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STUDIOGRUBER

STUDIOGRUBER


STUDIOGRUBER

STUDIOGRUBER


MAGNETIC URBAN FIELD GRAZ

WINNING ENTRY


MAGNETIC URBAN FIELD GRAZ Magnetic Urban Field is the ex-aequo winning entry for the Europan 11 competition in Graz, Austria. Situated at Graz’s urban fringe, Magnetic Urban Field combines a transportation hub, park and ride facility with a large parking lot for the city’s soccer stadium and a 100m tall housing high-rise performing as a gateway when entering the city from the south. In the ambiguous environment of urban sprawl, most buildings demonstrate an autistic behavior towards their context. Adding another singular piece—regardless of size or style—would make little difference. Consequently, Magnetic Urban Field adopts the opposite approach: Rather than adding new elements, the project works with already existing elements. It treats the ordinary elements of Graz’s sprawling cityscape as found objects. Kiosks, street lamps and parked cars are condensed and reconfigured into a new artificial landscape: A landscape that develops horizontally through the logic of accumulation, as well as a spatial matrix capable of unifying diverse elements while respecting the identity of each. Intervals, repetition and seriality produce emergent patterns. Their superimposition becomes a moiré of suburban sprawl reframing the inhabitants’ perception of the suburban landscape. Here landscape, architecture and infrastructure blend into a field condition. In their condensed state they take on a more performative role. Their intricate aggregation acts as a catalyst to activate the latent space of a parking lot (sized for occasional peak events such as soccer games or rock concerts) and re-imagines it as a collective space for formal and informal urban activities. Embedded equipment and services increase its capacity to support and diversify activities in time. Rather than a fixed design the project offers the city a framework for flexible uses as needs and desires change. Thus the project turns underused resources into a community asset. A clockwise spiral organizes flows of cars, public transport, bicycles and pedestrians in a unifying topography while offering shortcuts and oblique perspectives. Here the spectacle of the arena is transposed to its urban setting: the props of suburbia’s everyday turn into a stage for the “choreography” of traffic and re-frame its condition as attractive urbanity. Location: UPC stadium, Graz, Austria Team: Stefan Gruber, Gilbert Berthold, Philipp Soeparno Competition: Ex-aequo winning entry Published in ‚„European Urbanity“ and „Identität, Nutzung, Konnektivität“ Exhibited at the Tabakfabrik Linz, Austria (2.2012), the Europan Forum Vienna (5.2012) and Tapetenwerk Leipzig, Germany (10.2012).

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


C‘MON C‘MMONS _TISCHLEIN DECK DICH THE COMMONS were traditionally elements of the natural environment: the forests, rivers or grazing land shared and used by many. But beyond a natural resource the commons were a social contract—a community’s shared interest for a sustainable future. Inspired by the idea of shared ownership, the project explores how beyond the dichotomy of private and public, individual interests can be articulated in such a way as to constitute common interests. Thus this project pursues the culture of giving as a catalyst for building trust, cooperation and community and ultimately tests possible alternate economies. “C’mon C’mmons – Tischlein deck dich!” is part-farm, part-outdoor kitchen and part-public dining place. A continuous table provides a platform for growing vegetables and herbs, cooking and eating, celebrating and play; a place for sharing seeds and plants, food and recipes, knowledge, experiences and ideas. It acts as a meeting point for inhabitants, students and visitors alike. Here everybody is both host and guest, for the installation is the result of a true collective endeavour. Weaving a wide network of commoners, the project was realized entirely based on gifts: in a “Kraut-funding” effort all plants were given by citizens of Dessau, construction material were either recycled or donated by companies, local institutions and the municipality contributed by making available infrastructure and facilities. The garden as Commons gains a social dimension: It is not only to be enjoyed or consumed, but invites citizens to actively engage, appropriate their environment, take on responsibility and contribute in constituting an alternate public sphere. Much rather than the actual table/garden object, the essential product of the project is the processes it triggers; social processes and interactions resulting from making things— building, gardening and cooking together. If at all, only these social processes can ensure the sustainability of the project. The “design” simply underscores its manifold cyclical nature: cycles of growing, harvesting and preparing organic food as continuous material and energy flows; cycles of gardening, cooking and eating as both perpetual ordinary routines and sophisticated rituals; cycles of giving as inherently reciprocal.

Location: Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau Team: Stefan Gruber, Ursula Achternkamp (artist), Klaus Fischedick (gardener) Tina Wintersteiger, Chloé Zimmermann and many volonteers Client: Self-initiated and self-managed by the Commons Completed: 2013 The project has been featured in the Mitteldeutsche Zeitung The project has been a finalist for the Marianne Brandt Award in the category C2C

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


C’MON C’MMONS TISCHLEIN DECK DICH

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


C’MON C’MMONS TISCHLEIN DECK DICH

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


HIDING IN PLAIN SIGHT PITTSBURGH

STUDIOGRUBER

saint james ter _pittsburgh _ofямБce@studiogruber.com


HIDING IN PLAIN SIGHT _BETABURGH Hiding in Plain Sightâ€? is a pedal-powered pop-up movie theater. Citizens are invited to climb onto a bike and pedal in order to see. Rather than passively consuming moving images from ubiquitous media one must work out and engage. But to generate sufďŹ cient electric power and activate the projection, participants need to cooperate. Thus, Hiding in Plain Sight is a public performance that turns passers-by into actors, strangers into team players encouraging casual encounters and playful interaction among passers-by while raising questions about the nature of public space, our health and energy consumption. During each week a prorgam of short movies curated together with the Pittsburgh Filmakers Association was screened. After being tested Downtown the movie theater, doubling as bike trailer, will pop-up throughout Pittsburgh to activate latent public space. Location: Betatesting at Four Gateway Plaza, Pittsburgh Concept and Design: Stefan Gruber Fabrication team: Stefan Gruber, Paul Moscoso, Nickie Cheung, Rebecca Lefkowitz, Sophie Riedel, Sujan Das Shrestha. Welding: Ben Carter Media Engineering: Daragh Byrne Bike Power, Electrical Engineering: Ben Speiser Film Program: Helen Chang, Maranta Dawkins, Stefan Gruber, Lauren Goshinski, Ben Speiser. Client: Pittsburgh Dowtown Partnership. The project is powered by ZeroFossil and supported by Hollaender Speed Rails. Thanks to Mary-Lou Arscott, Ernest Belamy, John Carson, Caitlin Fadgen, Jeremy Ficca, Kristen Frambes, Ian Friedman, Jon Holmes, Dave Koltas, Brian Kurtz,Todd Medema, Steve Lee, Manuel Rodriguez, Becky Thatcher.


AFTERGLOW RIVERLIFE

STUDIOGRUBER

saint james ter _pittsburgh _ofďŹ ce@studiogruber.com


AFTERGLOW _RIVERLIFE Afterglow will transform the riverfront under Fort Duquesne bridge into a unique public space for relaxing and community events on the water, just steps away from downtown Pittsburgh. The installation captures the motion of a setting sun as it dips into the water of the Allegheny, and creates a series of micro-public spaces along the linear path of the promenade. Brightening-up the highway underpass, the suns provide programmatic diff erentiation within a unifying and evocative atmosphere. Beyond offering a place for lunch break getaways, or taking a rest from a bike ride to dip your feet in the water, the installation will serve as a stage for regular community events to be programmed in collaboration with local organizations: performances, concerts and community dances, bike-repair workshops or unicycl lessons and launching paddle-board Eco-tours will bring the venue to life. By collaborating with a range of existing initiatives such as Attack Theater, BikePGH and SurfSUP Adventures, we aim at creating a place that is truly inclusive and attractive to a broad and diverse public. A signiďŹ cant portion of the installation will take place in public workshops: we will call on volunteers to contribute to assembling 100 Do-It-Yourself Adirondack Chairs. The DIY workshops will be co-hosted with Attack theater and feature a new iteration of their Some Assembly Required series, in which dancers and live musicians engage the audience in a process performance of improvisation and co-creation. Previous projects have taught us that by inviting people into a process of co-creation and the hands-on experience of building together, nurture a sense of ownership and ultimately responsibility that is essential for the success of any public space. The combination of dazzling sculptural spaces on the one hand, and common DIY-lounge chairs on the other, aims at striking a balance between creating an extraordinary experience, yet one that feels informal and will incite spontaneous appropriation.

Client: Riverlife Status: Winning competition entry. Team member for TBD Riverlife: Stefan Gruber, Nickie Cheung, Tamara Cartwright, Christoph Eckrich, Rebecca Lefkowitz.


1,15m m2 SIZE of personal space NO-STOP CITY OF ACCESS TOKYO ÂĽÂĽ/hr PRICE/TIME UNIT (ÂĽ1000~â‚Ź7,80 on 1.4.2013) # TOTAL NUMBER in the Tokyo Ward Area

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NO-STOPCITY OF ACCESS_TOKYO

The main pull of cities has always been about providing access: access to more and better goods, labor, people and ideas. But in what Jeremy Rifkin calls the Age of Access, temporary access is now replacing ownership and radically redefining the way we live in cities. Three main forces are causing this paradigm shift. First, capitalism is shedding its material origins and increasingly focusing on the commodification of social relations, experiences and affects. Second, pressing environmental issues and dwindling natural resources underline how—beyond the dichotomy of private and public, Market and State—the key question today becomes how individual interests can be articulated in such a way as to constitute common interests. Finally, ubiquitous social media enable individuals to self-organize and form trans-local networks that possess the swarming intelligence and clout to challenge multinational corporations and governments alike.

SALARY MAN

FREETER

われものちゅうい

HANDLE WITH CARE

BOX MEN

Tokyo, more than any other city, embodies the hyper-capitalist culture of the Age of Access and reveals its immanent spatial regimes. In effect, Tokyo’s morphology and urban systems show striking similarities with the organizational principles of neo-liberal markets and post-Fordist production. Both are structured as decentralized networks, in which commodities, spaces and services are outsourced and accessed “just in time, on demand”. Challenging Western notions of private and public, the outsourcing of domestic activities has a long tradition in Japan. Here, public baths serve as huge hottubs for the inhabitants of even the smallest one-room mansions; love hotels provide rooms for intimate encounters, paid for by the minute, and a welcome alternative even for married couples with paper-screenbedrooms. 43% of the 35 million Tokyoites live alone, and spend more time in transit than on domestic tasks. For life “on the go”, these urban nomads depend on an abundance of micro-infrastructures. The public sphere is equipped with lockers, vending machines of all types, Laundromats, bathrooms, and Kombinis. Here the idea of sharing doesn’t come at the expense of individualism or choice, but the contrary. Sharing is no panacea, however, as the idea of access through membership always entails some mechanisms of exclusion and scarcity. What is celebrated as the new sharing economy by some also reveals the risks of a hyper-capitalist culture in which all life becomes a paid-for experience. As reproductive and affective labor becomes the new target of an economy that measures humans in lifetime-value, the struggle against enclosure takes on another dimension. In Tokyo, the growing class of the working-poor aren’t able to afford apartments, and find instead precarious surrogate homes (beds) in mangakissas or capsule hotels. Here Toyo Ito’s hip, nomad girl of 1985 has become a tragic reality. Leisure and work, flexibility and living on the brink, accessibility and exclusion are seamlessly intertwined. With the dissolution of one’s own four walls, the home has been turned inside-out and folded back onto the city: there is no in- or outside anymore. The “city of access” is everywhere.

Research contribution for the exhbition „Eastern Promises“ curated by Christian Tecker and Andreas Fogarasi at MAK (Museum for Applied Arts Vienna 2013)

HIKIKOMORI

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


LECTUREPODS SEMPER DEPOT VIENNA

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


SEMPERDEPOT _LECTURE PODS _COMPUTER LAB _FOTO STUDIO Where stage-sets and scenery pieces once emanated from the four-story tall caverns of the Semper Depot, now stand a media lab, photo studio, and three seminar rooms for art students. The project inserts five free-standing pavilions into the vast open lofts designed by Gottfried Semper and Carl Hasenauer in 1876. While capturing and enclosing space, the pods dissolve into the building’s interior spaces. Though the last stage-set constructed there was in the 1950s, the Semper Depot remains largely unchanged: Its characteristic dense field of six meter tall cast-iron columns and massive window screens were conserved in the building renovation fifteen years ago, after the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna began renting the space for students. Perforated by the cast iron columns, the pods’ trapezoidal geometry reacts to the building’s foot-print, a triangle with one sheared vertex. Their intricate wood surfaces play on gradients of light and shadow, and suggest a malleability of the building’s wood planks which form both floor and ceiling. The design represents a complex balancing act. It reacts contextually to the classified historic substance, while clearly differentiating old and new by using the existing wood material in an innovative construction technique. The CNC-prefabrication process enabled the mass-customization of lecture pods. All five pavillions are variations derived from a common prototype yet adapt to specific spatial condition and user user needs by integrating furniture profiles such as benches, workstations and storage into the outer skin of the pods. Assembeled from approximately 7,600 singular elements the parametric design and digital fabrication process allow for a hight degree of differentiation at equal cost to serial manufacturing. The construction alludes to Gottfried Semper’s Bekleidungstheorie - his theoretical work on the origin of the wall evolving from textiles (etymologically, German ‘Wand‘ and Gewand’‘) and the nomadic tradition of weaving that collapses structure, function and ornament into one. Location: Kulissendepot, Lehargasse 6-8, 1060 Vienna, Austria Team: Stefan Gruber, Andrei Gheorghe, Nuray Kurakurt, Patrick Hammer Client: Academy of Fine Arts and BIG Bundesimmobilien Gesellschaft Austria Completed: 2009 The project has been featured in Frame Magazine, C3, Zuschnitt, World Best Design Exchange i.a. The project has been a finalist for the Austrian Federal Design Prize and the Contract World Award.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


CITY GATE GRAZ


CITY GATE GRAZ Das “City Gate” - Projekt vermittelt städtbaulich zwischen zwei unterschiedlichen Maßstäben. Die klaren plastischen Baukörper setzen der Stadteinfahrt nach Graz ein starkes städtbauliches Zeichen: Ein horizontal auskragender Baukörper markiert die Stadteinfahrt von Süden, während ein Turm das Ende der Conrad-von-Hötzendorfstrasse vertikal betont. Die Bebauung erhebt sich über einem topographisch modulierten Platz, der in seiner Großzügigkeit der übergeordneten städtebaulichen Bedeutung dieses Orts entspricht. Zugleich entsteht im Zusammenspiel von aufgeständerter Bebauung und kontinuierlicher „urbaner Stadtlandschaft“ eine stadträumliche Differenzierung und kleinteilige Staffelung, die einen stadteilbezogenen öffentlichen Raum prägen. Die Vermittlung zwischen diesen Maßstäblichkeiten erfolgt auch auf programmatischer Ebene: Der weitläufige Platz erlaubt es, bei Veranstaltungen im Stadion grosse Menschenmengen aufzunehmen. Im Alltag bedarf es für die Bespielung des Platzes jedoch weniger Aktivitäten, die in der Vielzahl von kleinteiligeren Bereichen Raum finden: eine weite Platzebene unter Bäumen, ein abgesenktes Streetball-Feld oder überdeckte Sitzstufen mit Blick auf das Stadion. Schon allein über die städtebauliche Konfiguration, die topographische Akzentuierung und die räumliche sowie programmatische Zonierung entsteht eine Partitur subtil abgestufter Öffentlichkeit. Der stadtteilbezogene öffentliche Raum wird durch den siedlungsbezogenen Zentralbereich in seiner Funktion ergänzt, wobei den überdachten Freiraumsituationen unter den aufgeständerten Gebäudeteilen räumliche Vermittlungs- sowie Schwellenfunktion zukommt. Optisch-visuell erweitert sich der öffentliche Platzbereich in die Vorzone der UPC Arena, in der die selben Gestaltungstypologien (Oberfläche, Möblierung, Grüngestaltung) zur Anwendung kommen. Bebauung Das Gebäudeensemble ist weitgehend aufgeständert, wobei die Baukörper in ihrer einfachen und klaren Form einen Kontrast zur landschaftlichen Topographie bilden. Das Verhältnis von Platz und Bebauung ist jedoch nicht als Nebeneinander, sondern als Mitund Übereinander zu verstehen, in dem die Teile nicht separat voneinander betrachtet werden können. Man wohnt und arbeitet am Platz, aber vor allem auch über dem Platz. In ihrer L-förmigen Anordnung erzeugen die Baukörper eine zentrale Wohnhof-ähnliche Situation, an die überdachte Freiraumbereiche anschließen. Diese wirken vermittelnd zum umgebenden öffentlichen Raum und bilden die Eingangssituation zum Wohnen und Arbeiten. Punktuell werden sie um frequenzbringende Nutzungen ergänzt, die zur Aktivierung der Platzebene beitragen (z.B. Kindertagesstätte). Auch die Topographie trägt zur Ausbildung einer seichten, aber wirksamen Schwelle im Übergang zu den Wohnbereichen bei. Gefasst durch die umschliessende Bebauung und erhöht vom Strassenniveau entsteht im Hof ein Aufenthaltsraum für Bewohner, der eine geschützte und halböffentliche Atmosphäre bietet.

