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FRANCESCO STUMPO GUILLEN

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Incremental Network: Study of speculative growth and density in Latin America Francesco Stumpo Guillen Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Architecture Wentworth Institute of Technology in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture April 2015 Approved by the Committee:

Primary Advisor:

________________________________________ Krists Karklins

Interim Director, Graduate Studies: ________________________________________ Elizabeth Ghiseline

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INCREMENTAL

NETWORK STUDY OF SPECULATIVE GROWTH AND DENSITY IN LATIN AMERICA

FRANCESCO STUMPO GUILLEN

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DEDICATORIA Para mi papá, Antonio, que me enseño a ser constante, perseverante y sobre todo emprendedor. Para mi mamá, Andreina, mis hermanos, Piero y Luca, y mi familia en Venezuela, que siempre me acompañan. Para Latinoamérica, mi país Venezuela, y mi ciudad Barquisimeto. Para Nueva York, que me enseño a ver el mundo y la arquitectura. Para Barcelona, ese lugar de donde no te has ido y ya quieres volver. Para Boston, mi segundo hogar por los ultimos cinco años. Para todos los habitantes de la ciudad informal, que sin lugar ha duda dan vida a esta historia.

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THANK YOU Krists Karklins Robert Cowherd Bill Boehm Jonathan Foote Alex Griffin Nereydah Santos Zenovia Toloudi David Pearson Jeff Bathalon Maria Ata Rosales Mark Pasnik Weverson Ponte Ben Bruce Eric Rigo Olivia Hegner Manuel Delgado Leonardo Robleto Ignacio Cardona Andreina Seijas Katie Davis Schendy Kernizan Helena Carpio Marc Neveu Maria Aiolova Rob Trumbour Ingrid Strong Patricia Kendall

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A Thesis published April, 2015 Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA.

Design Research submitted to #Dencity2015 a Competition by shelterglobal.org on April 20, 2015

Copyright by Francesco Stumpo Guillen, 2015 All rights reserved

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MANIFESTO: BLADE RUNNER IN THE TROPICS I reject any architecture that acts in isolation I reject any design that attempts to do more by doing more Do we really need more aquariums? Informal urbanisms are the urban transformation Ecology to the city becomes the new context Acupuncture shapes urbanity Unconventional demands to be adaptive Living infrastructures are the housing for the future Houses grow, and modify the growth of the city The new Megapolis is organized by informality Incremental cities become radical cities Can we now imagine the new city?

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table of CONTENT

Description Dedicatoria Acknowledgments Manifesto Index

chapter ONE PROBLEM

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Introduction Claim Abstract Hyphothesis Thesis Statement Proposal

05 07 09 11 12

14 14 14 16 16 17

chapter TWO SCALE

On Friedrich’s

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Latin American Cities: The failure of the post-modern and the contemporary crisis

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Formal vs. Informal: Rising of the self-made

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Informal becomes the formal

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New growth order: Opportunity in emerging territories

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Strategies

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Macro-Suramerica

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Colombia, Barranquilla

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Smart Grotwh, 2030

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Density, Districts, Neighborhoods

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Landscape as the medium

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Periphery Activation Recuperative vs. Preemptive

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Site Selection

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Site Analysis and Projection Revise co-relation: Informal settlements start in the landscape

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Natural Conditions

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Growth in the area

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chapter THREE TOOLS

chapter FOUR DESIGN

Informal Armatures

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Conclusion Applied Resarch

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Incremental Network

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Urban Design

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Guidelines, Framawork and Goals

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Architecture Incremental

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Proposal #0

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Infrastructure Incremental

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Proposal #1

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Cell Organization

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Proposal #2

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Program Organization

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Seed of Growth

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Proposal #3 Final Review

Applied Incremental

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Precedents Bibliography

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INTRODUCTION

Claim

Abstract

Several decades ago most of the world’s largest urban agglomerations were found in the more developed regions, but today’s large cities are concentrated in the global South. Yet in the rapidly urbanizing world, the importance of this growth-success is not just that an ever-growing population lives in cities, but how they live in cities. To place matters into perspective, by 2030, an estimated 5 billion people will live in cities, and about 2 billion of them will live in self-made dwellings. Inherently this brings a sense of urgency: so as architects and planners how do we react to these present realities?

The context of this thesis is based the recognition that, Latin American cities have been victims of their own success, growing in an unplanned and disorderly manner. Today these cities are in crisis and are no longer growing like they used to, and as Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner explain, “they are shaped by the dichotomy of the formal urbanization and the informal uncontrolled sprawl.” Yet is it possible to replace this exhausted growth paradigm with a more equitable one? With this comes the most important challenge to act preemptively in the emerging city of Latin America. Arguably this holistic approach makes the possibility of interventions particularly complex: How does design adapt the positive qualities of the growth of informal urbanisms? Can the landscape act as the mediator, thus becoming socially inclusive and sensitive to the environment? Can the result be the catalyst to informalize the formal? This thesis therefore investigates the means by which architecture, landscape and urban infrastructure can act as an incremental network to create new corners of growth in the emerging cities of South America. This way there is a new urban model that integrates the landscape to the city, and the ecology to the urban by converging growing communities and underutilized landscapes under one incremental framework.

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INTRODUCTION

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Hyphothesis

Thesis Statement

How can we create a new model of [living infrastructure] that brings growing communities and existing landscapes together and acts [pre-emptively to the future urban growth] of the emerging Latin American city?

An incremental network that mediates [the formalinformal developments] can create new corners of growth in the emerging cities of South America, integrating the ecology to the urban by converging growing communities and underutilized landscapes.

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Proposal Develop a guideline for a preemptive planning of a self-constructed neighborhood that connects and weaves into the urban landscape of one emerging city in Latin America. This incremental network re-organizes the natural and built environment and implements a new incremental framework of growth.

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chapter ONE

PROBLEM STUDY OF SPECULATIVE GROWTH AND DENSITY IN LATIN AMERICA

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PROBLEM

PAST, PRESENT AND VISION On Friedrich’s

Around 1805, Caspar David Friedirch painted two oil canvases and titled them “view from the artist‘s studio, right and left”. Without much effort, these paintings reflect his developing interest in representing contrary states and address the issue of perception. Both depictions are looking at the same window with a view of vessels in the water, but the contrast rests on the different angles at which he sees the two. With Friedrich’s paintings we see how the left-hand window is seen at an angle; the right-hand one is viewed straight on. It is a very elegant demonstration of the simple yet all-important point that things look different depending on the angle from which you observe them. Similarly I would like to argue that today; cities worldwide are shaped by a “Friedrich vision” by their own development and growth, which is arguably occurring at different angles (and rates). This reality is even more evident in how developing cities in Latin America have grown over the past decades, with a lefthand view developing in one manner – towards the formal city; and a right-hand view developing as the informal city.

but today’s large cities are concentrated in the global South.(2) Arguably, much like Friedirch’s paintings is about time we provide a critical revision of our cities, and in this case understand the multiple perspectives occurring in one window, one city, and one territory at once. Architecture and urban design have an extremely important role in defining the cities of tomorrow; as both professions have the capacity and reach to network the overall face of the environments in which we dwell, as well as to become the bridge that connects citizens, users, city planners, developers and governmental agencies at large. Today both professions need to play a more pressing role in mediating the gap between the formal and informal dichotomy-reality of emerging cities in Latin America.

