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THE URBAN SHELF


“Our cities must be places, where human beings live fulfilling lives in dignity, good health, safety, happiness and hope.� Habitat II Conference Declaration on Human Settlements, Istanbul 1996


MISSION STATEMENT by Dr. Paul Friedli Transit Management Group, Schindler Ltd. This is the third in a series of books that Schindler’s Transit Management Group has produced in an attempt to provide specific answers to the very severe problems projected to occur during the next phase of urbanization across the globe. The first book, Future Cities began by exploring alternatives to the accepted design configuration of virtually every building in the urban environment. One of the concepts introduced was the Urban Shelf, a new approach whereby a series of platforms provide a structure and infrastructure into which complexes of housing retail and public spaces can be deployed. In our second book, Urban Shelf, Modul Hashtag we examined a specific case of the Urban Shelf which we termed the Hashtag, based on the idea of an urban neighborhood centered around a courtyard. When it came to developing ideas for the third book in the series, it became increasingly obvious that the Urban Shelf idea had generated considerable excitement in the architectural, developer and urban planning communities. It was therefore decided to undertake a much deeper exploration of the potential of this approach to utterly transform city landscapes of the future. And so we come to The Urban Shelf, a book that takes a very frank look at the problems endemic in current cities and shows how this new approach could provide novel and extremely exciting solutions. In it we do not shy away from controversy and we do not expect that everyone will agree with all that is written. But the fact that you are considering reading it shows that you share our passion to raise the quality of urban life for our children and grandchildren - and that is the important thing. Thank you for joining us on this journey so far. We hope that the debate will continue and that, as a result of challenging people who are in a position to orchestrate change, we will make a real difference to the living standards of all city dwellers in the years ahead.


1968 3.5 billion people lived on planet earth

: Earthrise, December 1968 http://www.geohive.com/earth/his_history3.aspx

2015 3.9 billion people are living in cities


2015 Inventory Urbanized Planet

50% population of Asia is expected to live in urban areas by 2020, while50% Africa population is likely to of Asia is

Global Population 9 (billions)

expected to live rate in urban areas by reach a 50% urbanization 2020, while Africa is likely to only in 2035

2015

reach a 50% urbanization rate

60% of the onlyland in 2035

2015

8

9

projected to become urban by 2030 is yet to be built.60% of the land

7

8

6

projected to become urban by 2030 is yet 25% of people live in to be built.

Urban

7 5

6

conditions that harm their health, safety, prosperity and 25% of people live in opportunities.

Urban

4

5

conditions that harm their health, safety, prosperity and Of the 187,066 new city dwellers that will beopportunities. added to the world’s

3

4

Rural

2

3

1

2 0

1950

1970

1990

2010

1 0

urban population every day between 2012 and 2015, becity borndwellers Of the91.5% 187,066will new in a developing country. that will be added to the world’s

Rural

2030

2050

urban population every day between 2012 and 2015, 91.5% will be born

1950

1970

1990

2010

2030

2050

Cities contribute to up to 70% of the in a developing country. total greenhouse gas emissions.

Cities contribute to up to 70% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. www.un.org


Content

A

ORIENTATION

B

EVALUATION

C

CONCEPTION & IMPLEMENTATION

mobile urban morphologies

a survey of the dynamics of vertical urbanism

urban prototypes for the 21st century

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35

59


ORIENTATION mobile urban morphologies


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www.google.com/maps

http://www.sergehorta.com/#!Facade #1/zoom/galleryPage/image1aow

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MOBILE URBAN MORPHOLOGIES By Max Schwitalla & Oke Hauser