Team: STUDIOGRUBER, Touzimsky, Herold & Mehlem und Landschaftsarchitekturbüro Land in Sicht (Stefan Gruber, Daniela Herold, Rolf Touzimsky, Thomas Proksch, Max Weidacher, Anna Scheermann, Frank Schwenk, Isa Wolke) Wettbewerb: Finalist nach Überarbeitung Veröffentlicht in Wettbewerbaktuell 2014

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


CITY GATE GRAZ

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


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GRUNDRISSE M 1:500

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


FAKE ESTATES ARE EVERYWHERE

STUDIOGRUBER


FAKE ESTATES ARE EVERYWHERE NEW YORK

Inspired by Gordon Matta-Clark’s anarchitectural projections for fifteen small slivers of New York City land, this project is one in a series of polemic speculations exploring the latent potential of residual spaces and the accidental by-products of technocratic planning. Like prominent birthmarks, water tanks are the defining trait of New York ’s skyline. Yet how odd is it that a city driven by real-estate value would reserve its prime locations for plumbing infrastructure? New York, like other global cities, is witnessing a growing eagerness to remove homeless people (amongst others) from the public realm. Meanwhile the number of homeless people in New York City has tripled in the past two decades, reaching 54,386 around the time of this Pamphlet submission. Considering both tendencies, this project proposes to convert derelict water tanks into inhabitable shelters. What if each of the 20,000 water tanks in New York, instead of being replaced after 20 years, would turn into a commons—a shared resource giving the poor the right to use these land resources in order to subsist. The decentralized water tank shelter distributed across New York’s roofscape would only render the city’s skyline more glorious. The design of each water tank hotel room is site-specific, combining century-long craftsmanship with digital fabrication. From an initial panoramic photo to the milling of timber the design and fabrication process is fully parametric and will allow for cost-effective mass-customization. Location: New York Design: STUDIOGRUBER Status: Prototype development

STUDIOGRUBER

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LIVING ROOM ARCHIPELAGO VIENNA

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


LIVING ROOM ARCHIPELAGO URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PHASING STRATEGY FOR A 10HA HOUSING ESTATE Inversion of city block Transcending city and suburbia, the Living Room Archipelago flips the city block inside out. Pedestrian activity and traffic are siphoned into urban courtyards, while intimate backyard gardens, attached to the outer shell, puncture a fluid, interconnecting green. The inversion coaxes urbanity from a less dense suburban setting, seeding the chance encounters and communal identity essential to urban life.

P005 EN

Lobby

Island I [2nd Floor]

LIVING ROOM

Bau

ess Ramp to derground Parking

Island B [4th Floor]

Bus Stop

View 5 Island C [Ground Floor]

Island H [3rd Floor]

Island F [1st Floor] View 6

Lobby

D

Phasing The phasing strategy is one of gradual implementation, synchronizing densification with improvements in accessibility and infrastructure. Thresholds of density will be identified: A critical mass pertains to building and energy concerns, but also the viability of community life, corner shops and other services. Only until a new access road is constructed, can a second phase beyond 400 dwelling units be sustained. Only if a new S-Bahn station is realized, does it seem reasonable to exceed a floor-area ratio beyond 1,0. The aim is to generate a milieu that will allow for an organic culture to unfold and sustain itself over time. Meanwhile, to avoid confusion, permanent versus temporary parkland will be clearly distinguished. Unbuilt future islands will be conceived as temporary, low-budget gardens, sport fields or parking lots. Baugruppe lite The concept of “Baugruppe-lite” extends the living programs and generates a milieu that will allow for an organic culture to unfold bottom-up and sustain itself over time. 10% of spaces for programmes other than housing are left for the residents to program according to their needs and desires drawing on the collective form of organization in Baugruppen - thus Baugruppe lite©. These spaces hold the potentential of acting as catalysers for urban life. They also provide a typlogical flexibility necessary today to respond to a diversification of user types, biographies and inhabitants’ demands.

Island E [Ground Floor]

Location: Vienna Liesing Team: Stefan Gruber, Gilbert Berthold, David Stöger Client: Bundes Immobilien Gesellschaft (BIG) Österreichs Status: Compeition entry Published in Die Presse, Wettbewerbe Aktuell, Baunetz, architektur

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


LIVING ROOM ARCHIPELAGO VIENNA

A3

A1

Loggia

B1 B2 C5 A2 Terrace

E3

C1 C2 A4 C3

Balcony

B3 D3

D2 D1

D4

Wintergarden

C4 E1 D5

6,6 m

E5

E4

Groundfloor Garden Loggias [SW]

Terraces [SE]

Balconies [NE]

Wintergardens [NW]

11,6 m

STUDIOGRUBER

Long Term Rental Space 1 - 24 Month

Short Term Commercial Space Shared Space Rental Space with Collective 1 Hour - 30 Days Benefits

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NURSING HOME HAINBURG

STUDIOGRUBER

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NURSING HOME HAINBURG

The 50-bedroom extension to a 19th century nursing home tries to camouflage: configured as a compact bar it preserves the maximum amount of trees from the surrounding park. Like a chameleon its skin blends with the existing tract on the one end and into the garden on the other. Both the pixilation and the folding of the façade attempt to break the repetitive nature of the program without compromising the modularity of building components. Each resident’s room is individually articulated. In the room, one window is operable and opens to an individual flower tray, the other is fixed reaching almost to the ground, thus allowing the resident to look outside from bed – from outside the former window mirrors the garden‘s vegetation, the latter is tilted and reflects the movement of clouds in the sky. The folding motive recurs inside perceptually shortening the central aisle that leads to the rooms. A generous wooden loggia at each end provides immediate contact to the garden.

Type: Nursing Home Location: Hainburg, Austria Client: Land Niederösterreich Team: Stefan Gruber with Christian Kronaus, Erhard Kinzelbach (Project partnership) Completed: 2009 Published in Architektur aktuell, Bauforum, arch-daily a.o.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


FOLD OFFICE ISTANBUL

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


FOLD OFFICE _ISTANBUL

Fold Office is a co-working highrise in Instanbul. The project is a symptomatic example for the typological evolution of work environments in the so-called sharing economy. The private sphere is „folded“ to a minimum and compensated by temporary on demand access to shared facilites. On the one hand this development makes ecological and economic sense, as existing resources are used more intesely. And indeed the idea of co-working promises to nurture new form of exchange and communites. On the other hand these new typologies illustrate a new paradigm in which the use of space is subjected and commodified based on time units. In what Jeremy Rifkin has coined the Age of Accessm these new architecture typologies bare the risk of a hyper-capitalist culture in which all life becomes a paid for experience. How is sharing defined and managed? Who has access to which spaces on which terms? Is the use limited to „members“ of the co-working „club“ or can it be extended to the neighborhood and city? These are some fundamental questions that were discussed with the commercial developer. More specifically STUDIOGRUBER was comissioned to design three protoypes for meeting and conference rooms that could also double as additional temporary offices. While the offices are standardized, the design of the communal spaces are custom designed by a dozed of international architects offering a variety of atmospheres and themes. Another experience seems particularly noteworthy: in the course of the design process, most decisions were not made by the client but based instead on user surveys. Thus the developer delegated decisions (but also possible responsability for certain decisions) to the future client. Are marketing surveils the new „participation“ in the Age of Acces? Location: Istanbul Team: Stefan Gruber, Veit Burgbacher, Petra Sopouskova, Philipp Soeparno Client: Nef Completion expected 12/2014

3 2 1

4

5

11

6 8 7 9

10

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


FOLD OFFICE ISTANBUL

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


FOLD OFFICE ISTANBUL

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


A FLOATING ROOM SCHUNCK* PAVILLION

NING WIN RY ENT

STUDIOGRUBER

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A FLOATING ROOM SCHUNCK* PAVILLION HEERLEN, NL “We are apathetic people, if we do not now attempt to make a new art of living, instead of escaping from living into rather dreary art. As a temporary measure the proposal has been put forward that every town should have a space at its disposal where the latest discoveries of engineering and science can provide an environment for pleasure and discovery, a place to look at the stars, to eat, stroll, meet and play.” Cedric Price (Pensées, 1963) “A Floating room” is the winning competition entry for a mobile event and exhibition space for SCHUNCK*, a multidisciplinary cultural center and museum in Heerlen, Netherlands. Today the center is housed in the Glaspaleis, one of the first Modernist concrete structures with a curtain wall façade as noted in the UIA index of most significant 20th Century architecture. In 1934, Peter Schunck asked Frits Peutz to design a seven-story department store as a covered market, one flooded with daylight so that his fabrics were seemingly sold under an open sky. Peutz’s response: a radical structure stripped of load-bearing walls and supported by lily-pad columns instead. This so-called Glaspaleis offered an open floor plan and utmost flexibility; its dematerialized architecture also brought the spectacle of crowds and consumption to the fore.

sky

transparent mylar foil

aluminium coated mylar foil

SCENARIOS monofilament fishing strings INCREASING EXPOSURE TO THE ELEMENTS

ceiling grid for suspension points

MIDSUMMER NIGHT PARTY

ENCLOSED EXHIBITION WITH CAFE [swaying under wind] PERFORMANCE

PROJECTION BOOTHS [sheltered from the rain]

OPEN EXHIBITION

curtains

seat anchors COMPONENTS

The Floating room pavilion revives the essential features of the Glaspaleis, yet takes its dematerialization and flexibility to the extreme. Its impact is one of a real building (measuring 15m x 25m x 25m) however its materiality soft and paper thin. Architecture’s substance, here, is of gas, reflections and events. The Floating room is a catalyst for social interaction and sensational experience—the space Cedric Price argued for in every town, at least temporarily. The project is essentially a floating roof, a room buoyed by air, and large enough to shelter visitors from the elements while exposing them to the sky above. Its slanted cube is transparent on top and bottom, while its sides are mirrored. Together these frame and capture the sky, clouds and weather movements in a kaleidoscopic game of reflections along with views of the exhibition and visitor. People and artworks are literally suspended and melded in an affective environment. The collapsed and distorted images heighten and slow the perception of immediate events and time. While a place of pleasure the pavilion fundamentally responds to economic necessity and material frugality. Thus permanent components are flexible. The space outlined by the floating roof provides an open platform for variable activities, spontaneous appropriation and endless reconfigurations. More ephemeral components are inexpensive. Suspended from a 1,25m spaced grid, curtains—or any other lightweight space-defining elements suspended from the ceiling—slide on tracks. Anchoring the pavilion to the ground are water-filled seats, enabling it independence from topography or soil conditions to occupy any location. Water and helium are supplied on site. The mobile pavilion will appear in cities on the occasion of biennales, festivals or fairs. Though its presence is short lived, the pavilion engages its context by softly reflecting its surroundings while creating a sheltered gathering place in direct contact with the city that extends to an infinite outside. Here, temporality is conceived to produce maximum effect with minimal means. When deflated, the pavilion and its components fit into a small van. Team: Stefan Gruber, Gilbert Berthold Client: Schunck* Status: Winning Compeitions entry, expected completion 2012 Published in DeArchitect, Limburgreport, Architectenweb.nl, Bracket [goes sooft] No.2

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


ON PRECARIOUS LIFE EXHIBITION DESIGN

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


‘ON PRECARIOUS LIFE - WAKING, DOUBTING, ROLLING, SCHINING AND MUSING’ EXHIBITION DESIGN

Curated by Adam Budak the exhibition shows works of emerging Austrian artist. The exhibition concept and its design are inspired by Malarmé’s preface to Un coup de dés. Folded wallsegments constitute a spatial matrix or field condition offering multiple narrative threads and paths. The viewer becomes an active participant in curating the show. Serial repetition and the precise arrangement of parallel planes orchestrate references and accidental links between the works, unifying diverse elements while respecting the identity of each of them.

Date: 11.2006 Curator: Adam Budak, Kusthaus Graz Location: Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, Vienna Artists included in the show: Maria Anwander, Eva Beierheimer + Miriam Laussegger, Katharina Cibulka + Philipp König, Alice Durst + Zoé Byland, Ana Ex, Monika Grabuschnigg, Maren Greinke, Zoe Guglielmi, Helmut Heiss + Jan Groos, Andreas Heller, Thomas Hesse, Bruno Hoffmann, Eleni Kampuridis, David Kellner, Silke Manz, Julia Maurer, Albert Mayr, Sissa Micheli, Diego Mosca, Julian Mullan, David Payr, Drago Persic, Martina Pfingstl, Miriam Raggam + Gudrun Gruber, Judith Gruber, Barbara Wilding, Linda Reif, Tina Ribarits, David Roth, Johannes Vogl, Julia Zborowska, Marko Zink sowie Institut für Konservierung - Restaurierung und Studierende der Studios Lainer und Tschapeller

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


BETWEEN HEAVEN AND EARTH

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


MORE PROJECTSsince 2006 Between Heaven and Earth Temporary garden for the international jardins de Métis’ festival in Quebec. A meditative arbor shielded by a canopy of pivoting mirrors that diffuse clouds above and the garden below forming emergent patterns when activated by the wind. Client: Reford Gardens Competition finalist

Retirement Home Innsbruck Competition entry for a 120-bed retirement home for patients with terminal dementia. The rooftop garden and the freed ground level provide space for looping trails. Competition entry In collaboration with Holger Mattes

‘On precarious Life’ Exhibition design for a group show of emerging Austrian artists from the Academy of Fine Arts, curated by Adam Budak. A field condition of wall segments allow for multiple individual narrative strands through the exhibit. Completed 11.2006 L

Ephemeral Structure

P

N

K M

J H D

Multifunctional mobile pavilion for Athen’s public sphere. The pneumatic structure is endlessly reconfigured in response to its site and takes shape through tension cables that hold the pneu in place.

G C F E

B A

r3 sso pre com

ock airl

P N M L sso pre com

r1

com

pre

r sso

2

K J H

LIQUID LOUNGE

Competition entry In Collaboration with Eduardo Fernandez-Moscoso

G

SOUNDTECK

F DRESSING ROOM

E

BAR

D

TERRACE/DANCEFL

C

5

2 1 0 -1

m.

Nursing Home Restauration Hainburg Restoration of nursing home from 1825. After the addition of a new wing, the existing building wasupgraded including a courtyard infill and the redesign of the outdoor facilities. Client: Land Niederösterreich Completion: 3.2009 In Collaboration with C. Kronaus and E. Kinzelbach

Lightbox Hells Kitchen NY Translucent and operable loft partition between bedroom and dinning room that does not permanently alter the existing flat with a budget of $500. Client: private Completed 8.2006 In collaboration with Brett Snyder

Lakeshore Loft Überlingen Interior and furniture design for a 1600sf apartment on the Lake Constance. The design accomodates a retired exlorer’ extensive collection of applied art objects from around the world. Client: private Completed 3.2006

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


ALICE TULLY HALL_ LINCOLN CENTER

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

PROJECT LEADER


ALICE TULLY HALL_ LINCOLN CENTER

Alice Tully Hall is one of the most utilized yet underrecognized venues at Lincoln Center. While deemed a good multi-purpose hall for concerts, film, dance, and theater, it is imperfect for each. The re-design is intended to transform the hall into a premiere chamber music venue, upgrade its functionality for all performance occasions and to endow it with street identity. The opaque base of the Pietro Belluschi building, tucked under the Juilliard School, is stripped away to reveal the hall’s outer shell. The sloped underside of Juilliard’s expansion becomes the canopy framing the hall, its lobby and box office. A shear one-way cable net glass façade puts the hall on display. A commonly held opinion about the hall interior is that it lacks intimacy, the mostvalued quality of a chamber music venue. Paradoxically, the bones of the hall and all 1,100 seats were to remain. “Intimacy” was then interpreted as an acoustic and visual pursuit. A partial box-in-box construction is intended to isolate the hall from vibrations of the nearby 7th Ave subway line and a new high performance skin is acoustically engineered to distribute sound evenly from the stage through the house. This “bespoke” surface of moabi wood is tailored around all existing hall features and new programmatic elements, eliminating visual noises that distract the audience from the performance. Illumination emerges from the wood skin much like a bioluminescent marine organism exudes a glow from within. A percentage of the wood liner is constructed of translucent custom-molded resin panels surfaced in wood veneer to match and blend in seamlessly with the overall wood system, binding the house and stage with light. Like the raising of a chandelier or the parting of a house curtain signaling the start of performance, a hush will fall in the seconds of transition from distraction to attention, when the walls begin to blush as the lights dim. The lighting effect will become the first part of the performance choreography. Location: Lincoln Center, 65th Street and Broadway, Manhattan Client: Lincoln Center Development Corporation Completion: 2.2009 At Diller Scofidio +Renfro Stefan Gruber was a lead architect for the project from conceptual design through design development. He was in charge for designing, detailing, client and consultant coordination of all „Front of House“ and public spaces. and consultant coordination of all „Front of House“ and public spaces.

62'-6"

veneered i nternally illuminated sliding upstage doors w/suspended hanger track and recessed floor guide. veneered i nternally illuminated pivoting stage doors. theater lighting pipe grid above.

hardwood T&G resilient stage flooring on isolation slab - continues at stage left and stage right

54'-0"

hardwood T&G flooring on seating carriage - resilient hardwood T&G flooring on stage extension below.

54'-0"

line of motorized house curtain above.

54'-0"

LIFT

full height hinged fabric covered masking panel. new HVAC risers veneered c ustom rear illuminated panel doors w/concealed closers

51'-5"

51'-5"

LIFT veneered r ear illumination wall panels supported on stl. trusses @ 4'-0" O.C. hatch indicates doors removed, opening sealed with rated acoustical wall type equivalent to exg.

53'-8"

53'-8"

continuous gwb acoustic isolation wall TYP. @ perimeter of hall and up to structural slab above dashed line indicates continuous lighting above in wall cavity

55'-3 1/2"

stainless steel handrail, floor supported.

line of balcony above hardwood T&G finish flooring adhered to isolation slab, TYP.

custom fixed theater seating w/integral lighting beneath each seat.

58'-3"

58'-3"

exg. wall to remain new sound & light vestibules refer to dwg A-700 quick release seats @ ADA positions, TYP. quick release seats @ "house-mix" positions. solid core door w/specialty finish to match walls

60'-8"

60'-8"

continuous h ardwood sill w/finish to match walls acoustic glazing at control room windows, TYP.