Similarly to Friedrich latter painting “Wanderer above the sea fog” composed in 1818, I believe that as a human kind we are at point were it may look like there is a mastery of the landscape but in reality we are still facing the insignificance of the individual within it. As described by the historian John Lewis Gaddeis this painting depicts a contradictory impression, since “we see no face, so it’s impossible to know whether the prospect facing the young man is exhilarating, or terrifying, or both.”(1) Although he might not have intended it, the initial depictions of the artist’s studio window, provides a critical revision of the perception of space and our perspectives, even in a twenty first century context. It’s here where one can draw a parallel between the current status of architecture, urbanism and our culture towards the contemporary city of the developing world. Yes, several decades ago most of the world’s largest urban agglomerations were found in the more developed regions,

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“In the contemporary world in which over 80% of the population lives in towns and cities (and the rest will not be long in joining them, as the only way to guarantee their economic and social progress), cities are fantastic machines making it possible to transform solitude into exchange and ignorance into progress” (3)

Latin American Cities: The failure of the post-modern and the contemporary crisis There is an urban model common to most Latin American cities: the network from which these cities grew (4): A grid layout typically set by a river, with a central area where people could congregate. Influenced by models like New York’s Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 or Barcelona’s Cerda Plan of 1859, this model was replicated again and again as many cities grew and became the new urban model for Latin America. (5) This successful process of Latin-urbanization is considered “historically recent” occurring within the last century and as cities grew larger they attracted people from the surrounding rural areas, and even from other continents. Quickly the trend shifted from ruralagricultural settlements, to a more city-industrial-urban one, across countries of South America. Much of these cities’ success was based on the agglomeration and diversification of economic activities, still prevalent nowadays. Today 198 of these cities, generate more than 60 percent of the region’s GDP (6), and are truly the economic engines of the continent. South America is considered the second most urbanized region in the world, and has close to an 80 percent of its entire population living in cities.(7) Yet, the importance of this success is not just that an ever-growing population lives in cities, but how they live in cities. Here is were I began questioning architecture’s role within the Latin American context after witnessing the failure of post-modern cities like Caracas, Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro; resulting in the proliferation of a parallel model of urban growth (where urban dwellers have willingly constructed their own informal settlements) as an aftermath of the unplanned growth over the years. As Leonardo Robleto explains, “the (informal) urban phenomenon should be regarded as one of the most important characteristics of modern urban development because of the impact it has on landscape, environment, social components, existing cities and infrastructure.” (8)

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In other words, Latin American cities have been victims of their own success, growing in an unplanned and disorderly manner. Today these cities are in crisis and they are no longer growing like they used to. According to Mike Davis, author of “Planet of Slums”, it is estimated that no more than 20 percent of housing in Third World countries is of planned and legally constructed nature. Perhaps this leaves eighty percent of housing as not legal, or fitting within the formal framework. Beyond the shortage of housing and quality public spaces, these metropolises also have shortages at all levels as well, from mobility and personal security to environmental issues, sanitation problems, pollution, violence, demographic density, and climate change variances. (9) As suggested by the Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative (as part of the Inter-American Development Bank’s effort to aid positive city growth worldwide) in Latin America and the Caribbean, these are some of they most pressing issues in the contemporary city of South America: (10) (a)1 in 4 people live in informal settlements or slums. (b) Less than 20 percent of the sewage is treated. (c) Rivers that once fed the cities have died. (d) Water has to be brought from increasingly distant locations. (e) Social meetings places have become dangerous or nonexistent. (f) Cities carbon dioxide emissions are escalating alongside with climate changes making them more vulnerable. Is it possible to replace this exhausted growth paradigm with a more equitable one? What happens when the modern city does not adapt to its people? After decades of neglect, poverty, corruption, and social upheaval most Latin American cities have become an example of “modern-cities that have deteriorated beyond all measure and therefore have failed to adapt to its inhabitants.” (11)

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Tomás José Sanabria, argues that, “If one starts to closely observe the city... The human body and the urban body are exactly the same. The circulatory system and the viability of a city are accurate. The liver and garbage collector are quite similar. So as one makes comparisons, one can really conclude there are no major differences between these professions, since they are both social services.” (12)

Formal vs. Informal: Rising of the self-made By understanding this failure of the post-modern Latin American city, we are now presented with two realities: the formal and the informal city. Furthermore, we need a vocabulary, to avoid preconceptions and to develop and engage in entirely new perceptions about these cities. (13) a. Form - relating to an established hierarchy; shape and structure; outward appearance or essence. b. Formal - pertaining to customary or conventionality; rigorously observant of forms; lacking in ease; free of outline or arrangement. e.g. Formal City, Formal Urbanism. c. Informal - not done or made according to a recognized or prescribed form; not according to order; unofficial or disorderly, e.g. Informal City, Informal Urbanism. Moreover Robert Neuwith suggests that “housing deficits conversely are alarmingly high, and as long as public and private housing investment continues to fall behind demand, slums and shantytowns will remain the only viable alternative for thousands and even millions of people. Estimates suggest that on average informal settlements represent between 50 percent to 70 percent of Latin American cities´ urban footprint.” Today the entire region is a victim of lack of approaches and solutions for its society. Representing a clear paradigm of how the city and the government (as the city planner) have failed over the years to generate proposals to meet the needs the city demands in housing and urban planning.

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Informal inhabitants account for one third to one half of the populace in mega-cities in Latin America, Africa and Asia. - Gwendolyn Wright (14)

Informal becomes the formal

Chapter One: Problem Endnotes

In other words the informal urbanism has become the new form (norm) for the growing cities of the south. These informal settlements are usually characterized as poor areas that come about outside the framework of any legal urban planning, usually constructed by means of self-made housing that attempts to tap into the existing services and infrastructures of the city. By following this model people have had to adapt to the narrow city fabrics and old structures (thanks to the lack-of architectural agency and planning) to therefore develop their own informal dwellings in the most unexpected ways.