The 20th century has been marked as the beginning of the urban age. Cities represent the core hubs of the global economy, innovation and governance services. As in the era of the anthropocene, cities constitute the primary condition for human life, it is time to have a closer look at the spatial drivers and dynamics: Urban fabrics have always been the spatial consequence of the negotiation between architecture, the immobile space and infrastructure, e.g. the space for mobility. The 20th century has been dominated by the massive spread of the automobile and the rise of the elevator as the main urban mobility infrastructure. Both mobility systems defined the dimensions and scales of the modern city fabric: Promoted by the automotive industry the car stretched the city into an endless horizontal plane characterized by flatness and a two-dimensional sequence of privatized plots waiting to be occupied by the citizens’ desire for individualism and freedom. The result is often an extremely inefficient urban fabric where around 50% of the urban area is wasted by mobility infrastructure. Next to the economic and ecologic problems (massive infrastructure costs, high CO2 emissions) social problems (lack of community) were linked to this process. The vertical dimension seemed to be the only way out of this dilemma: The generic elevator core based tower promised to be the solution for further urban densification. The technology that made this possible became practicable in NYC in the 1850s. Since then, the elevator became a global urban commodity and literally flipped the social vertical arrangement upside down while the elevator cabin represents in essence the contemporary ambiguous urban atmosphere of intimacy and anonymity simultaneously.

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Until today, vertical densification seems to be the acknowledged solution to the massive urban growth in the 21st century, but in recent neo-liberal urban markets the elevator core based tower was doomed to sheer speculation on multiplied privatized space! Efficiency and profit maximization lead to endless repetition of insular stacked privatized space that dominates the stagnant public ground: the main space for urban qualities like human encounter, social interchange and personal freedom is by comparison continuously shrinking. Consequently the urban experience is increasingly characterized by separated and isolated personal spheres. It is evident that we can not rely anymore on architectural and urban typologies from the last century. And as we experience the economic, ecologic and social limits of the urban models of the 20th century centered around mobility technologies, we should ask ourselves today: How will the emerging digital mobile technologies and future urban mobility change our urban surrounding in the future? Is this a chance to generate urban environments centered around the human scale and needs rather than the ones of machines? We need to practice an urban design based on possibilities and inclusion not on efficiency and exclusivity! We need ongoing transformation rather than static predefinition. Inspired by usergenerated, open platform digital models we aim for a city of participation, communication and collective experience: Not only a Smart City but a city for the Smart Citizen!

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Evolution Urban Morphologies

1950 Car City 1950Carcity Carcity 1950

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2000 2000 Core City 2000 Elevatorcity Elevatorcity

P 17


Urban Mobility Technologies Automobile & Elevator

The Ford Model T changed the way of urban living, work and travel by introducing individual mobility to the mass market, 1908 18

http://www.auto-motor-und-sport.de/bilder/100-jahre-fliessband-am-fliessband

The elevator safety gear, invented by Elisha Graves Otis, is generally considered as the invention that propelled vertical urbanism, 1853 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elisha_OTIS_1854.jpg

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Car City Los Angeles, USA

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21


Car City Sydney, Australia

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23


Car City Beijing, China

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http://evanshieh.com/t006.html

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Core City New York City, USA

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27


Core City Sao Paulo, Brazil

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29


Core City Hong Kong, China

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31


Global Vertical Urbanism

Exponential High-Rise Growth

1960 - 2016

Tall Buildings 200 eters or Taller Completed ach ear from 1960 to 2016 Tall Buildings 200 eters or T l r Completed ach ear from 1960 to 016 140

135 135

130

130

105

100 97

90

1 065

81

80 73

767 696

71

60

266 50

50

48

40

60% of the global 200-meters-plus buildings were located in China, the ‘tallest’ country in the world in 2014. 32

15

11

24

11

31

32

31

30

27 25 23

22

19

20

17

18

18

17

15

9

1

1

2015

2016

2005

8

1

2014

2003

1

2013

2002

2

9

2012

1

9

3

2009

1

4

2011

1

3

2007

1

2006

1

2004

2

2001

2

2000

2

1999

2

3

1998

1995

1994

1993

1991

1990

1989

1988

1986

1

1997

2

1

1985

1

1987

1

9

5

1996

6

5

1992

6

2008

8 6

3

1984

2

5 3

1983

4

1982

3

1981

3

1980

1976

1

1975

1

1973

1972

2

1974

1969

4

13 11

10 7

4

1971

1

1970

1

1968

1966

1965

1967

2

1

1964

2

1963

1

1962

0

1

7

1978

6 3

1977

8

3

1979

10

18

15 13

13 11

1961

The hot spot for verticalization shifted from North America eastwards, especially to the UAE and Asia. China is leading the vertical constructions due to the rural-to-urban migration:

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1960

The standard global response to the need of urbanization and the dogma of densification has been verticalization: 2014 has been the year with the most recorded vertical 200-meters-plus in building history.