66'-6"

64'-1"

ENLARGED ORCHESTRA LEVEL PLAN

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

1/8" = 1'-0"

PROJECT LEADER REFERENCE: LIZ DILLER +1 212 260 7971 e.diller @dsrny.com


QUADRANT HOUSE PHOENIX 11 1/2"

2

12 +1620'-5" 1620

7/8

10

T.O. ROOF

3

30" x 10"

2 1615

AUSBLICK NACH SÃœDEN

ALIGN

60 D16

4

12

7'-10 1/8"

1610

4 7'-0"

8'-0"

30

54

D14

DINING ROOM

DECK

fin. floor

to. window frame

t.o. flange

water level

+1606'-4 1/2"

10"

FIN. FLR 1605

14 x 45

SUPPLY

17

POOL 2 DRAIN

66

19

7/8

1600 12

33

6

21

55

D08 5

2'-10"

4 3

1595

2 1

D07

1'-8 1/4"

D09

1590

3'-0"

3'-1"

12

LOBBY

62

GUEST ROOM

4'-11"

+1593'-3"

1/4

FIN. FLR

TERRACE

21'-3 3/8"

5'-0"

1585

1

SECTION AT LOWER STAIR SCALE : 1/4" = 1'-0"

2 11 1/2"

A-12

1

2

A-12

A-11

11 1/2" 1620

40

12 7/8

30" x 10"

10

1615

5

AUSBLICK NACH NORDEN

11 4

39

21 7'-10 1/8"

30 12

1610

10'-8"

18 MASTER BEDROOM

3'-0 1/2"

54 24

7'-0"

38

50

LAWN

MASTER BATH

SPA

+1606'-4 1/2" FIN. FLR

1605 DL1

DL1 DL1

20 x 20

DL1

21 ALIGN

62

7/8

1600

23

37

70 8'-5"

7'-6"

5'-6"

7'-6"

27

36

37

6

6

12

D01

1'-6"

UTILITY

1595

25

W/D

GARAGE

PARKING COURT

+1592'-3"

+1593'-3"

FIN. FLR 1-1/4

2'-0"

FIN. FLR 12

+1590'-7" END OF DRIVE

1590 +1590'-0" PAD

3'-0"

3'-1"

4'-11"

21'-3 3/8"

5'-0"

24'-0 3/8"

1585

12

SECTION AT LAWN SCALE : 1/4" = 1'-0"

1

2

1

2

1

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

PROJECT LEADER REFERENCE: LIZ DILLER +1 212 260 7971 e.diller @dsrny.com


QUADRANT HOUSE_ PHOENIX

The quadrant house is conceived in direct response to its site, a small plateau on the side of Camelback Mountain in Phoenix, Arizona. From this vantage point the house is able to engage two contrasting aspects of the landscape; the flat city grid below and the immense rugged mass of Camelback above. The house is divided into quadrants of similar area and equal programmatic value; a living space, a lawn, a master bedroom, and a pool, with no defined circulation in between. Interior spaces and exterior spaces are separated by long sheets of glass that at one moment define the inside and at another the outside. From the living room, a bird’s eye view of the city is crisply bisected by a zero edge swimming pool. The bedroom looks out over a lawn to the rough granite of the mountain. The contiguous spatial quality permits any point on the main level to be seen from any other, thus allowing its two residents to stay in visual communication throughout the day. 2 A-08 2

1

1

A-09

A-09

1

2

A-10

1'-0"

9'-0"

1'-0"

14'-1"

1

A-10

2

37'-8" 1'-8" 1'-0"

4'-3"

9'-2"

A-11

3

8'-3"

1'-0"

4

28'-3"

9"

8'-0"

26'-9"

3'-3"

1

22 22

Location: Cambrear Rd, Camelback Phoenix AZ Client: private Status: the couple broke broke up before the huse completed Completition: the couple up before the culd housebecould be completed

1 2 8'-2 1/2"

8'-2 1/2"

8'-10"

EQ

9'-9"

EQ

EQ

EQ

3

2

EQ

2'-5"

8'-8"

1'-11"

2

CLOSET

CLOSET

CLOSET

CLOSET

MW

REF. FREZ.

4

DUMBWAITER

OVEN

13

DW

SUB-ZERO 700

6"

9

6 5/8" 2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-1"

11"

2'-0"

2'-0"

3'-6"

6'-0" 21'-3"

2'-3"

2'-3"

2'-0"

2'-0"

5'-3 5/8"

D15

8 7/8"

6

6"

LAWN

SEE SHEET A-13 FOR KITCHEN DETAILS

KITCHEN

3'-10"

+1606'-0 1/2" FIN. FLOOR

S16

2'-6"

2'-0" 6 5/8"

2'-7"

2'-0"

16'-0" SEE SHEET A-28 FOR GARDEN ROOF DETAILS

D14

19 2'-0"

1'-3 1/4"

CLOS.

D13 1'-8" 8 7/8" S07

9'-2"

24x12

24x12

7

3'-5 1/2"

14'-4 1/8"

8'-0"

5'-11"

8 7/8"

9

21'-1"

11

13

18

14

LIVING 6

S17

4'-0"

6

1'-6"

2 9

21

DINING

15 16

5

SEE SHEET A-27 FOR SPA DETAILS

17 18

A-12

13'-0 7/16"

S08

SPA

20

17

12

FIN. FLOOR

18'-0 11/16"

A-12

15'-3 5/16"

24'-3 3/4"

+1606'-4 1/2"

31'-7 7/8"

8

10

2

12

19 SEE SHEET A-18 FOR STAIR DETAILS

20

8

9'-5"

9'-5"

S19 FIXED

D18

S20

58'-4 3/4"

9'-5"

D17

At Diller Scofidio+Renfro Stefan Gruber was a team member from conceptual to schematic design and then lead architect for the project from design development through construction documents. He was in charge of design, detailing, all consultant coordination and bidding.

S18

9'-5"

FIXED

4'-6 1/4"

9'-5"

REF REF2

S21

REF

D19

REF2 FIXED

D20

9'-5"

9'-5"

2 11"

11"

DN.

6'-1 1/2"

S09

1 A-07

A-07

FIXED

+1606'-4 1/2"

S11

S12

SLOPE 1/4" PER FOOT TO DRAIN

16

9'-5" S22

S13

2'-0"

4'-0"

POOL DECK

10

1

7

21

6

8'-8 3/4"

13'-5 1/2"

8'-0" (DECK)

S10

9

+1606'-2 1/4"

A-12

FIN. FLOOR

11

D16

1 A-12

MASTER BEDROOM +1606'-4 1/2" FIN. FLOOR

12'-0"

7'-0"

3'-0"

6'-0"

3'-0"

8 1/4"

2'-6"

S23

D21

21

26'-9"

8 1/4" 2'-6"

6 14

3'-2"

S14

18'-8" (POOL)

12 15 D23

SWIMMING POOL

2

SEE SHEETS A-16 & A-17 FOR MASTER BATH DETAILS

BATHROOM: KARL

A-11 S15 1'-11"

2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0" 5"

6'-2"

9'-3"

BATHROOM: JANIS

24x12

1'-3"

2 A-11

S24

5" 2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0"

2'-0"

1'-11"

D25

D24

CLOSET

7'-5 5/8"

D22

CLOSET

CLOSET

24x12

13

CLOSET

ZERO EDGE DRAIN

7'-9"

1'-6"

2'-9"

3'-5"

6'-6"

2'-9"

11'-9"

1'-6"

10'-0" 1'-6"

36'-2"

9'-0"

15'-6"

13'-3"

80'-11"

37'-8"

1

8'-3"

2

1

2

1

A-09

A-9

A-10

28'-3"

3

4

2

1

A-10

A-11

1 A-08 SECOND FLOOR PLAN @ +1604'-4 1/2" SCALE : 1/4" = 1'-0"

2 A-08 2

1

1

A-09

A-09

1 9'-0"

1'-0"

1'-0"

A-11

3

8'-3"

1'-0"

9'-2" 5'-6"

1

1

A-10

2

1

14'-1"

1'-0"

2

A-10

37'-8"

5'-11"

4

28'-3"

8'-9"

30'-10"

3'-8"

ALTERNATE LOCATION

2

SWIMMING POOL SURGE TANK 3'-8 3/8"

1'-3"

(UNDERGROUND)

3

4'-8"

10 11

16

3'-6"

21'-4 15/16"

23

D07

AHU

2

18

12'-10"

7

7

9'-1"

12'-0"

2'-7"

27'-6"

D02

ENTRY

REF

4'-8 1/2"

4'-8 1/2"

3'-4 1/2"

4'-8 1/2"

9'-5"

9'-5"

4'-8 1/2" 9'-5"

6

9'-5"

+1593'-3"

4'-6 1/2"

1'-6"

4'-6 1/2"

1'-6"

6'-9"

1'-6"

1'-6"

6'-9"

1'-6"

4'-0"

4 3/4"

26'-9"

2

D01

A-07 4 3/4"

25'-1112" OPENING

6'-0"

10'-0"

36'-2"

2'-9" 6

SLOPE 1/4" / FT TO DRAIN

3'-4 1/2"

REF

REF

+1593'-3"

A-07

A-12

D05

6'-2"

5'-2 1/16"

5'-2"

D03

2 SLOPE

+1593'-3"

(BR-UP)

3'-2 1/8"

9'-9"

5'-1 3/4"

D04

GARAGE

4 7/8"

19

30'-8 3/4"

2'-8"

(LR-UP)

20

1

7 19

AHU

CLOS.

9'-4"

17

2'-3 1/2"

22'-4"

2

58'-4 3/4"

2'-3 1/2"

+1593'-3"

(ST-DN)

3

1

3'-11"

STUDIO

6

19

20'-4 3/4"

13'-0 1/4"

13 14

3'-6"

3'-7 5/8"

18

UP

15

3'-8 1/2"

13

5'-8 1/16"

A-12

1

AHU

3'-11"

15'-3"

11 12

17

16

D 20'-10"

2'-6"

4

4'-9 1/2"

STEPS: 11 1/2"

8 9 10

SLOPE

UTILITY

W

D08 5

7

9

15

(GA-DN)

W.C.

6

7

2

3'-7 1/2"

8 3/8"

12 8

3'-6"

AHU

3

6

D06

4'-0"

4'-3"

5'-11"

DUMBWAITER

3'-1"

14 D09 3'-10"

5

4 7/8"

14'-11"

7 1/4"

3'-0"

D11

20'-5 3/4"

16'-4"

D12

17'-5 1/4"

GUEST BATH 1

3'-1 5/8"

3'-0"

9'-3"

6'-5 5/8"

D10

8'-8"

2'-4"

5'-9 1/2"

5

16'-4"

6"

CLOSET 4

3 GUEST ROOM

3'-1 5/8"

1 A-12

1 A-12

SLOPED TO DRIVE

STEP BEGINS AT THIS POINT

13'-8"

9

22

COVERED TERRACE

9

2

SLOPED TO DRIVE

21

27'-8"

SLOPE 1/4" / FT TO DRAIN

20

SEATING AREA

2

PARKING COURT

A-11

A-11

(SLOPED)

10'-8" STONE

4'-0"

7'-2"

CONCRETE

+1590'-7"

24 30'-1"

50'-11" 81'-0"

37'-8"

1

8'-3"

2

3

28'-3"

4

10

1

2

1

2

1

A-09

A-9

A-10

A-10

A-11

2'-7"

1 A-08 FIRST FLOOR PLAN SCALE : 1/4" = 1'-0"

line of bottom of flange beyond

Perforated Rheinzink Tiles mounted on formed aluminum edge beam - see sheet A-

12

Rheinzink roof

7/8

2'-5 1/2"

R= 12" (28" Ø)

Roof assembly: Rheinzink Flatlocked Tiles, 1mm thick 24"x48" (preweathered backside coated ProRoofing Enkamat structured underlay Waterproof sheathing (Vicor Ultra, butyl rubber self-sealing membrane) 1/2" Plywood 4" Rigid Thermal Insulation R30 2"x4" Wood rafter (cut from 2"x5") Vapor Barrier 3/4" Plywood TS 8" x 8" x 1/4"

3" 1 1/2" 1"

Air Supply 30" x 10"

space available for track Diffuser plenum 6" x 10"

1 1/2"

FlowBar diffucer 2CRA

Ceiling assembly: 4" x 3/4" wood T&G floorboard on 3/4" plywood substrate hanging metalgrid system

Wall assembly: 4" x 3/4" wood T&G floorboard on 3/4" plywood substrate

Line of roll-down sahde behind fascia Structural steel flange

Ss window frame Galvanized steel fascia panels Line of roll-down shade guide cable Line of fixed glazing beyond Typical laminated low-E glass see spec. by Rochester insulated glass

7/8 Variable shelving system Floor assembly: 4" x 3/4" wood T&G floorboards on 3/4" plywood substrate over 3/4" wood sleepers w/ sound attenuating insulation inbetween 6" concrete slab in metal deck

Laminated safety glass see spec. by Arup 3/4" 3/4"

R = 4"

Open joints

Removable pavers for equipment access

Doors w/ over-the-top flipper slide hinge

12

LIVING ROOM

Line of roll-down shade guide cable

POOL DECK

Clipfixing sytem behind panel 1/4

3'-3"

Supply

3/4" 1/2"

2'-5 1/2"

1'-8"

6" 3/4"

12

Air Supply 14" x 45"

Ceiling assembly: 1/2" thick 24"x 48" veneer plywood panels (color to match Rheinzink) on 1/2" plywood substrate on hanging metalgrid system

Weep in Rheinzink

POOL

4'-6 1/8"

Ceiling assembly: 1/2" thick 24"x 48" veneer plywood panels (color to match Rheinzink) on 1/2" plywood substrate on hanging metalgrid system

Structural glass see spec. by Arup 12 7/8

Bakfill

Glass louvers

Swale

1 1/4" thick stone panels 14" x 24" mounted on steel clip system fixed to concrete retaining wall

DRAIN

9" Ø

AC

3. Bed platform 2x wood framing w/upholstered plywood platform deployable to acces storage space below

7/8

Linear diffuser by Titus 6" Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) w/ vertical reinforcement bars and incorporated A/C plenum channels 3

8"

12

metal rib lath and plaster

'-0" R1

Rheinzink cladding - see detail on sheet A-29

AC

'-0" R1

GUEST ROOM

1 1/4"thick stone pavers, size 14" x 48", joint 1/4", settinhg bed 1"

STUDIO

1 1/4"thick stone pavers, size 14" x 48", joint 1/4", settinhg bed 1"

Recessed lightings type UL1 - see lighting schedule by l'Observatoire

Perforated drainpipe

TERRACE 6" conc. slab- see structural drawings by Arup

5'-0"

Piling - see structural drawings by Arup

STRUCTURAL INFORMATION ON THIS DRAWING IS INDICATIVE ONLY FOR INFORMATION REFER TO DRAWINGS BY ARUP

1

WALLSECTION SCALE : 1" = 1'-0"

A20

R=12" at flang

Interior poolfinish: Bolidt elastomeric undercoat w/ Bildtop 525. color: 318 finish: matte applied over welded steel structure Expanded foam insulation filling all cavities of pool structure

1 1/4" thick stone panels 14" x 24" mounted on steel clip system

(CROSS SECTION THROUGH POOL)

MECHANICAL INFORMATION ON THIS DRAWING IS INDICATIVE ONLY FOR INFORMATION REFER TO DRAWINGS BY KUNKA ENGINEERING

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

PROJECT LEADER REFERENCE: LIZ DILLER +1 212 260 7971 e.diller @dsrny.com


LIAUNIG COLLECTION NEUHAUS

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

PROJECT LEADER REFERENCE: LIZ DILLER +1 212 260 7971 e.diller @dsrny.com


LIAUNIG COLLECTION NEUHAUS MUSEUM FOR POST-WAR AUSTRIAN ART Competition: 2004

Created for a private art collection, the museum embraces the discrepancy between the quaint, bucolic village chosen as its site and the angst-ridden sensibility of the art it displays. It combines the picturesque and the grotesque. A large regular volume housing the collection is tipped into the ground; one corner submerged and the opposite cantilevered into the air, creating a 7m sectional difference. Meanwhile, the centralized circulation system of the traditional museum is turned inside out. The periphery is defined by a glazed circulation ring that gently ramps to connect a system of stepped galleries. The viewer must continually re-enter the circulation ring or ‘landscape gallery’ to pass between successive galleries of the sequence. Each interruption is a cleansing of the palette, allowing the eye to refresh, look out and see a continuously changing experience of the environmental earthwork. The full route connects the highest point with a wooded view to a nearby river and the lowest point with a view onto exposed earth. One circuit traverses the horizon line twice. The museum¹s occupiable roof, the site of a defunct cornfield, hosts a crop of dynamic computer-controlled phototropic skylights. Two hundred-sixty heliostats follow the sun¹s movement like sunflowers and respond with a range of motion to shade or reflect light to the galleries below according to desired illumination needs. The diffused light in the galleries has the benefits of a glass roof day lighting system with the thermal benefits of a green roof with only 2% glazing. Location: Neuhaus Corinthia, Austria Client: Herbert Liaunig Completion: 2nd prize At Diller Scofidio +Renfro Stefan Gruber was lead architect for the project.

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

PROJECT LEADER REFERENCE: LIZ DILLER +1 212 260 7971 e.diller @dsrny.com


SYDHAVEN SCHOOL COPENHAGEN

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

PROJECT LEADER


SYDHAVEN SCHOOL_ COPENHAGEN Competition: 2006

This educational initiative combines students from pre-school through secondary school in a single building. Sited on a canal reclaimed from Copenhagen’s industrial past, the building area is largely flooded. The amphibious building is submerged at its center and rises steeply out of the water at its southern end and gently at its northern end where it slips onto urban soil as the school’s front façade engaging the city, neighborhood and transit network. The submerged center of the building cradles a volume of filtered site water to make an outdoor swimming pool that is publicly accessible. The building’s outer basement wall acts as a basin wall, separating the natural tidal water from a controlled area of the wetland and lagoon. Water sensitivity is heightened as the building admits tidal fluctuations into limited areas of its interior. The sectional split between deep and shallow water allows a full range of water-based recreational activities. The lagoon is an outdoor learning environment: the island and water’s edge provide educational opportunities to study water habitats. The building’s stepped internal organization creates an external topography: a valley between two hills. The green roof surface is an active outdoor space for organized and un-programmed activities. Activities within the building spill out into their open-air counterparts. The valley is envisioned as a pool most of the year with a skating rink component in the winter. In one area of the pool, a deep diving tank extends below, piercing the student lounge, bringing ‘wet’ and ‘dry’ recreational activities into direct adjacency. Location: Sydhaven Copenhagen, Denmark Competition: 2. Prize At Diller Scofidio +Renfro Stefan Gruber was lead architect for the project working with a team of four.

DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO

PROJECT LEADER REFERENCE: LIZ DILLER +1 212 260 7971 e.diller @dsrny.com


THE HIGHLINE NEW YORK (competion team member)


MORE PROJECTSwork for other firms @ Diller, Scofido+Renfro

2002-2006

Sydhaven School Copenhagen (project leader) Competition entry for a combined pre- and middle school conceived as an amphibious building. The school puts aquatic experiences at the center of education and features as point of identification to the new neighborhood. Shortlisted Competition 2006

Lincoln Center Public Spaces (team member) The redesign of Lincoln Center’s public spaces is intended to turn the campus inside out by extending the spectacle within the performance halls into the mute public spaces between the halls and into the surrounding streets. Client: Lincoln Center Development Corporation Completed 2010

Scanning: The Aberrant Architecture of D+S (team member) Retrospective exhibition of the work of Diller+Scofidio at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Mural, a dissident robot, travels on a continuous track alng the partition walls of the gallery and sabotages the visual and accoustic isolation they produce.