01. Gaddis, John (2002), The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past, Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. 02. 2014 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2014. 03.De Sola-Morales, Manuel. “Cities and Urban Corners.” The Barcelona Metropolis Mediterranean Monographs: Forum Barcelona (2006): 131-35. Print. 04. “Our vision for cities in Latin America and the Caribbean” Vimeo video, 8:59 posted by Ciudades Sostenibles, May 2014, https://vimeo.com/97248104. 05. ibid. 06. “Our vision for cities in Latin America and the Caribbean” Vimeo video, 8:59 posted by Ciudades In numerous territories across Latin America we can Sostenibles, May 2014, https://vimeo.com/97248104. 07. 2014 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. United witness how urban dwellers have willingly constructed Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2014. their own Informal City. As Leonardo Robleto explains, 08. Robleto, Leonardo. “The Call For A Post-Informal “this urban phenomenon should be regarded as one of Landscape Urbanism” Scenario Journal. PennDesign. the most important characteristics of modern urban Philadelphia, June 28, 2012. Web. development because of the impact it has on landscape, 09. Zwoch, Felix. “Informal Urbanism: Five versions of environment, social components, existing cities and the In/Formal” Informal City: Caracas Case. Ed. Alfredo Brillembourg, Kristin Feireiss, and Hubert Klumpner. infrastructure.” (15) Prestel Verlag, 2005. 46. Print. 10.“Our vision for cities in Latin America and the Marcos Negron, a professor from the Central University of Caribbean” Vimeo video, 8:59 posted by Ciudades Venezuela’s Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning Sostenibles, May 2014, https://vimeo.com/97248104. studies the relationship between the political and social 11.Anderson, Jon Lee. ‘Slumlord: What has Hugo Chavez strife (population growth, economic disparity, etc.) and the wrought to Venezuela?’ The New Yorker, New York. relation to architecture. Here he suggests that the bigger January 2013. Web. 12.Sanabria, Tomas Jose. ‘Four perspectives’ an Interview problem is that even thought these circumstances affect by the Central University of Venezuela’s Architecture and all inhabitants, is not always in the same degree. Instead, Urban Planning. Caracas, 2010. Web. “favelas or slum neighborhoods” situation only affects its 13. Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 20 vols. Oxford: inhabitants, which gives rise to an obvious (and bigger) Oxford University Press, 1989. form of discrimination because, particularly in urban 14. Wright, Gwendolyn. “Urban Transformation: Informal Cities, Multiple Realities.” In Brillembourg, Feireiss, terms, their standards are significantly lower than in the rest of the city, despite the extent of damage evident in the Klumpner. 78-82 15.Robleto, Leonardo. “The Call For A Post-Informal entirety of the city. (16) Landscape Urbanism” Scenario Journal. PennDesign. Philadelphia, June 28, 2012. Web. 16.Negron, Marcos. ‘Del Barrio a la ciudad.’ El Universal Caracas. October 2013.Web.

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chapter TWO

SCALE STUDY OF SPECULATIVE GROWTH AND DENSITY IN LATIN AMERICA

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NEW GROWTH ORDER

SCALE

Opportunity in emerging territories Since previous paradigms and urban plans haven’t successfully addressed the formal or informal urbanism dichotomy; the success of these cities’ future planning and development needs a more balanced scheme. Today we are a point were we need to demand that urban design, architecture and infrastructure, work together under one scope, to truly make a meaningful impact in the cities of the future. Yet, is it possible to replace this exhausted Latin American growth paradigm with a more equitable one?

methodology and reports of various cities (05) to further comprehend the complexity of how these cities are going to develop, and how they should develop (acknowledging their study through the year 2030). After considering historical growth trends, existing density patterns and future growth projections, ECSI has made a clear effort in all reports to emphasize two alternative scenarios of future growth:

Consequently the seemingly unstoppable tide of rural-tourban migrants (01) is only making these emerging cities more complex requiring new strategies that cater to this growth and its subsequent impacts.

b. Smart growth scenario

New territories in South America are facing (or will very soon) the same challenges mentioned earlier in the larger metropolises of the continent. As suggested by the Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative (as part of the Inter-American Development Bank’s effort to aid positive city growth worldwide) in Latin America and the Caribbean, there are close to 140 cities considered emerging cities. (02) These recognized emerging territories are growing demographically and economically, at rate of 2 or 3 times faster than the national average. (03) So what does this mean for the future emerging city? In difference to previous centuries, today there is an important choice to be made. It’s here where we can take the opportunity to propose new models for sustainable urban growths for the developing world, (04) in these emerging territories of Latin America.

a. Trend scenario

By simply comparing the two projected models, “one can understand how the impact of future growth patterns can be evaluated in terms of additional land needed for development, the required extension of infrastructure, and increased susceptibility to natural hazards.” (06) Trend scenario Based on previously described historical housing development patterns in most cities in Latin America, the trend scenario reflects less-compact, more land intensive residential development. The majority of this growth scenario falls into the low-density category, and a large proportion of these developments will be informal squatter settlements, “suggesting lower construction standards and higher vulnerability to hazards for buildings and residents alike.” (07) And as suggested before, the expansion of some of these new neighborhoods falls into areas with “bad geology”, susceptible to pluvial flooding and landslides. Challenges

Emerging Cities Throughout the process of understanding urban growth of emerging cities in Latin America it became essential to utilize the Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative’s

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1. In multiple cities, growth is manifested as the occupation of forest and agricultural land, which are already been drastically reduced in areas year by year, with more migration to cities annually.

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2. Cost of infrastructure extensions to support new developments, becomes increasingly high. 3.The continued growth of the urban footprint will also contribute to ongoing issues such as traffic, air and water quality, solid waste disposal, and crime. 4. No restrictions of hazard vulnerability or plans for urban and natural linkages.

As Hans Van Ginkel explains “Even if we usually think of cities as something bad, we had better be prepared for this urban future. The question remains: what kind of city?� (08) The emerging Latin American city following a smart growth scenario be the laboratory to replace the modern and post-modern (exhausted growth paradigm) with a more equitable one. Smart growth scenario On the contrary, the positive speculative growth scenario represents a more sustainable future for the city, which reflects development patterns guided by a more organic urban growth framework. Arguably these cities need higher minimum density, as well as lower proportion of total growth in low-density development. Moreover, as further developed by ECSI, (09) this framework of policies and armature should include the following: Recommendations 1. A more compacted urban pattern 2. Reduction of infrastructure extension 3. Discourage development in hazard-prone areas 4. Promote the protection and expansion of natural areas that provide essential functions such as protection from hazards, climate regulation, and recreation.

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STRATEGIES

SCALE

3 Dimensional What are the goals of your thesis exploration and what are More importantly an incremental network looks to: the minimum achievement parameters, in order for you to consider yourself to have succeeded in fulfilling those i. Foster more compacted urban development with high goals? density and reinforce connections towards existing communities (and infrastructure). Using a holistic approach that encompasses three ii. Integrate efficiently the use and conservation of scales: Urban design, architecture and infrastructure; an resources within the framework, like: energy and water incremental network manages to: management, use of materials (construction and waste) and protect natural, agricultural lands and soils, while i. Develop a preemptive design in areas where the city is promoting mixed uses of the land. expanding. iii. Create mix-used development where proximity to ii. Revise the current relationship with urban growth and various sectors is available. the preservation of the landscape. iv. Minimize motorized dependency and favor shared iii. Provide guidelines that promote more sustainable and modes of transportation. efficient growth of new communities. v. Ultimately preserve and create networks of open and iv. Demonstrate that ecological-urbanistic approach can public spaces, cultural amenities and key natural zones be a critical framework for the city and its design. where green spaces can serve multiple functions for the benefit of the urban ecological environment and the inhabitants.