71

615

70

2010

76% 11% 6% 3% 2% 1% 200+ Buildings by Continent 2014

11 110

110

Number of buildings 200 m+ completed each year

South America

Australia

Europe

North America

Middle East

Asia

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© CTBUH

Number of 200 m+ buildings

Projected ro ected number number of of200 200 m+ m+ buildings buildings

Number of supertalls (300 300m+) m+

Projected ro ected number number of ofsupertalls supertalls(300 300m+) m+

Number of megatalls (600 600 m+) m+

ro ected number number of ofmegatalls megatalls (600 600m+) m+ Projected

Tall Buildings 200 Meters or Taller Completed Each Year from 1960 to 2016 33


EVALUATION a survey of the dynamics of vertical urbanism


Economic Dead End Form Follows Finance

The urban verticalization represent the global dynamics of neo-liberalism and privatization within urban markets. The inferiority of local non–market mechanisms favors tall housing towers to act as the local fuel for the global financial speculation machinery. Architecture turns into an investment asset and accommodates the global elite’s capital instead of the city’s people. By constantly increasing the maximum allowed FAR (floor area ratio), slenderness becomes the new beau ideal in highrise design and vertical exclusivity is stretched to the absurd. The vertical ascension of capital into the skylines transforms the urban identity into a marketing tool within the global cities competition for investment, tourism and highly educated elites..

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http://www.sothebyshomes.com

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Skinny Highrises Hong Kong Slenderness

The term “Slenderness” is defined in the world of engineering by structural engineers as: A high-rise building is considered to be “slender” with a minimum of 1:10 to 1:12 ratio (width of the building’s base to its height).

FULLIC COURT BUILDING FACTS Ort: Hong- Kong Funktion: Wohnen Fertigstellung: 1995 Architekt: Alex Wong & Partners Limited

Höhe: 77 m Etagen: 23

The defining characteristic of the tall buildings in Hong Kong is slenderness as the city has more pencil thin towers than any place in the world. In the 1980’s, Hong Kong’s high land values combined with liberal zoning laws generated districts of extraordinarily slender and densely-packed apartment towers. Hundreds of speculatively developed apartment buildings reached the city’s permissible maximum FAR of 1:18.

Height: 77m Floors: 23 Typical Floor Area: 60m² Net Living Area: 22m²

Core / Floor Ratio: ca. 64%

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Fullicourt Building Location: Hong Kong, China Function: Residential Completion: 1995 Architect: Alex Wong & Partners

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Skinny Highrises Slenderness As The New Beau Ideal 1 2

225 West 57th Street Height 514 m. When completed it will be the tallest residental building in the U.S Penthouse: $95,000,000

220 Central Park South Height 280.4 m. This upcoming tower is designed by Robert A.M. Stern Architects

157 West 57th Street Height 306 m. “One 57“ is the first of the trendsetting building to actually break groud and be occupied. Penthouse: $100,000,000

53 West 53rd Street Height 320 m. Pritzker Prize Laureate Jean Nouvel is behind the tapered modern design 111 West 57th Street Height 425.8 m.This super-skinny 60-foot-wide tower will be built on the courtyard of the iconic Steinway build

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435 Park Avenue

3

Height 425.5 m. Upon completion, the building will look down 150 feet ar the Empire State Building Penthouse: $81,000,000

520 Park Avenue Height 213 m.The upcoming 31-unit building will be relatively diminutive among its neighbors, at 51 stories,

http://www.6sqft.com/new-rendering-and-teaser-site-released-for-111-west-57th-street

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Ecologic Dead-End City As An Ecosystem

Solar Radiation

Temperature Increase

Energy Use

Air Pollution

The recognition of the city as an ecosystem becomes even more relevant as we enter the urban age of the anthropocene. Urban ecosystems have the same conceptual need for balance and life cycles as their natural counterpart. The dominance of build mass over unbuilt space, for example, creates various micro-climatic and environmental issues like the increase of inner urban temperature and the decrease of natural ventilation and therefore the emergence of pollution smogs. These changes in the urban micro-climate affect the comfort and quality of life, the highest value in urban environments. Therefore the need to focus on a healthy inner-city climate will become even more fundamental. 42

http://www.aktuality.sk/fotogaleria/231173/singapur-trapi-smog/7/

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Vertical Heat Hong Kong Heat Islands Effects & Implications