Eyebeam 2.0 (team member) Unregistered is a redesign of the winning competition entry for the Eyebeam museum. The generative idea of the project, a sectional misalignment allowing each floor to interface two others, was fianlly realized in the creative arts center for Brown University in 2010. Completion: canceled

Eastriver Park New York (team member) Feasibility study for an East River waterfront development and park in downtown Manhattan. The project extends the Manhattan grid into the water with islands of various landscapes.

@ Peter Eisenman

6.-10.1999

Musee du Quai Branly Paris (team member) Competiton entry for an ethnographic museum in Paris. The design blends the building strands and roof garden into a continuous landscape which becomes its main facade when viewed from the Eiffel Tower. 2. Prize Competition 1999

@ Wansleben Architekten

1996-1999

Port Event Center Düsseldorf (team member) Mixed-use building including offi ces, restaurant and night club and conversion of turbine hall in the former industrial harbor of Düsseldorf. Team member from schematic design through contract documentation. Completion: 2002


EACHING

SStefan Gruber is the Lucian and Rita Caste Assistant Professor in Architecture and Urban Design at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh where he chairs the Master of Urban Design Prgram. Stefan previously taught at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna between 2006 to 2016, as professor for Geography, Landscape and Cities. As the deputy head of the Institute for Art and Architecture from 2007-2011, he developed and implemented the school’s new BArch and March curriculums based on five platforms.

Stefan Gruber teaches design studios and advises thesis students in architectural design and urbanism. He has conducted seminars and lecture courses on contemporary urbanism, t ypological thinking and issues of representation. He has lectured internationally and is a regular guest critic at institutions across Europe and the US.


COLLABORATIVE CITIES: HACKER CLUB BY BASTIAN VOLLERT

MArch design studio Geography, Landscape, Cities


DESIGN STUDIOSCarnegie Mellon University WS2016 - RE-BUILDING EAST LIBERTY Master of Urban Design Studio Over the past century humans have altered the environment so extensively that scientists claim we have entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Blurring the distinction between culture and nature, human responsibility thus can no longer be measured by the preservation of unspoiled territories and the hope for a future civilization that has made its peace with nature. This new geological paradigm forces us to go beyond designing with nature (as McHargue proposed in 1970) and today’s ubiquitous claims for sustainable design. In effect the Anthropocene requires us to overcome the dialectic between humans and non-humans, between nature, culture and technology and to shift our focus from matters of facts to matters of concern. Such is Bruno Latour’s proposal for a political ecology or what he refers to as cosmopolitics that begins by recognizing the differential agency of things. By acknowledging and negotiating the differences, even conflicts, inherent to any transformation, urban designers might help reshape cities as part of a positive systems-level change toward a self-renewing resilient and adaptable future in a more inclusive way—inclusive of the other 98%, as much as of non-human species and systems. This project will investigate, in particular, the idea of cosmopolitan localism as a model for urban communities in a commons-based society. East Liberty is a Pittsburgh neighbohood in which many of the conflictuous forces of Pittsburgh’s postindustrial revitalization converge. Like many urban neighborhoods built in the nineteenth century throughout the United States East Liberty offer the density and connectivity that would make them attractive and sustainable communities for the future. Thus today millenial begin to flock back to the city center and reclaim areas abandoned four decades prior as part of the white flight to the suburbs. In terms of urban ecology, every successful neighborhood establishes a “niche” for itself in the city by creating a distinctive sense of place that attracts and sustains certain types of residents, organizations, and business owners and patrons. But such renaissance is not free of friction as the interest of new and old residents collide and gentrification takes hold. And yet attracting investment is key to enhancing the vitality of East Liberty and move towards a more balanced and sustainable future. This semester we will be working with East Liberty Development, Inc. (ELDI) to design a new neighborhood district for a large area that was cleared in a major urban renewal project in the 1960s. The project zone wraps around East Liberty’s historic “downtown” core, once the third largest in Pennsylvania (after downtown Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). The area was partially redeveloped for large-scale subsidized housing and suburban auto-oriented retail, but much of it has never been more than large parking lots. On the outer edge of this zone, the fabric of the neighborhood is largely intact, which situates the site between a large and diverse residential “ring” and a highly-walkable commercial core. Split apart fifty years ago by Penn Circle, a state highway “beltway”, and the empty expanse of parking lots, the project will knit the neighborhood and its center together into a potentially sustainable urban community. From an urban design perspective, the site could serve three key functions: a community that is a destination in itself, a connector that transforms two isolated areas into a thriving mixed-use neighborhood, and a gateway to downtown East Liberty, one of the region’s major assets. Its significance and possibilities are extraordinary. With the leadership of ELDI, we will engage in community design meetings and aim to develope scenarios that will create a platform for discussion and community engagement. The project will give you an opportunity to learn more about public interest projects and the skills needed to take a leadership role in this growing urban design field. Recognizing that development organizations and design professions are also being held to a higher standard of accountability, the studio explores the interface between practice and research. Research into localism and livable communities will be an integral part of the project.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


VIENNA’S INVISBLE CITY

MArch design studio Geography, Landscape, Cities


DESIGN STUDIOS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna WS2014 - VIENNA’S INVISIBLE CITY MArch Studio and Project Seminar in Geography, Landscape, Cities “The inferno of the living is not something that will be; if there is one, it is what is already here, the inferno where we live every day, that we form by being together. There are two ways to escape suffering it. The first is easy for many: accept this inferno and become such part of it that you can no longer see it. The second is risky and demands vigilance and apprehension: seek and learn to recognize who and what, in the midst of the inferno, are not inferno, then make them endure, give them space.” – Italo Calvino in Invisible Cities, 1972 On top of Vienna’s historic city, a second city is being built. Its magnitude equals the illustrious Red Vienna program: in effect, within the Gürtel an estimated 80.000 housing units are waiting to be developed. These roof-top extensions can no longer be considered as a mere architectural phenomenon; instead they are a massive project of urbanization. What drives the development of this second city on top of another? How will this second, new city transform the old one? How can we grasp the scale and scope of this transformation? How can we experience or even access this new city? Who, in fact, are its inhabitants? And what holds them together? Pursuing these questions, one goal of the studio is to produce an Atlas of Vienna’s invisible city. While historically, every major wave of Vienna’s urbanization has been defined by the architectural manifestation of a collective idea that is the city (think of Red Vienna’s communal facilities or even the public parks and cultural institution puncturing the Ringstrasse), todays penthouse stratum is the aggregate result of pure private interest. There is no collective vision for Vienna’s second city; at best there is a concern for the preservation of the old one it is built on top of. More importantly, however, there is not even an effort to hide the absence of a common interest; in the contrary, the assertion of its private and exclusive character is the motor of its growth and promotion. Somewhat paradoxically, exclusivity is driven by the simultaneous desire to be in the center of the city, and yet detached from it; privacy doesn’t result from isolation, but instead from overlooking the other. The studio will engage in a series of polemic explorations of how to make Vienna’s invisible city accessible to all, imagining new types of public space, artificial vertical landscapes as shared resource giving ordinary citizens the right to Vienna’s second city: urban commons punctuating Vienna’s skyline. Thus we will explore a form of urbanism that goes beyond neoliberal individualism and seeks shared needs and desires without reverting to nostalgic ideas of collectivism. How can we design spaces that incite appropriation and self-organization, yet at the same time don’t refute architecture’s iconic power? How can we conceive stimulating spaces, which also have the capacity to resist instant commodification by a society of spectacle? We will explore the possibility of an architecture that is programmatically undetermined, yet highly specific— spatial environments gaining specificity through structure, infrastructure, atmosphere and sporadic programmatic seeds. These spaces are incomplete without events; they can’t just be consumed; they only gain their full potential through appropriation. Yet the vagueness and porosity of these spaces, similar to a virgin landscape, involves an act of settlement as well as a constant negotiation between its users. Thus we will explore a type of spaces that challenges top-down design and bottom-up tactics as incompatible paradigms, and open the discussion for negotiating between two. Both are essential for the vitality and resilience of any urban milieu. But the moment when the formal and informal begin to intersect also harbors the greatest potential for conflict. Here in the agonistic city lies the promise of reviving architecture’s political bearing. Project seminar Held in conjuction with studio a project seminar will situate the design work in a broader theoretical context addressing issues of urbanization, social justice and urban political economy. It will provide a series of hands-on skill workshops, as well as a platform to reflect on design methodologies. The seminar will include guest lectures by theorist Robert Temel on the regulations and politics of Vienna’s rooftop extensions: engineer Peter Bauer on structures of rooftops in Viennese Gründerzeit houses, sociologist Mara Verlic on Viennese real estate and gentrification processes, architect Nasrine Seraji on Paris’ roofscape. Complementary workshops on Rhino and Grasshoper will be held by Werner Skvara and on digital fabrication (cnc-milling, laser cutting) by Günterh Dreger.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


COLLABORATIVE CITIES: HACKER CLUB BY BASTIAN VOLLERT

MArch design studio Geography, Landscape, Cities


DESIGN STUDIOS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna SS2013 - COLLABORATIVE CITIES: PROTOTYPES FOR THE SHARING ECONOMY MArch Studio and Project Seminar in Geography, Landscape, Cities_ “Imagine no possessions, I wonder if you can…” John Lennon (1971)

Property relationships permeate and define human interactions in small and big ways, and yet ownership is an elusive concept–a mere social convention prone to constant change. Today, in a historic convergence of events, three main forces are challenging the very idea of ownership giving way to temporary access and redefining prevailing notions of the private and public sphere: (1) As Capitalism sheds its material origins we are entering an Age of Access where all of life becomes a paid-for experience (Rifkin, 2001). Meanwhile the apparent flaws of capitalism and governments’ austerity regimes have sparked bitter protest, but also many initiatives of civic empowerment seeking alternate forms of collaboration. (2) Pressing global environmental issues and dwindling natural resources underline how beyond the dichotomy of private and public, Market and State, the key question becomes how individual interests can be articulated in such a way as to constitute common interests. Thus the Global Commons fuel the discourse on cooperation and alternative economies with urgency. (3) Here more than ever social change and technological innovation seem intertwined: The Web 2.0 and location-aware communication enable individuals to self-organize, forming translocal networks that posses the swarming intelligence, real-time flexibility and clout to challenge multi-national corporations and governments alike. Thus online Peer-to-Peer platforms have given rise to radically new forms of production based on reciprocity. Beyond the virtual realm the so-called Sharing Economy is starting to fundamentally redefining the way we live in cities and may conceive of urban resources. Each form of capitalism has brought about distinct architectural typologies and ultimately, new types of cities: be it the Parisian shopping arcade in relation to 19th century rising bourgeoisie, or its post-war pendant, the mall in relation to the suburban middle class. In this studio we will speculate on the implications of late Capitalism: based on selected current economic models ranging from hyper- to anti-capitalism, from Productto-service to P2P-platforms, students will develop and design an architectural prototype for the Sharing Economy. With the design of Sharing Hub Projects we will explore how Architecture can catalyse alternate urban futures and new spaces of commoning. The accompanying Project Seminar will provide an economic, political and cultural introduction to related theories by authors such as Harvey, Mouffe, Castells, Felber, Botsman and Rogers amongst others. Based on the texts we will produce a glossary for the Sharing Economy. More importantly these readings should help articulate a design agency. We will further research the history of sharing and create five time-lines that will help define the program for the respective projects. Finally we will study selected precedents of spaces of commoning with a focus on part-to-whole relations and devise diagramming techniques that become generative for the design.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


TAKING THE ACADEMY TO THE STREETS!

BArch 6th semester design studio Geography, Landscape, Cities


DESIGN STUDIOS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna SS2012 - TAKING THE ACADEMY TO THE STREETS! Our beds are empty two-thirds of the time. Our living rooms are empty seven-eights of the time. Our office buildings are empty one-half of the time. It‘s time we gave this some thought.” (Buckminster Fuller in “I seem to be a verb” 1971) In the discourse on sustainable cities density is often considered a mere extensive problem—maximizing FAR. Instead this studio was concerned with the intensive use of latent urban resources. Universities for instance are empty one third of the year. Can we reconsider its typology to accommodate a superimposition of activities in time adapting to fluctuating rhythms and changing intensities? In the next four years the Academy’s main building will undergo major renovations. We proposed to relocate the school to a network of vacant shops in Vienna’s 15th district claiming an estimated 6000m2 of unoccupied space. In immediate relation to the streets the decentralized academy offers the opportunity to rethink prevalent modes of education and explore new forms of collaborative learning beyond the ivory tower. More importantly the scenario aims at investigating temporary use of existing spatial resources as catalyst for urban renewal. How can the neighborhood’s upgrade be balanced with the risks of accelerated gentrification? How can the network of the temporary “Street Academy” provide benefits for current inhabitants as much as the academy’s students and thus trigger a sustainable transformation of the public spehre? According to Jeremy Rifkin’s “The Age of Access”, we are experiencing a shift in which ownership gives way to temporary access, and as capitalism sheds its material origins and turns to the commodification of time, Rifkin cautions against the rise of a hypercapitalist culture where all of life becomes a paid-for experience. Meanwhile authors such as Rachel Botsman frame the reorganization of spatio-temporal relations—coinciding with the global financial crisis, dwindling energy resources and forms of communication and social networks based on the Web 2.0—as an opportunity. Botsman describes a new collaborative lifestyle and rentership society emerging from product-service systems, redistribution markets and peer-to-peer networks that challenge common notions of the private and public, the principals of centrality and economies of scale. These phenomena provided a conceptual base for investigating typological evolutions and rethinking the relation between architecture and the city at large. In a first phase students developed an overall strategy for the network organization across the neighborhood. They then conceived and realized on-site interventions to test their ideas in real life situations. The final presentation took on a performative character ranging from an urban dérive to a courtyard parcours, from seminars in local diners to public exhibitions in vacant shops and sidewalk installations. Thus the reviews were literally the first step of taking the academy to the streets. As a consequence urban design turned into the actual experience of negotiating multiple interests as students had to convince owners, inhabitants or the municipality to grant them access to their space of intervention. The project was presented to a large public as part of the “urbanize!” festival organized by dérive magazine in October 2012 and featured in the local media such as Der Falter, Ö1 Kulturjournal and Dérive Stadtradio.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


EXQUISITE CORPSE

BArch 6th semester design studio Geography, Landscape, Cities


DESIGN STUDIOS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna BIG! BAD? MODERN: Vienna, like most European cities, has many modern buildings of the 60’s and 70’s. Their number and size makes them difficult to ignore or just eliminate. Meanwhile their autistic relation to the urban context renders them unpopular and their energy performance environmental anathema. The Institute for Art and Architecture (IKA) has dedicated the academic year of 2010/2011 to studying four such big post-war buildings in Vienna from the different thematic perspectives of the five design platforms in order to revisit the ideas of modernism and develop design proposals for their sustainable development and further use. With BIG! BAD? MODERN: the IKA makes an essential contribution to the ever more urgent debate over the future of modern post-war architecture. The project was exhibited at the Semper Depot, the Technical University Vienna and University of Ecnomis Vienna

SS2011 - Exquisite Corpse: Scenarios for the WU’s Future BArch 6th semester design studio in the Platform for Geography, Landscape and Cities Co-taught with Lisa Schmidt-Collinet Can the principles of Soft Urban Renewal be applied to mega-structures of the 70’s? Or is Vienna’s proclaimed commitment to strategic urban interventions and improvements mere nostalgia for the image of the 19th century city? While the WU’s new Prater campus is scheduled to be completed in 2014, the future of the current building is still uncertain. The ÖBB and the BIG (the site’s and building’s respective owners) are currently assessing the situation based on an intricate set of legal, financial and tenants’ interests. Meanwhile, the municipality and the general public seem inclined to demolish the whole complex including the Franz-Joseph Station and make way for “a new and lively quarter, with housing, offices and lush public green”. Such radical approach might indeed eliminate many problems that the site presents. Yet, would a tabula rasa also be the most adequate economic and ecological response? And wouldn’t it precisely reaffirmthe mindset that produced the current condition in the first place? The Summerterm ’11 Bachelor Studio in Geography, Landscapes, Cities thus engaged in projecting alternative scenarios for the WU: Visions for an urban life that takes the existing condition and site’s specific modern heritage as stepping stone for a sustainable development. Proceeding through gradual and strategic removal and/or additions, the studio puts forward five programmatic proposals promising to trigger new kinds of urban quarters but also raise more fundamental issues about urban development. Together they form an exquisite corpse of potential futures—an exquisite corpse aiming at keeping the debate on the city and our modern condition alive.

WS2010/11 - Architecture as the City? Revisiting Bigness and the Politics of Conversion MArch design studio in the Platform for Geography, Landscape and Cities Beyond their sheer size, Vienna’s WU, AKH, ORF-headquarters and Alterlaa all share an ambition to absorb the city scale within a singular building. Yet to which extent do these singular buildings also perform as a city in themselves? And what exactly is the difference between the city and its architecture? This seemingly simple question was at the centre of this term’s Master studio in Geography, Landscapes and Cities. We investigated the differences between planning and design, notions of transformation over time and what is robust versus ephemeral. We searched for the rules or structure behind the projects’ generative processes. We further examined the relation of the four modernist case studies to their urban context, challenging their seemingly autistic behavior. To begin with, we applied existing methods of city-mapping to the close reading of the four Viennese projects. Including Colin Rowe, Venturi, Scott-Brown and the Situationist International amongst others, these techniques were drawn from a period in which an increasing criticism towards modern architecture led to the rediscovery of the historic city. Significantly, this is also the precise period in which our four late-modern case-studies were built. Thus, the suggested method promised to trigger a short-circuit - one that would change the reading and understanding of, and speculations over Vienna’s modern post-war projects.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


Arthaberplatz:

it’s big.

but that’s about it.

