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CIRCULAR CITIES

CIRCULAR CITIES

Designing post-industrial Amsterdam The case of Buiksloterham


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CIRCULAR CITIES

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CIRCULAR CITIES

CIRCULAR CITIES

Designing post-industrial Amsterdam The case of Buiksloterham


Buiksloterham

IJ - river 6

Amsterdam Central train station Amsterdam City centre

Buiksloterham is an exemplary post-industrial district, not far from the centre of Amsterdam. Like many industrial areas, Buiksloterham contained heavy industries that left to low-wage countries in the 2nd half of the 20th century, leaving large abandoned areas on a centrally located and well accessible location. The area, shaped by a vast system of harbours, is now being transformed into a dense residential neighbourhood.


CIRCULAR CITIES

FORWORD

Circularity has become a buzzword. In the corporate world of today, circularity, under the heading of circular economy, is embraced as a new business model by large corporations such as Heineken, AkzoNobel, DSM, FrieslandCampina, KLM, Philips, Shell and Unilever. “The Netherlands could become the circular hotspot of Europe,” these eight companies, which together form the VNO-NCW-supported Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition (DSGC), claim. In short, in our contemporary times, each company wants to become “circular.” How different that was during the low point of the economic and financial crisis that is now seemingly behind us. The capital has had and still has a relatively young population – often with an international background – who did not resign themselves to the so-called realities of the crisis. A swarm or network of urban and spatial professionals developed initiatives that were concerned with creating added value relating to themes such as energy, biodiversity, society, health and material through a variety of forms.

circular city; you allow it to arise” is the motto of these next-generation spatial urban professionals. Of course, the publication contains a pleasant mix of high- and low-tech (design) techniques, but, in comparison to modern corporate forms like Uber and Airbnb, the disruptive character is not only to be found in the techniques. Thankfully so, because we know all too well what the effects of technique-based disruptive revenue models are on a city. The vision of DELVA, Metabolic and Studioninedots reaches further than that, and as such, they are ground-breaking when it comes to new spatial urban developments. They redefine the role of the designer and recognise a new layer – the Genius Loci – of the post-industrial (and post-capitalistic?) city. These are linked up with smart programming and the operation of the self-renewing circular city, planning tools (ownership and community-building, urban developmental setup, experimentation versus feasibility) and circular applications.

This publication defines a new source code with this – the readable text that is written by programmers in programming The Ceuvel, which opened in June 2014, is the first and a language – for the shaping of the city. As such, this publication successful spatial manifestation of the creativity, perseverance is published under a Creative Commons licence. This and innovativeness of a network of young Amsterdammers. publication showcases an enormous love for the city in terms On top of that, the Ceuvel is an attractive prelude for a of design, technique and community, offering a promising different way of urban development which has become counterbalance to the enormous lust for construction that tangible in projects like “Schoonschip,” sustainable selfcurrently dominates. And as is generally understood, lust is building pioneers and larger developments such as Cityplot something entirely different than love. Buiksloterham. I wish you lots of reading enjoyment, inspiration and wisdom. In this publication, “Circular Cities – designing Post-Industrial And I hope that you will – with this publication in the back Amsterdam, the case of Buiksloterham,” the young firms of your mind, but more importantly, with love in your heart – DELVA Landscape Architects/Urbanism, Metabolic and contribute to the open-source construction and development Studioninedots, outline how they transform their dreams of the post-industrial city. and ambitions into reality: “you do not design a resilient

Jurgen Hoogendoorn

Sociologist and Urban Planner Employed at the Municipality of Amsterdam Twitter: @jrgnhoogendoorn

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CONTENTS

CIRCULAR CITIES

FOREWORD 7 CONTENTS 9 METHODOLOGY 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

THE CIRCULAR CITY 14 A NEW GENIUS LOCI 24 PROGRAMMING FOR CIRCULARITY 36 CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS FOR THE 64 POST-INDUSTRIAL CITY TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR CITY 108

AFTERWORD 121

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METHODOLOGY Approach

THE CIRCULAR CITY STEP 0: PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

STEP 2: CHARACTERISATION BUIKSLOTERHAM

what is the circular city?

context - analysis

room for complexity

stakeholder - analysis

anchoring in the context

STEP 3: FACTSHEETS EXISTING DEVELOPMENTS

- how do post-industrial zones distinguish themselves

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- specific spatial characteristics - a new Genius Loci

STAP 1: POSITIONING

metabolism - analysis

spatial context

STEP 4: CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS +

+ force field - analysis

exchanges

1. water

1. water

1. initiative and ownership

2. soil

1. Ceuvel

2. soil

2. funding

3. buildings

3. realisation process

3. buildings

2. Waterfront cityplot

4. mobility

4. community building

4. mobility

5. ...

3. Schoon Schip programming principes

4. Self-build

STEP 5: A NEW APPROACH Projection of the principles for the circular city

Development over time

design principles


CIRCULAR CITIES

Reading guide This book comprises five chapters that together offer insight into what we believe a circular city is, and which ingredients there are which can be used to contribute to this as a designer. It is a continuation of the previous study conducted by Metabolic, DELVA Landscape Architects and Studioninedots in the run-up towards the signing of the Circular Buiksloterham manifesto that expressed the ambition to develop the Buiksloterham district in Amsterdam North in a sustainable way. In this preliminary investigation, the metabolism, the context and the stakeholders were analysed, and the possibilities for a circular Buiksloterham were investigated.

Clever programming and operating of the circular city ensures that the circular city continuously exists in a state of renewal, that its inhabitants will continuously be searching for new, possible circular connections and applications, and that there will be a broad base of support for the large-scale application of existing sustainable techniques.

In the third chapter, “Programming for circularity,” four case studies in which circularity played a major role from the start of the planning stage are used to search for the planning tools that are needed to arrive at a resilient circular city. Matters such as ownership and community-building, urban developmental This investigation is aimed at the urban development and setup, experimentation versus feasibility are relevant here. urban planning aspects of circular city-building. In short, the We also look at those key moments that led to the high levels of question is: how do you create the ideal breeding ground for the ambition characteristic of each of these projects. In this manner, the case studies provide a set of insights that contribute to the growth of the Circular City? programming and development of circular city parts. In chapter 1: “the circular city,” we search for the position that designers must take when searching for circular urbanity. The In chapter 4: “Building blocks for the post-industrial circular most important conclusions from the preliminary investigation city,” promising physical applications that can lead to a circular, from 2014 are summarised. We also add the specific handling post-industrial city are listed. By limiting ourselves to the four of creating cities to that: providing space for initiatives that themes Soil, Water, Transportation and Buildings, we focus on allow complex urbanity to develop, and we describe what applications that have a spatial impact and can be of added the relationship of designing is to the dimensions of time value, and which specifically apply to post-industrial areas. and space. Together, these short explorations outline the For each application, we describe what possible exchanges framework of how the investigation team envisions Circular could be, and what logical locations for such exchanges are in Buiksloterham. On the one hand, this has led to a set Urban Development. of self-evident locations for new circular interventions in The following three chapters respectively describe the three Buiksloterham; on the other hand, it has provided a number “layers” of which the new circular city consists. The lessons of more general principles that designers can add to their learnt in each chapter are summarised at the end of each instrumentarium when developing circular cities. chapter. Thus, three sets of repeatable principles relating to The three chapters are the prelude of a synthesis in chapter circular urban development arise. five: “Towards the circular city.” In this chapter, the spatial In the industrial age, such sweeping changes occurred in the impact of bringing together the three layers (Genius Loci – landscape that it has both visibly and invisibly changed for a circular applications – smart programming) of the circular long period of time. This bottom layer is the “new Genius Loci” post-industrial city is investigated. We also analyse what the (chapter 2) of the post-industrial area; the present physical factor time can mean in this. framework within which new developments take place. On the basis of a number of themes, which are characteristic of the new post-industrial area, this new genius is described.

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The spatial potential of the circular post-industrial city is represented in the hypothetical diagram below. On the basis of the stakeholder, metabolism and context analyses in the first phase, we are capable of creating a potentiality card on which the most promising directions of development for a circular Buiksloterham are made visible. This diagram is a hypothesis of the possibilities a circular city has to offer. We do see, however, that there is no lack of (design) ideas for the circular city, but that there is the risk that the development, confronted by local circumstances, remains stuck in ambitions and rules. This is why we are not only searching for a challenge for designers, but also for the force field from which a circular city can arise.

The resilient circular city is not designed; it is allowed to arise. space for purifying ecological structures that produce energy

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potential for environmental remediation, biomass production en parks on polluted soils vacant land can develop into unique nature areas microport for goods and people, transport based on hydogen and sustainable energy

soil as resource for additional value for society. using existing means for innovation

Use of (heat from) canal water

15km1 of quay potential for r and ecology

To highway 5 min. by car internal soil balace i/o bringing in from outside the city decentralised processing of waste water Recovery of nutrients and removal of microscopic contaminants Shared facilities

waste recycling facility and thrift shop potential source of (building)material local repare and reuse facility

PO4

3–

H

Using s make e the Joh


CIRCULAR CITIES

reuse materialreuse frommaterial from existing industry existing industry

local money flows local money flows (living and working) (living and working)

y15km1 equalsofmajor quay equals major recreation, economy potential for recreation, economy reduced CO2 reduced CO2 emission by emission by and ecology Delay,and store, reuse and discharge Delay, store, reuse discharge retrofitting existing buildings retrofitting existing buildings rain water rain water to canals via to canals via surface watersurface flow water flow sludge from IJ tofrom river IJ to Usingriver sludge ecological shores along shores along make ecological Subway North/South Subway North/South above-groundabove-ground han vanthe Hasselt JohanCanal van Hasselt Canal - 5 min. - 5 min. parking parking Amsterdam CS Amsterdam CS

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5 min. by bike5 min. by bike reuse of (materials reuse from) of (materials from) existing industry existing industry

oftransport mulltimodal transport hubs development development of mulltimodal hubs and car sharing initiatives and car sharing initiatives

Tasman Street at 7 min. Tasman Street at 7 min.

River IJ River IJ

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THE CIRCULAR, POSTINDUSTRIAL CITY

Our society has developed according to a linear production system, in which resources, goods and waste products are exchanged across the globe. This has resulted in a multitude of environmental, social and spatial problems and has led to urban manifestation forms that are characterised by dependence on external materials. There is a growing awareness that this needs to change into a more circular system.

a service-based economy and transitioning further into a knowledge-based economy. Buiksloterham has both nationally and internationally recognisable problems: it is an inner-city industrial area at a stone throw’s distance from the city centre with the transformational task of evolving into a district in which living and working go hand-in-hand.

This situation calls for other cooperative alliances, initiators, rules and regulations and skillsets on behalf of urban The transition that has occurred is different than what we developers, architects and landscape architects. are used to. Due to stagnating construction processes and financing problems, the area has developed slower, but also in We have used this development to start an investigation into different ways and more irregular, than it would have done prior circularity in post-industrial areas in transition. to the economic crisis. The slow and uncertain transformational process of a post-industrial area into multifunctional, dynamic With Buiksloterham as a test case, we want to develop an and sustainable urban area provides opportunities to shape the approach for an area that can function as a model for how the transition from a linear economy towards a circular economy. transition towards a circular city can be shaped. This is done by Now that the construction crisis in Amsterdam seems to be designing the metabolism of the post-industrial city. over, we have the task of investigating and evaluating the factors which led to the success or failure of previously initiated developments; often exciting projects that are at the forefront of contemporary urban development.

Why Buiksloterham? 14

Business as usual?

There is a lot happening in Buiksloterham, a former industrial area in North Amsterdam. The monofunctional industrial area If Buiksloterham would develop according to the “business as usual” scene, our analyses show that it would become a typical is gradually evolving into a vibrant new area of the city. example of a “resource drain.” Below, an overview of what A variety of existing initiatives in Buiksloterham are aimed Buiksloterham would look like in 2034: towards the circular city. It is an experimental area where • 10,000 new parking places will be created in the area, while innovative solutions for the temporary use of contaminated the number of car owners will have decreased and more soil are being tried out, self-builders are investigating the people will be sharing their cars; boundaries of sustainable building and generating their own • The total energy demand of 820 million MJ a year will energy, collectives are developing together, and developers see consist of heating (40%), mobility (34%), and remaining the necessity of creating distinctive living environments that industries (15%); respond to the need for sustainable value development. • The inaccessible, contaminated soil will be unused. The These projects are dynamic both in terms of time and location. contamination will spread into the surrounding areas; In their own way, each of these separate initiatives showcase • Rainwater will barely be let through (due to impervious how working on the urban metabolism creates added value for surfaces), used in a useful way, or buffered; the city, but also that in a circular city, coherence and mutual dependency are important elements. • There will be no recovery of nutrients such as nitrogen and the limited recovery of phosphate, even though the world’s supply of these resources is diminishing; Potential of post-industrial areas* Around 2010, the growth and the immense change of The Netherlands came to an abrupt ending. We have said farewell to excessive urban growth as we are being forced to live more economically. We will do more with the same resources: make better use of infrastructure, live more compactly, separate functions less and reuse existing buildings. We will not meet the changing needs of people by building new cities, but instead will adapt existing cities to the new age. We find ourselves in a period of transition; from an industrial economy towards *Under post-industrial zones, we include industrial areas, harbours and business parks that developed more divers functions and uses after abandonment.

Buiksloterham will have developed into a monocultural neighbourhood with a limited range of facilities;

Emissions that are detrimental to local air quality will have significantly increased.

This is the case despite the fact that there are a host of ways in which the area could potentially develop in a more circular mode.


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Buiksloterham is the ideal test case to investigate how to develop an exemplary approach for post-industrial areas in transition.

Image: NAI.nl


SEVEN INDICATORS FOR THE CIRCULAR CITY What is a circular city?

Biodiversity

There are different ideas of what defines a circular city. In the vision and ambition document for Circular Buiksloterham, six indicators have been formulated for the circular city. (Metabolic et al., 2014) The effective management of resources is the first crucial aspect of circularity. This contrasts with the linear thinking that is characteristic of many processes. Because a city is more than the exchange of substances – they contain hundreds of thousands of people and many more animals – we need to broaden our perspective. In addition to the flow of materials and energy, matters like biodiversity (also important to a large number of ecosystem services), and a pleasant, healthy community need to be taken into account. These are the six indicators of a circular city:

Biodiversity is structurally supported and strengthened by all human activities in a circular economy. The value of the maintenance of biodiversity is seen as one of the highest values in a circular economy. Natural habitats and rare species in particular, are not structurally damaged by human activities. Maintaining ecological diversity is one of the most important sources of biospheric resilience. Material and energetic losses can be tolerated if in service of maintaining biodiversity.

Materials

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Materials are used in such a way that large proportions of them can continuously be recycled or reused, without disappearing in the environment. A priority is maintaining material complexity (the “power of the inner circle” (Metabolic et al., 2014)), by cascading materials down from their most complex form for as long as possible (preferably as a product rather than as a component, and preferably as a component rather than as a raw material). The duration of this material cycle depends on the scarcity of the material; the scarcer the product, the faster its preferred return into the cycle of reuse. The local availability of a material determines the scale to which the cycle can be closed (the more widely available, the smaller the cycle can be). The density of supply and demand, ideally, is aligned. Materials can be recovered in the form of energy if the energetic costs of transport and processing are higher than the “embodied value” (although this does not apply to scarce and non-renewable materials). In principle, the recovery of materials in the form of energy is avoided. Ideally, materials are not joined together or mixed. Materials are only used if there are no other options: there is a preference for the dematerialisation of products and services.

Society Society and culture are strengthened by human activities. Another important form of complexity is cultural diversity, which also makes the system more resilient. Activities that structurally undermine the diversity and complexity in communities and cultures must be avoided where possible.

Health The health and well-being of humankind and other species must be structurally supported by the activities of the economy. Toxic and dangerous substances are eliminated from a circular economy. In the current transitional phases towards this economy, these substances must be minimally applied and only used in well-monitored cycles. Economic activities are never allowed to threaten the health and well-being of people in a circular economy.

Added value Human activities generate added value that cannot solely be expressed in financial value. Because materials such as energy are not (currently) abundantly present, they should only be used to create added value.

Flexibility and adaptivity

The final characteristic of the circular city is flexibility and adaptivity. These are intrinsic values of every system that can All energy is based on renewable sources. The materials move with and evolve in response to changing circumstances. that are necessary for the generation and storage of energy This does not only apply to the design of infrastructure, but have been designed in such a way that they can easily be also applies to the institutions that manage the city. recovered. Energy is intelligently made use of (loss is avoided) and, where possible, lower forms of energy (such as heating) are cascaded. In order to avoid the large-scale loss of energy (through transportation and conversion, for example), ideally, the density of the energy use is aligned with the density of the local availability of renewable sources of energy. Conversion of different types of energy is avoided in principle, as is the transportation of energy.

Energy

Source: Metabolic et.al., 2014. Circulair - Buiksloterham Een living lab voor circulaire gebiedsontwikkeling.


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We define the circular city as a resilient city that is capable of continuously reinventing itself. A healthy city that optimally makes use of the flows of materials and maintains and strengthens the diversity of nature and culture.