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Multiscalar approach Site Approach

Categories of Analysis of the territory:

i. Choose 2 potential emerging Latin American cities ii. Province, Metropolitan Area, City iii. Growth over time iv. Timeline of recent history – 20th century v. Select specific site analysis vi. Select new center of growth

i. Urban ii. Architectural iii. Ecological iv. Social v. Economic vi. Cultural vii.Legal

Relation of study towards your chosen site vii. Relation of the city towards new node viii. Transportation, Access ix. Resources

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MACRO SURAMERICA

SCALE

Macro-study: 8 cities

Qualitative Analysis

This macro-study looked to analyze a wide range of emerging cities across the continent. Utilizing the Urban Dashboard, from the ESC Initiative, this tool helped understand the growth patterns, tendency scenarios and smart growth scenarios in these localities.

After selecting the necessary parameters, it became evident to develop an urban growth comparison over time. Following are some of the trends and characteristics observed across the continent:

The goal of the analysis was to expand on the parameters and conditions studied throughout the region and to showcase the various findings of the urban growth patterns in a way that reflects the similarities and differences across the region.

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1. Growth tendencies 2. Urban sprawl of the years 3. Densification of city centers 4. Recognition of protected areas (of risk, of preservation, etc.)

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Cuenca, Ecuador

Urban Footprint (1987)

Parana, Argentina

Urban Footprint (2005) Urban Footprint (2002-2006)

Urban Footprint (2010) Urban Footprint (2006-2013)

Cochabamba, Bolivia

Urban Footprint (1987-2010) Urban Footprint (1994)

Smart growth Current trend scenario vs. Smart Growth scenario Urban Footprint (2004)

Areas of risk Density (2013) Urban Footprint (2011)

Preserved ecology and areas of risk Urban Footprint (1985-2011)

Current growth scenario

Urban Footprint (1994-2011)

Current trend scenario vs. Sustanaible Growth scenario

Informal settlements and open dumps

Density (2011)

Areas of risk

Asuncion, Paraguay

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Urban Footprint (2001-2013)

Mar de Plata, Argentina

Parana, Argentina

Urban Footprint (1992)

Urban Footprint (2002)

Urban Footprint (2011)

Urban Footprint (2002-2006)

Urban Footprint (2006-2013)

Urban Footprint (1992-2011)

Current trend scenario vs. Sustanaible Growth scenario

Parameters combined (2030)

Current trend scenario vs. Smart Growth scenario

Density (2013)

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Sustanaible Growth scenario

gentina

Urban Footprint (2005)

Urban Footprint (2010)

Urban Footprint (1987-2010)

Smart growth

Areas of risk

Salta, Argentina

Current growth scenario

Sustanaible Urban Footprint Growth (1985) scenario

Urban Footprint (2001)

Urban Footprint (2011)

Areas of risk

Current trend scenario

Sustanaible Growth scenario

Current trend scenario vs. Sustanaible Growth scenario

na

mart Growth scenario

Urban Footprint (1987)

Valdivia, Chile

Urban Footprint (2006-2013)

Urban UrbanFootprint Footprint(2001-2013) (1994)

Urban Footprint (2001)

Urban Footprint (2013)

Density (2013)

Preserved ecology and areas of risk Density (2013)

Current trend scenario vs. Optimum Growth scenario

Combined parameters

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SCALE

COLOMBIA BARRANQUILLA

Barranquilla, Colombia

Explorative lense

Barranquilla is a city and municipality located in northern Atlántico Department of Colombia. Considered the largest city and port in the northern Caribbean Coast region, with a metropolitan population of 1,885,000 as of 2011.

The ‘city’ happens on the ground, just as it does for the thousands of dwellers out there.

Barranquilla is considered one the top growing cities of the region, therefore it works as a laboratory to replace the exhausted growth paradigm with a more equitable one. With this comes the most important challenge to act preemptively to the future expansion of the city, and most importantly to revisit the social housing approach in South America.

Therefore the next challenge was to look for those circumstances that exist in Barranquilla that could be utilized and re-oriented to further empower these dwellers to construct their city in a different way. While looking closer at the possible conditions that existed in the area, this investigation will be interested in identified dislocations, gaps, and surpluses in the existing infrastructure (just as residents do as a matter of survival, since this is where change begins). Arguably this offered the opportunity to look for problems and circumstances with a specific focused, to truly start understanding the influences that would shape the proposed “incremental network.”

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SCALE

SMART GROWTH 2030

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SCALE

DENSITY DISTRICTS NEIGHBORHOODS

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RIOMAR

CENTRO HISTORICO

SUROCCIDENTE

SUORIENTE

METROPOLITANA

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LANDSCAPE AS THE MEDIUM

SCALE

Landscape to the city, ecology to the urban In many ways landscape is already (inherently) the mediator within this context, as it represents the opportunity to activate an essential part of the city infrastructure. Green and open spaces within the urban environment are frequently overlooked and undervalued for their potential role in aiding cities to become more resilient and resistant or for the ecosystem services they can provide.

co-relation and connection to the city in one way or the other:

As part of the proposed approach, the aim is to explore the role of the green network infrastructure as an adaptive strategy for the city and simultaneously an organizer of the natural processes - not only in the built environment. In other words, as described by Benedict & McDonald, “the green infrastructure is defined as the interconnected network of waterways, wetlands, woodlands, wildlife habitats, and other natural areas; greenways, parks, and other conservation lands; working farms, ranches and forests; and wilderness and other open spaces that support native species, maintain natural ecological processes, sustain air and water resources and contribute to health and quality of life.� (10)

Considering landscape as the most informal of all mediums of the city, it can be utilized as a mediumcatalyst of how informal growth happens, or where is going to happen. Arguably this is already happening in cities like Port-au-Prince, where growth is now being pushed out of the city core; or in the contrary in Caracas, where settlements are still occurring in the hillside and peripheries of the metropolis. Here is where it is important to understand that as cities continues to grow, the development on the periphery of the urban area will begin to have an impact on these transition zones between urban, rural and mountainous landscapes, either way. Therefore it will be important to maintain the urban gradient between these areas to maintain the landscape character of both.

Deliberately or not, the world is moving towards a less formal, more flexible order, and here is where the activation of the green infrastructure is critical to the future of the city and its design, as it can become a medium for sustainability and health. An ecologicalurbanistic approach can be a critical framework for the of the city and its design: it provides a framework for addressing challenges that threaten humanity, such as global warming, rising sea level, declining oil reserves, rising energy demands, and environmental justice, while fulfilling human needs for health, safety, and welfare, meaning and delight. If we take a closer look at the landscape in cities like Boston, Chicago or Barcelona, we can see a commonality in the green infrastructure among all of them. In these cities these spaces are a valuable asset to protect. We can see how all cities are working with their surrounding green elements, as they employ a

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1. Landscape is recognized as the essential part of the city infrastructure 2. Greenway as a connector and activator of the peripheries 3. Landscape tied to the social structure of the city

The network of green infrastructure can be adapted and incorporated into the urban environment as an integrated system, enabling the city to be adaptable and able to respond to climate change. The network of green infrastructure can be an autonomous and flexible system that does not add a burden to the existing infrastructure but rather to serve as a way to mitigate the effects between the built and un-built environments. The landscape itself can assume various roles as a cultural amenity and distinguish the recognized areas from other cities and regions of the country, as a productive landscape. The edges of the city should be further studied and preserved. The importance between the rural and urban landscape should not be underestimated and can lay an important role within the Latin American culture.