24/7 playground: 9:00 the first group of kids arrive 12:00 lunchbreak! everyone got his lunchbox? 13:00 the usual screaming and running around. 18:00 slight rain but nobody cares. the adult-lid ratio is 1:28.

debate club:

1) 18:20 old men shouting at each other 2) 18:30 shouting stops. the old men drink their beer and smoke their cigarettes. 3) 18:33 the beer is finished. old men hug each other.

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Philipp Soeparno / SS2010 Negotiationg Bigness and Urban Renewal


DESIGN STUDIOS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna SS2010 - Negotiating Bigness and Soft Urban Renewal MArch design studio in the Platform for Geography, Landscape and Cities Co-taught with Lisa Schmidt-Collinet and in collaboration with Joachim Wintzer from Bouwfonds MAB

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In line with the idea of ‘Vienna: Slow Capital’ the studio continued challenging the seeming incompatibility of two urbanism paradigms: Bigness and soft urban renewal. Whereas soft urban renewal stands for an approach of working with the existing urban substance and developing projects from within a specific context, Bigness is primarily concerned with an economy of scale and thus inherently independent. Both of these approaches have successively characterized urbanization in Vienna’s recent history. While Vienna developed incisive strategies for urban regeneration and growth within existing Gründerzeit neighbourhoods in the late 70’s and 80’s, the past twenty years have been marked by very large developer projects (aka Bigness). While Bigness tends to gravitate towards the urban fringe and display an autistic behavior in relation to its context, inner-city-living in Vienna – similarly to other European cities – is currently experiencing a significant revival. The studio explored potential synergetic effects between large scale building complexes with dense historic urban conditions. How can local architectural interventions act as urban catalysts for regeneration and densification at the scale of a neighbourhood? How can significant investments be channeled to produce benefits at the scale of the city adding up to more the sum of its parts?

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While in the winter term, the studio derived strategies for architectural interventions from the urban environment, in the summer term we took an inverse approach developing architectural proto-typologies for inner-city shopping malls including 300 residential units and 3000m2 of offices that were then exposed to and transformed by a specific urban ecology.

WS2009/10 - Vienna: Slow Capital MArch design studio in the Platform for Geography, Landscape and Cities Co-taught with Lisa Schmidt-Collinet Doubting the sustainability of Vienna’s urban developments in the past 20 years and more generally the shift in priorities from qualitative renewal of histroric city quarters to mere quantitative expansion we’ve developed an alternative Leitbild for Vienna, coined “Slow Capital”. Slowness, when attributed to a city, suggests not only a laid-back life style, but also gradual rather than impulsive change and developments. Long-term implications are favored over short-term benefits. Influences are taken from local and culturally-specific factors rather than global trends. Slowness is sustainable and ecological – of course – advocating short distances and respect for existing urban fabric and building matter. Vienna: Slow Capital plays on the double meaning of capital. It advocates an urban development that is strategic in its speed and investments. It suggests that the quality of life in a city might also be determined by its capacity to resist certain movements and concentrate on its unique attributes instead. Thus the studio developed neighborhood strategies aiming at inserting large scale developments into dense urban fabric and explored their capacity

SS2009 - Vienna: 20 years later BArch 6th semester design studio in the Platform for History, Theory and Criticism In collaboration with six other Central European architecture schools during two week long workshops in Prague Twenty years ago, on May 2.1989, Hungary began dismantling their border fence with Austria, triggering the successive fall of the Iron curtain. Overnight, Vienna moved into Europe’s centre after existing at the impervious edge of a divided world between East and West for half a century. The following years were met with both excitement and anxieties generating debates, plans and speculations about the future of city and the effects of the geo-political shift. Awakening from an almost century long beauty sleep Vienna suddenly faced a vibrant dynamic and rapid development that is referred to as the second ‘Gründerzeit’. But enthusiasm was also mixed with resentments against the pressure to act and the need to position Vienna in a growing competition amongst European capitals -worlds apart from Vienna’s traditional comfort zone. This studio aimed at understanding, documenting and evaluating the dynamics of how the city of Vienna has evolved in the past two decades. What are the city’s visions, formal and informal planning strategies and tools of implementation? What are the cultural, economic and socio-political forces at play in shaping the urban physiognomy and physiology? Where can architects and urban planners strategically intervene to influence and regulate the process? The research lead to a series of critical proposals for future scenarios and urban visions.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


CITIES IN MOTION: CENTROPE

Exhibition at Schloss Orth as part of Centrope-Dialoge / Orte Architekturnetzwerk NÖ WS2007/08 MArch Studio in Geography, Landscape, Cities


DESIGN STUDIOS

Academy of Fine Arts Vienna

SS2008 - Cities in Motion Bucharest BArch 6th semester design studio in the Platform for Geography, Landscape and Cities Co-taught with Markus Schaefer and in collaboration with Anna Rose from Space Syntax, London and members from TUB-Bucharest This studio investigated the relation between urban morphology and different types of mobility, using Bucharest as a case study. Mobility is only one factor in the central function of cities: To facilitate access, including to other people, resources, jobs and ideas. Access is also increased by a city’s organization, its density, performance or mix of programs. When studying mobility, the aim is to balance the requirements for infrastructures allowing for mobility with city residents’ needs for access. Empirically, this often means reducing automobile dependency and increasing the share of modes of mobility that are more efficient (e.g. rail) and consume less space (e.g. biking or walking). Since 1989, the number of private cars in Bucharest has dramatically reached a total of 1.3 million. They clog the streets during rush hours and dominate the public spaces of Bucharest’s inner city when parked. The studio tapped into a recent private initiative, the “Transcentral Urban Bucharest” (TUB), which aims at improving public space, and built upon its existing framework of strategies to develop a series of specific interventions that address mobility, transfer between modes, urban densification and possible private-public partnerships.

WS2007/08 - Cities in Motion Centrope MArch design studio in the Platform for Geography, Landscape and Cities Co-taught with Markus Schaefer and in collaboration with Jeff Kennworthy An unprecedented number of people today enjoy an unprecedented amount of mobility. As a result, our cities and landscapes are currently built based on the availability of cheap, individual transportation. Yet, fossil fuels are increasingly problematic. Due to their growing scarcity they are the root causes of global climate change and international conflicts. The aim of the studio was to study forms of mobility and access in different global cities and assess their performance; to define scenarios for future forms of access where mobility is complemented with spatial and programmatic density; and finally, to test their implications by developing specific projects for Centrope, defined as being “strategically located in the heart of the New Europe” including Vienna, Bratislava, Brno and Györ. The studio formed an overarching concept for the region. The transfer of insights from the research on cities to the research on the region enabled each student to prepare a project addressing both the region while illuminating the wider topic of cities and mobility. Collectively, the projects aimed at illustrating possible strategies for the region operating between the scales of regional identity and urban prototype.

SS2007 – The variable codes of collectives housing BArch 4th semester design studio in the Platform for Analogue and Digital Production This studio investigated various types of collective housing, from monasteries to homeless shelters and nursing homes to boutique hotels. Each student project had to accommodate 100 beds on a given site, while additional programs followed distinct social, programmatic and design codes. The comparative research aimed at exposing variations and similarities in the material organization of respective housing types in order to overcome the rigid notion of types and translate the potentials of typological thinking into parametric design. Based on the idea that a given building typologies may become obsolete in the future, students were then asked to incorporate possible conversions into their design strategy: The former prison may become a hotel, the youth hostel may become a nursing home. These scenarios acknowledged the ephemeral nature of programming and the way we live today, making adaptability a generative design parameter and essential performative criteria. It emphasized the benefits of working with intensive properties and topological thinking on a programmatic and organizational level.

STUDIOGRUBER STEFAN GRUBER 5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com girardigasse 2/31 1060 wien studiogruber@gmail.com office@studiogruber.com


MODEL OF PROTOTYPICAL UNIT

Franz Kropatschek / WS0607 Low/-rise high-density housing


DESIGN STUDIOS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna WS2006/07 – Low-rise high-density housing BArch 3rd semester design studio in the Platform for Analogue and Digital Production In collaboration with engineer Guillem Baraut teaching Bentley’s Generative Components (GC) software The studio investigated the effects of densification on contemporary living conditions using a bottom-up approach. Students tackled issues of densification, beginning with a minimal living unit: What infrastructure is indispensable for living in contemporary society? Which parameters, programs or parts can be defined as fixed in our living environment? How can we condense services and thus retain open and flexible spaces for diverse living scenarios? To start, each student was assigned an existing house. Their task was to shrink the house while maintaining its genetic code. The transformation revealed components which were resistant to change versus others which were flexible and mutable--thus providing a conceptual understanding of parametric design. The shrunken minimal dwelling unit served as raw material from which the students explored possible extensions, variations and forms of aggregations to a larger housing complex. The prototypical aggregate was later deployed onto a given site and tested in a specific environment. Living is subject to constant change. Inhabitants change and have diverse needs. Their needs evolve over the course of a lifetime and over the course of history. Thus, we need to develop adaptive design strategies in order to mediate between them.

SS2006 - Re-animations Vertical design studio in the Platform for Analogue and Digital Production Co-taught with Wolfgang Tschapeller and Erhard Kinzelbach This studio explored the potential of animation and film as generative tools for spatial concepts and architectural design. Compared to architecture, film is particularly efficient in the relations it creates between applied means and produced effects. Nonetheless, moving images can be considered as close approximation of three-dimensional space. They have the capacity to describe complex spatial situations as well as temporal events. In the studio, students were asked to develop their design projects through scripting or storyboards as an alternate form of notating desired spatial and performative effects. An abandoned railway bridge where the rivers Gurk and Drau in Carinthia meet, rendered obsolete due to the construction of a new high-speed rail train, served as the project’s site. The bridge and the adjoining tracks, no longer needed, opened up the field for future programming. Students conceived strategies to re-animate the abandoned piece of infrastructure, which could be read as building or landscape. The site offered multiple levels of addressing issues of time, as its former purpose was strongly related to motion, but its future requires transformation.

WS2005/06 - 4 Windows project Vertical design studio in the Platform for Analogue and Digital Production Co-taught with Wolfgang Tschapeller and Erhard Kinzelbach Taking the fourth dimension of time as intrinsic to architecture, the studio explored the influence of time-based and animated processes as an organizational device. Similar to common modeling programs, the studio proposed a design interface consisting of four windows: animation, program, site and 3d model. Each offered a mode of operation, at once distinct yet intricately linked. One alteration would affect all other interdependent systems. The simultaneous work would provide immediate feedback and criteria to evaluate gradual transformations. Students began by examining and reworking a thirty-second long film sequence. Rather then addressing the plot or subject matter itself, students manipulated the movie, focusing on exposing techniques employed to structure motion and time. The found techniques were then drawn on to develop an architectural proposal. Two general design tendencies emerged from these investigations: The recognition of animate form as a generative device allows to multiply possibilities, rather than freezing a project in its early stages; an incentive to conceive buildings as containers of events and movements tend to prioritize spatial effects and their impact on users over their formal appearance and signification. The spatial and material organization of buildings then becomes a catalyst for activities and experiences to come. The film excerpts, in addition to common parameters such as site and program, became driving concerns for the design.

STUDIOGRUBER STEFAN GRUBER

5740 girardigasse wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh ce@studiogruber.com 2/31 1060 wien offi studiogruber@gmail.com


RESEARCH THESIS ON VIENNA’S HOUSING SUBSIDY

Sophie Hochhäusl / WS 2008


SELECTED THESIS PROJECTS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Johanna Werschnig - PlanB (Würdigungspreis) The project defines a strategy to regulate densification and gentrification in the vicinity of Hotel Kiev in Bratislava. The thesis aims at developing alternatives to developers’ generic master-plans. Instead, it proposes an open-plan as a regulative device to mediate between the interests of private investors, the municipality and the public. For each of these three actors, the project developes specific means of representation to communicate the rules and parameters. Grga Basic - Tracing Footsteps: The Dynamic Sophie Hochhäusl - Master Planning ParadiseEcological Vienna - A Footprint Survey on the City, Its Politics & Society Or: 110 Years of Housing Subsidy – Where do We Stand? (Pfann-Ohmann-Prize) (Würdigungspreis) Master Planningenvironmental Paradise is a issues theoretical documenting communal housing fromdriven the end theand Understanding and project acting towards a more sustainable futureinisVienna commonly byofguilt K+K to criticizing the currentourera. focuses the relationships between political agendas, economic players fear. empire Rather up than lifeItstyle this on project focuses on the built environment and infrastructural systems and architects to evaluate selected projects. BasedFootprint on its analysis, a critique visualizes in theorder extent of an urban dweller’s Ecological acordingthe to projects his or herarticulate energy and water of contemporary housing patterns policies and changes in order to revive outstanding tradition consumption, mobility etc. proposes Through astructural set of maps, the project thus placesVienna’s one’s environmental impact in a complex construct of infrastructural networks and dependencies between parameters of natural and urban environof high quality, subsidized housing projects. ments. Inhabiting a city therefore turns into acting on defined and sometimes distant territories at specific times. % 250 m³ 3 512 % 300m³ 6 095

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Tina Wintersteiger Hundertundein Feld Christina Lennart - -Volumetric Ownership (Carl Appel Prize) (Würdigungspreis) The project attempts to redefine lawsofand challenge planar parcellation in orderintoVienna. produceThe denser threeHundertundein Feld explores thezoning possibility urban community supported agriculture design dimensional conditions. Theinthesis focuses identifying strategic parameters thatofneed while project for anurban agricultural building Simmering is on based on an extensive research work food regulations production and leaving other open tomaps adaptthe to changing and distribution scenarios, the distribution in developments Vienna. The analysis metabolicconditions. the cycle ofThrough farming,phasing harvesting, andregulasale, consumption andand waste management tions are tested gradually refined. of fresh vegetable in Vienna. The project then intervenes at a local scale acting as short circuit in the industrialized system.

Nuray Kurakurt - Inside-Out. Open-spaces between city and nature (Carl Appel Prize) This thesis questions the prioritization of building masses over outdoor spaces in common urban developments and focuses on the definition of a highly differentiated landscape as a regulative and organizational device for a mixed use development in Amsterdam’s industrial harbour. Buildings, landscape and infrastructure are developed as one intricate and interwoven continuum in which the presence of greenery is intensified through visual and spatial layering. Manuel Singer - Airport urbanism The project aims at urbanizing the region around Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport and proposes an alternative to common urban planning strategies. Today’s “airport-cities” have turned airports into economic machines deprived of their potential to be the urban center of everyday life. The project devises a strategy to connect Shiphol to its surrounding municipalities and proposes differentiated public spaces combined with strategically-located housing and business parks that will allow for intense and manifold inhabitation. Elisabeth Esterer - Coal region convertor (Academy Prize) The master plan devises new qualities for the Ruhr Basin by intricately fusing landscape, program and infrastructure via conversion of the former mining site into a regional economic and urban attraction, while retaining its link to diverse and fragile ecosystems. The proposed medium-dense settlement preserves the ground to allow for a continuous park. Its vegetation and an elaborate irrigation system regenerate the contaminated soil. The projects aims at diversifying landscape types, housing conditions and attracting a variety of users. Tina Tröster Environmental mutationParadise a new typology for sustainable high dense urban fabric Sophie Hochhäusl - Master Planning The research thesis documents the transformation of Vienna’s communal housing policies from the 1920’s to today based on selected case studies and examines the correlation between social agenda and their architectural manifestation. The analysis disentangles the roles of various players involved in the building process and juxtaposes hard facts with political discourse. Finally it speculates on necessary structural changes Vienna’s current housing subsidies would have to undergo, in order for its architecture to live up to its enduring social democratic ambitions.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


Bitte Fenster geschlossen halten! Frischluftgefahr

Diplompräsentation Lisi Zeininger 25.01.2013 11:00 Uhr und während des Rundgang 2013 Mehrzwecksaal, 2.OG Atelierhaus der Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien, Lehargasse 6-8, 1060 Wien


SELECTED THESIS PROJECTS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Philipp Soeparno - Autumn Life (Pfann Ohmann Prize and shortlisted for Archiprix) The project is set in the rural town of Retz threatened of shrinking due to its over-aged population. A series of site-specific infrastructure and landscape interventions provide mobility for senior citizens, while creating incentives for physical exercise and social exchange. While intricate architectural section-drawings describe the richness and complexity of the existing landscape, the simplicity of the actual interventions is shown through hand sketches. Martin Denk - Juvenile Prison This thesis project proposes a prototype for a juvenile prison in Austria. Its organization is derived from the meticulous choreography of the inmates’ daily routine. Its architecture offers differentiated spaces with varying degrees of privacy and shared facilities layered in three zones, each allowing for different types of social interaction. The project aims at rehabilitating individuals through the experience of living in different collective settings

Dagnija Smilga - Landscape of contemporary infrastructure (Würdigungspreis) This regional strategy plan aims at counteracting rural exodus in isolated areas of Latvia through the alternative forms of exploiting local resources. The documentation of local specificities and micro-public spaces is combined with strategic analysis of the geographic and economic territory and arrives at a complex matrix of infrastructural interventions that bridge multiple scales and urban systems.

Patrick Hammer - From „Wien Museum am Karlsplatz“ to „Karlsplatzmuseum an der Wien“ The project provides an extension to the existing museum of the city of Vienna. The new wing extends into the city while literally dissecting its urban surroundings with a path along which the many historic and infrastructural layers are gradually revealed. The museum of the city is turned inside-out, no longer trying to contain the city, but rather dissolving into the city and acting as a viewing apparatus.