ROOM FOR COMPLEXITY

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Image: Christoffer A Rasmussen / Wikimedia Commons


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ROOM FOR COMPLEXITY Small exchanges as the basis for a complex-network city. When scientists tried to simulate a murmuration of starlings electronically, black, clustered patches kept developing, instead of the beautiful, dynamic forms the birds exhibit in real life. The murmurations were too complex to programme as a totality. Only after a programme had been written through which each individual bird responded to the birds in its direct vicinity, the extraordinary, transparent patterns that are characteristic of real-life murmurations developed. (NRC, July 8th 2014) Complex networks cannot be contained in a holistic, metabolism analysis that would lead to a broad (spatial) structure for Buiksloterham. The essence is the search of each separate individual towards exchanges with its direct context. This allows for the development of resilient networks with a complexity that cannot be designed through any type of master

plan. Therefore, the goal is to stimulate the already present and latent force fields of initiatives and desires, and through that, facilitate the development of a resilient, circular city. The Post-industrial Circular City study is a search for the conditions that will allow this complex-network city to grow; a balance between large-scale developments and small initiatives, the application of tried-and-tested techniques and experimentation with new forms of circularity. Therefore, for four existing developments in Buiksloterham, we evaluate in what way they contribute to a circular city, and how, as individual projects, they complement each other. This reveals that there is not one blueprint for circular urban development, but that the circular city should rather be considered a flock of initiatives, which together form a resilient city.

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1. Initiative

2. Anchoring

Various existing initiatives in Buiksloterham are already aimed towards the circular city. It is an area of experimentation with innovative solutions for the temporary use of contaminated soil, where self-builders are investigating the boundaries of sustainable building and generating their own energy, collectives are developing cooperatively and developers see the necessity of creating distinctive living environments that respond to the need for sustainable value development.

Each separate case, whether concerning familial residences, a water buffer or a soil-purification installation, works like a black box with input and output. This in- and output (externalities) not only consist of physical flows (such as water, electricity or other materials), but is also concerned with sound and spatial quality, and financial support.

The externalities determine in what manner a circular initiative is anchored in its context. Close to water? On polluted soil? In a These projects are dynamic both in terms of time and location. parking area, undeveloped terrain or integrated into a building In their own way, each of these separate initiatives showcase block? how working on the urban metabolism creates added value for the city, but also that in a circular city, coherence and mutual dependency are important elements. Source: NRC 08-07-2014 - http://www.nrcreader.nl/artikel/6235/een-spreeuw-in-de-zwerm-wilaltijd-een-stukje-lucht-blijven-zien


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€ €

3. Exchange

4. Circular city

“Waste does not exist.” This is a familiar credo that states that As the number of exchanges taking place grows, so does the everything that flows forth from a process can be made use of. complexity and resilience of the circular city. The circular city is reminiscent of an ecosystem in which developments find their In Buiksloterham, there is a continuous search for possibilities own niche; fertile soil for new applications, wherein the most regarding the manner in which raw materials can be reused. successful float to the surface and find broader applications. Through marketplaces, online platforms and personal networks, knowledge is gathered that outlines what is needed Spines will develop in the network in the most geographically and where. What is a waste product of one process is reusable appropriate places. At the same time, there is linking with in another process. We are looking for options to charge up larger networks that are provided by the municipality, such initiatives: can they contribute to the circular city in more ways as the heating, electricity and sewage networks; networks than we are presently aware of? Is there a space for general whose users not only take from them, but networks with which tasks such as water storage or generating energy? As a result, exchanges take place. The circular city is born. an exchange of ideas is developing and the metabolism of the . circular city is growing. Networks gain new logic.


ANCHORING IN THE CONTEXT Thinking in dimensions: horizontal, vertical and in time Circularity has everything to do with time and space, from our relation to the slow transition of the area. perspective. We see modifications to the metabolism of the circular city as a continuous process. A circular city is a city that The three-dimensional dimensions provide handles for the continuation of this study. They provide insight into possible continuously reinvents and improves itself. links, but also provide options in space: layered land use, The role of the designer in a transition towards a circular varying use over time. economy consists of applying the right technical innovations at the right time and at the right place; optimal integration We investigate the key moments that were decisive for the current state of affairs in Buiksloterham, and also the transition between systemic and spatial design. of the area towards the future. By also determining what the The integration of time, in addition to the traditional layer “rhythm” of potential application is, we can see where these model in landscape architecture, fits in circular thinking applications fit in the developments in Buiksloterham. regarding the use of materials, but also plays a crucial role in

1. above ground

2. on surface level 3. below surface level 4. below ground

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Degree of centrality

Arrangement in vertical space

A circular intervention can relate to the environment in a manner of ways, both relating to the effect on the circularity itself and the spatial impact on the environment. An intervention’s impact can have meaning to the location itself, such as when an installation purifies the soil and leaves it like that, but it can also have a broader impact (on the direct environment), and it can participate in larger, centrally organised networks; in the same way that a heating hub is a local expression of an expansive network.

A vertical approach helps multifunctional use of space to become possible. The post-industrial city has highly diverse characteristics from top to bottom – literally. Higher up, it is windy, the sun is brighter, and the climate is unpleasant to live in. Here, there is space for installations that do little with spatial quality, profiting of the present (solar or wind) energy and the force of gravity. Descending, we enter the traditional playing field of the designer: ground level. Here, there is the strongest relationship between the spatial quality and living quality of the city, and thus, this is where the most significant design challenges can be found. A lot is also happening below ground level that is crucial to the circular city: soil life, water buffering, huge tangles of infrastructure, the remains of past constructions, piles, soil contamination, etc. These infrastructures are often invisible, but play a role in the location determination of circular interventions and the general structuring of the neighbourhood.

1. impact on location

2. impact on environment 3. impact on network

1. Application above surface level

2. Application on surface level

3. Application below surface level


CIRCULAR CITIES

Exponential decrease

Amount

Cycli

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Pieken

Time

Arrangement in time Firstly, time plays an important role in the post-industrial city because the transition from industry to residential area takes several decades. Areas that have been unused for some time, areas where pollution will only slowly disappear, and temporary functions; once the transformation is completed, there will probably be new areas in need of transformation. Additionally, there are often quite specific moments that trigger a transition. Understanding of shorter rhythms helps with the organising of the city. This is the case because the supply and demand not only need to be aligned in terms of quantity, but also in terms of time; relating, for instance, to the generation of energy and the energy demand (which varies per day and per season), or the storage or precipitation surpluses (varying per season) and peak showers (varying per day). The heartbeat of the city is determined through the years, seasons, peaks in precipitation and temperature, etc.

1. regular rhythm

2. irregular peaks

3. gradual decrease


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A NEW GENIUS LOCI

Post-industrial areas

The Spirit of the place

The manner in which we have designed our cities has always been, sometimes unconsciously, determined by what history, societal values and changes in nature left behind. The efforts that are being made to deal with the polluted and unused areas that are leftovers of earlier industrial activity are proof of this (Kirkwood, 2011).

A number of spatial characteristics have become so entrenched in the physical landscape of post-industrial areas that they will continue to determine the development of the areas for many years to come. There are visible elements, such as waterways, equalisations, elevations and access structures, but also hidden matters such as incredibly heavy remaining foundations, contaminated areas and (underground) infrastructure. Together, they form a new Genius Loci for Buiksloterham. Despite the fact that, in its core, “Genius Loci” refers to the “spirit of the place,” and as such, has eternal, location-bound features, these areas have changed to such an extent that one can speak of a new genius; a genius that has little to do with the underlying geomorphological landscape, and everything with the logic of the industrial era.

Economic aspects and the separation of functions have dominated the development of industrial areas. This has resulted in areas with a low spatial, social and ecological quality; often isolated from their context.

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They can be found anywhere: by river banks, on unused land and in remote areas. These unused, economically and ecologically tainted landscapes, often polluted to varying degrees and by a mix of chemicals, provide a significant challenge to scientists, technicians, politicians, planners, designed and residents. It is up to the whole of society to restore these areas and to integrate them into the urban fabric and determine their future use. Following financial considerations and environmental and mobility-centred aspects, many industrial areas ended up outside of the city or in low-wage countries, as a result of which many empty, polluted and often isolated post-industrial city areas remained in and around urban centres (Van der Gaag, 2006).

INDUSTRIALISATION

By looking at the area in this way, new chances for the redevelopment and transformation of the post-industrial city arise. It provides opportunities to create multifunctional, dynamic and useful urban environments with a mix or urbanity and functions. At the same time, the new genius can perform a function as identity bearer. Restrictions that have developed as a result of industrial activities can be perceived as limitations, but can also create spaces. A soil-purifying park as a reflection of the invisible, underground remains; construction that has formed itself around the hidden foundations of an old factory – these are opportunities that can already imbue a neighbourhood’s character during the construction phase.

NEW GENIUS LOCI

Van der Gaag, S. (2004) Vademecum bedrijventerreinen, Rotterdam, Uitgeverij 010. Kirkwood, N. (2011) Manufactured Sites: Rethinking the Post-Industrial Landscape, Taylor & Francis.

CIRCULAR CITY


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ery ERHAM ph LOT KS UI

l nta countries uring ine hbo nt o eig c nn er e t l In na and tio erl - Nearby agricultura Na int land l la rh ter nd a F hin eas - suburbs r a a n r a e b r N u ri litan area - urban Pe opo pe etr ri M y urban zones arb -B Ne city ner In

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The Circular City framework by Metabolic is an interpretation of the Von Thunen model, in which the distance to a city core is determinant for its land’s (optimal) usage. (Hofstra University, 1998) Near the city, you find more intensive forms of land usage for which freshness – such as food production – plays an important role. The further away you move from the city, the more extensive the land use becomes and the longer the shelf-life of the produced goods become. This positioning also determines the choice for centralised or decentralised solutions. The more urban the environment is, the greater the chance that there will be residual flows or infrastructures to which an intervention can “latch on.” Circulaire Stad Framework, Metabolic (2014) | Metabolic et.al., 2014. Circulair Buiksloterham - Een living lab voor circulaire gebiedsontiwkkeling. Mat Rosenberg. About.com - http://geography.about.com/od/urbaneconomicgeography/a/vonthunen.htm | Image: NAI.nl Hofstra University (1998) Von Thunen’s Regional Land Use Model. Available on: https://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch6en/conc6en/vonthunen.html


TOPOGRAPHY

construction site

Elevated terrain

contrast with environment

Water structure

In Buiksloterham, high groundwater levels may occur that can be a restriction for the realisation of residential construction. The function of residential construction has the so-called dehydration demand. The dehydration demand for residential construction means that in order to prepare the area for filling sand construction, the parties in question must search for a combination of drainage and elevation measures to ensure that the groundwater level does not rise 0.5 metres above the groundwater level for more than five days every two years (Noordwaarts, 2007) 1.35m - 1.50m

>1.50m

0.90m - 1.00m

construction site

Post-industrial areas are often characterised by the presence of large-scale infrastructure. Channels and side arms are often dimensioned with regard to cargo ships and barges and are often near industrial construction. In Buiksloterham, the Johan van Hasseltkanaal, a channel running from east to west that was never completed, forms the spine of the water structure. There are also a large number of small entrances present that belonged to the shipyards that used to be present here. The water also flows below the ground, transporting raw materials contrast with environment and contaminants. large scale infrastructure

lots of hard surfaces

filling sand

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large scale infrastructure lots of hard surfaces wide roads

pollution

wide roads many quays

high water table

pollution

Ground water flow many quays

high water table

Noordwaarts (2007) Investeringsbesluit Buiksloterham, gemeente Amsterdam

RWS / IF technology, 2014. Bodemenergieplan Buiksloterham

deep deep


CIRCULAR CITIES

large scale infrastructure

hard surfaces

n

able

inaccessible

filling sand

Waterside

wide roads

The banks in Buiksloterham consist of vertical concrete quay walls that are not very permeable. In addition, there are lowpermeability, steel and wooden dam walls and covered slope constructions that have mediocre permeability. A large number of quays need to be replaced. Improving the permeability of the shore’s construction can make a contribution to the groundwater problems. Short term Long term

Soil contamination

flat, not layered lots of hard surfaces

A number of elevational layers with diverse makeups were placed on the soil in the nineteenth and twentieth century on behalf of corporate construction. In addition, the area has functioned as a sludge depot. Asbestos contamination is present throughout the entire area. All these contaminations are immobile in the soil. On top of this, there are mobile contaminations that can spread through the groundwater. Mineral oils, benzenes, xylenes, naphthalenes and pesticides have been found at ground level. large roof surface

many quays

pollution

27

high water table

pollution

in total

Risk of soil and ground water pollution

being replaced

Noordwaarts (2007) Investeringsbesluit Buiksloterham, gemeente Amsterdam

Noordwaarts (2007) Investeringsbesluit Buiksloterham, gemeente Amsterdam


SURFACE LEVEL

te

industry bouwterrein

contrast met omgeving

Paved surface area

Subsurface surprises

industrial heritage

presence of rest materials

The area is largely hardened in the current situation. Wastewater and rainwater are collected in Overhoeks in a mixed sewage system and partially drained into the wastewater purification installation. In the event of rain, most of the water is drained ophoogzand into the river IJ.

Characteristic of industrial area are waiting grounds that have been unused for many years. Some locations have not been built on since several large factories closed in the 1980s and 1990s. The areas that have currently not been issued often have problematic underground surprises, such as foundations that are difficult to remove or severe soil contamination. Legenda Kabels en Leidingen Telecomkabel

Datatransportkabels

Hogedruk gas leiding Lagedruk gas leiding Hoogspanningkabel

Middenspanningkabel Laagspanningkabel Waternet leiding

Below roads, there are also firm bundles of underground infrastructure of which parts are no longer needed, and which will continue to expand. They form the veins of the metabolism grootschalige infrastructuur of the city. uncertainties under ground

inaccessible groot dakoppervlak veel verhard oppervlak

28

creative industry flat, not layered brede wegen

vervuiling

large roof surface veel kades

hoge grondwaterstand

Total

roof surface private areas GBKN

GBKN

industrial block


CIRCULAR CITIES

ustry

ustrial heritage

construction site

Building materials and raw materials

industry

Industrial heritage

Part of the existing construction is of bad quality. The quantity of potential construction materials is a particular quality that may provide Buiksloterham with a distinguished character in the future.

Buiksloterham is relatively young, and does not have spectacular 19th century heritage. Nonetheless, there are a number of charming spaces with saw-tooth roofs that can be found here. In addition, the former gatehouse “Woonschool Asterdorp�, a social housing and education project from the late In addition, there are many companies in Buiksloterham that 19th century, is still present. On top of the character that this are active in reuse and recycling. Together, they can form a piece of heritage gives to Buiksloterham, it also influences the platform for the materials market. development strategy. Where constructional heritage remains, contrast with environment the elevation of the ground is difficult. If the area is elevated, old buildings will remain in the wet, low-lying areas; a challenge for the layout of the area. industrial heritage presence of rest materials

29

large scale infrastructure uncertainties under ground

cessible

inaccessible

Hardware store Antiques Thrift shop creative industry Thrift shop wide roads

flat, not layered

Industrial heritage

district

large roof surface many quays

DELVA Landscape Architects

industrial block

Bureau Monumenten en Archeologie, 2003. Cultuurhistorische effectrapportage Noordelijke IJ Oevers


CONTOURS

contrast with environment

uncertainties under ground

filling sand

creative industry

Grid dimensioning

lots of hard surfaces

The dimensioning of the industrial grid is larger than what you might find in a traditional residential neighbourhood. Where city neighbourhoods have building blocks of less than 50 to 80 metres deep, in industrial areas this can reach depths of up to 140 metres. This is too deep for traditional “back-toback” residential subdivision. As a result, new types of urban development arise in the transformation of these areas, as can also be seen on other residential developments in postindustrial harbour areas, or example the world famous Java Island, Borneo Sporenburg and the Houthavens.

large scale infrastructure

Industrial access Post-industrial areas are often characterised by the presence of large-scale infrastructure; wide roads that are suitable for cargo traffic. In 2015, there was 17.5 ha of road surface in Buiksloterham, and the future subdivision is also adapted to these – for a residential/working area – exceptionally broad roads, leading to broad street profiles. As a result, a great deal of space will be available for alternative usage.

industrial block

wide roads

pollution

30

many quays

high water table

20 0

80

65

40 0

50

13 0

90

11 0

10 5

14 0

20 0

110

hard surface up to street profile

DELVA Landscape Architects

DELVA Landscape Architects


CIRCULAR CITIES

industrie

industrieel erfgoed

Inaccessibility

Safety contours

Due to the limited north-south connections running through the region, the area remains badly accessible. As such, the area is a barrier between the residential areas of North Amsterdam and the river IJ. Roads in Buiksloterham are not located by the water. The often closed-off subdivisions between water and road structures decrease the accessibility of the area.

aanwezigheid restmaterialen

The safety contours of businesses that have not yet left the area are common limitations for urban developments in postindustrial areas. Companies with such contours are often clustered. Hence, one of these businesses moving often has a relatively small impact on these contours. As a result, the slow transformation of these areas demands additional attention for temporary functions that can take place within these contours and fit within the new function of the area. langdurig braakliggend terrein

ontoegankelijk

31

creatieve industrie plat, niet gelaagd

ophoogzand

groot dakoppervlak veel verhard oppervlak

Companies that are responsible for a large part of the sound pollution: Omya Netherlands BV (producer of industrial

Temporarily unaccessible Vacant land and construction sites

minerals), Shell NTC (Technology development), Greif Netherlands BV (industrial packaging), NedCoat (has

Private areas unaccessible for longer term

DELVA Landscape Architects

moved from the site in the mean time)

Noordwaarts (2007) Investeringsbesluit Buiksloterham, gemeente Amsterdam

and Stella Maris (ship wharf)


FUNCTIONS

industrial heritage presence of rest materials

Industry

inaccessible

There is still a relatively large presence of industry in Buiksloterham; businesses with diverse sizes, ranging from car garages to large-scale chemical manufacturers. Characteristic of these businesses is the large quantity of input and output of materials, energy, water and food.