Creates additional demand for indoor air-conditioning and increases waste heat generated from air-conditoning

Temperature rises by 2 to 6 °C for every kilometre from urban margin towards the center

=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä= ä = ä = ä = ä = ä = ä = =ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä=ä =ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä= =ä=ä= =ä=ä= ä=ä= =ä=ä ä=ä= =ä=ä ä=ä= =ä=ä

Facilitate the spread of infectious diseases

=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä= =ä=ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä= =ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä =ä=ä= =ä=ä= ä=ä= ä = ä ä=ä= =ä= ä =ä=ä

ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä= ä=ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä=ä=ä= =ä=ä=ä= =ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä =ä=ä= =ä=ä= ä=ä= =ä=ä ä=ä= ä = ä = ä=ä =ä=ä

An infrared thermal image showing the change of the urban surface temperatures at 2 pm daytime and 2 am night time in Hong Kong.

=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä= ä=ä=ä=ä=ä=ä ä=ä=ä=ä =ä=ä=ä= =ä=ä=ä =ä=ä=ä =ä=ä= ä=ä=ä ä=ä= ä=ä= ä=ä= ä=ä= ä=ä ä=ä=

Urban centres are hotter than margin areas by 1.1 to 5.5 °C

Result in accumulation of air pollutants, thus worsening air quality and increasing health risks from air pollution Kong*

..

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http://www.yugo.hk/Research%20Project%20-%20Megacity%20Environments.html

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Vertical Heat Singapore Microclimate Heat Profile Temperetaure Midnight in Celsius

JOHOR

Malaysia

28.0 27.5

UA

RURAL AREAS

27.0 26.5

FOREST

26.0

AIRPORT

25.5 25.0

Central Business District

24.5

URBAN AREAS CITY

24.0 23.5

Turf Club

23.0

The impact of the Urban Heat Islands (UHI) have been explored through various methods in the area of Singapore. Figure 1 shows in a satellite view the thermal differences between the “rural” and the “urban” areas. The “hot” spots are normally found on exposed hard surfaces in the urban context, such as the industrial area, the airport and the Central Business District (CBD). The “cool” spots which are mostly observed in the large parks and the landscape in between the housing estates.

N

Lim Chu Kang

SINGAPORE MAJOR HIGHWAYS

Figure 1: Relative temperature in the ‘urban’ and ‘rural’ parts of Singapore

In Singapore, where dense urban structures result in the UHI phenomenon, rapid population growth and the expansion of city development are expected to reduce the quality of urban life. 46

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Social Dead-End Complexity as quality

The quality of life within the urban context can be measured by the capability of its inhabitants to encounter complexity. A high quality city is characterized by the inclusion of different classes, ethnicities, and lifestyles. The public space as a platform for diversity, accessibility and personal freedom becomes the highest urban value. In the neo-liberal city, characterized by its shift towards privatization and economic mechanics, those spaces are shrinking comparatively. Spatial segregation and social isolation throughout all classes is the consequence and the typology of the generic high-rise as the efficiency machine is the inevitable architectural product of these tendencies.

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Spaces for Human Encounter before 1950s

Say Ying Pu, Hing Kong, China

ca 1960s -1970s

before 50s

50s

60s

shophouse

tenement house

urban block

1:1

70s hyper block

80s podium block

Ratio of Exterior Public Space

90s - today hybrid-podium block

1:12 1990s - today

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51


Vertical Living Public Space Hong Kong

52

http://www.asianurbanepicenters.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/12.jpg

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Spaces for Human Encounter Ratio of Interior Encounter Space within Hong Kong Highrise Typologies

Cluster Configuration

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2.7%

4.3%

5.1%

8.3%

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Vertical Living Stacked Lives

56

Š Society for Community Organization

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CONCEPTION urban prototypes for the 21st century


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Instead of isolating people from each other...

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62

...can we imagine an urban experience,

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64

...that brings people actually together?