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PERIPHERY PREEMPTIVE ACTION

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SCALE

Today most infrastructures follows city growth rather than facilitating and opening up new growth centres within and outside city’s core? (11) Planning happens systematically “posterior” as a recuperative and securing action. (12)

Recuperative

Pre-emptive

Today most of the research in the informal settlements happens as an “after-the-fact”(13) or “recuperativecondition” because most of the settlements in Latin America are already established. One could argue that they follow a retroactive approach (14) that offers interventions in already consolidates informal settlements so as to promote formal aspects. Petare in Caracas, Rosinha in Rio de Janeiro o Neza in Mexico City are informal settlements that have been present for the past decades, have received considerable retroactive improvements and continue to grow until his day. This notion could be considered the practice of “slum interventions”.

Usually anticipates future informal growth by providing a parameters of spaces or regulations around which new development grows. This I argue is the most valuable one, since it looks to create a more responsible architecture from its conception, influenced by emergent aesthetics in recognized territories. To an extent, this approach considers how communities could tap into, in co-relation to the city infrastructure for a more adequate and healthy “dwelling-city” growth over time. A preemptive design looks to prevent future growth so as to preserve the newly design communities at the same time. Similarly to Leonardo Robleto’s opinion, I agree that “the idea is not to indicate that the recuperative approach is a the wrong approach, such initiatives like these projects should continue to happen in Latin America and beyond… However, a new mindset must be brought forward, which deals with the growth of informality”. I believe that these new approach should mediate the polarization of the formality and informality. Bridge the gap between the two, and bring a sense of city between these growing communities.

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SITE SELECTION

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SCALE

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SITE ANALYSIS & PROJECTION

SCALE

“Slums begin with bad geology.” – Mike Davis

Revise co-relation: Informal settlements start in the landscape Despite the inherent inflexibility of the city as an entity, let’s not forget that all this growth (of formal vs. informal) occurs on the landscape plane, (15) impacting what already are cities with emerging infrastructure and underdeveloped territories. It’s here were we can develop strategies that can be implemented using the green and natural spaces, to foster adaptive actions to allow the city to confront climate change and help organize the green elements of the city.

As Robleto continues to argue, informal settlements are usually found in places with troubled ecology, like seen in the following cases: In Argentina, informal settlements are found along the banks of the Reconquista River, which gets heavily polluted with open sewage and creates an immediate health hazard. In Caracas’ slums are majorly located on the steep slopes surrounding the city, where any rainfall only fills the inhabitants with fear of an impending mudslide and active fault lines only add to what many believe is a brewing perfect storm. In Nigeria, Ajegunle for example, there is an estimated population of 1.5 million living in swamplands.

As John Beardsley and Christian Werthmann suggest, “it’s here were landscape can be conceived both as the primary problem in these communities and as the main opportunity for intervention an improvement.” In third world cities, urban green spaces often are overlooked and undervalued for their contribution to resilience to climate Without a doubt, informal settlements aggravate the change and other environmental services they can offer to ecological and health problems of the urban poor in the cityscape. multiple ways, but they can also serve as laboratories for innovation and new urban interventions. It’s in these As Leonardo Robleto explains, “landscape is usually an settlements where the green spaces can play a major afterthought, a plane that gets conquered by human role, which may be embodied in the form of environmental intervention: yet landscape can become the incubator for goods and services involving landscape and urban disaster when it is ignored. (16) elements to adapt and respond to the needs of the community and climate change.

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NATURAL CONDITIONS

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GROWTH IN THE AREA

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Choose a site with seemingly impossible contradictory needs (preserve natural systems, serve the needs of an expanding human community) and design something to reconcile and resolves these seemingly irreconcilable demands. The prospectus will be richer and serve as a more reliable foundation for your Thesis explorations if the theory parts (2/3) are supported by the insights offered by the critical examination of the results of your probe (1/3). - Robert

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Chapter Two: Scale Endnotes 01.Robleto, Leonardo. “The Call For A Post-Informal Landscape Urbanism” Scenario Journal. PennDesign. Philadelphia, June 28, 2012. Web. 02.According to the Inter American Developing Bank, an “emerging city” is considered any urban area that has around 100,000 to 2 million people. 03.“Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative” Youtube video, 4:34 posted by BIDCiudades, April 11, 2013, http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=BM2yzGK5vl8 04.“Our vision for cities in Latin America and the Caribbean” Vimeo video, 8:59 posted by Ciudades Sostenibles, May 2014, https://vimeo.com/97248104. 05. Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative offers the possibility to download approximately 10 reports about “Urban footprint studies and growth scenarios” of different cities in Latin America. Available at http://www. urbandashboard.org/IDB/Study 06. Historial and Current Urban Footprint and Future Urban Scenarios. GeoAdaptive and Inter-American Development Bank. 2014 07. Historial and Current Urban Footprint and Future Urban Scenarios. GeoAdaptive and Inter-American Development Bank. 2014 08. Brillembourg, Alfredo, and Hubert Klumpner. “Bladerunner in the tropics: Imagine the New City” In Brillembourg, Feireiss, Klumpner. 248-260. 09. Historial and Current Urban Footprint and Future Urban Scenarios. GeoAdaptive and Inter-American Development Bank. 2014 10. Allen, William, Leigh Anne McDonald, Mark A. Benedict, Keith O’Conner. “Green Infrastructure Plan Evaluation Frameworks”Journal of Conservation Planning Vol. 1 (2005) The Conservation Fund, Chapel Hill. 11.Bhabha, Homi K. “Mumbai on My Mind: Some Thoughts on Sustainability.” Ecological Urbanisms. Ed. Mohsen Mostafavi and Gareth Doherty. Baden, Switzerland: GSD, Harvard U and Lars Muller, 2010. 78-83. Print 12.Bhabha, Homi K. “Mumbai on My Mind: Some Thoughts on Sustainability.” 13.Robleto, Leonardo. “Pre-emptive versus retroactive:

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The Beginning of a Post-Informal Landscape Urbanism” Scenario Journal. PennDesign. Philadelphia, August 14, 2012. Web. 14.Robleto, Leonardo. “Pre-emptive versus retroactive: The Beginning of a Post-Informal Landscape Urbanism.” 15. Robleto, Leonardo. “The Call For A Post-Informal Landscape Urbanism” Scenario Journal. PennDesign. Philadelphia, June 28, 2012. Web. 16. Robleto, Leonardo. “The Call For A Post-Informal Landscape Urbanism.”

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TOOLS STUDY OF SPECULATIVE GROWTH AND DENSITY IN LATIN AMERICA

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INFORMAL ARMATURES

TOOLS

David Gouverneur’s (Landscape Architecture professor at PennDesign in Philadelphia) research is understood as Informal Armatures. It consists of the development of a preemptive design of areas where the city is expanding, in contrast to a recuperative improvement of informal settlements, understood as “acupunctural” interventions.