Creative industriousness

uncertainties under ground

The presence of relatively small and affordable business units, the central positioning relative to the centre of Amsterdam and the industrial character of the area, have an attracting function for the creative industriousness of both the design and manufacturing industry. This “intermediate size� is increasingly disappearing from cities, while this size is highly attractive to starting businesses.

creative industry

te

flat, not layered

industry

32

large roof surface industrial block

industrial heritage

presence of rest materials

uncertainties under ground

inaccessible

creative industry flat, not layered

De Ridder (2013) Buiksloterham in Transition - Developing tools to support processes of urban transition. TU Delft

DELVA Landscape Architects


CIRCULAR CITIES langdurig braakliggend terrein

ontoegankelijk

Facilities

creatieve industrie

Construction plans

plat, niet gelaagd

Areas like Buiksloterham often have a small number of facilities, due to the large surface areas per facility. The retail trade that can be found there is often specialised, and not intended for everyday shopping. In Buiksloterham, the degree of facilities will remain low, because a new shopping centre is being constructed in the direct vicinity.

Because a transformation plan has been constructed for the redevelopment of Buiksloterham, instead of a final blueprint, the construction plans are currently being executed fragmentarily across the area. There are continuously changing circumstances. Rules as the only handle, programmatically and economically insecure, time factor: hard to maintain an overview and in demand of flexibility.

construction site

33

contrast with environment

filling sand

large scale infrastructure

2015 - 2017 1. self-build 2. homeless shelter Ymere 3. special needs elementary school 4. self-build 5. Docklands working and living 6. CPO working and living 9. expansion Koopmans 10. residential area EigenHaard 11. storage film museum EYE 12. Buiksloterham&Co

lots of hard surfaces

shops offices

2018 - 2020 7. floating homes Schoonship 13. Kop Grasweg 15. self-build 16. Housing De Alliantie

education recreation catering storage build parking

De Ridder (2013) Buiksloterham in Transition - Developing tools to support processes of urban transition. TU Delft

pollution

DELVA Landscape Architects

2021 - 2025 wide roads after 2026


POST-INDUSTRIAL SPATIAL FRAMEWORK The characterisation reveals that there are a number of issues that stand in the way of urban redevelopment. The area is not a blank page, but an area with a specific set of features that are determined by industrial developments. Of course, circular development does not require all traces of this to be erased, but rather, requires them to be reused as cleverly as possible. The layered approach, one of the basic principles in the field of landscape architecture, gains new meaning with a new Genius Loci. When we look at Buiksloterham, we do not see the three layers – abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic – as separate entities, but rather, as having strong mutual relationships. The entirety is anthropogenic. 1. The abiotic surface has been dug out and covered with a new layer. She has been made by people: shipyards and raised dredging and clay, equalised and raised to workable surface areas. 2. The second layer is the invisible layer of soil contamination, groundwater flows and safety contours that will play a role in the area for years to come.

34

3. There is a large quantity of underground infrastructure, existing like a complicated fabric below the ground. Together with other “surprises,” this is decisive for future interventions. 4. As the fourth layer, there is the physical spatial pattern, which consists of the industrial-accessibility grid, potential vegetation structures and constructions with a large future value or particular historical value; the typical urban developmental structure that is the result of an optimal industry-centred design.

The set of circumstances that characterise Buiksloterham points towards a number of issues that need to be tackled. At the same time, the area’s young identity makes it so that the area can function as the spatial framework for developments: The new Genius Loci


CIRCULAR CITIES

Physical structure Tree lane

Industrial heritage

Industrial grid

Underground infrastructure Electricity

Drinking water

35 Sewage

Hidden residue 50

DB

55

DB 65

Invisible frame work Noise levels

Bodemvervuiling

ils

lo

ra

ne Mi

C

VO

y av

s

tal

me

He

Topografie Water

Elevation

m

<5

DB


3

PROGRAMMING FOR CIRCULARITY

1. The place-makers: the Ceuvel 2. The birds of paradise: Schoonschip 3. The colonisers: Self-construction 4. The developers: Cityplot

36

Anno 2016, the construction crisis in Amsterdam is over. In Paris, the climate targets for the coming decades have been determined. These targets will have a large impact on the development of the Netherlands (Smit, 2015). In five years’ 36 time, in 2020, the Building Decree will have been sharpened to such an extent that all new constructions will have to be energy neutral.

These areas are characteristic of Buiksloterham because they exhibit a typical mix of personal initiative and facilitation by the municipality. They are frontrunners on a variety of scale levels, from several to hundreds of housing units per development. The place-making character of the chosen developments is interesting as well. Especially at the Ceuvel, which, despite its temporary character, has had a lasting effect due to the fact that this development has placed Buiksloterham on the Buiksloterham goes one step further, and currently finds “mental map” of many Amsterdammers. itself transitioning from a pioneering phase into a new phase in which the transformation of a “normal” part of the city is We look at two matters for the case studies: how does it work occurring. Several interesting projects are at the forefront of and why does it work? The how-question is concerned with what will become the circular city. Here, the ambitious levels the physical and technical applications that are required to are set intrinsically high: the projects would not have come reach an exchange of flows. What is the metabolism of this off the ground with traditional development methods. By development? Are they centrally or decentrally organised, and distinguishing themselves in terms of circularity and flexibility, how do they relate to the larger urban material flows? And what their realisation became possible. are the spatial conditions that result from this? We investigate four developments in the transformation of Buiksloterham that each have sustainability high on their list of priorities, but which, aside from that shared feature, differ considerably; four new segments of the city which are pioneers in their own way, and an example for future developments. Additionally, they each in their own way have an influence on each other and the urban development of Amsterdam as a whole.

Smit, P. H. (2015). Wat houdt klimaatakkoord in voor Nederland? Vijf vragen. Volkskrant 14 december 2015 Rijksoverheid (2012). Bouwbesluit 2012 - energiezuinigheid van nieuwe woningen.

At the same time, we look at which factors contributed to the success or failure of developments in the areas over time. What were the key moments/parties? What type of properties lead to what type of circularity?


CIRCULAR CITIES

developers

colonisers

place-makers

birds of paradise

1. CEUVEL 3. SELF-CONSTRUCTION

2. SCHOONSCHIP 4. CITYPLOT

37


THE PLACE-MAKERS THE CEUVEL

38

Image: DELVA Landscape Architects


CIRCULAR CITIES

Facts

Team

Surface Housing

- 0,45 ha - 0, Approx. 25 businesses in 16 houseboats

DELVA Landscape Architects: Design and implementation of the purifying garden, project

GFA FSI/total

- Approx. 1300 m2 - 0,5

development Metabolic: Concept development, implementation and investigation of the sustainability plan

Businesses - Approx. 25 businesses in 16 houseboats

Space&matter: Design architecture and urban

Functions - 0 m2 (cafe, studio, creative workplace, workshop, meeting room) Budget - 540 000 euros (outside area + buildings) + man hours

development, project development Smeelarchitecture: project development and community

Owner Visitors

- Vereniging the Ceuvel (The Ceuvel Association) - > 30 000 a year

Jeroen Apers architect: project development and finances Waterloft: Financial advice Wouter Valkenier: Café de Ceuvel

The Ceuvel is a sustainable breeding ground for creative and social entrepreneurs. It is the site of a former shipyard. In 2012, a group of architects submitted the winning plan for the Amsterdam municipality’s the Ceuvel competition. They were given the land on loan for 10 years. Now, it is a bustling community for entrepreneurs and artists who have their offices in Amsterdam’s first circular office park. Through the reuse of houseboats, the plant-based soil-purification and the application of integrated sustainable techniques, the development of the Ceuvel is an example of a successful marriage between creativity and sustainable, circular urban development. Through the recycling of materials and the cooperation between many passionate entrepreneurs and volunteers, we have brought life to the concept of the Ceuvel.

System The Ceuvel has been designed as a Cleantech Playground: a testing ground for clean technologies in the built-up environment. It is a test location that provides insight into how we can transform cities from large-scale waste producers into sustainable “metabolic cities” with a circular economy. The contaminated ground of the Ceuvel is purified using the technique of phytoremediation, which uses plants to purify the soil. A selected combination of plants is used for the stabilisation, breaking down and extraction of contaminating substances. After ten years, the site will be given back to Amsterdam in a cleaner state than it was received. The special combination of plants reveals a new layer of landscape that has previous remained hidden. This alternative treatment of contamination transforms the negative history of the location into a positive perspective; a rich and vibrant, purifying area. In this way, we are working on sustainable innovation in the built-up environment and speeding up the transition towards circular cities.

The technical elements of the system at the Ceuvel are, amongst others: • Sustainable heating system on the basis of an air-air heat pump, and in some cases, infrared panels, in combination with heat-recovery ventilation • Solar panels on rooftops generates sustainable electricity • All boats have an individual helophyte filter that purifies the grey water from the kitchens • All boats have an individual dry-compost toilet • The compost is collected centrally and post-composted • The café has urinals from which the urine can be collected separately • There is a food-production greenhouse, equipped with aquaponics systems

Design principles • Temporary infrastructure: no foundations, no underground The Ceuvel has been designed according to several design infrastructure; principles, leading from the different disciplines of the design • Temporary utilisation of contaminated soil; team: The spatial concept foresaw boats in a sea of green. One winding wooden platform connects everything. Because this • High sustainability ambitions that were abided by for the platform moves back and forth towards the water, variations redesign of the boats from the beginning; in the route between the closed-off inner area and expansive views of the water have developed. The orientation of the boats • Suitable for DIY (do-it-yourself) construction and and their windows is such that the water can always be seen maintenance: construction and management with the through the boats. community; • Reuse of residual materials;

39


Ambitions

40

Development and design process

Target group

At the start of construction of the The Ceuvel was developed in various Ceuvel, an ambitious set of targets was phases. The initiators are also the formulated. designers of the plan. Together with the members of the Ceuvel Association, • 100% sustainable heating and hot each of them was responsible for water the success of the development. All initiators brought their own unique • 100% sustainable electricity and complimentary ideas to the table to develop the vision of the project and • 100% wastewater and organic allow it to successfully flourish. The sewage processing initiators of the plan gathered a group of creative businesses that wanted to • 100% own water supply establish themselves on the site of the former shipyard during the tender. From • 60-80% nutrient recovery from this group, the Ceuvel Association was wastewater formed. Between January 2013 and June • 10-30% local food production 2014, the developing parties met on a weekly basis with the building team to • Measuring and monitoring of discuss the reconstruction of each of the material and energy flows houseboats and to develop the design of the urban developmental, infrastructural • 50-70% reduction of energy demand and landscape plan. in comparison to standard business spaces

Epilobium angustifolium Fireweed

Typha latifolia Broadleaf Cattail

Digitalis purpurea Foxglove

Achillea millefolium Yarrow

Salix nigra Dark-leaved willow

Soil remediating plants create a sea of flowers on the Ceuvel - DELVA Landscape Architects

Three groups of people were involved in the Ceuvel: entrepreneurs, volunteers and individual visitors. The group of visitors is very broad, but the three groups did overlap in terms of creativity, age, and commitment to sustainable development. A large part of the target audience belongs to what one might refer to as “hipster culture.”

Lolium perenne Ryegrass

Agrostis capillaris Bentgrass

Festuca arundinacea Tall Fescue


CIRCULAR CITIES

Soil Food production Nutrients Soil pollution Biopiles Phytoremediation by fungi 41

Phytoremediation Biodiversity Water Water pollution Water sanitation Drinking water Fresh water Grey water Sewage water Building

C

Heat exchange Electricity Bio-urinal Reused building material

wc

Toilet

O2

Bioreactor Composting vessel Green waste

Other Oxygen Urban agriculture Bee keeping

10

m

10 m

O2

10

m


1995

0

2000

2005

2004

DELVA LA and Metabolic involved in the Ceuvel

50 000

-

1990

Municipality holds a competition, won by Space&Matter and Marjolein Smeele

Decision of investment BSH

Ship wharf “De Ceuvel-Volharding” closes its doors

100 000

2010

Blackfield

Smeelear DELVA L Woute

Source of graph: Rijksoverheid, Rijksbegroting 2009

Developments over time

The members of the Ceuvel Association, largely comprising the developing parties and the tenants of the renovated houseboats, form the heart of the community. In addition, a broad group of professionals andsun (cu volunteers is mulative) ve) mulatibasis. involved in the Ceuvel bio onmaass (cu daily energy As such, different wind parties organise professional workshops in the field of culture, organisational development, 1995design and sustainability 2000 and at the Ceuvel. Furthermore, there are regularly volunteer days held here during which groups of 50-100 people actively contribute to the maintenance and management of the Ceuvel.

From the construction team, a board of the association was formed, which oversaw and directed the project. After second-hand boats were collected, each company was allocated one boat, which they themselves could renovate. The sustainability agency Metabolic organised workshops to cooperatively 1990 build the clean technologies that were installed on the boats, such as the biofilter system and the heat-recovery installations. These workshops not only reduced the costs of constructing the installations, they also provided all users with information regarding the used technologies. On top of that, a vibrant community developed due to the

Een belangrijke rol in de exploitatie van de Ceuvel wordt gespeeld door het bestuur van de Vereniging, die gaande weg het project is opgericht. In een verenigingsvorm is de ledenvergadering het hoogste orgaan en is afstemming met de overige leden, lees medegebruikers van het terrein, een belangrijke factor. Binnen de Vereniging zijn verschillende commissies actief die op deelgebieden actief zijn, zoals een evenementen commissie, een onderhoudscommissie, een landschapsbeheer commissie en in oprichting is bijvoorbeeld ook een broodfonds als sociaal vangnet voor de leden.

2005

2011 - Completion Stijgereiland IJburg

Construction

Community

Operation/Ownership

Founding of Schoonschip association

cooperative construction process, even before one of the boats on the shore had gone into commission. In addition to the voluntary input of all future tenants, the board also hired professional forces to, amongst other things, transport the boats, lift them onto land, perform substantial renovations (such as replacing roofs) and installing electricity and water infrastructure.

GEWOONBOOT

After the shipyard “the Ceuvel – Volharding” closed in the 1990s, this site, surrounded by water on three sides, became unused. As a result of working activities on the site, the soil had become heavily polluted. The municipality lacked the funds to purify the area and created a competition in 2012 for the development of the area into a creative breeding ground. In the summer of 2014, the Ceuvel opened its doors.

Decision of investment BSH

42

2010


CIRCULAR CITIES

remediation

Biogas boat

further research

2010

ckfield

Opening cafe The Ceuvel

preliminary research

Construction floating gardens Completion Greenhouse

Founding of the Ceuvel association

DELVA LA and Metabolic involved in the Ceuvel

Decision of investment BSH

Municipality holds a competition, won by Space&Matter and Marjolein Smeele

historical research

2015

2020

Soil remediating park

Creative hotspot

2025

2035

Boats leave to new location

Smeelearchitecture Space&matter DELVA Landscape Architects Jeroen Apers architect Waterloft Metabolic Wouter Valkenier

Circular Achievements

• Drinking water: the Ceuvel has not yet reached its drinking water targets: all the drinking water is currently obtained from the Amsterdam water supply, due to restrictions in rules and regulations.

43

CONSTRUCTION SCHOONSCHIP

2011 - Completion Stijgereiland IJburg

• Materials: waste is collected separately. The organic waste produced at the Ceuvel will be used to Specific conclusions produce biogas and digestate, which • The project is continuously in can be used for cooking. development, thus carrying on the • Waste water: 70-80% of the nutrients organic development style. from the waste water are recovered. The largest part is collected in the • The project has gained renown both nationally and internationally, and is form of compost, which is safe to use a source of inspiration to many other as a fertiliser after two years. Part of locations, including Buiksloterham. the compost will then be locally used in the greenhouse for investigations • Without the efforts of dozens of into experimental food production. volunteers and developers, the project Struvite can be recovered from the would not have come about. urine collection of the cafe. This recovery is not automated and will • A large part of the sustainability ambitions have been reached, or will thus 2010purely remain for investigative 2015 2020 be reached in future. purposes.