Nefeli Papakyriakopoulou -In Medias Res (Pfann-Ohmann-Prize) Re-constructing a parallel trip (based on true stories) of an informal migrant and a tourist, between Morocco and Greece and their routes, as well as my research on their traces, this project aims to grasp the complexity of contemporary phenomena as mass migration and mass tourism focusing on the different scales of spaces—from the geopolitical territory to the body, from the space of expectation to the transnational one. Shifting away from a Euro-centric vision and the western imaginary, this is a narration of the relationship between place and identity while unfolding the multidimensionality of space. Mark Werner - Glass Beyond Transparency (Pfann-Ohmann-Prize) Departing from Rowe’s and Slutzky’s canonical essay on transparency and its reception this research thesis argues that materiality of glass itself undermines the opposition between phenomenal and literal and has the capacity to act as both. It thus explores, methods of material transformation to produce effects of ambivalent visual relationships through superimpositions, illusions of simultaneity and fluctuating spatiality. Gilbert Berthold – Learning from Robin Hood Gardens In an attempt to save London’s Robin Hood Gardens from demolition, the project takes on the real estate developer’s brief, yet proposes a scenario that preserves the Smithsons’ scheme. Meanwhile the new master plan also critically addresses discrepancies between some of Smithsons’ original ambitions and the actual realization. The transformation then attempts to reinterpret the Smithsons’ principals into the context of today.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


RADICAL CARTOGRAPHY WORKSHOP

With Philipp Rekacewicz and Christian Reder/ WS2011


LECTURE COURSES/SEMINARS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Negotiating: Top-down/Bottom-up Advanced Introduction to Geography Landscape and Cities – MArch Lecture Course Be it the saturated European city or shrinking post-industrial regions, ever sprawling suburbia or fast growing slums, Big Plans seems no longer adequate to tackle most common urban conditions of today. The lecture course thus explores strategies of negotiating top-down planning and bottom-up development in contemporary urbanism. Confronted with global economic crisis, dwindling energy resources and frail governance architects are challenged to devise alternative approaches to urbanism. The course explores a situative approach to engaging the city. Based on an inductive reading of an urban milieu it identifies neuralgic points for focused interventions that promise to add-up to more than the infamous sum of their parts. It thus aims at tapping into the self-organizing behavior of cities and shifts architect’s attention to instigating processes rather than obsessing about singular objects and final products. Such approach requires relational thinking across multiple scales ranging from the region to the sidewalk. Each of these scales implies certain types of interventions that should be measured by the correlation of their scope and produced effects. Such apporach to Urbanism and Landscape depends incremental implementation based on iterative feed-back and constant readjustments, thus negotiating top-down and bottom-up initiatives. The course emphasizes urbanism as a practice of negotiations between the multiple forces at play in shaping our built environment. The first set of lectures has a methodological focus, outlining and contextualizing principals of self-organization, relational thinking and inductive readings of landscapes and city. The second set is based on case studies that offer an array of probes from different continents and cultures with distinct forms of urbanization and landscape.

WS2009/10 - Vienna: 20 years after Project seminar – MArch As part of a collaborative research project, “Urbanity: 20 years after” research teams from seven Central European capitals investigate urban developments in their respective city since the fall of communism. While the period of the last 20 years is often referred to as a transition from a centralized political system to free marked economy, the current collapse of the global financial system, obviously suggests conceiving of transition as a state of instability with an uncertain outcome. The course surveys the history of Vienna’s urbanization examining the cause and effect relations of politics economics, culture and technology and urban form. It particularly highlights the period pre- and post 1989 scrutinizing the effects of the geo-political shift on city. Beyond the actual issues at stake, the course questions appropriate methodologies to chart and analyze urban growth.

SS07_SS08_SS09 - The Slanted Medium Theory and Methods of Representation – BArch 2nd semester Lecture Course Tools of representation never beget neutral or mere pictures of future buildings and cities. Tools have an immediate impact on the conceptual development of projects and the generation of form. While this seminar focuses on media and technique, its aim is not to teach practical skills. Rather, it aims to investigate the inherent implications of media and provide the capacity to choose adequate working tools and modes of communication as according to the message. The expanding spectrum of representational tools at hand makes a conceptual understanding of media’s effects more crucial than ever. Each week the class will scrutinize another tool: 1. Site plans and Datascapes – Embedded in context 2. Sketches vs. Diagrams – Analytical and generative abstractions 3. Drawing plans and sections – Points, lines, fields and their relation to the human body 4. Perspectives – From collage to photoshop 5. Physical Models – Wysiwygs and other messages 6. Virtual Models – Simulating realities and generative forces 7. Animation and Film – Animate form vs. movement-time 8. Photography – Constructed realities 9. Presentations – The cognitive style of Power Point 10. Writing – and rewriting narratives

WS07/08 - The networked city: Towards sustainable mobility, density and connectivity Project seminar – MArch 20th century urbanism has been ruled by cars and ever-growing mobility, but as we reach the peak of global petroleum production, we face an imminent crisis. How can we maintain one of cities’ primary functions of providing access and trade – access to services, skills and personnel, goods and ideas? As architects and planners we cannot simply await the advance of alternative and renewable energies, but are responsible for exploring organizational and spatial forms of sustaining access.

STUDIOGRUBER

5740 wilkins ave 15213 pittsburgh office@studiogruber.com


BEFORE

AFTER

WORKSHOP REDESIGN OF SOUNDSTUDIO LOUNGE AT SEMPER DEPOT

Chrsitian Fries and Maximilian Müller / SS2009


LECTURE COURSES/SEMINARS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna SS07 - Shopping for visions and power-manifestos Documentation and presentation – BArch 4th semester Manifestos were the broad expression of the emergent aspirations of the 20th century. The disenchantment of failed utopias and post-structuralism have cautioned against universal and absolute proclamations, however. But in the age of the ‘post-critical’, it seems time to overcome our self-consciousness and revisit the notion of manifestos in architecture. Through PowerPoint and Photoshop—the two most influential, yet most mis-used tools in architecture—this class undertakes a critical reflection on the effects of representational media. We will explore the potentials of collage and time-based presentations by reading, re-writing and composing architectural manifestos.

WS06/07 - Parametric Thinking: From Building Codes to Genetic Algorithms Project Seminar – MArch The class investigates parametric design on a theoretical level. It traces parametric thinking back to early classification systems and compare evolution theories in biology to attempts of defining and working with types in architecture. It explores early endeavours to build physical parametric models, investigates Deleuze’s concept of abstract machines, as well as the beginnings of artificial intelligence, and lays out the path to recent developments in parametric modelling technologies. While building codes are old mechanisms regulating key parameters in the production of architecture, it explores how codes in parametric models have become interactive, generative and morphogenetic devices.

SS06 - On Architectural Species and Their Morphogenesis Project Seminar – MArch Viewing our world essentially as the organization of matter, this seminar analyzes the forces inherent to selfdirected, bottom-up processes in our environment. While acknowledging emergent behaviour as an alternative premise to top-down models conceived of by man or god, we have to question the architect’s obsession for control in generating buildings and cities. But what alternate tools do we hold to fuse these forces into our design processes? Over long spans of time, building typologies and urban morphologies are subjected to transformative forces as are geologic strata and the gene pools of biological species. During the construction process, architects must mediate between multiple and complex forces of economic, political, cultural and physical natures. The course explores how the transformation of architectural typologies allows us to make deductions about the forces at play and their environment. It then investigates diagrams as an analytical and generative tool allowing for organizing examineshow how relations between single agents without limiting them to a single immediate form. Finally, the course curse examines self-organizing behaviour allows the exploration of diagrammatic possibilities and how order emerges through adaptive learning and environmental feedback.

SS06_ Metabolon: Wasteland - the transformation of landfill Workshop / A Collaboration between Stefan Gruber, the Regionale 2010, RWTH Aachen and FH Bochum The workshop aimed at developing concepts for the future of a soon-closing dump site in Leppe near Cologne. For four days, students from three architecture schools engaged in collaborative brainstorming, projecting future scenarios and proposing interventions leading to the revitalization of the wasteland. Its unusual topography accommodates diverse programs ranging from education facilities to leisure activities, but also requires an investigation into processes of material transformation and recycling, soil stabilization and energy production. The architectural intervention thus raises fundamental issues about today’s consumer society and its residue.

WS05/06 - Go East Documentation and Presentation Taking the new EU member states and future candidate countries as case studies, this seminar explores techniques of mapping and diagramming as tools for processing data, and understanding the complex relations of forces at play in shaping our built environment. The course aims at applying architectural thinking to broader questions of cultural identity, politics and economy, in order to unveil capacities for new architectural and urban developments. Here, research and its graphic documentation are framed as projective devices that multiply design possibilities.

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GEOGRAPHY, LANDSCAPES, CITIES GEOGRAFIE, LANDSCHAFTEN, STÄDTE Will we plan cities dense enough to shelter half of the world’s population and provide valuable quality of life? Will we find ways of containing urban sprawl and offsetting shrinking cities?

ANALOGUE PRODUCTION, DIGITAL PRODUCTION ANALOGE PRODUKTION, DIGITALE PRODUKTION Will we develop digital techniques and simulation tools assimilating the intelligence of emergent behaviour and thus improve the performance and organization of buildings and our environment?

CONSTRUCTION, MATERIAL, TECHNOLOGY TRAGKONSTRUKTION, MATERIAL, TECHNOLOGIE Will we invent smarter materials responding to ever changing conditions? Will we reinvent construction processes through integrated building information models and digital fabrication?

ECOLOGY, SUSTAINABILIT Y, CONSERVATION ÖKOLOGIE, NACHHALTIGKEIT, KULTURELLES ERBE Will we finally find a balance between urban agglomerations and their ecological footprints? Will we be able to sustain our comfort standards and excessive mobility in view of fading energy resources?

HISTORY, THEORY, CRITICISM GESCHICHTE, THEORIE, KRITIK Will we accumulate design intelligence through studying precedents and finally establishing design as a research discipline? Will we make architecture socially and politically relevant again through critical discourse?


Curriculum for Bachelor and Master in Architecture Since 2006 the Academy has been implementing the new European reform. Challenging the ‘Meisterklassen’ principal, the new Bachelor and Master in Architecture programs put forward a new format for architectural education. The proposed curriculum questions architectural production through five platforms: -

Geography, Landscape and Cities Construcion, Material and Technologies Analogue and Digital Production Ecology, Sustainability and Cultural Heritage History, Theory and Criticism

The platforms organize teachers and students in clusters of interests and expertise and provide a structure for the curriculum as well as for the school as a whole. While each platform provides a specific viewpoint on architecture, no platform ever stands alone. The architecture school and its curriculum define themselves through the overlay and negotiation between all five platforms. It thus reflects the multiple social, economic, political and technological forces at play involved in shaping our built environment. The synthesis occurs in the process of designing a project. Architecture at the Academy is a combination of discourse and production – it does not distinguish between thinking and making. It believes that both are essential tools and material for architecture and consequently for architects. Each platform makes available three types of knowledge and know-how: fundamentals, design and research. These correspond to three teaching formats: lectures, projects and seminars. With the student’s progression the emphasis gradually shifts from learning fundamentals to research work. The design project always remains at the core of the curriculum, though the student is expected to develop an increasing independence and the capacity to define an individual position. In their first semester at the Academy (exploration semester), students learn through a multitude of analogue and digital tools that architecture is a complex endeavour which can be expressed in a variety of manners. The 2nd and 3rd year students are confronted with a variety of scales and the understanding of architecture as a social and political device in our society. In the Master program, the students are taught to think autonomously and learn to develop a thesis through research and an individual project. The curriculum of the Bachelors in Architecture condenses the fundamentals of architecture and urban design into three years. The bachelors students therefore follow a strictly defined sequence of courses. In contrast, the curriculum of the Masters in Architecture allows the student to design a more individualized course in which he/she acquires expertise and is able to position him- or herself in a broader context. As Deputy Head of the curriculum commission I was responsible, along with Nasrine Seraji, the Head of Institute, for developing and implementing the new BArch and MArch curriculum.

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SAMPLE SYLLABUS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Towards Acupuncture Urbanism Negotiating Top-down Planning and Bottom-up Tactics MArch Advanced Introduction to Geography, Landscape and Cities Lecture course winter semester 14/15_ Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Prof. Stefan Gruber Be it the saturated European city or shrinking post-industrial regions, ever sprawling suburbia or fast growing slums, most common urban conditions render traditional top-down planning instruments like the master plan unproductive. And especially with the ongoing financial crisis, dwindling energy resources and frail governance, Big Plans seems no longer adequate to respond to the challenges of today’s urbanization. In times of accelerated transformation and limited predictability, the timeframe in which cities can be planned or act responsively is further becoming ever narrower. As a consequence, contemporary urban strategies have to act fast, react and adapt effectively to the change of conditions, constraints and stakeholders. In response to these developments this lecture course will introduce examples of alternative urban strategies and explore instruments for negotiating top-down planning and bottom-up tactics in contemporary urbanism. It will attempt to illustrate how alternative, topological strategies may, at times, be more appropriate and effective in dealing with upcoming issues within the contemporary city. The course will debate how actors can be involved in urban processes in a more immediate way. It will ask how we may forecast and speculate about future urban developments in a less determinate, more fluid way, and how urban complexity can emerge from very simple rules. It will also touch upon the question whether we have to re-think the role of the planner. Here practices in geography, landscape and the arts provide valuable insights on process oriented and participation based design. Thus based on an inductive reading of an urban milieu and a situative approach to engaging the city the proposed methodology of Acupuncture Urbanism explores neuralgic points of focused interventions that promise to add-up to more than the infamous sum of their parts. It aims at tapping into the self-organizing behavior of cities and shifting architects’ attention to instigating processes rather than obsessing about singular objects and final products. It investigates relational thinking across multiple scales ranging from the territory to micro-public situations and promotes an incremental approach accomodating feed-back and constant re-adjustments, thus negotiating top-down regulation and bottom-up developments. Ultimately the course emphasizes urbanism as a practice of negotiations between the multiple forces at play in shaping our built environment. The first five sessions provide a methodological introduction on principals of self-organization, relational thinking, designing with contigencies and inductive readings of the built environment. The following nine session are based on urban case studies chosen from a particular moment in history often linked to a phase of political transition or economic stagnation. Curitiba in the 70’s during the military regime, Vienna of the 30’s and 80’s in period of demographic and economic decline, Tokyo of the 90’s with the burst of Japan’s bubble economy, Berlin at the beginning of the millennium after a decade of excessive real estate speculation amongst others. The selected case studies demonstrate how scarcity can lead to profound design innovation. Together they offer an array of probes from different continents, their respective cultures and distinct contemporary forms of urbanization. While the focus is on contemporary urbanism, each case study is placed in a genealogy of historic projects. Course Requirements The class is organized as a lecture course with group discussion at the end of each session. All assigned readings are to be completed before class. The written requirements include one essay of 3.000 words written in German or English. The research essay should be exploring a theme, project suggested by the readings. An abstract of the paper outlining the topic, the structure and key bibliographic references is to be given to the instructor by December 20. A final version of this paper incorporating revisions is due at the end of the semester. Class Meeting Friday, 11:30-13:00, R211a

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SEMESTER SCHEDULE Week 1 / 3.10 – Introduction: Top-down/Bottom-up - Towards an Urbanism of Negotiation - Otl Aicher: Planung und Steuerung, in Arch+ No.98 Entwurf der Moderne (Berlin 1989) - Rem Koolhaas: Whatever happened to Urbanism? in: S,M,L,XL (010, Rotterdam 1995), pp. 961-971. - Francoise Fromonot: Death and Life of Great Urban Theories? in Review No.6 (Pustet, Salzburg 2008) - Saskia Sassen: Complex and Incomplete: Spaces of Tactical Urbanism; in Pedro Gadanho, Uneven Growth (MoMA, New York 2014) pp. 40-47 Week 2 / 10.10 - On Self-organization - Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage Books, New York, 1992) pp. 3-87; 143-150; 428-448) - Kevin Kelly: The New Biology of Machines, Social System and Warfare (Perseus Book Group, NY 1995) Chapter 2: Out of control - Massimo De Angelis: Plan C&D: Commons in Marc Angélil and Rainer Hehl: Collectivize! Essays on the Political Economy of Urban Form Vol.2 (Ruby Press, Berlin 2013) pp.121-141 Week 3 / 17.10 - On participation and designing with contigency - Giancarlo De Carlo: Architecture’s Public. in Parametro 5, 1970, pp.4-12 - Markus Miessen: The nightmare of participation (Sternberg Press, Berlin 2010) pp.13-58 - Jeremy Til: Architecture depends (MIT Press, Boston 2013) Chapter 3: Coping with Contigency pp. 45-65 - Claire Bishop: Artificial Hells, Participatory Art and the politics of Spectatorship (Verso, London 2012) pp1141, pp77-105. Week 4 / 24.10 - On Relational Thinking: from the Territory to the Sidewalk - Christoph Alexander: A City is not a Tree. 1965 - Bill Hillier: Space is the machine: a configurational theory of architecture (Space Syntax: London, 2007) pp. 10-39; 111-138; 288-314. - Peter Baccini, Franz Oswald: Netzstadt: Einführung zum Stadtentwerfen (Birkhäuser, 2003), pp. 11-62. - Volker M. Velter; Biopolis: Patrick Geddes and the City of Life, MIT Press: Cambridge 2003) Week 5 /31.10 Reading the built environment inductively - Henry Lefebvre: The Production of Space, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991), pp. 31-46, 229-423. -Tom Mc Donough: Situationistischer Raum, in Arch+183 Situativer Urbanismus (2007)pp.54-58 Week 6 / 31.10 - Curitiba: Successes and Failures of early Urban Acupuncture - Stefan Gruber: Lernen von Curitiba – Erfolge und Misserfolge früher Stadtakupunktur, in Arch+ No. 196/197 Post Oil Cities (Berlin 2010) pp. 90-97 - Jeffrey Kennworthy: The World Oil Production Peak and Its Impact on Citites, in Review No. 6 (Pustet, Salzburg 2008) - Clara Irazábal: City making and urban governance in the Americas: Curitiba and Portland (Ashgate 2005) Week 7 / 7.11 - Vienna: Slow Capital – Experiences of Soft Urban Renewal - Stefan Gruber, Vienna: Slow Capital, in MonU No.13 - Most valuable Urbanism (Rotterdam 2010) - Christina Feuerstein, Anfänge der sanften Stadterneuerung in Wien, in: Wann begann temporär? (Springer 2009) - Leopold Redl, Über den Alltag der Stadterneuerung, in: Stadt im Durchschnitt, (Böhlau, Wien 1994) - Reinhard Seiß: Wer baut Wien? Hintergründe und Motive der Stadtentwicklung Wiens seit 1989, (Pustet, Salzburg 2007)

