) roses and other trecs and plants, 28, 29, 30 July 1201 Eucosma cana Haw. (Hoary Sealcd Bell) on thistles, knapweeds, 26 July, 2 August 1293 Chrysoteuchia culmella Linn. (Garden Grass-venecr) on grasses, 26 27 28, 29, 30, 31 July, 1, 3 August 1302 Crambus August


Scop. (Yellow Satin Grass-vencer) on grasses, 2

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35




Freshwater Invertebrate Recording in Suffolk County Recorder's Annual Report Since my report on the Aquatic Heteroptera (TSNS 34, 1998) the number of records in the Freshwater Invertebrate Survey of Suffolk database has grown to nearly 30,000. Almost 800 records bcing added last year despite the constraints of fĂźll time teaching. At least another thousand records remain on paper and in notebooks, awaiting input onto Computer. Thirty four individual Orders of invertebrates and nearly 500 species are represented by individual records. The recent series of dry summers and winters seems to have ended and last year the water levels in ponds and rivers were higher than for some time. This will hopefully be reflected in increases in the populations of certain invertebrates, which may have suffered as a result. A case in point is that of Cladocera or water fleas. Some lakes and ponds which I have sampled fairly regularly for the last few years have shown a marked decline in the number of species, and in some cases samples preserved from last summer still showed almost a monoculture of Simocephalus vetulus. It will be interesting to note whether improvements in water supply will be matched by changes in Cladoceran population dynamics. I have been able to add many species records to the FISS database, although no new species were taken last year. However very few records were received from other recorders and I really do need more information from across the county to obtain a clearer picture of aquatic invertebrate status in Suffolk. On a brighter note the FISS Website is now eighteen months old at the time of writing and has attracted about 8,000 visitors. Many of these are searching for information about pond and stream life and I have been busy answering questions from students both from Britain and around the world in places as far afield as America, Australia, the Middle East and even from islands in the Pacific. Unfortunately I have not had any Suffolk Records from this source. The SNS publication White Admiral is also published via the FISS site and is slowly building up it's own internet readership. One target for the year to come is to survey more ponds, as current data has predominantly been obtained from rivers. Naturalists who might not be able to supply invertebrate identifications can still help my survey by suggesting good quality ponds or lakes in the county, which can be sampled. This would help a great deal as the quality and even existence of ponds is not something that can be reliably deduced from maps. Adrian Chalkley, 37 Brook Hall Road, Boxford, Sudbury, Suffolk C 0 1 0 5HS E-mail Adrian@fiss.puplenet.co.uk FISS Website http://www.fiss.purplenet.co.uk

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35




Praetor, M. C. F. (1965). The distinguishing characters and geographical distributions of Ulex minor and Ulex gallii. Watsonia, 6: 177-187. Salisbury, E. J. (1932). The Easl Anglian Flora: a study in comparative plant geography. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society, 13: 191-263. Simpson, F. W. (1982) Simpson's Flora of Suffolk. Ipswich: Suffolk Naturalists' Society. Soil Survey of England and Wales (1983). Soils of England and Wales. Sheet 4 Eastern England. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. Stace, C. A. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Peter Lawson 12 Park Lane Southwold Suffolk IP18 6HL


Martin Sanford SBRC Ipswich Museum High St Ipswich Suffolk IP1 3QH


This extraordinary 'cage' fungus, not unlike an overgrown practice golf ball in appearance, made only its third recorded appearance in Suffolk (v.c. 25) at the end of November 1998. By the time it was spotted in bare soil in a shrub border in urban Southwold, the lattice strueture had collapsed, leaving a number of strips of salmon pink tissue and the remains of the 'egg', from which it had emerged (see Plate 14). I had seen a partially intact, red-coloured fruiting body in the Isle of Wight in the mid-seventies (see photograph), so I recognised the Southwold remains, and my identification was confirmed when the spores were examined by Mrs. J. P. Ellis. The spores in this species occur in a sticky putrid smelling slime on the inside of the lattice strueture. No doubt the external colour looks like meat to insects, which are primarily attracted by the foul odour. As they investigate, they pick up spores and thus aid dispersal. The two previous county rccords were from Ufford and the Fiatford area during a fungal course in 1948. Peter Lawson, 12 Park Lane, Southwold, Suffolk IP18 6HL

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35




The exact age of the hornbeams can only be measured by counting all the rings, or estimating the rings of any hollowed-out trunk centres. Tree number 13, which is blown down and partially alive, is suitable for investigation. It would be acceptable to cut the trunk near the base, to take a section for tree ring analysis. The tree might possibly regrow, but in any case is likely to continue to slowly die so there would be little conservation disadvantage if it died immediately. The slice of trunk would need to be prepared carefully for analysis with a microscope. It is not a task that can be done by an untrained person, so resources would need to be found to achieve this. Burgate Wood is private with no public access. Occasionally the Upper Waveney Valley Project has a summer tour in aid of Burgate Church. Details can be obtained from their project officer, Mark Timms, on 01379 788008.