Founding of Schoonschip association

GEWOONBOOT

Decision of investment BSH

• Monitoring and measuring system: in 2016, the monitoring system, through • Energy: an estimated 70% of the area which the different flows of energy is currently provided with sustainable and materials will be more accurately energy. mapped out, will be installed.

2025

2035


THE BIRDS OF PARADISE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SCHOONSCHIP

44

Image: Space & Matter / Schoonschip


Facts

Team

Surface Housing

- 0,85 ha - 46 residences in 30 boats

GFA FSI/total

- approx. 6300 m2 - 0,5

CIRCULAR CITIES

Schoonschip Foundation Space&matter architects Waterloft Metabolic

Businesses - none Functions - 0 m2 (cafe, studio, creative workspace, workshops, meeting room) Budget - 2,800,000 euros for the outside area plus 110,000–450,000 per residence Owner

- CPC Schoonschip, individual boats are owned by private house owners. A few boats are operated by the foundation.

Schoonschip will become a floating, circular residential area with 30 boats (46 households) in North Amsterdam. Clusters of 5-6 houseboats will be constructed around 5 boardwalks. Between the boardwalks, there will be shared areas met gardens and recreational spaces, amongst other things. The neighbourhood will provide space to a group of citizens with diverse levels of income, but with shared values. The future residents attach a great deal of value to a sustainable living environment and are connected through a strong sense of community. As such, they will be determining how to manage the food production in the area as a community and collectively investing in supplementing infrastructure. System The inhabitants of Schoonschip will be collecting water and energy and storing it for their own use, process organic waste into nutrients locally and create an environment that both protects the local biodiversity and the health and well-being of its inhabitants. With this image in mind, the design process of Schoonschip will take place on the basis of an all-encompassing sustainability plan; this plan wants to achieve targets in nine areas: through a combination of smart design and innovation, on both a technological and financial level.

For each of the households, a unique mix of technologies will be selected that, considering the specific context of each house (makeup household, wishes, orientation, construction volume, etc.) will lead to the performances that have been prescribed for each of the targets. Varying renewing experiments will probably be conducted at Schoonschip, amongst which decentralised waste water processing in a biorefinery, a smart direct current net, and the application of innovative circular construction materials.

Design principles Schoonschip is a CPC (Collective Private • Synergies: once the demand for energy and other flows has been Commissioning) development; a maximally reduced, the next step is to process which future inhabitants were point towards local options that may closely involved in from the start. The offer solutions. sustainability performances are primarily determined by the design principles • Supply: the remaining demand is in urban developmental, architectural provided for using sustainable, clean, and technical design. In our choice to recycled and renewable sources. develop an overarching, sustainable plan for Schoonschip, the following • Organising & managing: finally, it is important to optimally manage the considerations have been taken into flows of energy and materials. account, in the order presented below: • Reduction: not using energy and raw materials is more efficient and impact reduction is the first priority.

45


Ambitions

Development and design process

Target group

Schoonschip is a CPC development in which the future home owners coordinate the development through the Schoonschip Foundation. Waterloft, Space&matter and Metabolic are advisers in the project.

The target group for Schoonschip consists of conscientious, wealthy people. They are not the pioneers of sustainability, but families that can afford to live sustainably and comfortably. As such, in the press release that Schoonschip sent out at the start of the project, the project boasted with the famous Dutch people who had already taken out an option on one of the boats.

• • • • •

46

100% energy neutral with an entirely sustainable energy supply Use of materials with low impact and circular, in both the construction phase of the neighbourhood and in the usage phase Locally self-sustained for all water needs, with the exception of drinking water (70% self-sustained) Beneficial impact on existing ecosystems Local food production and communal, sustainable purchasing Optimal use of smart systems (collecting and sharing data) for improved efficiency Aesthetically pleasant, healthy, energy-efficient and comfortable location that reaches all the targets without having to cut corners in terms of the fundamental quality of life A close-knit community that is involved in the design, construction and maintenance of the neighbourhood A model that is financially realisable and repeatable


CIRCULAR CITIES

C

Soil

C Food production

C

Nutrients Soil pollution Biopiles Phytoremediation by fungi

C 47

Phytoremediation Biodiversity Water Water pollution Water sanitation Drinking water Fresh water Grey water Sewage water Building

C

Heat exchange Electricity

O2

Bio-urinal Reused building material wc

O2

Toilet

O2

Bioreactor Composting vessel Green waste

O2 Other

m

Bee keeping

m

20

Urban agriculture

20 m

Oxygen 20

O2


1990

1995

2000

2005

2011 - Completion Stijgereiland IJburg

Founding of Schoonschip association

GEWOONBOOT

Decision of investment BSH

ulative) sun (cum mulative) biomass (cu wind energy

2010

Source: CBS

Timeline

Construction

Community

The Johan van Hasseltkanaal is a channel that was never completed, and which should have made a bridge connection between Amsterdam and North Amsterdam possible. For this reason the water, which has always functioned as a harbour basin, is present in excess; excess which is now being used for urban residential and recreational developments.

The construction of Schoonschip will start in the summer of 2016 and be completed in phases over a period of three years. The aim will be to minimise the impact of the building phase where possible, for example by selecting pre-fab construction methods (less waste) and using sustainable energy during the construction phase.

There has been an active community of future residents and home owners involved with the Schoonschip project since the start of the project in 2009. Over the years, many group meetings have been organised at a variety of inspiring location, such as the geWoonboot. These meetings were intended to provide information and form a tight-knit group. Over the years, the makeup of the group changed, but the interest kept growing. Schoonschip still receives weekly enrolments from people who want to 2005 join the project. In 2012, the Schoonschip community signed a sustainability manifesto that confirmed the community’s and all its members’ commitment to live sustainably. In the current plans, there is also a communal space in which the community can organise activities. Additionally, various services aimed at sharing products and services, and purchasing items (such as food and electrical transportation), are being set up.

Plan of the Johan van Hasseltkanaal that was never realised Source: http://www.rodi.nl/nieuws/225960-naar-het-noord-vannuhet-eerste-plan-voor-de-overkant-van-het-ij#lightbox/0/

1995

2000

Concrete batching plant closes its doors

Papaver Canal partially filled in

BOSR

Decision to invest BSH

The initiative for Schoonschip at this location developed as a result of the 1990 “geWoonboot” at the NDSM shipyard, which combined circularity and living on water.

Recycled house 2012 architects (superuse studios) in Enschede

48

2010


CONSTRUCTION SCHOONSCHIP

2011 - Completion Stijgereiland IJburg

Founding of Schoonschip association

GEWOONBOOT

Decision of investment BSH

CIRCULAR CITIES

2010

2015

Operation/maintenance/ownership BOSRANKSTRAAT (plot 5)

2020

2025

2035

Specific conclusions

49

lan d

Completion first home

0%

inc rea se

Ambition of municipality: 25% new homes is self-build 8

pr ice

KLAPROZENWEG Phase 2 (plot 3) will become a The ownership of the individual • Schoonschip KLAPROZENWEG Phase 3 (plot 3) trendsetting circular development residences will lie with the homeowners. in North Amsterdam, designed The maintenance of the shared according to 9 circular performance infrastructure and facilities will be in the targets. hands of the Schoonschip Foundation or a cooperative that still need to be • At a variety of times and due to differing reasons, the development established. process was delayed. There are six years between the planning stage and construction. • A highly involved community has been the driving force behind this ambitious project from the start. 2010 2015 2020 • The broad performance standards have been integrally incorporated in the building envelope. As a result, inhabitants agree with the use of sustainable techniques from the outset; not just in relation to the residence’s energy and material usage, but also regarding its usage of water and biomass.

First plots, plot nr. 3 on sale

Concrete batching plant closes its doors

Papaver Canal partially filled in

Decision to invest BSH

KLAPROZENWEG Phase 1 (plot 3)

2025

2035


THE COLONISERS â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SELF-CONSTRUCTION KLAPROZENWEG

50

Image: DELVA Landscape Architects


Facts

Team

Surface

- 2,3 ha

Housing GFA

- max. 132 (approx. 66 plots) - max 15,840 (240m2/plot)

CIRCULAR CITIES

Individual private developers

FSI/plot - 2 a 3 FSI/total - 0,5 Businesses- 20-50% GFA Functions - 0 m2 Budget

- approx. 2000 euro/m2 GFA (+ man hours)

Owner

- inhabitants/developers

Recently, the municipality expressed the ambition to develop 20% of its new constructions as private initiatives, through self-construction or CPCs, for example. The plot on the Klaprozenweg is the largest plot in Buiksloterham that is entirely intended for individual self-construction. With this, self-construction is no longer limited to rustic and suburban neighbourhoods, but has become a serious player in inner city, urban development. The owner may construct two buildings per plot, and a large part must be used for “businesses” (excluding offices). With this, the density of the area is similar to Amsterdam’s old city districts. Through a “selection form circular construction,” linked to subsidies, the municipality is stimulating sustainable construction; builders have a high degree of freedom in the sustainable applications they select. The municipality also values sustainable quality, but she does not provide hard instruments to achieve circularity. 51

Spatial principles

Circular principles

A simple grid with back-to-back subdivision with an access point in the middle. The building envelope foresees an increasing volume on the street side, a garden or low volume in the middle and a medium volume on the inner-street side. This makes a high density possible; resulting in an FSI of 2 to 3 on the plot. The ability to be issued is also very high.

Because each residence is individually constructed, people can determine themselves which circular applications are used.

This results in a diverse, resilient area. It is every person for themselves without a great deal of exchange of materials, energy, etc. In addition, several of the inhabitants have chosen not to plug into There will be a small park on the the heating grid, but will generate their water side that has been designed in own heat. Some residences consist of cooperation with the inhabitants. recycled material. The most important circular principles are on the construction level.


Ambitions

52

Development and design process

The circular ambitions that the The process of individual private municipality indicates are linked to five development starts with the allocation of plots. Due to a set of conditions (cost, themes: time, but also municipal conditions), the group of candidates becomes smaller. - Energy-neutral construction - Raw materials and materials Because each plot is developed - Construction procedure separately, each builder has his own - Climate adaptation - Sustainable mobility schedule. On average, the development and design process lasts one-and-a-half Using a form, the self-constructors are years; one year preparation and half a expected to indicate which materials they year designing. will apply. The sustainable ambitions are at the house level, except in relation to The mutual differences are large here too. Everybody has a different budget. sustainable mobility. The timing also greatly differs, which Because these ambitions are not means that people are building next to obligatory, the ambition level differs and after each other, at different speeds. substantially per residence. Many People who start later learn from the first inhabitants have ideas concerning pioneers. sustainability that flow forth from a personal desire. The manner in which this is shaped varies significantly per residence. â&#x20AC;&#x153;In a total of ten residences, the sun is used in twenty different ways.â&#x20AC;?

Target group The type of builders/inhabitants is characterised by a certain kind of autonomy. The first self-constructors are often old squatters or houseboat inhabitants. People are constructing their dream and are relatively autonomous in doing so. The choices that are made are often heavily based on personal ideas, dreams and experiences.


CIRCULAR CITIES

C

C

Soil

C

Food production Nutrients Soil pollution Biopiles Phytoremediation by fungi 53

Phytoremediation Biodiversity Water Water pollution Water sanitation Drinking water Fresh water Grey water Sewage water Building

C

Heat exchange Electricity Bio-urinal Reused building material

C

Bioreactor

C

Composting vessel

C

Green waste

Other O2

C

Toilet

C C

Oxygen Urban agriculture Bee keeping

C

20

m

20 m

wc

20

m


1990

1995

2000

Concrete batching plant closes its doors

Papaver Canal partially filled in

Decision to invest BSH

Recycled house 2012 architects (superuse studios) in Enschede

BOSR

2005

2010

Source: Rijksoverheid, Rijksbegroting 2009

Developments over time

Construction

Community

“Plot 3” is the former site of a concrete-products factory. Because the Ridderspoorweg was created, part of the Papaverkanaal was attenuated so that the factory could remain here. Only a few years after this (around 2009), it closed its doors and the site became a residential area.

The construction takes around 1.5 years per residence. However, the residences are not readily “finished.” People often move into the residences before they are entirely completed and continue to work on the residence for years to come. Some live in a caravan on the yard. Others first construct 100 m2, move in, and then continue to build the rest.

Before commencing with their construction, the self-constructors are busy with the preparations and there is a high degree of mutual contact. Joint agreements are made in relation to foundation piles, for example, and other matters that can be cleverly solved.

2000

1990

The construction process is often chaotic, because everybody starts at a different time and because mostproduction builders are Housing inexperienced in Amsterdam terms of construction. There are also many constructors who are not up-to-date with existing regulations, resulting in the fact that elements need to be adapted during the construction process. It is also common for builders to decide to modify previous decisions in the construction process.

1995

2000

During the construction phase, most people are concerned with their own process. In contrast to the development and design process, it is now every person for themselves. This is because the combination of constructing a residence and the demands of daily life (work, family) is incredibly demanding.

Collapse housing market

For years, self-construction has been the domain of rural municipalities that sell 8000 plots. Over the last few years, large cities have increasingly been investing in selfconstruction, with IJburg and Zeeburg 6000 as the first areas of experimentation. Self-construction came into view of the municipality during the credit crisis, and 4000 the decision was made that 20% of all newly constructed plots would have to be self-construction.

Decision to invest BSH

54

The expectation is that when most inhabitants are finished with the construction of their residence, new collaborations to improve the neighbourhood will naturally arise. Improving the temporarily equipped park, or organising neighbourhood initiatives, for example. 2005

2010


CIRCULAR CITIES

BOSRANKSTRAAT (plot 5) KLAPROZENWEG Phase 1 (plot 3)

lan d

KLAPROZENWEG Phase 3 (plot 3)

Completion first home

0%

inc rea se

Ambition of municipality: 25% new homes is self-build 8

First plots, plot nr. 3 on sale

pr ice

Concrete batching plant closes its doors

2010

2015

2020

2025

2035

Performances

55

Completion last plot Buiksloterham & Co

Start of construction

Amsterdam rainproof

Puccini method

Due to the open manner of design, a wealth of applied ideas for sustainability is forming. Self-constructors are willing to take more risks and apply interesting, though not broadly used techniques. As a result, a broad spectrum of applications is arising, of which some may be less successful, but others may become the standards of the future. In terms of circularity, this leads to a resilient type of urbanity. 2015 2010

The self-builders are very focussed on their own residence. After stating its tender criteria, the municipality has the idea that she has reached its sustainability ambitions. Following this, little time is spent thinking about the circular design of the public spaces. During the construction phase, the public space primarily functions as a storage space. There are initiatives in the public space, which could expand in the future.

Bioreactor

Specific conclusions

Amsterdam Air Products closes its doors

Considering the fact that hardly anyone is already living on the self-construction plots and there is currently no coherent monitoring plan, it is difficult to evaluate the specific sustainability performances. It is clear, however, that due to the broad spectrum of applied building methods, materials and technologies, the highest circular performances are not achieved everywhere.

Collapse housing market

Papaver Canal partially filled in

Decision to invest BSH

KLAPROZENWEG Phase 2 (plot 3)

2020

2025

2035


THE DEVELOPERS â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CITYPLOT BUIKSLOTERHAM

56

56

Image: Studioninedots / DELVA Landscape Architects


Team

Facts Surface Housing

- 2,8 ha - approx. 500

Studioninedots Delva Landscape Architects

GFA FSI/total

- approx. 66000 m2 - approx. 2,3

De Alliantie Waternet

CIRCULAR CITIES

Businesses - 10 000 m2 Functions - Living, business space, catering sector Budget - approx. 2 800 000 (public space), price/m2 GFA n/a Developer De Alliantie

Cityplot Buiksloterham is a real city district. The diversity of the buildings and functions, inhabitants and users is important to the neighbourhood’s functioning, both in the short and the long run. Here, social rental housing can be found next to self-construction and owner-occupied apartments, living next to working, water next to land, high next to low, urban next to village-like, city streets next to intimate courtyards, and residential houses next to sheds. The developments in this area are adaptive in nature, in order to respond to developments and changes that may occur in the future. Buildings can transform, and are, where possible, flexible in terms of surface area and function. The area is not completely built up at the same time, but consists of developments of different scales, while keeping space free for future functions.

Spatial principles Three plots with a depth of approx. 90 m; accessible through a loop. Each plot consists of border developments of 4-8 layers and an inner area with ground-bound residences and working buildings of 2-3 layers. The corners are accentuated by 6-9-layered construction. The density is urban with the entirety’s FSI being 2.3. The plots are developed per plot, with a diverse programme of living and working, social rental housing, construction groups and self-builders.

Circular principles The plot-based development leads to different applications of De Alliantie is stakeholder and co-sponsor of the “Circular the circular ambitions. The diversity of typologies and functions Buiksloterham” manifesto and embraces the circular ambitions strengthens the adaptability and future durability of the of Buiksloterham. neighbourhood. The public space is characterised by the ambition to make the area sheltered from the rain. By parking centrally, the neighbourhood is low on car traffic, allowing for its plotbased development. The whole area is developed by housing corporation “De Alliantie.”