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SAMPLE SYLLABUS Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Week 8 / 14.11 - New York: The re-design of Lincoln Center and the Highline –Public Space/Private Interests? - Douglas Kremer: Un chemin de fer nommé désir, in Criticat No.5 (Paris 2010) pp.20 - Martin Filler: Up in the Park, The New York Review of Books (August 13.2009) - Robert Stern et al.: New York 1960: Architecture and Urbanism between the Second World War and the Bicentennial (Monacelli, New York 1997) pp.13-59; 674-723. - Rem Koolhass: Delirious No More in OMA/AMO Content (Taschen, Köln 2004) Week 9 Midterm Week / 21.11. No class Week 10 /28.11 - Tokyo: From an Economy of Access to the Collaborative City - Yoshiharu Tsukamoto, “Escaping the Spiral of Intolerance” in Koh Kitayama et al. (eds) Tokyo Metabolizing. Tokyo: Toto 2010. S.28-43 - Stefan Gruber: Von der Zugangsökonomie zur kollaborativen Stadt, Arch+ No. 208 Tokio – die Stadt bewohnen (Berlin 2012) pp. 94-100 - Christian Teckert: Total Living Industry: Strategien privater Stadtproduktionsindustrien in Japan, in Dérive No.28 (Vienna 2007) Week 11 / 5.12 - Berlin: After the Big Plan – Dwelling in the Interim - Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung Berlin (eds.): Urban Pioneers: Stadtentwicklung durch Zwischennutzung (Jovis, Berlin 2007) - Philipp Oswalt et al.(eds): Urban Catalyst. Strategies for Temporary Use. Results of the European Research Project 2001 – 2003 (MA18, Wien 2004) - Arno Brandlhuber: Von de Stadt der Teile zur Stadt der Teilhabe (Walter König, Köln 2013) - Florian Hertweg, Sebastian Marot: Die Stadt in der Stadt: Berlin: ein grünes Archipel (Lars Müllers 2013) - Raumlabor: Acting in Public. (Jovis, Berlin 2008) Week 12 / 12.12. Presentation of paper topics General advice on research and writing methodologies. Student presentations and discussion. Abstracts and outlines including bibliography due on 19.12. Week 13 / 19.12. Vienna’s Settler Movement: Urbanization beyond State and Market - Klaus Novy: Selbsthilfe als Reformbewegung. Der Kampf derWiener Siedlernach dem1. Weltkrieg. in Elke Krasny: Hands on Urbanism – the Right to Green (MCCM Creations, Hongkong, 2012) - Eve Blau: The Architecture of Red Vienna (MIT Press, Boston 1999) chapter 3. Pp.90-133 - AnArchitektur: A Public Interview with Massimo De Angelis and Stavros Stavrides in An Architektur, no. 23: On the Commons (Berlin 2009) Week 14 / 9.1 – Rio: Informal - Marc Angélil, Rainer Hehl: Building Brazil! The Proactive Urban Renewal of Informal Settlements (Ruby Press, Berlin 2011) - Anaya Roy: Slumdog Cities – Rethinling Subaltern Urbansim in Informalize! eds. Marc Angélil, Rainer Hehl Ruby Press, Berlin 2012) - Maris Isabel Villac et all.: Stadtarchitekturen in Arch+ No.190: Sao Paulo –Ausblick auf ein Soziales Raumkonzept (2008)pp.70-110 - Mike Davis: Planet of Slums (Verso, London 2006) Week 13 / 30.1 - Final Discussion and papers due (papers submitted after deadline will not be accepted)

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UBLICATIONS

Stefan Gruber is the co-editor of “Spaces of Commoning - Artistic Research and the Utopia of the Everyday” (Sternberg, 2016); “Big! Bad? Modern: Four Megabuildings in Vienna” (Park Books, 2015 with Antje Lehn, Angelika Schnell et al.); and “Vienna: Slow Capital - Acupuncture for the City”(Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, 2011 with Lisa Schmidt-Colinet). He co-auhored a social fiction “The Report” (MAK, Museum for Applied Arts Vienna, 2015 with STEALTH.unlimited and Paul Currion). Stefan Gruber’s writing has also appeared Arch+, MonU and Le Monde Diplomatique among others.


Publication Series of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna

VOLUME 18

Spaces of Commoning Artistic Research and the Utopia of the Everyday Anette Baldauf Stefan Gruber Moira Hille Annette Krauss Vladimir Miller Mara Verlič Hong-Kai Wang Julia Wieger (Eds.)


Spaces of Commoning: Artistic Research and the Utopia of the Everyday Spaces of Commoning: Artistic Research and the Utopia of the Everyday is the outcome of a research project pursued by a group of artists, architects and social theorists, who in the face of exhilarating politics of accumulation and dispossession explore commoning as the subject as well as the means of their collective study. The power of the commons, this book suggests, does not reside in the promise of a coming together free of friction: As different dimensions of power organize the overdetermined terrain of the social, social movements are often caught between competing agendas, and the gap between aims and everyday life. It is precisely the sites of these struggles that the book calls spaces of commoning. As such, this study is part of a much wider recognition of the necessity to re-think and undo the methodological premises of Western sciences, arts and architecture, and to raise unsettling questions on research ethos, accountability and the entanglement of power and knowledge. With contributions by Berhanu Ashagrie, Anette Baldauf, Tesfaye Bekele Beri, Aluminé Cabrera, Silvia Federici, Elizabeth Giorgis, Stefan Gruber, Stefano Harney, Moira Hille, Mihret Kebede, Annette Krauss, Lisa Lowe, Maria Mesner, Vladimir Miller, Stavros Stavrides, Pelin Tan, Team at Casco—Office for Art, Design and Theory, Brook Teklehaimanot, Ultra-red, Mara Verlič, Hong-Kai Wang, Julia Wieger. Publication Series of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, vol. 18 Design by Surface December 2016, English 16.5 x 22 cm, 20 b/w and 13 color ill., softcover ISBN 978-3-95679-266-3

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Designing Commoning Institutions The Dilemma of the Vienna Settlers, the Commoner, and the Architect Stefan Gruber


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Robert Park called the city “man’s most consistent and on the whole, his most successful attempt to remake the world he lives in more after his heart’s desire. But, if the city is the world which man created, it is the world in which he is henceforth condemned to live. Thus, indirectly, and without any clear sense of the nature of his task, in making the city man has remade himself.” 1 Decades later, in his book Rebel City (2012), David Harvey returned to Park’s utopian quest and argued, “The right to the city is, therefore, far more than a right of individual access to the resources that the city embodies: it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city more after our heart’s desire. It is, moreover, a collective rather than an individual right since changing the city inevitably depends upon the exercise of a collective power over the processes of urbanization.” 2 As we recognize the right to exercise this collective power—the right to the city 3—the disciplines of architecture, urban design, and planning face a dilemma. On the one hand, architecture renders material our social practices, relations, and values. On the other, the disposition of space is rendered for political-economic ends and also defines us. But while this interdependence infers a continuous process of negotiation and calibration, architecture is also violently conclusive: it petrifies, it cements. Architecture’s inertia means it will always be out of sync with the living social contract it embodies. Moreover, with the ascendance of neoliberalism, cities have moved away from redistributive to entrepreneurial governing. Under pressure in the global competition for capital, municipalities have become motors of speculative growth and privatization. Architecture is then mostly complicit as a generic commodity in urban development, or as a signature icon competing for symbolic capital. And if we can no longer rely on state institutions to regulate markets in the interest of the public good, how are we to disrupt the expanding vortex of influence from self-perpetuating hegemonies? How can we claim a collective right to the city? Can architecture untangle itself from the positive feedback loop where it serves prevailing power structures, and instead gain its own critical agency to expose and foster processes of negotiation in urbanization? Is it possible to imagine architectural and urban design as anything else than a top-down practice? Can architecture ever be an emancipatory project? Vital social movements from Occupy Wall Street in New York to Tahir Square in Istanbul have protested against the mantras of profit-driven growth and

1

Robert Park, On Social Control and Collective Behavior (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1967), 3.

2

David Harvey, Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution (London: Verso, 2012), 4. 3 Henri Lefebvre, Le droit à la ville (Paris: Anthropos, 1968).


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capitalist urbanization while claiming that another world is possible. In these movements, spatial practices and appropriations have been key for building and sustaining solidarity.4 It is against this backdrop that the current debate on the commons thrives. Challenging the binary dichotomy of private and public, the commons offer the perspective of a self-organized and non-commodified means of fulfilling people’s needs, and more importantly, are understood as a process of making something common as commoners negotiate shared resourced, norms, and values. There are no commons without incessant activities of commoning, of (re)producing in common. The precarious nature of commoning defines its emancipatory promise. Its fragility signals the possibility of true participation, of taking or losing control. Commoning begins by acknowledging differences and related potential conflicts. The goal is not to erase differences through consensus, but to work together despite their irreconcilability. The notion of commoning as an outcome of continuous negotiation, reclaiming, and revocation, resonates with our understanding of the city. At the same time, the openness and inconclusive nature of commoning is in opposition to general notions of design and planning, a predefined set of actions irrespective of contingencies. Thus commoning sheds light on architecture’s inherent dilemma: if we recognized the city as a site for collective negotiations in the interest of the public good, but this common interest can no longer be articulated in a single narrative, and is instead unstable, then we must reconsider the outmoded notions of planning and design based on the illusions of control and potency. One underlying hypothesis of this argument is that architecture should embrace its inability to control the dynamics of urbanization, and instead gain political agency by focusing on its ability to work with contingencies instead.5 This might free architects to scrutinize those forces that actually do shape the built environment, and consequently ask how and in whose interests building codes, land-use regulations, construction norms, financing models, and tax benefits are structured. Deciphering these forces might be the first step toward redistributing planning authority. On the other hand, architecture’s expertise on uncertainty and emergent behavior might expand its field of operations.6 Following Alejandro Zaera-Polo who defined his aim to “produce an updated politics of architecture in which the discipline is not merely reduced to a representation of ideal political concepts, but as an effective tool to produce change,” 7 and focuses on the discipline’s hard core—the performative effects of building envelopes—I argue for the reinterpretation of architecture’s modalities of practice: to expand its scope beyond final products or singular objects, to include the design of processes under which architecture is produced—the design of political institutions, forms of governance, economic systems, and modes of production that determine most of our built environment. Only thus can we revive the idea of the political project that is


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the city as a site of encounter and the collective negotiation of differences. This also implies imagining alternative institutions, constructing an alternative framework beyond state centrism, and capitalist market logic. Can the commons contribute to such an endeavor? As much as the debate on the commons offers important insights for architectural and urban design, reversely, practices of commoning are also challenged when considered at the scale of the city. In effect, practices of commoning are most operative at a local scale, but what happens when the commons become the organizing principles at a larger scale, at the scale of neighborhoods or the city? How can practices of commoning grow beyond local initiatives, from islands of exception to triggering systemic change? And at a temporal scale, how can commoning, beyond the struggle for survival and as a mode of resistance, become a desirable condition to be sustained? When considered in the long term, commoning as social practice faces the challenge of remaining open (open to newcomers as well as open to adapt to changing conditions) and unyielding to enclosure, hierarchies, and discrimination. These questions suggest that if we are to understand commoning—not only as a perspective or guiding utopian horizon, but as transformative social change leading to a noncapitalist forms of living-in-common—then commoners must confront the challenge of institutionalization. I refer to institutionalization here as a process of crystallization where everyday behavior consolidates into protocols, and eventually organizational structures and material complexes. In such an understanding of architecture, its material and spatial organization inevitably also contributes to institutionalization. Thus it is here on the question of institutionalization that the articulation of the two seemingly incompatible practices, commoning and planning/design hinges. But to further pursue this question, it seems necessary to stop speaking of institutions in general, or design and commoning in general, and instead engage in a more concrete analysis of a specific ecology of social, political, financial, and spatial dynamics: the Vienna settlers’ movement of the 1920s.

4 Stavros Stavrides, Common Space: The City as Commons (London: Zed Books, 2016). 5 Jeremy Till, Architecture Depends (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013). 6 Mark Wigley, “Towards a History of Quantity,” Volume #2: Doing (Almost) Nothing (July 2005): 28–32. 7 Alejandro Zaera-Polo, “The Politics of the Envelope: A Political Critique of Materialism,” Volume #17: Content Management (November 2008): 76–105.


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Settlers’ Movement In 1919 Austria was on the verge of total economic collapse. After the First World War, it shrank from being a supranational empire to an atrophied province with few natural resources. Its inept, oversized administrative apparatus left its starving populace to its own devices. This crisis was not the mere result of war. It had fomented over the nineteenth century and through Vienna’s exponential industrial urbanization, when workers lived in overcrowded Gründerzeit quarters in precarious and unsanitary conditions. Already in 1912, 96,878 Viennese were homeless, 20,071 of which were children. 8 The crisis reached its peak when veterans and refugees flocked to Vienna after the war. In her contribution “Housing Commons” in this book, Mara Verlic provides a more detailed account of the housing crisis and policies at the time. In response, citizens began squatting on Vienna’s urban fringe, clearing forest for wood and growing food in small allotment gardens. By 1918 over 1500 acres of cultivated land fed roughly 160,000 people,9 while farmers began erecting ad hoc housing. By 1919 about 60,000 settlers surrounded the former imperial capital,10 threatening not only the Wald- und Wiesengürtel (a ring of forests and meadows), but the city’s loss of control over its unruly masses. Photos of women cutting wood and working the land in early allotments bear resemblance to the accounts of diggers and levelers in medieval England, and are often referred to as the origins of the commons in Europe. But Vienna’s settlers quickly moved beyond self-help initiatives. On September 26, 1920, the settlers marched down the Ringstrasse to demand rights to the land they occupied: “Give us land, wood and brick and we’ll make bread out of it!” 11 The demonstration marked a tipping point for the 50,000 protesters: by orchestrating their energies, the settlers exerted political pressure on the city, as well as took advantage of economies of scale in the production of food and housing. Thus, the settlers began self-organizing in housing cooperatives. On April 3, 1921, the settlers took to the streets again and gained such momentum that then-mayor of Vienna, Jakob Reumann, conceded to support their endeavor. Realizing that the city could not provide for the people and anxious to prevent a looming revolution, the government legalized the settlements, granting the squatters long-term leases while retaining ownership of the land. This marked the beginning of the settlements’ gradual institutionalization. It also laid the foundations for the city’s coming and better-known Red Vienna program. Invigorated by the city’s support, settler associations created an alternative cooperative economy that would facilitate the construction of individual


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houses with gardens for subsistence farming in forty-six different settlements. From 1919–24, the movement defined Vienna’s urbanization. The settlers’ cooperation was based on an intricate network of nested institutions of self-governed associations, cooperatives, and guilds, and also new municipal and governmental agencies. In quick succession, an umbrella association, the Verband für Siedlungs- und Kleingartenwesen (ÖVSuK) and a public utility settlement and building material procurement corporation, the Gemeinschaftliche Siedlungs- und Baustoffanstalt (Gesiba) were founded in 1921. ÖVSuK’s goal was to respond to the settlers’ most basic needs while making construction more effective. It developed elaborate distribution, financing, and labor accounting systems. Many smaller cooperatives assembled under ÖVSuK and Gesiba, collaborating to gain control over entire cycles of production, contribution and use, by unfolding by unfolding a range of activities including the provision of raw building materials, the planning of settlements and housing prototypes, and the financing of construction via loans, insurance, and notfor-profit banking. In this way, the settler gained freedom from profit-driven market competition and unpredictable fluctuations, which ultimately gave rise to a new economic and political reform movement. The speed at which the settlements constituted a “proto-state organizational structure” remains as one of the settlers’ most astonishing accomplishments.12 Klaus Novy, who has provided the most comprehensive documentation of the settlers’ movement to date, stresses the importance of “strong self-regulating institutions” that first enabled the settlers to articulate common interests and thereafter implement their ambitions.13 The settlers’ lessons for bottom-up initiatives remain just as valid today. Indeed many of the settlers’ ambitions and strategies resonate with contemporary commoning initiatives nearly one century later: By separating land and home ownership via long-term leases, the settlers de-commodified their houses. By renting their cooperatively owned houses, the settlers ensured stable rents and that future decisions would be based on common rather than individual interests. By basing participation on the contribution of individual manual labor rather than capital, the settlers made housing accessible to wider, often excluded populations. By selfmanaging the diverse cooperative bodies based on basic democratic principles, they managed to retain control over their lives. By accepting hierarchies

8 Klaus Novy and Wolfgang Förster, Einfach Bauen (Vienna: Verein für moderne Kommunalpolitik, 1985), 11. 9 Ibid., 130. 10 Otto Bauer, Die Österreichische Revolution (Vienna: Edition Ausblick, 2015).

11 Novy and Förster, Einfach Bauen, 28. Unless otherwise noted, all translations are my own. 12 Klaus Novy, “Selbsthilfe als Reformbewegung: Der Kampf der Wiener Siedler nach dem 1. Weltkrieg,” Arch +55, Kampf um Selbsthilfe (February 1981): 39. 13 Ibid., 154.


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of nested institutions, cooperative federations, and umbrella organizations, they grew beyond local initiatives, free from market and governmental pressures. But despite many ideological parallels, reading Vienna’s historic settlements through a contemporary commoning perspective also reveals important disparities. If practices of commoning are rooted in the negotiation of differences, the recognition of varying abilities, privileges, hopes, and fears as the point of departure for coming together, how did the settlers’ deal with tension and conflict? On the one hand, what makes the settler movement particularly interesting from today’s post-political perspective is the diversity of its participants. “Here there is no difference between mental and manual workers. Factory and railway workers, art historians, writers, civil servants, anarchist, Christian socialists, libertarians and Baptist-theosophers, socialists, German nationalists and Jews work adjacent to and with one another. Here they are no ‘-ists.’” 14 But how did the cooperative convergence of subjects then affect this multitude? 15 The early illegal and informal settlers’ activities are widely undocumented. We can only speculate on pre-institutional conflicts, repressions and exclusions. Accordingly, Novy writes, “It is unknown from literature, how many allotment gardens and settlers decided not to join the cooperative and thus also turned down financial aid, how many were expulsed from the wildly appropriated land. In both cases, however, one can assume that there were many more than acknowledged by specialized literature from the institutional part of the movement.” 16 Two rather minor scenes may reveal some of the tensions, conflicts of interest, and attempts at appropriation integral to the settlers’ institutionalization.