References Perring, F. H. & Walters, S. M. (1990). Atlas of the British Flora. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London Rackham, O. (1986). The history of the countryside. J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd, London White, J. (1998) Estimating the age of large and veteran trees in Britain. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh John White 8 St Andrews Drift Langham Holl Norfolk NR25 7AG

Nicholas Sibbett English Nature Suffolk Team Regent House 110 Northgate Street Bury St Edmunds Suffolk IP3 3 1HP

Game cover as a source of unusual alien plants In Autumn 1998 I investigated several fields of game-cover being grown around Sotterley and Wrentham. Whilst the main crop was Sunflowers, Helianthemum annuus L. and Maize, Zea mays L., there were many other species mixed in; some were obviously intended as additional food sources, others were probably accidental inclusions in the mixture. T w o large plants of Ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. were over 6 ft. fall and matched the form previously classed as A. elatior L. but now included in the above species. There were many other unusual species including Green Pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus L„ Common Amaranth, A. retroßexus L., White Pigweed, A. albus L„ Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.), Bullwort, Ammi majus L„ Buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., Buffalo-bur, Solanum rostratum Dunal (see Plate 16), Rough Cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L„ Spineless Saltwort, Salsola kali L. ssp. ruthenica (Ujin) Soö, Japanese Millet, Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz, White Millet, E. frumentacea (Roxb.) Link, Rough Bristle-grass, Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., Green Bristle-grass, S. viridis (L.) P. Beauv., Witch-grass, Panicum capillare L. and Johnson-grass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. It is likely this sort of crop will continue to be a source of introduction for such unusual aliens. T. R. Abrehart. 4 6 - 4 8 High Street, Wrentham, Suffolk N R 3 4 7HB

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35




Pcrhaps.like me, you will find that this is a more complcx subject than it first appears to be! References East Anglian Miscellany - upon malters of history, gencalogy, archaeology, folk-law, literature, etc. relating to East Anglia. (1947-56). Camcron, K. (1961). English place-names. Batsford, London. Dymond, D. & Martin, M. (Ed.) (1988). An historical atlas of Suffolk. Suffolk County Council Planning Dept., & Suffolk Institute of Archaeology & History. Ekwall, E. (1960). The concise Oxford dictionary of English place-names. (4th Ed.) Oxford. Gelting, Margaret (1978). Signposts to the past. Dent, London. Gelling, Margaret (1984). Place-names in the landscape. Dent, London. Reaney, P. H. (1960). The origin of English place-names. Routledge & Paul, London. Skeat, W. W. (1913). The place-names of Suffolk. Cambridge Antiquanan Society. Smith, A. H. (Ed.) (1956). English place-name elements. English Place-namc Society, Cambridge University Press. G. D. Heathcote 2 St Mary's Square Bury St Edmunds Suffolk IP33 2AJ Ant-lions About June of 1986 out bird watching with a young friend on Dun wich Heath, we stopped to eat our sandwiches. I noticed some small depressions on a sandy bank and was intrigued to see sand being flicked up from the bottom, where I could just make out a pair of small lobster-like claws. My friend and I observed four to five pits and watched for about an hour. I had only just joined the R.S.P.B. that May and it was my first visit to Dunwich Heath which my friend wanted to show me so I cannot pinpoint the exact location, but I thought it was about TM472684. Consulting my Chinery book on insects it stated "not found in Britain" so, not being deeply into insects at this time, said to myself "Oh" and thought no more about it. About July 1992, then living near Thorpeness, I was helping the local gamekeeper with a long Standing problem of motorcyclists riding over Aldringham Common, near the Shell pit cottages where nearby there is a long borc-hole trench illegally used by the bikers to ride up and down. It was whilst steepening the sides to deter them that I noticed more of these stränge craters. Again, I thought no more about it until all the recent publicity on the television. As these records pre-date the sightings at Minsmere in 1994 I thought it worth reporting to the SBRC. Neil Mahler, Coxwains Cottage, South View Cottages, Thorpeness, Suffolk IP164NW

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc.




Gammarus insensibilis and thc spire snail, Hydrobia neglecta. Howcvcr, somc sitcs, notably Bcnacre Broad, have dcclincd in area and in spccics divcrsity. This survcy shows Ihat creating new lagoons is not casy, requiring as thcy do a significant saline input and opportunities for wholly aquatic invcrtcbrates to colonise. Only in tcn or twenty years time will we bc able to decidc upon thc success or otherwisc of lagoon creation schemes. More detailed survey results can be found in Bamber (1999). Acknowledgements English Naturc gratefully acknowlcdgcs the financial contributions and practical assistance from thc Environment Agency and The National Trust. References Bamber R. N. (1997). Assessment of saline lagoons within Special Areas of Conservation. English Nature Research Report, no 235. Bamber R. N. (1999). Survey of selected saline lagoons, Suffolk Coast, September 1998. English Nature Research Report, no 300. Nicholas Sibbett English Nature Regent House 110 Northgate Street Bury St Edmunds Suffolk IP33 1HP

Odd colour form of Green-winged Orchid, Orchis morio, at Monewden The Suffolk Wildlife Trust reserve at High House, Monewden (TM227582) is noted for its abundance of Green-winged Orchid. These flowers are usually a reddish purple, and there is generally a random scattering of white-flowered (but still green-winged) plants among them, together with a ränge of intermediate colour forms including pink, and pink and white. However, each flower is similar to the others on any given stem. Visiting the reserve on 2 May 1999, I came across a plant with white flowers, white-and-purple flowers and purple flowers, on different sides of the same stem (see Plate 13). There was no sign of fasciation or othcr abnormality, nor of any environmental reason for the unusual form. The location was at thc north end of the third (oblong) field, not far from the field gateway, and surrounded by normal individuals. I found no mention of this phenomenon in any of my reference books, so I sent a note with a photograph to Martin Sanford, who likewise had not encountered it in thc orchid family. He had seen something similar in Larkspur, and thought it might be a chimera of two genetic types rather than a partial albinism. Anna Cordon, 1 Karen Close, Ipswich, IP1 4LP

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35


Plate 13: Unusual colour-form of Green-winged Orchid, Orchis morio L., at High House, Monewden, May 1999 (p. 135).

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Notes and Observations 35  

Notes and Observations 35  

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