57


Ambitions The ambitions and measures that are taken for the plots of social housing developer ‘De Alliantie’ are known and form around one third of the total programme:

Development and design process

In June 2013, a housing corporation gave Studioninedots and DELVA Landscape Architects the task of developing an urban developmental plan for the former Airproducts and Nedcoat site in Buiksloterham. Buildings are constructed energy- Starting point for the client was a plan efficiently and roofs are used for PV on the basis of the urban developmental panels and/or as green roofs. principle “Cityplot.” The rainwater is decoupled from the sewage system. The aim is to install a separate wastewater system, in which a biodigester processes the organic waste. For the CPC and self-construction plots, buyers must first go through a selection procedure, in which they must describe which goals they want to realise in terms of sustainability, work and socially. There is no obligation to reach particular circular targets; the only stimulation results from the motivation to sign up for a plot. 58

Target group The setup of the neighbourhood, lacking a definitive, final blueprint and with sustainable ambitions will attract an urban, creative type of resident. Living and working in Cityplot Buiksloterham is an invitation for more initiative, involvement and cooperation; shared responsibilities and initiatives for vegetation, courtyards and squares, energy management, parking and other matters in the neighbourhood. Conveying this identity naturally leads to a target audience that feels attracted by these factors. In addition to this communal attitude, the target audience is wideranging: from social rental-housing residents, tenants, to home owners and self-builders; from young to old and from single to families.


CIRCULAR CITIES

wc

Soil

wc

Food production Nutrients Soil pollution Biopiles wc

Phytoremediation by fungi wc

Phytoremediation Biodiversity

59

wc

Water Water pollution Water sanitation Drinking water Fresh water Grey water Sewage water Building

C

Heat exchange Electricity Bio-urinal Reused building material

wc

Toilet Bioreactor Composting vessel Green waste

Other Oxygen

C

Urban agriculture 20

Bee keeping

m

20 m

O2

20

m


Housing production Amsterdam

Decision to invest BSH

6000 4000 2000

1990

1995

Collapse housing market

8000

2005

2000

Source: Vestigingslocaties.nl, 2015. ‘Amsterdam: Woningbouwcrisis is voorbij’.

60

Development over time

Construction

Community

The Cityplot principle was developed as a response to the growing demand for more flexible forms of urban development in high-density areas. Regarding Cityplot, the subdivision is such that a large diversity of construction forms can grow organically within a clear-cut framework.

Since May 2014, the first buildings have started being developed; partially socialrental residences and partially owneroccupied residences.

By organising meet-ups at the start of the development, the developer aims to stimulate both social contacts and the exchange of knowledge in terms of circular building. The future residents consist of a mix of (social-housing) tenants, buyers and selfbuilders of plots in a high price segment. Experience has taught us that selfbuilders are often highly involved with their living environment and it is expected that they will want to participate actively in matters such as the design of the public space. The courtyards will be common areas. They will be constructed by the developer and managed by residents. It remains to be seen to what extent it will be possible to bridge the social differences between the different groups.

In 2015, the sale of the first phase of selfconstruction and market plots started. A step-by-step plan was drafted for the future plot owners. The plots were added to a lottery. In order to be accepted for the lottery, interested parties must meet the financial requirements and submit a good motivation on the basis of the values of “circularity, futuredurability, entrepreneurial, involved and contrasting.”

The site on which Cityplot Buiksloterham will be realised was being used by Amsterdam Air Products, a manufacturer of gas products. A social housing corporation is the owner, and the Cityplot concept answered the questions of the developer. The concept suits the targets of developing an inviting and highly liveThe courtyards will be common areas. able neighbourhood. They will be constructed by the developer In 2015, the process of preparing the site and managed by residents. for construction started, and a large proThe construction of the self-construction portion of the plots have been allocated. plots, as well as the apartment complexes, parking garages, etc., during the same construction period, is logistically complex. In order for the working activities to run smoothly, a construction site protocol has been drafted. In addition to this, a high degree of discussions are required, and a construction coordinator has been appointed.

2010


2010

Performances

2015

Completion last plot Buiksloterham & Co

Bioreactor

Start of construction

Amsterdam Air Products closes its doors

Amsterdam rainproof

Puccini method

Collapse housing market

CIRCULAR CITIES

2020

Specific conclusions

The area has not yet been realised. • Regardless, it is already possible to reflect on the performances because the construction plans have largely been • established. In terms of energy, the focus is on PV panels, LED lighting and monitoring. In terms of water, the ambitions are high: • rainwater is separated from the sewage system and the aim is to establish a decentralised sanitation system. For this, wastewater from the households will be connected to a local biogas power plant, in which energy and nutrients will be • recovered. By parking centrally in the parking garages, mobility is made more sustainable. A lower parking standard will be applied, which can be adapted during the developmental phase to suit the actual demand. In terms of materials and waste, no particular measures are currently known.

The plot-based development leads to more flexibility and adaptability in the future. With the high proportion of selfconstruction and CPC plots and the associated selection policy, the realisation of circular targets is stimulated. The ambitions to make the area rainproof and disconnect cars from the residences by parking in a central parking garage are incredibly high in comparison with other neighbourhoods. The circular ambition is embraced by the developers, but there are no obligations.

2025

2035

61


PROGRAMMING FOR CIRCULARITY The manner in which a still-to-be-designed area is allotted is crucial for adhering to circular ambitions. Is the resident also the owner? Do circular developments fit within the (legally imposed) ambitions of the landlord? Does the party investing in circularity also reap the rewards of its circularity? The four investigated locations represent the four types of developments in which “circular development” play a large role. Differences can be found in terms of: • • • • •

The power of innovation Ambition levels Repeatability Centrality Impact

Experiment and proven applications

62

There is room for experimentation in a healthy city. Places where people can try out new ideas, where there is the option to fail and where applications for the future may arise. At the same time, it is important to find a space to roll out successful, tried-andtested applications for a circular city and realise sustainabilitybased ambitions in the short term. These two principles do not always go hand-in-hand, and in a circular city there needs to be room for both. The large residential developments in Cityplot and for the self-construction are each other’s complementary opposites in this matter. A type of evolution takes place in the self-construction plots. Based on dreams and personal experiences, all kinds of new techniques are applied; some of which have proven track records, some of which do not – some are successful; some are less successful. Here, new applications are afforded the space to prove their worth. At Cityplot, more traditional forms of circularity are employed more often, such as in relation to construction techniques, energy generation and the reuse of black water. This is the type of neighbourhood that proves that sustainability is also obtainable in more established urban developments.

Centrality The type of urban development strongly determines the extent to which urban networks are joined. The smaller the grain of development is, the more decentralised the approach will be. In relation to self-construction, initiators try to come up with solutions per residence, such as with a personal rainwater buffer and solar panels. In the Ceuvel, one system has been designed through which solutions can be applied per unit (boat), and sometimes on the level of the Ceuvel in its totality. This is also the situation at Schoonschip. For the social building blocks in Cityplot, central networks are generally joined: the heating network, the energy network and the (rain and sewage) water network. Circularity is tackled on a different scale level, outside of the neighbourhood.

Repeatability and icons The Ceuvel and Schoonschip score very high on the level of their circular ambitions. The fact that the ‘plot passports’ (a set of building requirements) for Schoonschip contain an expansive circular component is unique. As such, they are icons and are important for the appearance of Buiksloterham as a circular neighbourhood. However, you cannot build a city with only Ceuvels and Schoonschips. The neighbourhoods have a high level of exclusivity and a city can only be a home to a few such hotspots. Due to their scale, density and construction type, Cityplot and the self-construction plots are more “repeatable” ways of development. There is less experimentation here, but they form the critical mass that is required to win back investments in developments because these developments take place on a larger scale. In a circular city, there is room for experimentation as well as large-scale, repeatable developments; for pioneers and for followers. None of the four case studies can rightfully be called “the best.” It is about finding a balance between the pioneers and the repeatable developments. In that sense, the four investigated case studies provide a beautiful spectrum of the possible types of circular developments. In Buiksloterham, there are other types of developments taking place: large CPC complexes for which the sustainable ambitions are high at the construction level, and more traditional developments for which factors other than circularity are decisive in terms of their design. For this last type of developments, the future residents have a limited say in matters, resulting in the fact that the developer is not the person profiting from the investment in sustainability. Ultimately, the trick is to bring these types of developments along in sustainable urbanity.

Impact The four investigated case studies each in their own way have an impact on the development of Buiksloterham in its entirety. The Ceuvel had a large influence on the development of Buiksloterham due to its gravitational pull on people who think and work sustainably. The self-builders are constantly searching for the boundaries of what is permissible, and the municipality learns from the past and applies that knowledge to the new plots that are allotted. The Ceuvel and the self-construction plots also have a much more direct impact: higher land prices in the surrounding area. The Ceuvel functions as a hub for raw materials with the Biogas Boat and is a creative hangout. The impact of Cityplot is less direct, but significant on the level of policy. Thanks to the experiences with Cityplot, particular rules and regulations for the design of public spaces have been modified in the whole of Amsterdam. At Schoonschip, something unique also took place: it is rare that sustainability demands are incorporated into a plot passport as specifically as they are here.


CIRCULAR CITIES

Smart programming provides space for innovation and experimentation, but also for proven, repeatable applications. This is how a city develops into a city in CITYPLOTnew circular applications which can be discovered, but also in which proven, SELF-BUILD successful applications can be rolled out. Reproducibility

SCHOONSCHIP

CEUVEL Innovation and experiment

63

CITYPLOT DIRECT SURROUNDINGS

BUIKSLOTERHAM

AMSTERDAM

SELF-BUILD

Reproducibility

SCHOONSCHIP CEUVEL

SCHOONSCHIP

SELF-BUILD

CITYPLOT

CEUVEL Innovation and experiment

The four projects supplement each other: where one provides space for innovation, the other allows for the wide-scale roll-out of successful, sustainable applications. Incidentally, this scheme does not say much regarding the circular performances alone.

circular ambitions circular policy regulation attraction

The four developments have influenced each other in terms of knowledge, initiative and ambition levels. There has also been an impact on a larger scale: the ambitions of Buiksloterham as a whole and a number of the methodologies of the municipality of Amsterdam have been modified as a result of the knowledge gained from developments in Buiksloterham.


4

CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS FOR THE POSTINDUSTRIAL CITY

What are the physical building blocks that the designer of a post-industrial city can work with? Sustainable techniques become interesting for the designer if they have an impact on the (use of) public spaces, or have an impact on the urban structure. How can these techniques contribute to a circular way of thinking and at the same time determine and change the cityscape? This can be done in four ways (Sijmons, 2014):

64

shape Buiksloterham and each carry with them a specific set of possibilities and challenges. The four themes are ground, water, buildings and transportation. Thus, this is not a presentation of measures that together would lead to the formation of the ultimate circular city. The applications are relevant for the specific post-industrial context and form a challenge for designers of the circular city.

1.

Designing circular infrastructure that shapes sustainable applications in an attractive and liveable manner, without desiring any specific impact on the structure of the city.

2.

Circular infrastructure as a planning tool, in which particular facilities can guide urban developments, such Within the framework of the aforementioned themes, we as urban compaction by the heating grid. have searched for solutions that engage in both vertical and horizontal exchanges. Techniques and interventions that can Spatial design of infrastructures that are the result be applied both underground, at the ground level and above of closed material flows, and arriving at new urban ground. In addition, we have described what the flows are with structures through this. which the application links up, so that in time, relationships with other applications can be found. Per application, we also Searching for ways to create added value using passing look at what the potential locations are. material flows, such as water or goods that flows through the city untouched.

3.

4.

Time and space

Due to the fact that Buiksloterham is developing into a circular neighbourhood in a highly organic manner, and not from the centralistic philosophy of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Smart City,â&#x20AC;? we have set our sights on local applications and the local impact of large networks, and not on the networks as a whole. We do not look at where the networks should be, but instead focus on the locations at which they manifest in space, such as hubs, buffers and processing locations. In this way, we limit ourselves to applications that are of specific interest within the context of the post-industrial city.

Thematic sub-challenges Buiksloterham On the basis of these urgencies and the post-industrial theme, a selection has been made of thematic sub-challenges and potentially relevant interventions in Buiksloterham. The selection took place on the basis of the context, metabolism, and stakeholder analysis of the area. We have also limited ourselves to specific interventions at specific points and small areas, befitting the manner through which Buiksloterham is currently being developed through many small interventions. Large networks, such as public transport, heating or the sewage system, are not viewed in their entirety. Instead, we have looked at local initiatives, their impact and the opportunities for parties to do something with them. The guiding force behind this has been the themes that we as spatial designers consider to have the most potential. The sub-challenges can be divided into four themes; four physical elements that together Sijmons, D. (2014) Kick-off bna/bnsp/nvtl competition (presentation), Rotterdam, IABR

Degree of centrality

Relation to surface level

Rhythme


CIRCULAR CITIES

v

x

GROUND

v

x

BUILDING

“Develop and implement a circular construction manual.”

“Make the ground into a raw material for added societal value.” €

environmental remediation

technical remediation with added societal value

WATER

creating flexibility

using roof surfaces

65

v

x

using locally available material

selective heightening

TRANSPORT

“Don’t make Buiksloterham into a parking lot” Towards a sustainable transportation plan.

“Make Buiksloterham into the smartest and most innovative water area of the Netherlands.”

€ €

filtering surface water

buffering and detachement of rainwater

PO4

3–

functional shores

H

Buiksloterham is developing through local initiatives. As such, we are not aimed at large networks, but focus on local exchanges and the moments that these networks appear. €

PO4

PO4

3–

H

3–

H

smart parking solutions

alternative ways of transport

car sharing


66

66

Image: DELVA Landscape Architects


GROUND

CIRCULAR CITIES

Our soil is not only a handy base to build on; it is the source BIODIVERISTY of food, drinking water and nature, but also of raw materials. Literally, it is the foundation for our cities. The soil plays an important role in relation to biodiversity. Naturally, it is the basis of a healthy ecology. Many animals that The history of our culture cannot be seen separately from the live in the soil are at the base of the food chain, and therefore, history of agriculture. Civilisation could only really flower once are essential for a healthy, urban ecology. Soil life is also the soil could produce so much food that mankind did not need decisive for the balance of nutrients in the soil. Furthermore, to invest all its time and energy into working for his daily meal. soil life causes a loose soil structure that water can infiltrate In the Netherlands, the large diversity of soil characteristics properly (on clayey soil with relatively bad drainage, a 1% over the last centuries brought forth a wide diversity of cultural increase in organic substances can result in the soil being able phenomena and communities. The difference between sand to retain a 2.5% larger volume of water. In the top 15cm this and peatland even led to a difference in entrepreneurial spirit equates to 37.5 m3/ha (Faber, 2009)), and it contributes to the and economic growth in the Netherlands (Erik Snel, 1996) natural buffering and purification of pollution (RIVM, 2012). In Buiksloterham, the density is high, and therefore, the majority The soil maintains a number of ecosystem services, making of the surface has hardened. Below these hardened surfaces, healthy, open soil an important factor for the circular city. It has life can barely exist, which is why it is important to preserve a damping effect on city extremes, like the urban heat-island open soil. effect and peak downpours (RIVM, 2012). Healthy, living soil forms the firm basis for a sustainable society and economy. The potential meaning of Buiksloterhamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s soil for:

SOCIETY

MATERIALS As the foundation for buildings and infrastructure, the soil is a building material in itself. However, the clayey peatland of Buiksloterham and the many artificially applied layers are not suitable as a material for the construction of infrastructure and buildings.

ENERGY The buffering function of the soil makes it usable as energy storage for hot and cold storage installations. For Buiksloterham, a soil-energy plan has been drafted by IFtechnology (2014), in which the suitability of various soilbased energy techniques is looked at per location.

The direct relationship between the soil and urban society is not evident. Regardless, applied interventions to improve the quality of the soil can have added value for the quality of the city; a pleasantly vital park, for example. Furthermore, soil-purification installations can make a contribution to the architectural quality of a city district, and can have an educational and awareness-raising function.

HEALTH In Buiksloterham, large parts of the soil are polluted. In time, this can lead to health risks; to playing children, for example. In principle, this can be remedied by installing a living layer. However, this does not remove the soil pollution; mobile pollution can still spread through the groundwater and find its way to the residents. Smart soil-purification techniques take place on site and result in clean, yet living soil.

INDEX

1. Vocl-extraction 2. Biological soil purification 3. Biopiling 4. Geotubes

Erik Snel, 1996. De vertaling van Wetenschap, Nederlandse sociologie in de praktijk. Uitgeverij SWP RIVM, 2012. Een gezonde bodem onder een duurzame samenleving.