Connecting Strategies Definition In other words, Informal Armatures would constitute public infrastructure around which self-constructed settlements could arise in a more sustainable and healthy condition.

Sanitation Transportation Recreation Productive patches Economic drivers or public uses:

As explained by Gouverneur, “the basic premise of the Informal Armature approach is to find a middle ground between the existing uncontrolled informal development and the top down intervention (be it governmental project or formal private development).”

Separators Recycling/Construction Sites Waste Management Manufacturing Real-Estate Operations Parks The goal for this “armatures” is to operate between the effective but uncontrollable “laissez-faire” informal growth Metropolitan Services Sports and the calculated (but inefficient) status-quo model of Mix-used Packages formal development processes. Ultimately this hybrid model acts as a guide and supports an existing power Neighborhood patches structure of community leader or informal developer leading the process of settlement. Areas intended for self-constructed settlements: Protectors and Buffers Seeking to protect specific pieces of land from development:

Subject to squatting Pirate Development Sites and Services Programs Mixed Formal/Informal Operations Local Centralities and connectors

Environmental Protection Control of Expansion Water and Waste Management Agriculture Passive Amenities Recreation

Custodians Public stewards managing the settlement and enforcing protector patches and buffer zones:

Attractors Resources and amenities serving future development: Initial provision of water Energy Food Materials Security

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Stewardship of Public Turf Icons Managerial Centers Informaton Governance “The Garden Keepers”

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TOOLS

Flexibility is the common ground among these approaches, a model of organic development that challenges the assump¬tion of traditional Western planning that man control his surroundings. - Gwendolyn Wright

Characteristics

Components

An incremental network is concerned with the behavior of large-scale assemblage over time, based on the performance, community inputs and outputs and the mediation of force and resistance.

Considerably an incremental network, is conformed by the following structures:

Similarly, Christopher Alexander’s approaches in A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings and Construction, explains that “cities emerge gradually and organically, almost of their own accord (...) if every act of building, large or small, takes on the responsibility for gradually shaping its small co¬-rner of the world larger patterns will appear.”

Urban design Guidelines for Speculative Landscape Architecture Incremental Neighborhood Construction Infrastructure Urban Catalyst for socio-economic empowerment

Therefore this incremental network demands for architecture and urban design to be less concerned with how things look like and more invested with what they can do. The aim is to also contra rest what’s happening in today’s private and public developments worldwide since “today most infrastructures follows city growth rather than facilitating and opening up new growth centres within and outside city’s core.” (01) Ideally this framework can be catalyst for a “radical re-categorization of architecture”(02), removing all boundaries between it and other fields, and to promote the endless process of connectivity. This way projects are no longer just constructed as an object but more like a space that acts as an interface between nature and architecture, a frame made from filters and shades where anything can happen, either public or private. To an extent, the idea is to synthesize these three important lines of work – urban design, architecture and infrastructure, under one scope – the incremental network. Moreover, as Alexander explains, “the city understood as a collage consisting not only of different large-scale interventions but also of a huge number of transformations at the scale of the individual house, strengths social networks and favours urban integration of local neighborhoods; so, the collage-city is a living city, a complex city.” (03)

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URBAN DESIGN

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Guidelines for a Speculative Landscape Through the research of understanding the role of urban design (including observation, speculation and consultations of reports by organizations like Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative and United Nations Habitat) several recurring issues have been identified relating to the general urban growth of the emerging cities (of Latin America). The suggested are some of the recommendations that could shape the future landscapes and areas of expansion where this incremental network could be applied. In combination with the ESC Initiative and other sources of information, the following are some of the recommendations that can guide the process of these “new growth order� (04) in the landscape:

- The landscape provides cultural values for the city, distinguishing it from other cities and regions of the country and is a valuable asset. In addition to the aesthetic qualities provided by green spaces, these also contribute to the well being of the residents, their sense of community as well as an important economic value (recreation and tourism). Development & hazard vulnerability - Restrict development by defining boundaries of highsusceptibility areas and defining allowable land uses. - Require new development to treat storm water on site or connect appropriately to larger proposed networks throughout the city.

Urban and natural linkages - Create inventory of existing protected and unprotected open space, highlight functions of existing parks and forests (recreation, habitat protection, etc.) prioritize acquisitions of additional land and continue land preservation. - Set goal of meeting World Health Organization recommendation of 10-15 m2 of open space per inhabitant.

- Provide relocation assistance to residents. Demolish unsafe structures to prevent further use. - Establish a boundary around the city identifying forested and agricultural land which can be conserved and serve as a buffer for new development. Growth dynamics of the city

- Limit or prohibit development on existing agricultural lands.

- Increase availability of low income housing near existing development and public services.

- A multi-scalar approach should be taken into consideration during the planning phase where the implementation of a conjunction of urban and natural systems can work as integral component connecting the larger ecosystems around the city.

- Encourage higher density development in already developed areas, as well as undeveloped areas.

- A system of interventions can also serve ecological functions by connecting natural areas within and around the city, which can increase and improve the biodiversity of

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a region and the overall quality of the environment.

- Set minimum density requirements in certain zones. - Identify areas for redevelopment and adaptive reuse of existing infrastructure.

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ARCHITECTURE INCREMENTAL

TOOLS

David Gouverneur’s (Landscape Architecture professor at PennDesign in Philadelphia) research is understood as Informal Armatures. It consists of the development of a preemptive design of areas where the city is expanding, in contrast to a recuperative improvement of informal settlements, understood as “acupunctural” interventions.

Incremental (ism): As mediating tool to mitigate the formal and informal growth Arguably the context and the strategies previously described in this scenario, leads us to the result of ‘incremental (ism)’ as a tool to implement this ‘new growth order’ in various ways. This strategy is presented as a methodology “that understand that ‘citiness’ is found not as a final product but on-going project rooted in experience and engagement.” (05) The idea is to create some quite concrete, material and tangible, where these corners of continuous incremental growth become the paradigm or urban, architectural, civic and cultural diversity.

I am not an engineer, but, speaking from experience, I would like to suggest 25cmX25cm cross section for your re-enforced concrete columns and 15cm wide X 25cm deep cross section for your re-enforced concrete beams. This gives you a chance to have a 10cm shelf at the bottom of the beam for floor slab assembly, on less it is site-cast. If you have a site-cast slab, it’s thickness should be 10cm. With these structural sizes you should be able to span 5-7m distances. - Krists

As Julia King states, “incremental encourages the contributions of people to shape and affect their environments by being active components of making place, the process of incremental improvements, addition or development offers these opportunities which are lost in large scale one-stop projects.” More importantly, incremental architecture considers organic patterns that have emerged over time, as well the preservation of existing social networks.

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Incremental Neighborhood The implementation of a guided incremental typology for a neighborhood achieves an organic co-relation between the landscape ecology and the city urbanism, as it provides a more adequate and healthy model of growth. In informal settlements inevitably houses are going to grow, transform and evolve. Therefore, and in contrast to other models, this strategy encourages self-made incremental dwellings, to shape a more responsible architecture that is influenced by emergent aesthetics. It’s in this process where dwellers are involved in preconstruction, construction and post-construction process. Houses are growing, changing the growth of the city, day by day.