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An urban experience, modeled by personal activities,

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...the flow of light,

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...human scale mobility and seamless circulation?

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A smart and active landscape designed for...

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...spatial flexibility and therefore personal freedom & human relations?

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Smart City vs. Smart Citizen Spatial & Social Implications of Digitalization Most smart city visions focus on the aspects of technology, buildings, infrastructure and vehicles instead of starting with the human perspective. But the city is first of all a place for people and made by people. As social individuals, people create cities as places where they get together with other people, to create culture, to build wealth and to raise new generations. Buildings, squares, infrastructure and vehicles should serve as the enabling hardware.

HEALTH Real time scan of living conditions

GUIDANCE Individualized orientation / Transit management systems

MAKER Consumer to producer (3D-Printing)

ENERGY Off-grid energy producers (self supply)

LOGISTICS Real-time personalized logistics

MOBILITY Seamless personalized urban mobility landscape

The smart city vision, with efficiency as the main marketing notion, neglects a main part of urban life: we create the city to meet people coincidentally, to play, to love, to rest and to enjoy the sunshine. As we learned from social media platforms: once established, active citizens are generating their very own networks and environments. The ‘smart citizen’ could transfer these dynamics and functionalities from social media onto the physical and spatial engagement within the urban fabric. This way the city will remain a dynamic organism modeled by wishes, needs and desires of its people. That city could be become a model of a collective experience as the synthesis of individual and public needs.

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ACCESS Temporary access to urban functions

SHARING Goods, services and space 77


Platform Technology User Generated Ideas Turn into Reality

Wikipedia user generated information

Apple Store user generated applications

Block Phone user generated products

Anyprint 3d Building Printer user generated architecture

makers makers makers 78

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Platform Urbanism From Mobility Technology to the Mobile Digital Technologies

Car City

Core City

1950

2000

*

References in architectural history: e.g. Constants ‘New Babylon’ and the Homo Ludens in the 60`s.

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But only today we have the technology and the need to realize such developments.

Platform City * 2015 +


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Instead of stacking insular private space,

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...let us multiply the continuous space in between: the public space in the city,

...or the ‘glue’ in the city, where people meet, communicate and exchange!

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See Next Page: Zoom-In ‘Smart Community’

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This space performs as a continuous urban platform which is the base for the Smart Community

...that is designed on a human scale and modelled by the needs and desires of the Smart Citizen!

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URBAN FARMING

ENERGY PRODUCTION

PUBLIC LANDSCAPE


OPEN PLATFORM


BEAMS


UNITS


TECHNICAL INSTALLATIONS


STRUCTURE


COMMERCIAL

PUBLIC

RESIDENTIAL

PRODUCTION


9 pm dinner

SHARED LIFES IN SHARED SPACES

6 pm sauna

6 pm squash

11 am coworking space

9 am START “LISA”

9 am 3D printing 7 am START “BEN” 8 am sharing kitchen

9 pm b-day party


FLOOR HEIGHT: FLEXIBILITY 3.60 m


7.20 m


3D MICROMOBILITY


RECYCLING SYSTEMS

URBAN FARMING


STRUCTURE


AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES


IMPLEMENTATIONS urban prototypes for the 21st century


Conceptual Examples / Adaptiveness

The URBAN SHELF can fit into various urban spaces and is able to perform on various economic bases, from developing to first world backgrounds because dwellers can create the housing units individually according to the given resources and options. The social adaptiveness is given by the participation of the dwellers in the building process and the gradient of predetermination.

BERLIN GERMANY

~= Å

This depth of planning can range from a DIY completion by the users to a catalogue of predefined or even prefabricated unit sizes, materials etc. The layered flexibility of the URBAN SHELF is a new concept for adaptive urbanism, that is able to react to the different challenges and problems of global urbanization by generating a new level of sustainability and social interaction.

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É

HONG KONG CHINA

Ä

RIO DE JANEIRO Ç BRASIL

125


HONG KONG


BERLIN


RIO DE JANEIRO


“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.� Jane Jacobs


Schindler Transit Management PORT Technology Group, Ebikon

www.schindler.com www.theporttechnology.com Studio Schwitalla www.studioschwitalla.org

2015

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