IFTechnology (2014) Bodemenergieplan Buiksloterham, Plan voor stimuleren en ordening van bodemenergie Faber et.al. 2009. Ecosysteemdiensten en bodembeheer. Wageningen Univerisity and researchcenter

67


VOCL EXTRACTIE

PROBLEM

eldoorn parelhoender

VOCs and SVOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and SemiVolatile Organic Compounds) in the soil are a risk to people and CL meter diep the ecology. There is also the risk that they will spread through rondwaterbronnen the environment, such as through flowing groundwater. m3/ uur Depending on the duration and intensity of exposure to these woningen substances, acute or chronic effects may occur. ndfiltratie, ontijzering

ptoren (luchtbehandeling) olfilter In Buiksloterham, such organic contaminations terafvoer naar beek present. open syteem = circulatie met grondwater

VOCL tot 30m diep in BSH

evaporation heat

are widely

steam

clean water

electricity

contaminants

WHAT At high concentrations, these types of contaminations require direct treatment. There are a number of on-site treatments that are possible: electrokinetic separation, steam injection and extraction, etc. Determining which techniques to use where depends on the deklaag specifics of the situation. The most applicable is steam injection and extraction. In this technique, steam is pumped into the soil, 1e watervoerende pakket making contaminants mobile and pushing them out of the soil as a result of the heat and excess pressure. During cooling in the higher soil layers, 1e scheidende laag the steam condenses, allowing it to be pumped2e/ out. 3e watervoerende pakket veen, klei, fijn zand

matig fijn tot grof zand

68

klei, leem en fijn slibhoudend zand

VOC groundwater flow

matig grof tot grof zand met kleilenzen

DESIGN CHALLENGE This process requires an installation that uses approximately the same surface area as a residential building. Due to the heat and pressure generated, there needs to be some distance in relation to other buildings. There is limited exchange with the environment, making the objectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design and enabling its integration into the neighbourhood a challenge. It is also important to consider what will happen with the location once the temporary installation is gone. The residual heat of this system can potentially be used in a heating grid. A combination with a heat hub seems obvious, even though it would have to be a separate entity due to its temporary character.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

29

90

m2

78 70

m2

m2

75

m2

working facilities living

on or nearby VOCL contamination

on good side of groundwater flows

close to open water

U.S. EPA. 2006. In Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Soil. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Available online: http://www.epa.gov/ sites/production/files/2015-04/documents/tsp_issue_paper_542f06013.pdf

integrate with new development (architecture)


CIRCULAR CITIES By wrapping the installation and giving it an attractive appearance, additional value for the neighbourhood can be achieved

69

Application on and under surface level Image: Ricardo Canton | cgarchitects.com

Impact on location

Time: decrease in app. 1 year


BIOLOGICAL SOIL PURIFICATION

PROBLEM Mineral oil is often used, making it the most prevalent contaminant of both the soil and the groundwater in Buiksloterham. Because this type of contamination is broken Minerale olieen tot enkele meters diep in BSH down relatively easily, phytoremediation is (as long as it is cleverly applied) a suitable method and less costly than traditional soil purification.

CO2

recreation

water

biomass habitat

WHAT Phytoremediation uses plants to dam in the contaminating substances in the soil and groundwater, absorb them or break them down (“phyto” is Greek for plant). A number of plant species have the capacity to accumulate more contaminating substances than can be found in the soil; the contaminants are building materials for these plants (hyper-accumulators). Fastgrowing species take up more than slow-growing species. Other species lock the contaminants down (excluders) so that they are unable to spread through the environment. Moreover, this method can be applied for both mineral oils and heavy metals, although the process is a lot slower for heavy metals, which is why urban areas generally focus on excluders. (U.S EPA, 2006) 70

DESIGN CHALLENGE Phytoremediation is more sustainable than traditional purification methods, but it takes a long time, the effectiveness is strongly dependent on growing conditions and results are uncertain. This is why it is primarily a potential application in areas that will not be built on in the short term. As a result, the combination with biomass production is obvious. It is also possible to grow trees in a different location, and apply them elsewhere. If stabilisers are used, a contaminated area can be made accessible to the public and serve as a public space or garden. The combination of stabilisers, which make the area partially accessible, and excluders, which absorb the contaminants in the

mineral oils

20-25 cm tot 4,5 m

groundwater flow

most contaminated locations, can make an area both accessible and cleaner in the long run. In order to arrive at a truly cleansing park, specific investigation must take place that determines what type of contamination is present at which locations and which types of plants are applicable here. The area’s management is also important: pruning waste must be removed, because it can absorb contaminated substances, which consequently remain in the environment or form a danger to playing children and pets. Despite the uncertainties involved, phytoremediation is one of the interesting challenges for spatial designers, due to the ecological, recreational effects and the possibilities for generating energy from biomass.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

on mineral oils

available terrain (<5 years)

close to water or a road in view of transportation

U.S. EPA (2006) In Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Soil. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Available online: http://www.epa.gov/ sites/production/files/2015-04/documents/tsp_issue_paper_542f06013.pdf


CIRCULAR CITIES Biomass production, soil remediation and generating energy will be combined in the Sky Park in Seoul (Oikosdesign)

71

Application on and under surface level

Image: Flickr / Republic of Korea

Impact on surroundings

Time: gradual decrease


BIOPILING

PROBLEM Soil that is contaminated too heavily to be treated on-site must be stored elsewhere and treated. This is a costly procedure due to the storage space required, and the CO2 emissions of the transportation are significant. Costs can be reduced by using more decentralised treatment methods. The surplus of landmass that results from this can be utilised to shape the public space. electriciteit

WHAT

72

O2

recreation

Minerale olieen tot enkele meters diep in BSH

This technique is comparable to â&#x20AC;&#x153;bioventing,â&#x20AC;? whereby the contaminated soil is brought together in an engineered construction. Hereby, particular microcultures are stimulated to mix with other substances that influence the permeability and moistness of the soil (nutrients, sand, sawdust, compost, etc.) and the pumping of oxygen through the soil. The bacteria and fungi that are formed slowly break down the pollution.

water

landscape habitat

This process can be monitored more effectively and is faster than other types of biological purification. Research has revealed that results can be seen within the space of a few weeks, and that the soil is purified for 99% within 3 to 6 months. This constitutes a breakdown speed of 121 mg/kg of soil per day. The cost efficiency is also high: approx. one-third of the cost of other physical treatment methods. (Kahn et al. 2004)

bacteria

P/N nutrients

mineral oils

DESIGN CHALLENGE The most significant design challenges in relation to the application of this method are related to the design of the soil relief and the installations that are required for purification (pumping the oxygen around). This concerns recreational and visual values. Safety also plays a role: the contaminated soil must be separated from its environment.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

1.35m - 1.50m

>1.50m

0.90m - 1.00m

on mineral oils

on temporarily vacant plots

planned heightening of surface

Khan, F.I., Husain T. and Hejazi R.(2004) An Overview and Analysis of Site Remediation Technologies. Journal of Environmental Management. Available online: https://www.uvm.edu

oxygen

permanent park zones


CIRCULAR CITIES Charles Jencks - Cells of Life: Contaminated soil can be reused to shape a park

73

Application above ground Image: Rosa Menkman | Flickr

Impact on surroundings

Time: decrease <1 year


GEOTUBES

PROBLEM A large part of the quays in Buiksloterham need to be replaced and are currently affected by erosion. Concomitantly, there are dredging activities taking place regularly of which the dredged soils need to be discharged. Rebuilding the quays is a valid, yet costly, option. Additional spatial and ecological value can be achieved by reinforcing the quays with the extracted dredging.

recreation

WHAT Minerale olieen tot enkele meters diep in BSH

sediment

landscape

water

biomass

Dredging is a considerably fluid substance and, therefore, not suitable to reinforce shores. By pumping this dredging into permeable, textile sacks and allowing it to dry out (and repeating this process until the sack in full of dried-out substance), firm building blocks for the ecological shores can be created: “geotubes.” The filtrate is clean water that can be returned to the environment. During this process of “ripening” of the soil, part of the contamination is broken down by natural processes. In the end, the geotubes possess 10% of the volume of the dredging that was inserted, depending on the quality of the material. (Ten Cate, 2013) 74

habitat

dried soil

saturated soil

DESIGN CHALLENGE Geotubes can serve as submerged, soil-retaining walls, through which height differences and shallow areas can be created, giving shores a higher ecological value than traditional quays. Optionally, the choice can be made for a biodegradable textile, so that once the soil has been consolidated (through plants, for example), the geotube will naturally disappear. If non-biodegradable materials (plastics) are used, it is important to shape them in such a way that they can be easily removed, because damage will cause plastics to leak and find their way into the environment.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

Short term Long term

on shorea not used for any other function

inside existing ecological frame work

on locations where shores have to be renovated

TenCate. 2013. Geotube Dewatering Technology. Available online: http://www.tencate.com/amer/ geosynthetics/solutions/dewatering_technology/how-it-works.aspx

lee zone


CIRCULAR CITIES Productive landscape, designed as an attractive and accessible public space.

75

Application under surface level Image:DELVA Landscape Architects

Impact on network

Time: irregular peaks


Image:DELVA Landscape Architects


CIRCULAR CITIES

WATER

It does not need repeating to what extent the Dutch and water BIODIVERSITY are related. Water safety, water for/water as a biotope, water as a means of transportation and water as infrastructure; they A living water structure makes a large contribution to the are all themes that affect us in our essential quality of life. healthy biodiversity of the city. Unused ports form sheltered areas in the brackish IJ, making them suitable as foraging In essence, Buiksloterham is a tub with wet clay and elevations. areas for fish or as a stepping stone towards places deeper In Buiksloterham, there are significant opportunities for inland. Soft shores, but also slightly slanting, rocky shores, ecology, smart water drainage, purification, etc. The potential are attractive locations for biotopes of aquatic animals at meaning of water in Buiksloterham for: the bottom of the food chain. If contamination occurs, and a potential dynamic arises through the inflow of clean rainwater, for example, these ports can become the breeding grounds MATERIALS of the IJ. Clean rainwater can also potentially be used as a freshwater pearl: a small area where the water is cleaner than Material-flow analyses show that water is one of the largest in the surrounding area. volumes that flow through the city. The better the quality of the water is, the greater its usability will be. By allowing there to be cascading in water quality, the water is used in the SOCIETY smartest way. This means that the cleanest available water is not immediately disposed into the sewer, but first used as Water in the city can be a social meeting area for play and irrigation water or for washing cars, for example, before ending recreation. up in the open water. The urban system can be designed in such a way that the supply and demand of clean water are aligned with one another. In areas that are above the water level of the HEALTH IJ, and therefore do not have problems with water drainage, the water system can also be made cleverer. Surface water contributes to the reduction of the urban heatisland effect; through evaporation it cools the city. Open water also provides fresh air: the IJ is a wind corridor; side arms ENERGY transport the wind further into the city. In clean water, one can also swim. Water plays an important role as the carrier of heat energy for transportation. On top of that, there are an increasing number INDEX of applications through which electricity can be generated using the kinetic energy of moving water. In Buiksloterham, this last application does not play a large role. The water can be used as 1. Decentralised wastewater purification an energy buffer though. Heat transport by means of water is also being increasingly applied to greater extents. Amsterdam 2. Floating gardens is developing a heat grid.

3. Rain buffers in the public space 4. Rain buffers at an altitude

77


DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER PURIFICATION

PROBLEM Wastewater is a source of energy, nutrients, metals, and contains traces of other valuable elements. Effectively and economically recovering these substances from wastewater is one of the most important challenges of the twenty-first century. Micro-contamination, such as hormone and medicine residues, is currently barely being removed, and this can almost exclusively be achieved by keeping the wastewater as undiluted as possible. Valuable nutrients, such as phosphate, can be recovered to a high degree through the application of urineseparation infrastructure. Using food grinders the nutrient content of the (black) wastewater can be further heightened.

electricity

micro-contaminants (hormones, drug residues)

bacteria

warm water (3,3 million MJ in 2034)

WHAT

blackwater (168 million liter in 2034)

One of the targets is to develop the infrastructure in such a way that it supports the recovery of nutrients. This is in preparation of a decentralised biorefinery that not only effectively purifies the water, but also makes the recovery of valuable raw materials possible. Decentralised wastewater purification can occur in an installation and (prior to post-treatment and greywater purification) by means of helophyte filters.

grey water (349 million liter in 2034)

biogas P/N nutrients

organic waste (garbage disposal unit)

clean water

78

DESIGN CHALLENGE The application of decentralised wastewater purification can be integrated in existing constructions, but it is also possible to design a separate installation for this that makes this process visible. At the building level, there are a large number of challenges. The building of flexible infrastructure, both underground and in buildings, that leaves enough space for varying connection points and expansions in the future. Sewage needs to be separated from various wastewater types (examples of this are grey, yellow and black water).

seperated sewage systems yellow, grey and blackwater

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

Legenda Kabels en Leidingen Telecomkabel Datatransportkabels Hogedruk gas leiding Lagedruk gas leiding Hoogspanningkabel Middenspanningkabel Laagspanningkabel Waternet leiding

close to new housing projects (shortest transport lines)

close to open water

plots owned by municipality (shared interest)

close to underground infrastructure (hub)

bron: eigendomssituatie Buiksloterham Stadsdeel Noord (2013)


CIRCULAR CITIES Utilitarian building designed as sculpture - DOK architecten

79

above surface level Image: Matthijs/Flickr

Impact on location

Daily rhythm


FLOATING GARDENS

PROBLEM The water in Buiksloterham is not heavily polluted, but it does not yet reach the ambition that the municipality of Amsterdam set out in its strategic vision: swimming-quality water in all the public water of the city. In order to achieve this in a sustainable, attractive and relatively inexpensive manner, a series of floating gardens can be utilised that purify the water and retain clean (rain)water.

habitat bacteria

WHAT

clean water

Floating gardens simulate a wetland effect in a compact way. They are highly effective in reducing solid particles in the water and breaking down dead organic material in water ways. Floating gardens are easily modifiable to fit local circumstances.

80

CO2 carbon dioxide

O2

Microbes that break down nutrients and other water contaminations require a surface to attach to. A floating island with a dense, yet porous texture can retain many bacteria (in the form of a biofilm) that can absorb a great deal of contaminants in a short period of time. Plant roots also absorb contaminations. In fact, the nutrients are fertiliser for the plants. Due to the sheltered zones that arise between the plantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; roots, the solid particles that float through the water settle.

grey water

DESIGN CHALLENGE The harbours in Buiksloterham are in open connection with the river IJ and the North Sea Canal, which is why it is not realistic to improve the water quality in its entirety using floating garden. However, sheltered areas, such as those of dead-end harbour slips, can be used to create clean-water pearls that are fed by rainwater and in which in- and outflowing water is filtered by the (accessible or inaccessible) floating gardens.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

Open water without boat traffic

Close to leaching risk of polluted soil

oxygen

P/N nutrients

Part of ecologic frame work

Floating Island International. 2015. Biohaven Technology. Available online: http://www.floatingislandinternational.com/products/ biohaven-technology/


CIRCULAR CITIES Floating garden

81

Application on and under surface level Image: bmilligan | Free Association Design

Impact op wide surroundings

Time: gradual decrease


RAIN WATER BUFFERS IN THE PUBLIC SPACE

PROBLEM The increasingly rainwater peaks in the city are a problem in two ways. Firstly, there is the nuisance that a surplus of rainwater causes at low-lying areas in the city and in the basements of residences. Secondly, overflow is resorted to in the event of peak downpours, discharging sewage water directly into the surface water, which is a blow to the local ecology.

recreation public space

WHAT

water

habitat

Through buffering, the sewage system is less burdened during peak downpours. Because infiltration during high groundwater levels in Buiksloterham is difficult, creating buffers is the only option. The idea behind open water buffers in the public spaces is that the budget for the temporary storage of rainwater is combined with the improvement of the quality of water in the public spaces. A pond with a dynamic level can be installed, or depressions that can fill up and drain off again.

rainwater heavy rain normal rain

DESIGN CHALLENGE 82

The dynamic of the climate becomes visible in the public space, and the presence of water has a positive effect on the climate of the city. Because the system makes use of the natural runoff of water, pumps are not required. It is important for designers to take this into account: the buffers must be higher than the surface water, but lower than its surrounding environment. This prevents stagnation. Water buffers in the public space can also be combined with the constructed wetlands that purify the rainwater before it ends up in the surface water.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

29

90

m2

78 70

m2

m2

75

m2

working facilities living

Areas with surplus of rainwater

Areas with a lot of hard surfaces

biomass

Integrate with new housing


CIRCULAR CITIES Water as a part of public space - plants purify the water, cascades create a constant water level

83

Application on surface level Image: Sherbourne Commonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Water Channel / Waterfrontoronto

Impact on network

Time: irregular peaks


RAIN WATER BUFFERS AT AN ALTITUDE

PROBLEM Storing rainwater at an altitude has two large benefits. Firstly, the water remains clean, because it does not flow over ground level before it is buffered. Secondly, the kinetic energy of the rainwater is conserved, because the water can naturally be transported through the force of gravity. By storing the water at an altitude, it can be utilised in a grey water system without the need for much pumping, for example.

WHAT Through the use of vertical structures in the shape of water towers, the system becomes visible and independent of the structure of buildings. Towers can also be utilised to store the water at an altitude in the event of an energy surplus. Subsequently, the energy can be won back when it is required.

grey water

warm water

rainwater

landmark

electricity

sewage water

The water can also be an addition to the water system in the open space, because it can ensure a more continuous supply of water to public vegetation or water services.