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TOOLS

David Gouverneur’s (Landscape Architecture professor at PennDesign in Philadelphia) research is understood as Informal Armatures. It consists of the development of a preemptive design of areas where the city is expanding, in contrast to a recuperative improvement of informal settlements, understood as “acupunctural” interventions.

INFRASTRUCTURE INCREMENTAL

Infrastructure: Urban Catalyst for socio-economic empowerment As stated previously, after focalizing the future design project in one of the selected cities, the idea is to continue to understand existing local-conditions; where the specific political, financial, social, topographic, physical, and other contexts will shape the ultimate result. (06) After identifying problems as well as potential solution strategies, it’s fundamental to intersect those circumstances with the realities of the existing social, physical, and economic infrastructures. Its here where it will be necessary to recognize “urban catalysts”(07) for the kind of change this thesis is proposing. In the efforts of promoting de-centralized planning strategies, is necessary to ask the following: What kind of infrastructures (catalysts) already exist that can be reoriented or reconnected in new ways?(08) Perhaps looking at: (i) Water as a resource; (ii) permaculture as tool (09) or even (iii) social infrastructures for empowerment. The following precedents are examples of projects (some of which where showcased in MoMA’s Design and Architecture Series: Small Scale, Big Change: New

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Architectures of Social Engagement (October 3, 2010– January 3, 2011) that utilize existing or new infrastructure in an alternative way, that look to catalyzing change and empowering communities.(10) In general, all these projects manage to bring innovative architecture to underserved communities. In one way or the other these built projects address the functional requirements of their designs but also aim to have a broad positive effect on the communities they work in, as the built environment in engagement with the social, economic, and political facts aims to transform communities beyond the boundaries of their extent. In addition to new modes of participatory design, these projects incorporate site-specific ecological and socially sustainable practices, including the exploration of both new and traditional materials.(70) If anything, this incremental network looks to engage communities to incorporate innovation and social change.

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CELL ORGANIZATION

TOOLS

Cell

C-Radial

This structure allows for mathematical possibilities of design and innovation.

Allows to break conventional schemes of planning and has the capacity to adapt and mold to multiple configurations.

The notion of cells guarantees fullfilment of capacity and adequate reach to every dwelling and community hub.

Growth is envisioned in a radial disposition, allowing for incrementality to spur from a central core within a cell. This organization guarantees the implemention of buffer zones, the opportunity for organic patterns and a better capacity of reach.

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R-URBAN

TOOLS

Rural and urban growth

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EDGE DESAKOTA

TOOLS

Peripherial and adjacent

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PROGRAM ORGANIZATION

TOOLS

Characteristics The goal is to identify site-specific small and big collective efforts and gather them one under one condenser of action, to generate information exchange and catalyze growth (literally) within the area. Programmatic needs are overlapped, super-imposed and predisposed for vibrant socio-economic exchange.

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SEED OF GROWTH

TOOLS

Principles and guidelines This system reinforces ce-centralized services while at the same time predisposing main connections to the core. Incentive for collective effort and agglomeration. The city is generated with two intersecting roads. Seeds are placed in areas of intersection to create new corners of growth.

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APPLIED INCREMENTAL

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Chapter Three: Tools Endnotes 01. Bhabha, Homi K. “Mumbai on My Mind: Some Thoughts on Sustainability.” Ecological Urbanisms. Ed. Mohsen Mostafavi and Gareth Doherty. Baden, Switzerland: GSD, Harvard U and Lars Muller, 2010. 78-83. Print 02. Lefaivre, Liane. “Everything is architecture” Harvard Design Magazine, Spring Summer, 18 2003. 03. Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jaconson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I, and Anghel, S., 1997. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, and Construction. New York: Oxford University Press. 04.Historial and Current Urban Footprint and Future Urban Scenarios. GeoAdaptive and Inter-American Development Bank. 2014 05.King, Julia. “What is the Incremental City?.” Incremental City, entry posted February 9, 2013, http:// incrementalcity.wordpress.com/2013/02/09/what-is-theincremental-city/ (accessed November 4, 2014). 06. Thanks to Marc J. Neveu for restating how the informal development in cities has now become massive with some similarities across borders but arguably they are quite different and that the richness of a research comes not from a broad based approach, but a more finely focused look. 07. Urban catalysts can be defined, as new redevelopment strategies comprised of a series of projects that drive and guide urban development. Urban catalyst is a term developed by Philipp Misselwitz, Philipp Oswalt and Klaus Overmeyer (2003). 08. Many thanks to Jonathan Foote for pointing out the importance of this investigation to further ground the future “incremental network” design proposal. 09. A program like food networks in cities has not yet being much explored could potentially be an interesting new typology. Thanks to Zenovia Toloudi for the recommendation. 10. “Small Scale, Big Change” MoMa’s Small Scale, Big Change: New Architectures of Social Engagement. Accessed December 7, 2014. Small Scale, Big Change” MoMa’s Small Scale, Big Change: New Architectures of Social Engagement. 92

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CONCLUSION APPLIED RESEARCH

DESIGN

David Gouverneur’s (Landscape Architecture professor at PennDesign in Philadelphia) research is understood as Informal Armatures. It consists of the development of a preemptive design of areas where the city is expanding, in contrast to a recuperative improvement of informal settlements, understood as “acupunctural” interventions.

Incremental Network As cities (in Latin America) continue to grow it’s becoming more necessary to revise the current models of growth and ultimately propose more holistic solutions that aim to accommodate present realities. As Luis Diego Quiros suggests “in current times where resources are limited and the role of architects is beign re-evaluated, it seems urgent to re-think the ways in which the profession can promote change.” (01) As previously mentioned, growing Latin American cities represent an incredible opportunity to re-think urban planning and city growth. An incremental network has the potential to mediate the formal and informal developments, as it has the capacity to create new corners of growth in these emerging cities; integrating the ecology to the urban by converging growing communities and underutilized landscapes. Arguably cities are continuing to be order by and built around networks of gray infrastructure (streets, roads, sewer and other infrastructure). But the speeded-up emerging territories – like the suburbs, rich or poor, of the first world – are territories without corners, without physical or social intersection; they are, however, the places with the greatest potential and future demand. (02) And in spite of the stiff nature of gray infrastructure, the intention is that the proposed “incremental network” strategy utilizes open and green spaces as flexible networks that can aid in providing a more adaptable network for cities, allowing them to be more resilient to the effects of climate change, urban growth and other factors. A valuable contribution by Shlomo Angel and his team Making Room for a Planet of Cities supports conclusions based on a wide research on urban expansion. One their most important conclusion is that urban population growth cannot be contained and we must make adequate room to accommodate it. They recommend drastic measures: buying land and conditioning it to

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basic urban levels in order to let self/construction spark. So could an incremental network be a guideline to mitigate this pressing issue? Using a holistic approach that encompasses three scales (urban design, architecture and infrastructure) an incremental network manages to: (i) Develop a preemptive design in areas where the city is expanding; (ii) Revise the current relationship with urban growth and the preservation of the landscape; (iii) Provide guidelines that promote more sustainable and efficient growth of new communities; (iv) demonstrate that ecologicalurbanistic approach can be a critical framework for the of the city and its design. More importantly an incremental framework looks to: (i) Foster more compacted urban development with high density and reinforce connections towards existing communities (and infrastructure). (ii) Integrate efficiently the use and conservation of resources within the framework, like: energy and water management, use of materials (construction and waste) and protect natural, agricultural lands and soils, while promoting mixed uses of the land; (iii) create mix-used development where proximity to various sectors is available; (iv) minimize motorized dependency and favor shared modes of transportation; and ultimately (v) preserve and create networks of open and public spaces, cultural amenities and key natural zones where green spaces can serve multiple functions for the benefit of the urban ecological environment and the inhabitants. In conclusion, the proposal is to develop a guideline for a preemptive planning of a self-constructed neighborhood that connects and weaves into the urban landscape of two potential emerging cities in Latin America. This incremental network re-organizes the natural and built environment and implements a new incremental framework of growth.

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01. Aquillo, Marie. Ed. 2011. Introduction in Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity. New York: Metropolis, p.10. 02. Quiros, Luis Diego. “Emerging from Dystopia: Latin America’s Latest Lessons.” ACSA 101 “New Constellations/ New Ecologies” Guerilla Ecologies: Tactical Interventions

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DESIGN

GUIDELINES FRAMEWORK GOALS Francesco Stumpo

Notes from Interim Review II (03/19/2015) Strategies Trial and error Minimum law effort Combination of various ideas that create a whole Radial organization pattern. Why is it better than grids? Is it protecting a nucleus? How would water + sewage respond to this. Those systems are linear not cellular! Think about the linear infrastructure, could it become points of meeting? Imperfection of circle, more organic, allows for intuitive growth. What are the nodes? Are you planting, planning? Influence from Christopher Alexander’s Patterns of Construction Programmatic “Food Hub” becomes the seed of growth of this community. Empowering individuals and the society through catalyzing the local economy and development. Summary This thesis is about designing the resources and amenities serving future developments. The intention is to design a framework where economic drivers and public users meet, encounter and exchange information. The intention of this investigation has been to spark the conversation and demonstrate through speculative means, the potential guidelines and imaginative solutions that could be implemented towards the establishment of a new model of social housing for the emerging Latin American cities. This proposal defines success as “reaching of multiple things at once, or at once – reaching multiple things.” Future steps Design a scenario At what scale do we intervene? Keep it real but unreal Design Proposal Fragmented intervention Speculation over time Scenarios of growth Circumstances, instances and projections

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PROPOSAL #0

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PROPOSAL #1

DESIGN

Principles, approach and result Be accesible, provide basic shelter and canopy. Connected in multiple levels Balconies, cantilevers, thresholds, etc. Envision initial start and full capacity. Design a structural frame that allows for further vertical and horizontal expansion, with an implied cap.

A city wthin a city A collage Mechanism acts a show rack, where show boxes and shoes are placed, displaced, interchangable and in flux. What is the result of this new urban model? True integration with nature and surroundings?

.... Open platforms Sense of belonging, customizable. Infilled over time. Programmatic components become key to hold design. Ground rules are the fundamentals for growth Tabula Rasa - Tabula Pronta ....

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PROPOSAL #2

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DESIGN

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PROPOSAL #3 FINAL REVIEW

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DESIGN

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A

B

SITE - AB BARRANQUILLA, COLOMBIA Francesco Stumpo

INCREMENTAL

NETWORK

NOW

PROJECTED

Study of growth and density of the Latin America city through the revision of the social housing in Barranquilla, Colombia. A cooperative incremental growth that employs urban catalysts, to mediate the formal and informal sectors and establish a common ground of action.

START 2015

ADDITIVE CONSTRUCTION

SHELTER + ACCESS + SAFETY

ON-SITE FORMAL STRUCTURE & INFORMAL GROWTH COLLECTIVE PROJECTS

1

2

INFORMATION EXCHANGE 112

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3

4


RE-PROGRAMMING POST-HARVESTING HANDLING PROCESSING COMMUNITY GARDEN MARKET DISTRIBUTORS

WASTE-RECYCLING BUS-BIKE RETAIL CO-OP CONSTRUCTION WAREHOUSE COMMUNITY

SEED A SEED B

PHASE

ONE

PHASE

CONSTRUCT CORE SERVICES

INTRODUCE FRAMEWORK HARVESTING

AGRO HUB & MARKET

TWO

URBAN FARMING

COMMUNITY GARDEN

SEED

COMMUNITY INPUT

TRADE

FOOD

Water & Energy

City Agency

Market Retail

Cooperative

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PHASE

THREE

INFILL UNITS

EXPANSION = INCREASE

ADAPTABILITY

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL

4 3 2 1

4 3 2 1

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$=$$

x4


RE-INSERTING SEEDS REACH CAPACITY ATTRACT GROWTH NEIGHBORHOOD PATCHES ROADS ACCESS IDENTITY

PHASE

FIRST UNITS MIX-USED PACKAGES SECONDARY SEEDS SOCIAL AREAS INCREMENTAL COMMUNITY

FOUR

BRIDGE THE GAP

NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

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PHASE

FIVE

FLEXIBLE GROWTH 2030

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CONTINUE


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Precedents

01. Reclaim Growth - Dahravi, Mumbai India (URBZ) 02. Uneven Growth - Nigeria - MoMA (Ensable/MIT) 03. Quinta Monroy (2004) by Elemental 04. Housing-Neighborhood Prototype “Growing House” (2004) by Urban Think Tank 05. Cambodia Incremental (Unknown) 06. Saigon Informal - Resettlement Housing for the slum (Ton Vu) 07. Incremental Housing Strategy by Filipe Balestra and Sara Göransson (2008-2009) 08. Residential Building - Lisbon (Fala Atelier)

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08


09. Mafalala Communal Pads Mozambique (M Parsons) 10. Casa Familiar: Living Rooms at the Border and Senior Housing with Childcare (2001–present) San Ysidro, California. Estudio Teddy Cruz 11. Food Hub - Louisville, KT (OMA, Rem Koolhaas) 12. Housing-Neighborhood Prototype “Empower Shack” (2010) by Urban Think Tank 13. Tower - Japan (SsD) 14. Urban interventions: Architecture as a mechanism of inclusion. Carolina Uechi, Master of Architecture, University of Maryland, (2014). 15. Casa Familiar: Living Rooms at the Border and Senior Housing with Childcare (2001–present) San Ysidro, California. Estudio Teddy Cruz 16. Orquideorama, Plan B Arquitectos, Medellin, Colombia. 97.

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

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A Thesis published April, 2015 Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA.

Copyright by Francesco Stumpo Guillen, 2015 All rights reserved

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Incremental Network: Complete Thesis  

Work submitted to Wentworth Institute of Technology's Master of Architecture 2015.

Incremental Network: Complete Thesis  

Work submitted to Wentworth Institute of Technology's Master of Architecture 2015.

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