DESIGN CHALLENGE 84

connection to network

The main task for designers is the integration of such iconic objects in the urban fabric. Like windmills, heat hubs and installations for soil purification, the towers contribute to the identity of the circular city. There is little exchange with the direct environment, so its primary contribution is towards visual quality. It is a challenge to make the dynamic functioning of the water system visible by showing the content of the buffer in one way or another. Further, of course there are natural ways to integrate the water buffers amongst existing structures or utilise the towers for recreational purposes as a climbing wall or vantage point.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

29

90

m2

78 70

m2

m2

75

m2

working facilities living

Areas with surplus of rainwater

Areas with a lot of hard surfaces

Integrate with new housing


CIRCULAR CITIES Water tower as architectural object

85

Application above surface level

Image: Wikimedia Commons

Impact on network

Time: irregular peaks


86

86Image:DELVA Landscape Architects


CONSTRUCTION A large part of the residences and other functions in Buiksloterham will be newly built. Construction in a postindustrial context is separated from traditional city expansions by the quantity of existing structures that are already present and the potential for the redevelopment of existing structures. The construction chain, starting with the collection of raw materials, moving towards the construction and, finally, the end of the life cycle, has various impacts and requires a high level of energy and material use. A sustainable building will last for a long time or, alternatively, is easily reusable. In addition, existing structures have an influence on the sustainability of the neighbourhood: both through the integration of technology (solar panels, insulation) and the energetic urban development (a compact grid structure, for example).

CIRCULAR CITIES

BIODIVERSITY Integration of vegetation in architecture contributes to the creation of local microclimates that, in turn, contribute to a pleasant living environment. By building in layers, as much green as possible can be realised on facades, roofs and balconies. Using this vegetation, heat can be retained in summer (preventing the urban heat-island effect), rain can be buffered and the air can be purified. In addition, these green areas form microbiotopes that can serve as hiding places and nesting places for a strong local biodiversity.

SOCIETY

The potential meaning of buildings in Buiksloterham for:

There are a large number of handles through which to provide quality. Diversity in the makeup of the populations leads to a resilient society. By combining social rental housing, houses for MATERIALS starters and exclusive residences you can create an interesting and vibrant mix. Shared facilities in the public space, such as a The above-ground and underground infrastructure that is shared shed or a cultural district cafe, contribute to the social already present in the area is largely going to be reused. The cohesion in a neighbourhood. Constructing with an eye towards present existing structures can be reused. Generally, these are the human scale contributes to a pleasant living environment. of lacking quality for renovation, but the demolition materials can be brought together in a materials market en subsequently be sorted and reused. For new construction, designing using HEALTH sustainable and local materials is interesting in order to decrease the life cycle impact of materials. There are options, In addition to the integration of vegetation in the architecture, for example, of growing crops that are rich in fibre on the plots which contributes to the health of the future residents and that have currently not been built on, such as miscanthus, from users of the neighbourhood, a sport location in the outside air, which bio-based construction materials can be made, such as for example, can stimulate social cohesion through physical insulation or chipboard. activity. The realisation of good infrastructure for sustainable mobility, such as (electric) bicycles, can also contribute to the health of residents.

ENERGY

An energy-neutral or even energy-positive building is already possible. The ways to do this are becoming increasingly smarter and their negative impact on the quality of life is diminishing. Proper insulation no longer has to come at the expense of the air quality in residences and rotorless windmills no longer create a stroboscope effect and do not make a noise. By designing for optimal energy-demand reduction early in the design process, and constructing the orientation of roofs and covers to maximise the solar panel revenue, for example, we construct energetic neighbourhoods.

INDEX

1. Social and functional diversity 2. Adaptive subdivision 3. Temporary land use 4. Smart reuse

87


SOCIAL AND FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY office privately-owned property

PROBLEM

social housing

Post-industrial areas are often on the edge of cities, with working-class neighbourhoods nearby. Spatial and social segregation has increased in European cities since 2000. The challenge is to create a good social connection of the new neighbourhood with existing, surrounding neighbourhoods. In order to prevent a traditionally bustling area from becoming a monotonous living area, the value of mixing needs to be recognised. The danger exists that areas transform too radically, without sufficiently protecting the small initiatives and entrepreneurs that are already present in the area.

WHAT In the transformation of post-industrial areas, maintaining diversity is of great importance. The already present initiatives, creative workplaces, culture, etc., are important catalysts of transformation and should have a foothold in the area through phased transformation or low rental prices. 88

DESIGN CHALLENGE

Self-construction and CPC plots are not always attractive for developers or landowners. Furthermore, the phased transformation of an area with the maintenance of alreadypresent entrepreneurs is often not financially attractive for developers. With the new regulations applying to housing corporations, they are often not allowed to construct buildings Moreover, measures such as an obligatory percentage of outside of the social rental-housing sector. workplaces and social rental housing can ensure that an area does not develop monotonously. Renting newly constructed building is often unaffordable for the small entrepreneurs that are already present in the area, An obligatory percentage of self-construction or CPC plots lead with the consequence that many of them leave the area, while to a good mix of residents, who often feel strongly committed these entrepreneurs in particular can be a catalyst for the area. to their living environment and support social cohesion and participation.

SPATIAL CONDITION

New housing plans


CIRCULAR CITIES Mix of styles, volumes and functions

1.35m - 1.50m

89 >1.50m

0.90m - 1.00m

Application on and above surface level

Impact on surroundings

Time: slow regeneration >50 year


ADAPTIVE ALLOTMENT

PROBLEM Post-industrial areas are often near the city centre, making them dense, promising urban expansion areas. There is a danger that these desired areas develop monotonously with the most cost-efficient buildings. Adaptations at a later stage become difficult and the only way of renewing the area is often to demolish whole blocks of residences.

WHAT Flexibility on the level of urban development and architecture. Designing with surplus and flexible building structures offers the opportunity for a building to take on multiple forms of use or functions after each other. For buildings, flexibility in construction and additional floors are a guiding force. In addition to making residences smaller or larger, this makes it possible to switch between living and working. Within urban developmental ensembles, small-scale, plotbased developments â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in comparison to large-scale complexes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are key in the event that the buildings no longer meet their required criteria. 90

DESIGN CHALLENGE The extent of the preliminary investment increases proportionally to the increase in the height of floors and surplus. Realising more m3 per m2 requires a considerably larger investment, which can be earned back over a longer period of time. Plot-based development is often unappealing for investors and developers, but is more suitable for private builders.

SPATIAL CONDITION

New housing plans

flexible building structure regeneration per plot


CIRCULAR CITIES The grid structure of New York City enables large diversity of building types within a street.

1.35m - 1.50m

91 >1.50m

0.90m - 1.00m

Application on and above surface level Image: Flickr

Impact on surroundings

Time: slow regeneration >50 year


TEMPORARY LAND USE

PROBLEM BSH

One of the characteristics of Buiksloterham and other postindustrial areas is the large amount of terrains waiting for a new use. Some terrains have already been vacant for decades. The invisible claims that lay on these terrains result in inaccessibility and non-use of the area. In addition, the areas are being mowed to prevent nature development, which could hinder future spatial developments.

identity

materials

social activity

DIY

in between-development

low budget

flexible space

WHAT As a response to these type of terrains, of which the amount has increased in industrial areas since the 80â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and in residential areas since the construction crisis, is temporary urban development on a rise. Both policies and design search for ways to use these vacant plots in a smarter way. Temporarity is key in this case: Interventions that are done need a relatively low investment and are easy to remove or relocate again. This way, the spaces can contribute to the surrounding neighbourhoods in an important way.

92

The diversity of possible temporary uses of these spaces is large and depends on local conditions, how long the area is available and the degree of flexibility that is needed. Furthermore, it is important that the owner sees possibilities and other parties are willing to use the area in a certain way. The intensity can vary a lot - from a temporary nature area with pioneer vegetation, to temporary facilities needed in a neighborhood still under construction, like a elementary school or a supermarket. The spectrum from extensive to very intensive temporary land uses is continuously expanding, giving a succesful example for almost every context.

SPATIAL CONDITION

Vacant land >5 years

DESIGN CHALLENGE When taking vacant land in temporary use, it is important to have clear agreements between the owner and the user. Often, a temporary park for example, becomes so popular that it is hard for the owner to start using his land for new developments. Even the most extensive form of temporary use - overgrowing the vacant terrain - provides a large value for the city, even if it is unaccessible. This is because the type of nature that develops here (pioneer vegetation) consists of an interesting variety of species that is very resilient: the city will always have other vacant terrains to move to.


CIRCULAR CITIES Diversity of temporary landuses, varying from pocket parks to shopping centres

onderschrift, icoontjes

Image: Wikipedia

93

Image: Tanakawho | Flickr

Application on surface level Image: La Citta Vitta | Flickr

Image: Wikimedia Commons

impact variable

Time: temporary


SMART REUSE

PROBLEM Nowadays, it is common knowledge that the current liniar use of materials of ‘take-make-waste’ has to change. simply because the raw materials are depleting and we have a large ecological footprint.

94

In transformation areas, there is not only a lot of new construction taking place, but a lot of demolishing or renovating of existing structures. The demand for building materials is large. Empty sheds or plots can be used to temporarily store recovered materials that can be used for new construction in the area. Not only recovered building materials can be utilised in construction, but also other locally extracted or recovered materials. Think of chopped-down trees from the neighbourhood, for example, or, if the space permits it, the production of vegetation such as the miscanthus, from which particular location and making these materials available for fibres can be extracted. reuse. Oogstkaart.nl works with a network of waste scouts which it supports. On top of that, manufacturers can use the WHAT site to make their closed waste-disposal processes more public in a safe manner. Reuse is not recycling. In the case of reuse, there is no change in the original form, but instead the existing form is used for the same or a different purpose. DESIGN CHALLENGE Reuse diminishes the impact on the environment, because no In order to stimulate the use of recycled materials, measures new raw materials, energy or new products are required. The must be taken in plot passports. societal costs for the (re)building and demolishing of buildings can/will decrease. The situation demands a different way of designing. The choice It seems obvious that designers of new constructions consult of architect will be partly determined based on the materials material depots first; preferably as close to the building location that can be found in the environment. as possible. In this case, the depot can literally be a temporary In addition, designers can reflect on the lifespan of the different storage. building components in the early stages, in which cycle the A matchmaker between the supply and demand of materials belong and what the follow-up applications of these manufacturers and designers of and with residual materials materials are. offers a solution. The role of the “marketplace of second-hand building materials” is currently being fulfilled by the website In a raw-materials passport, the architect and the builder can Oogstkaart.nl. The site was launched by Superuse Studios establish which materials, at which quantities and in which in 2013, and has the objective of offering a comprehensible cycle they have been used and what the follow-up applications overview of the type and quantity of residual material at a of these materials are.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

close to new housing plans (shortest transport as possible)

close to open water

plot owned by municipality (shared interest)


CIRCULAR CITIES Reusable material is often sold in large bulks, for example on the website of Oogstkaart.

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Application on and above surface level Images: Oogstkaart.nl

Impact on surroundings

Time: slow regeneration >50 year


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TRANSPORTATION The transportation of goods and people has a large impact on the manner in which cities function. It is essential for the functioning of the economy and meeting personal needs, but it can also lead to significant nuisance and impact, such as air and noise pollution. The trends surrounding mobility and transport are highly dynamic. Several decades ago the car was still a rarity; now we are already considering what the successor of the car will be. Some time ago the Segway was considered to be the mode of transportation of the future. The rise of electric driving (for cars, scooters and bicycles), car parts and self-driving cars are now considered to be the game changers of the future. Will these developments be the end of public transportation? (Van de Weyer & van der Brent, 2015). The large-scale innovative force and dynamism of new modes of transportation demand urban development that is flexible enough to cope with and facilitate these changes, and meet the required transport and mobility demand. The meaning of mobility for Buiksloterham:

MATERIALS Infrastructure is a facilitating function in the city. In terms of materials, the direct savings are relatively limited, although there are options in the realm of bitumen-free asphalt, the reuse of existing pavement, etc. Good infrastructure can reduce the use of other materials, such as car parts and smaller units (micro-mobility). By using retractable/modifiable pavements and roads, the flexibility of the city increases.

BIODIVERSITY Mobility has an impact on biodiversity through emissions and particulates. In addition, the infrastructure forms a barrier to many animal species.

SOCIETY The car is the most-used individual mode of transportation. Through digital media, the boundary between individual and public transportation is blurring. People carpool with others, for example. The self-driving car is a social car: it drives like your grandmother and will stop for everything. Less parking in the city as result of the self-driving car = more space for other matters.

HEALTH The poor air quality in cities has a large impact on the life expectancy of its inhabitants. As such, clean air as a result of electric driving will significantly increase the quality of life in the city. Noise caused by traffic also impacts peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health. Moving on the bicycle or by foot is healthy. As long as mobility is an unhealthy activity, every kilometre travelled less is beneficial. Mixed functions result in reduced transportation.

INDEX

ENERGY

1. New networks

Mobility is the most visible form of energy usage in the public domain. As a result of the rise of the electric and self-driving car, the possibility arises of using cars as a mobile battery (energy buffer). Furthermore, savings can be made in terms of mobility by cleverly designing the city; making sure that cars do not have to break or accelerate much, and taking measures to make cycling more attractive to travellers.

2. Sustainable distribution

Van der Weijer, Van der Brent. (2015) Hoe de autonome auto alles anders maakt. Volkskrant, 26 juni 2015

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3. Shared spaces 4. Smart parking solutions

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NEW NETWORKS

PROBLEM We are all too familiar with it: streets that are continuously broken up to install new water pipes, sewage pipes or cables. In the transition towards a circular city, large changes in the underground infrastructure will take place. Due to the growing exchange between small and large networks (smart grids) many pipe structures will need to be adapted. At the same time, certain types of infrastructure will need to be â&#x20AC;&#x153;taken out of the ground,â&#x20AC;? such as rainwater drainage systems. A lot will be happening below the surface over the coming decades.

WHAT The challenge is to make physical networks more easily accessible, so that they can easily be replaced. Below-ground pipe networks, in old sewage pipes, for example, can ensure that the street has to be opened up less often. Another challenge is in solving data connections wirelessly as much as possible, and closing cycles locally where possible, so that less underground infrastructure is required.

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DESIGN CHALLENGE These types of interventions can influence the public space when networks are made visible or even installed above ground level, such as in the form of pipe streets. The challenge to reduce networks also has an impact, and can be seen as a potential solution with regard to sewage and rainwater.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

Legenda Kabels en Leidingen Telecomkabel Datatransportkabels Hogedruk gas leiding Lagedruk gas leiding Hoogspanningkabel Middenspanningkabel Laagspanningkabel Waternet leiding

Use existing infrastructure

Close to new developments

saving energy efficient consumption smart grid

efficient layout of underground infrastructure


CIRCULAR CITIES Invisible networks have an increasing influence on our daily environment

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Time - constant Image: Asian Green Buildings

Impact on network

Application on surface level


SUSTAINABLE DISTRIBUTION

PROBLEM The use and the functionality of the public domain have changed since the rise of the Internet. People work from home more often, have packages delivered at home, and search for good restaurants online. As a result, a decentralisation of functions has taken place: smaller shops, restaurants are less location-dependent and people who work from home go for drinks “around the corner.”

WHAT In response to this, the variation in modes of transportation is broadening. Where previously traffic could be more or less categorised into lorries, cars, cyclists and pedestrians, a broad spectrum of modes of transportation is developing, blurring these boundaries; from Segways to hoverboards, to electric freight bicycles to small covered scooters and motorcycles. These modes of transportation are utilised for smaller distances, can often manoeuvre more easily through compact spaces and require less energy – and they no longer use fossil fuels.

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There is presently a great deal of innovation occurring regarding these developments. Experiments with package hubs, for example, where people can have their packages delivered and pick them up 24/7, and a variety of other modes of transportation: boat, tram, drone… Due to this tailor-made approach, the impact of mobility on the environment is becoming smaller. The primary loss of time occurs when a traveller has to switch from one mode of transportation to another.

DESIGN CHALLENGE The public domain also demands more flexibility. The sharp divide between a narrow bike path and a broad motorway is becoming less logical. Distances are more important when energy use (human or battery-powered) plays a larger role: time must be taken to think about special networks for bicycles and electricity-powered traffic.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

close to water or a road for transport reasons

online markets

home delivery

road infrastructure

flexible transport

Hub


CIRCULAR CITIES A variety of new ways of distribution make the system more flexible and have less impact the city. E-cargo options decrease gas-emissions.

Flickr

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wikimedia commons

Time: constant flickr

Impact on network flickr

Application on surface level


SHARED SPACES PROBLEM Over time, the car has seized disproportionately large parts of the public domain in cities. This applies to both driving cars and cars that are standing still.

adding green space slow traffic playgrounds

existing situation

In post-industrial areas in particular, infrastructure is often constructed spaciously with an eye towards cargo traffic. In addition, large sections of the ground level are used for parking, which is often only utilised for part of the day. The roads that facilitate the through-flow past and through Buiksloterham are proportioned in such a way that they act as hard separations from adjoining functions. Additionally, car-based traffic, including transportation traffic, is the manufacturer of a significant proportion of particulates.

WHAT The mentioned problems provide enough motivation to diminish car traffic in Buiksloterham for the benefit of a qualitatively high-end public domain. On top of stimulating bicycle accessibility, public transport and the sharing of electric cars, the indoor solving of parking is another way to provide more space. 102

When cars are only used at the main access point, secondary access systems can be structured to consider slow-moving traffic and playing children more. Furthermore, the public domain can be made greener here, leading to more diversity and improved air quality. The further you move into the neighbourhood, the more the car becomes a guest. By the main access point, new profiles such as the shared street provide chances to make the neighbourhood more attractive to pedestrians and cyclists.

SPATIAL CONDITIONS

close to water or a road for transport reasons

new situation

DESIGN CHALLENGE In order to shelter areas from cars, good cooperation between different parties (municipality, developer, designer) is necessary. The municipality must discourage the use of cars through strict parking standards. In addition, the greening of the public domain demands a new policy regarding the general design and management of the public domain.


CIRCULAR CITIES A variety of ways to use shared space in streets and on squares.

landezine

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Flickr / Franklin Heijnen

Time: constant buurtengids.rooming.nl

Impact on network

Application on surface level


SMART PARKING SOLUTIONS

PROBLEM In the transformation of post-industrial areas to residential areas, parking pressure is significantly increased. Parking in underground garages is often too expensive due to soil contamination. When parking occurs in inner areas, large, hardened (roof) surfaces develop upon which trees cannot grow and through which the infiltration of rainwater is impossible.

green facade electricity network

battery

WHAT Cleverly situated central parking garages can provide a good solution, because they concentrate traffic at strategic locations, thus allowing for the development of areas that are sheltered from cars. The neighbourhood can make the area greener with trees and reduce hardened spaces. At the same time, it is also possible to anticipate for future developments and the rise of self-driving cars. These cars do not demand conventional parking spaces that are reached through roads, but instead require automated parking facilities that can compactly stack the cars. 104

Particularly in combination with the recent rise in the use of DESIGN CHALLENGE shared cars, the self-driving car will contribute to a more efficient use of the road network. People will be more inclined to Residents are often not willing to accept the discomfort of a give up their own car; in most cases, the desire for cars is rooted car parked at a distance. Designers are still bound to traditional in the desire for mobility, and is not necessarily connected to parking standards, which are demanded by the municipalities. the desire to possess a car. Parking garages demand careful urban developmental Finally, through the application of green facades and roofs, implementation and proper architectural design. parking garages can further contribute to the neighbourhood. Vegetation can have an important influence on cooling and filtering the air; not just for the parking garage, but for the neighbourhood as a whole.

SPATIAL CONDITION

close to streets


CIRCULAR CITIES Automated parking

Elektric car sharing

Parking lot as battery: power of solar panels can be stored in carâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s battery

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Green appearance of a parking lot

Time: constant Images: Wikimedia commons

Impact on network

Application on surface level


CIRCULARITY CREATES SPACE Spatial expression of the circular city – seven spatial principles. The mentioned interventions are a selection of the possible building blocks of the circular city. They are interventions that themselves have a limited impact on their environment: they technically contribute to the circularity of the city, but have no other function on the city’s liveability. The added value arises when exchanges take place with other interventions, but also with the public domain and the people who live and work there. Techniques – but also more general insights regarding sustainability – are constantly changing. In essence, the selection of building blocks is a snapshot of the current level of technology. Still, conclusions can be drawn from the collection of technical applications that together provide a general overview of the impact of circularity on cities. They display a number of spatial trends that will become visible in cities in which circularity plays an important role. Circularity requires space. Processes that usually take place in areas outside of the city are brought into residential neighbourhoods. In time, space outside of the city is freed up, such as when a central sewage-treatment facility is no longer required because the sewage is treated in the neighbourhood. Secondly, dealing with uncertainties is taking on a more important role in relation to urban development, which expresses itself in the option to use space flexibly and the straightforward (re)assembling of buildings. Seven principles:

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3. Flexibility, modularity and possibility to disassemble Progressive insight in the realm of sustainability, fast developments in retail, and more autonomous modes of transportation: the public domain will change, but we do not know what the consequences of this will be. Clever design can adapt to new forms of space utilisation. The possibility of reuse can already be found in the production of a building or space. This is the famous “Cradle2Cradle” vision. In addition, a circular city can continuously renew itself and grow. Movability, modularity and the ease of disassembly contribute towards a flexible city that can transform with only a limited impact on the environment and within which materials can easily be reused.

4. Integrated vegetation

The importance of vegetation to a city has been recognised for more than a century. There is also growing awareness of the broad spectrum of ecosystem services that vegetation can offer, on the one hand, and the contribution that green in the city can offer to biodiversity, on the other hand. Green has a large, buffering effect on peaks in warmth, rainwater or air pollution. The clever use of plants is increasingly being applied, such as for the cooling of buildings or the purification of the soil. 1. Space for exchanges and buffering At the same time, the built-up environment can provide a space The demand for raw materials, energy and space has high to flora and fauna that have a hard time surviving outside of peaks and troughs. Because circular cities make use of natural the city. The biodiversity in cities is already larger in cities than resources, supply and demand are harder to align directly. in rural areas, and not just in city parks. Furthermore, the fluctuation in the supply of these sources is increasing due to climate change. Therefore, it is necessary 5. Critical mass to install buffers through which supply and demand can be Post-industrial areas are often in alcoves near the inner city. effectively aligned with one another. In order to ensure a vibrant city, reduce energy use, reduce the Beside the trend of decentralisation regarding material and demand for mobility and create more compact service areas energy flows, large-scale construction of large infrastructure for utilities facilities, a high density with a mix of functions is for the supply of energy, data, heat, water, and so on, is taking important. place. Due to the fact that these networks are becoming smarter, they will not only become suppliers, but instead become infrastructure – much like the Internet – that are both 6. Network for smaller transport modalities supplied to and taken from. In this manner, everybody can Roads are becoming more cramped due to the rise of smaller contribute to the sustainable city and additional space develops transportation modalities and a less central distribution for buffering. demand. The gap between the traditional city bike and the car is increasingly being closed by a wide range of transportation types. For electric or human propulsion, distance is a more important factor than for cars. This demands networks that are Therefore, all kinds of utility facilities arise in the city: a heat specifically oriented towards this type of transportation. hub here, a bioreactor there. These objects have similar sizes; no smaller than a garage and no larger than a large residence. The added value of such objects cannot always be seen in the 7. Modes of transport as buffer neighbourhood: a heated outdoor swimming pool is fun, but Two important trends – the rise of the self-driving car and the there is not enough support for each object to take on a similar rise of the electric car – will lead to an increase in traffic, but also unique function. There are also many temporary objects, such the fact that, in time, parking will be able to occur outside of the as installations that remove contaminants from the soil. city. This will free up a lot of parking space in the city.

2. Utility facilities as design tasks

Regardless, such a series of buildings are also special: they form design challenges that together can make significant contributions to the identity of a neighbourhood.


CIRCULAR CITIES

Projection of the optimal location for all building blocks in Buiksloterham. A diverse image arises, in which much is happening around water and around polluted locations.

Legenda VOCL extraction Environmental remediation Biosculptures Shores and sludge Decentralized sewage treatment Floating gardens Rainwater buffering Temporary use of space Materials market New networks/ sustainable distribution

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5

TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR CITY

Development from industrial area into residential neighbourhood In de jaren ‘80 begon de leegloop van Buiksloterham, met het vertrek van enkele grote fabrieken. Grote stukken liggen al tientallen jaren braak, en lange tijd was het een relatief laagwaardig bedrijventerrein door haar slechte ligging tov. snelwegen. Toen werd besloten het gebied te transformeren naar woonwijk, werd een nieuwe ontsluitingsweg aangelegd. De eerste pioniers kwamen tijdens de bouwcrisis kijken: De Ceuvel, New Energy Docks en andere interessante plekken. Op dit moment bevindt Buiksloterham zich in een overgang van een pioniersfase naar een snelle ontwikkelingsfase.

The three investigated layers together form the instrumentarium to arrive at a circular post-industrial city. Each layer has its own spatial addition: the large structures arise out of the Genius Loci. The planes are programmed in such a way that circularity will naturally be given a place in the city. At a large number of locations, the metabolism of the city is visible in the shape of the application of circular techniques. When we apply the circular city instrumentarium of the three layers, a neighbourhood arises in which transition over time is occurs. Two moments are tested: 2020 and 2040. In 2020, most of the currently planned (short-term) developments have been realised. Buiksloterham is really starting to become a city. It shows how adaptively dealing with the Genius Loci changes the cityscape. In 2040, a lot has changed; in particularly in relation to mobility.

In het ‘business as usual’ scenario gebeurt dus al erg veel. Op de volgende pagina zijn deze ontwikkelingen in relatie tot elkaar weergegeven.

Ci

rcu

lar building bl

oc

The instrumentarium for the Circular City defines the three steps towards a circular city:

k

enius Loci

p r o g r ammi

wG

art

Ne

ng

s

Sm

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Door de plotselinge stormachtige ontwikkeling van Buiksloterham ontstaan er nieuwe kansen voor het gebied. Naast een serie trends op de korte termijn en het feit dat nog steeds partijen zich aansluiten bij het manifest Circulair Buiksloterham, staan er ook voor de langere termijn grote ontwikkelingen op stapel. De kans dat er in de toekomst een fietsbrug zal landen aan de Grasweg is groot. Ook ligt er een reservering voor een metro naar Zaanstad, met een station aan het Johan van Hasseltkanaal, deze zal er echter niet voor 2030 komen. Andere trends, zoals de komst van de zelfrijdende/ elektrische auto en het verplicht energieneutraal bouwen vanaf 2020 beïnvloeden stedelijke ontwikkeling in het algemeen.

Instrumentarium

1. Embrace the new Genius Loci 2. Programme the city in such a way that circularity will arise 3. Work at local exchanges of circular building blocks


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Circular Building Blocks

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Programming for Circularity

A New Genius Loci


KEY MOMENTS Business as usual: Buiksloterham groeit snel vol Business as usual: Buiksloterham is filling out fast. Buiksloterham is currently in a revival phase in relation to a number of transitions; not only construction is picking up; the percentage of renewable energy is increasing and digital media are also playing an increasingly large role in its urban development. If these developments continue, Buiksloterham will fill out fast.

1. Depletion

Reflecting on the lessons that have been learnt so far; not only experimenting but also consolidating. This will ensure that Buiksloterham is not merely a pilot, but will set the pace for new urban development.

2. Preparations

3. Pioneers The Ceuvel

Former energy plant

Amsterdam Air Products

Vacant plots

Self-build pioneers

New Ridderspoorweg

UnderCurrent

New Energy Docks CPO’s

“Business as usual” stedelijke ontwikkeling

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Gewoonboot

Ce

14% 6% 1,5%

Manifest Circular Buiksloterh

€ Municipality: selection based on quality

1900

Policy document “Choosing urbanization”: 9000 new houses in Amsterdam North 3600

Car sharing

E

Mobile shopping

Determining land use plan

Cloud

3500 Use of electricity (kWh/inw)

1350

Use of gas (M3/inw)

3220

2000

2005

2010

2015

C

District ‘Noorde

2020


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4. Revival

5. Resilient city Schoonschip Cityplot Noorderkaap

Economic growth

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6,0

Renewale energy shares 50%

Ceuvel

The new Ceuvel?

3,0

Cityplot BSH 14%

Self-build BSH 0

uiksloterham

g

-3,5

Energy neutral building law Completely self-driving car

ng

Subway station V. Hasselt

Cloud based technology

C

Biking bridge over river IJ District heating ‘Noorderwarmte’

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

Economic growth (%)

Schoon Schip


2020 Projection of the circular measures

The three steps (Embrace the new Genius Loci – Programme the city so that circularity will develop – Work on local exchanges of circular building blocks) lead to a city in which the new Genius Loci is visible. At several places, construction will only take place after many years. The soil conditions determine where parks are located. Here, trees are grown that will later also be in the streets. There are small utility facilities throughout the neighbourhood. The metabolism of Buiksloterham is both visible and hidden at times, and consists of both small, closed cycles and connections to larger networks – both in terms of supplying to them and receiving from them. There is a lot of space for ‘green’ and ‘blue’ (nature and water), but only along shores that are not being used for the waterdistribution system. In this way, Buiksloterham is a link in the green network along the shores of the river IJ.

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district heating

C C

biopiling

water buffering

VOCL extraction phytoremedation

water purification

bioreactor

drijvende tuinen

ecological connection water transport

water buffering biopiling

bioreactor 113

C water squares

C

water purifying park

slow traffic route

material markets

ecological shores

phytoremediation

biogas boat


2020

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2040

Twenty years later a resilient, mixed neighbourhood has arisen. In the meantime, the Ceuvel has moved to another location, where it is conducting its purifying and pioneering work once again. A new high-end public transportation line and a new bridge for cyclists definitively make Buiksloterham part of the city; for slow traffic in particular. The trees that were planted to purify the soil are replanted along the green streets, where cars barely drive anymore, but there is a high degree of diversity in terms of smaller modes of transportation.

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CIRCULAR CITIES

district heating network

C C

water buffering

biopiling

heating hub

energy generation water purification

bioreactor

material markets

ecological connection water transport

water buffering

C

T

station BSH packages hub water squares

biopiling biogas boat

C

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water tower

water purifying park phytoremediation

The New Ceuvel

new biking bridge

station Noorde

station Sixhaven


2040

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AFTERWORD

CIRCULAR CITIES

Buiksloterham is a neighbourhood like no other in Amsterdam. Although this post-industrial area is exemplary as one of the last former harbour areas near the city centre to be transformed into a city neighbourhood after years of decreasing population, current developments cannot be compared to the redevelopment of other residential developments in post-industrial harbour areas. During the first study into Circular Buiksloterham, which was the foundation for the manifesto aimed at achieving the circular development of the neighbourhood, and which was signed by twenty parties, spatial developments occurred very slowly. The building crisis has provided Amsterdam with the opportunity of developing new forms of urban development that will ultimately lead to a more mixed, circular and humane city. The relatively sudden, renewed desire to build in Amsterdam led to a refocusing in the study you are reading now: in addition to the collecting and developing of design tools, the emphasis has come to lie on the creation of a rich breeding ground for circularity. This breeding ground only arises if there is both space for experimentation and the consolidation of acquired knowledge. Luckily, Buiksloterham has had the space to give the new or renewed forms of urban development a place to grow. With this, the circular ambitions in the broad sense of the word are reached at a number of different scale levels. Moreover, the growth of knowledge regarding this theme is still a work in progress. This study is but one of the many studies aimed at the task of developing circularity in urban development. The ball is now in the court of the municipality and developers. Buiksloterham is not yet a â&#x20AC;&#x153;successful experiment,â&#x20AC;? and it is still too early to lean back and enjoy the fact that the building crisis seems to be over. The municipality has an important role in creating the conditions for ground allocation at the start of the planning process, and making new forms of maintenance and management of the city during and after the realisation of projects a reality. The next step is to apply the learnt lessons and adopt them in other post-industrial areas in Amsterdam and the Netherlands.

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CIRCULAIR CITIES

Designing Post-Industrial Amsterdam - the case of Buiksloterham DELVA Landscape Architects Steven Delva, Rens Wijnakker, Jens Jorritsma, Cosmin-Stefan Pislariu, Marit Noest Studioninedots Albert Herder, Monika Pieroth, Maaike Behm Metabolic Sanderine van Odijk

Design and publication: DELVA Landscape Architects NL Hoogte Kadijk 71 I 1018 BE Amsterdam BE Quellinstraat 49 I 2018 Antwerpen tel. +31(0)20 220 90 78 email. info@delva.la I w. www.delva.la

This document is published under a Creative Commons licence in the name of DELVA Landscape Architects, Metabolic & Studioninedots (CC-BY-NC-ND 2016).

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You are allowed to: Share the work – copy it, spread it, and exchange it using any media form of file format Under the following conditions: Correct attribution – The user must mention the name of the creator, place a link to the licence and indicate whether the work has been changed. This may be done within reason, but not in such a manner that you create the impression that the licensor agrees with your work or your usage of the work. Non-commercial – You may not use the work for commercial purposes No derivative works – You may not spread the shared materials if you have remixed it, modified it or have expanded on it. Deviation from the above – Each of the conditions mentioned above can be deviated from with the express permission of the licensor.

This publication was made possible with thanks to a contribution by the Stimuleringsfonds Creatieve Industrie in relation to the open call “Working on the metabolism of the city”

EFL STICHTING

The English translation of ‘ - Ontwerpen aan de post-industriele stad” (ISBN: 978-90-823764-1-8) was made possible with thanks to a contribution by the EFL foundation - www.efl-stichting.nl


CIRCULAR CITIES


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EFL STICHTING

Circular Cities  

The book Circular Cities is the result of research by DELVA, Metabolic and Studioninedots on designing post-industrial Amsterdam, i.e. case...

Circular Cities  

The book Circular Cities is the result of research by DELVA, Metabolic and Studioninedots on designing post-industrial Amsterdam, i.e. case...

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