The Settlers’ School One central incentive for the settlers was the effective allocation of available resources, not only material and financial, but also skills and knowledge. In addition to social and cultural clubs, the settlers also launched a newspaper, museum, and school. But beyond a “curriculum” of a lecture series by prominent figures of the movement, the settlers’ school remains widely unexplored. Meanwhile, the writings of two lecturers, namely, architects Adolf Loos and Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, provide some insight into their ideas about the nature and role of education, and the production and reproduction of knowledge within the reform movement. In his 1921 text “Wohnen lernen” (Learning how to dwell), Loos sets out his principals on how to live.17 Though leavened with humor, Loos’s tone is patronizing and leaves no doubt of his expertise on the matter of how a “good settler” ought to dwell. Similarly, an announcement for a Loos lecture de-


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clares, “Numerous attendance is the duty of the allotment gardener.” 18 Schütte-Lihotzky, Austria’s first female architect, offers a more modest account in her memoir: “With the light of miserable candle stubs or hazy fuel lamps I talked in smoky and remote taverns and described to people, based on our drawings, how to imagine our designs for typical constructions from early allotment cottages to completed houses, and how based on self-help, mutual help, and our help, they could create more humane and dignified living conditions. […] Through all these activities at the time, I got in touch with male and female workers.” 19 These excerpts suggest that Loos and Schütte-Lihotzky believed as much in the role of education as in architecture as emancipatory forces. At the same time, they provide diverging attitudes on the grassroots movement regarding their roles as architects and “educators.” At the end of his involvement with the movement, Loos seemed disillusioned that none of his plans had been fully realized. Schütte-Lihotzky, however, continued referring to the settlers’ movement as a formative experience in her long career. Though she is confident on the validity of her contribution to the settlers’ movement, she also let the settlers transform her understanding of how to live. Albeit not explicitly, Schütte-Lihotzky’s voice raises important issues for practices of participatory design: collaboration between experts and laypersons inevitably entails mechanisms of in- and exclusion, sensitive questions about the conditions for partaking, and whose voices are heard or silenced in decision-making processes. Here the abstract commitment to citizen democracy is one thing, the dynamics of micropolitics in everyday situations another. More generally, this example raises questions about the representation of the settler movement: Who was speaking in the name of the settlers and how were different, even conflicting interests taken into account? As is so often the case with the history of poor peoples’ movements, little is known about who the actual settlers were. Instead, most historic accounts present Gustav Scheu, Otto Neurath, Max Ermers, Hans Kampffmeyer, and Loos as the protagonists of the settler movement.20 Ironically, for a grassroots movement, the protagonists are all academically trained men, none of whom

14 Der Tag, January 6, 1923, as quoted in Novy and Förster, Einfach Bauen, 134. 15 I am suggesting here a possible anachronic resonance between the settlers and Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt’s notion of “multitude” as a heterogeneous network of workers, migrants, social movements, and nongovernmental organizations acting as unmediated, immanent, revolutionary collective social subject.

16 Novy and Förster, Einfach Bauen, 28. 17 Adolf Loos, “Wohnen Lernen” (1921), in Adolf Loos über Architektur, ed. Adolf Opel (Vienna: Prachner, 1995), 162–65. 18 Novy and Förster, Einfach Bauen, 59. 19 Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, Warum ich Architektin wurde (Salzburg: Residenz Verlag, 2004), 87. 20 See, among others, ibid., 46–83; or Eve Blau, The Architecture of Red Vienna 1919–1934 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), 89–133.


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were actual settlers’—the ones who literally built the settlements with their own hands were, in fact, often women. This fact should not diminish Kampffmeyer’s or Neurath’s contributions to the settlers’ cause, whose respective experience with the German garden city movement or the ideas of the British guild socialism were essential to the movement’s consolidation. Yet it puts the notion of the settlers’ bottom-up organization into perspective.

Das Siedleramt In parallel to the settlers’ movement, the city began to institute its own agencies. Officials had many incentives for embracing the movement: not only did it offer a pragmatic response to a pressing crisis, but for a young social democratic government under pressure from all fronts, containing the unpredictable energies unfolding around the settlers was crucial for political survival. The Siedleramt became the city’s primary department in charge of the settlements. Its history is indicative of the settlers’ and municipality’s challenging, often twisted relationship. At first, the Siedleramt seemed to mirror the planning and design office of the ÖVSuK, led by George Karau and Franz Schuster. Both offices developed housing prototypes and layouts for the entire settlement. But the Siedleramt was also in charge of assigning land and regulating building developments as well as distributing subsidies, and thus grew increasingly influential. In contrast, the ÖVSuK closed its planning office in 1924 owing to financial difficulties. Furthermore, while the Siedleramt and the Baubüro seemed to compete for influence, according to many accounts, the controversial Siedleramt only came into being under heavy pressure from the settlers. Two years elapsed between Ermers’s appointment in 1919 to the founding of the Siedleramt in May 1921 under Kampffmeyer, who in turn appointed Loos as chief architect. All three were regarded as odd figures within Vienna’s bureaucratic apparatus, and disparaged for their informal and hands-on approach. Another minor anecdote from the Schütte-Lihotzky memoir reveals some of the tensions: At the end of a corridor I found a narrow door with a cardboard sign: “Settlers’ Office of the City of Vienna.” At that time however the Settlers’ Office of the City of Vienna didn’t even exist yet, and every couple of days someone would remove the sign. Ermers, who worked behind that door, would time and again mount a new one. I mention this, because it shows how improvised everything was at the beginning.21 The scene raises the question: Who was appropriating what? Interwar historiography deems the “wild” settlements as a marginal movement, soon to be absorbed into the famed Red Vienna housing program. Though there are nuances to this telling, it suggests that once the most dramatic food and hous-


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ing crises faded and the new government found its footing, the centrally planned, high-density municipal housing blocks of Red Vienna were exponentially more effective than the settlers. Yet Novy cautions against a clash between these two irreconcilable paradigms, bottom-up versus top-down urbanization, and argues instead that one led to the other: only the incredible success of the settlers could have paved the road for such a municipal program. Novy’s insistence on what might seem like a minute detail in fact contributes to the marginalization of bottom-up movements in history, a mechanism preventing the production and accumulation of knowledge on self-organization. Now Ermer’s “sign incident” complicates things even more. Maybe the settlers were not victims of the state’s gradual appropriation, maybe the settlers were more subversive than that and saw the establishment of municipal bodies as an opportunity to infiltrate and transform the government from inside out. Or, beyond the settlers who worked long construction shifts and the municipality concerned with maintaining control over them, maybe there were other actors involved, genuinely supportive of the settlers’ cause, but pursuing their own ideological agendas. Were they the ultimate “architects” of the settlers’ movement? Such framing would in fact suggest that much more than the design of individual houses, which was ultimately in the hands of future users, architects of the settler movement were equally concerned with designing the conditions under which architecture was produced, or the design of processes. Neurath’s diagram Roots of a Settlement House (fig. 4) indicates this mind-set: rather than rendering the settler’s house as such, Neurath meticulously traces all material flows and production processes required for its construction. The relational nature of Neurath’s drawing implies a shift in understanding architectural design beyond its mere product, the building, to include the design of the wider conditions, modalities, metabolisms, and institutions under which housing takes place. Read through this lens, the settlers’ movement glimpses at what an expanded practice of architecture might entail, one in which design takes  into account the modalities of building production to identify strategic sites of “design” interventions. Such a perspective also implies a further challenge to the historic binary opposition between the settler movements and Red Vienna. Instead of juxtaposing low-rise, low-density, and self-built dwellings defined by scarcity and pragmatism versus monumental, municipally planned super blocks designed to represent a singular political program, and comparing their architectural

21 Schütte-Lihotzky, Warum ich Architektin wurde, 47.


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Fig. 4 Otto Neurath, Roots of a Settlement House, 1925


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merits based on their material products, or the buildings as such, we may also measure the settlers’ contributions to architecture on its own terms, namely, its ambitions of understanding architecture and the process of its production as steps to self-determination. In other words, if beyond mere survival, the settlers saw the collective act of construction as a means of “changing themselves by changing the city more after their heart’s desire,” 22 how did the settler institutions contribute to this effort? For a fleeting moment, the settlers’ intricate set of cooperative structures gave rise to a community economy embedded in an alternate understanding of democracy: self-government and operation in parallel to the state authority and market competition. But as its ambitions grew to induce systemic change beyond the autonomy of local initiatives, so grew its concessions and dependency on municipal subsidies and the so-called protagonist’s expertise. Without doubt, the experience of building settlements together had a catalytic effect on solidarity. The hands-on experience of constructing another, possible world was emancipatory. But as the acuteness of the crisis faded, so did the settlers’ solidarity. Had the settlers focused too exclusively on their houses? Were they too concerned with material and financial flows to the detriment of their political subjectivities? Did they neglect to imagine life beyond the moment of completing their houses, and disregard the reproduction of everyday life and social relations? Could the settlers’ institutions have been more concerned with the endurance and regeneration of the movement beyond the crisis? Could the settlers’ institutions have been designed to resist erosion and predatory forces? It is here that Silvia Federici’s feminist perspective on the politics of the commons offers possible clues. In order to resist dependence on wage labor and subordination to capitalist relations and to create the material requirements for the construction of a commons-based economy, Federici insists that we need to begin with the material reproduction of everyday life. “Reproduction precedes social production. Touch the women, touch the rock,” 23 she quotes Peter Linebaugh, asserting that if the commons are to provide the foundation of an anticapitalist society, the struggle needs to begin by addressing gender discrimination and unpaid reproductive labor. Here it seems essential to point out that Federici does not concede to a naturalistic conception of femininity. For her this struggle is not a matter of identity but of labor and power.

22 Harvey, Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution, 4. 23 Peter Linebaugh, cited in Silvia Federici, “Feminism and the Politics of the Common in an Era of Primitive Accumulation” (2010),

in Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle, ed. Silvia Federici (Oakland, CA: PM Press, 2012), 147.


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Federici has dedicated a significant part of her work to demonstrating how women, historically and today, are the primary subjects of reproductive labor, and how they have consequently been at the forefront of the struggle against land enclosure since early capitalism, and that they are still essential for constructing autonomous spaces and collective livelihoods dissociated from the commodity flows of a global economy. The same is true for Vienna’s settlers’ movement: not only do many historic photographs of the settlements’ construction sites feature women at work, but according to the ÖVSuK’s calculations, their labor contributions were devaluated by a factor of 0.7. Federici further points out that many forms of organizing struggle are unsustainable because they don’t include cooperation in reproduction, without which there is no continuity. Thus, beyond the emancipatory power gained from the collectivization of everyday work, Federici argues that it is only by putting the reproduction of the everyday at the center of political struggles that the commons movement will gain the capacity to endure: “We cannot build an alternative society and a strong self-reproducing movement unless we redefine our reproduction in a more cooperative way and put an end to the separation between the personal and the political, and between political activism and the reproduction of everyday life.” 24 Here Federici does not explicitly address the question of institutionalization, yet her argument implies widening the understanding of institutions beyond formal organizations and public establishments, and recognizing that processes of institutionalization in fact begin at point zero, with the repetition of practices that turn into patterns, crystalize into habits, and eventually consolidate into these norms, institutions, and material complexes. As Federici points out, commoning always begins with a small “c,” and accordingly I would deduce institutionalization also starts with a small “i.” Studying the settlers’ movement from a contemporary commoning perspective, it is here that a critique of the settlers’ institutionalization must begin. On the one hand, the protagonists of the settlers’ movement had the scope of vision to understand that if they were to build an alternate society, they would have to engage in negotiating bottom-up and top-down forces and thus expand their operations by imagining and establishing new collective forms of institutions. On the other hand, their concept of institutions remained limited to the reorganization of labor, economics, and politics required for the construction of houses. Institutions of everyday life, such as the nuclear family, marriage, and gender roles, remained untouched. Interestingly enough, Kampffmeyer points to the promising connection between the everyday and larger societal transformations, the micro and the macro: “It will be relatively easy to raise interest and find understanding for broader politicaleconomic and social problems, with people who at a small scale have already implemented a piece of Gemeinwirtschaft (cooperative economy).” 25 But


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Kampffmeyer only saw another opportunity to mobilize existing forces for his cause: the building of a new macro-economy, rather than recognizing an opportunity to fundamentally begin redefining and constructing alternate institutions from the bottom-up. Federici resonates with Kampffmeyer’s observations, yet arrives at a different conclusion: “If the house is the oikos on which the economy is built, then it is women, historically the house worker and house prisoners, who must take initiative to reclaim the house as a center for collective life, one traversed by multiple people and forms of cooperation, providing safety without isolation and fixation, allowing for the sharing and circulation of community possessions, and above all, providing the foundation for collective forms of reproduction.” 26 Drawing inspiration from Dolores Hayden’s work on nineteenth-century materialist feminists, Federici argues that the reorganization of reproductive work inevitably requires the reorganization of housing and public space. Although, as Hayden has shown, many socialist feminist housing experiments already existed across the United States and Europe at the time of the Vienna settlers, 27 it is here that the settlers’ vision stopped short. The settlements were exclusively based on aggregate cells of single-family homes with individual gardens. While the construction of houses was a collective effort to the extent that families were only assigned an individual house via lottery upon completion of the entire settlement, reproductive labor—be it gardening, cooking, or childcare in the settlements—remained a spatially segregated and mostly individual enterprise, with each woman confined to her small auto-subsistent sphere. The occasional communal houses and shared facilities served mainly for political, social, and leisure activities. But they were rarely integral to everyday routines and eroded over time. Thus the very idea the movement emerged from—collective self-organization—was not reflected in its spatial organization. Ultimately, the question of reproductive labor and its spatial organization point to the importance of the everyday as a starting point for rearticulating practices of architectural design and planning. Today, urbanization finds itself increasingly predetermined by institutional forces that seem beyond the influence of architecture and planning.28 Meanwhile, J. K. Gibson-Graham argue that one of the key problems in tackling capitalism has been that our economic activities are essentialized as capitalist relations and thus “Capitalism” is talked into being

24 Silvia Federici, “Feminism and the Politics of the Common in an Era of Primitive Accumulation” (2010), in Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle, ed. Silvia Federici (Oakland, CA: PM Press, 2012), 147. 25 Hans Kampffmeyer, Siedlung und Kleingarten (Vienna: Springer 1926), 73.

26 Federici, “Feminism and the Politics of the Common,” 147. 27 See Dolores Hayden, The Grand Domestic Revolution: A History of Feminist Designs for American Homes, Neighborhoods, and Cities (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981). See also Julia Wieger’s contribution on Kitchen Politics in this volume, 154–67.


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as insurmountable monolith to which “there is no alternative.” Instead, GibsonGraham suggest reframing wage labor based on monetary relations as the mere tip of the iceberg.29 The greater and more significant portion of our relations and activities, they argue, are defined by in-kind payments, reciprocal labor, unpaid housework and family care, self-provisioning, and volunteer labor. Similarly, architects and planners cannot dispute sociopolitical agency by referring to the overwhelming power of “Institutions” that shape our built environment and contribute to growing spatial and social inequalities. Against this backdrop, Vienna’s settlers’ movement offers an inspiring account of an alternate mode for urbanization negotiating top-down and bottom-up forces. But the settlers’ project required strategically redefining the practice of architecture to include redesigning the material, economic, and legal frameworks under which housing is produced. Ironically, by doing so they neglected the very design of the house as the basis of the reproduction of everyday life, as much as the reproduction of the movement as a whole. Taken to its radical consequence, the settlers’ latent understanding of architecture would have not only required an attempt of designing new kinds of institutions tackling housing politics and economics at the macro-level, but also to recognize the house, beyond an object of design, as a strategic site for redesigning institutions of everyday relations. Learning from the Vienna settlers and by being more attuned to the embedded micropolitics of everyday situations, the spatial layout of domestic labor and care, organizational mechanisms of in- and exclusion and distribution of ownership, we might begin locating utopia in the everyday and begin designing different kinds of buildings that in turn will shape us. And as we recognize how design and planning begin with everyday routines that consolidate into protocols and trickle up to give rise to alternative organizational structures and material complexes, we might end up with cities after our hearts’ desire.

28 Among others, and representing a current generation of architects, Bjarke Ingels has argued that “[architects] are not the creators of the city, but the midwives.” Ingels, in a conversation with Michael Kimmelman at a session titled “Social Infrastructure” at the “Cities for Tomorrow” conference in New York on July 21, 2015.

29 J. K. Gibson Graham, The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy (Minneapolis: University of MinnesotaPress, 2006), 79–101.


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Literature Bauer, Otto. Die Österreichische Revolution. Vienna: Edition Ausblick, 2015.

Till, Jeremy. Architecture Depends. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013.

Blau, Eve. The Architecture of Red Vienna 1919–1934. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.

Wigley, Mark. “Towards a History of Quantity.” Volume #2: Doing Almost Nothing (July 2005): 28–32.

Federici, Silvia. “Feminism and the Politics of the Common in an Era of Primitive Accumulation (2010).” In Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle, edited by Silvia Federici, 138–48. Oakland: PM Press, 2012.

Zaera-Polo, Alejandro. “The Politics of the Envelope: A Political Critique of Materialism.” Volume # 17: Content Management (November 2008): 76–105.

Gibson-Graham, J. K. The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. Harvey, David. Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. London: Verso, 2012. Kampffmeyer, Hans. Siedlung und Kleingarten. Vienna: Springer, 1926. Lefebvre, Henri. Le droit à la ville. Paris: Anthropos, 1968. Loos, Adolf. “Wohnen Lernen” (1921). In Adolf Loos Über Architektur, edited by Adolf Opel, 162–65. Vienna: Prachner, 1995. Novy, Klaus. “Selbsthilfe als Reformbewegung: Der Kampf der Wiener Siedler nach dem 1. Weltkrieg.” Arch+55, Kampf um Selbsthilfe (February 1981): 27–40. Novy, Klaus, and Wolfgang Förster. Einfach Bauen. Vienna: Verein für moderne Kommunalpolitik, 1985. Park, Robert. On Social Control and Collective Behavior. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1967. Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete. Warum ich Architektin wurde. Salzburg: Residenz Verlag, 2004. Stavrides, Stavros. Common Space: The City as Commons. London: Zed Books, 2016.


THE REPORT: Vienna Biennale 2049 THE REPORT is a future fiction that confronts the technology driven Smart City Vienna with the hard work of Viennese citizens and social movements throughout history. It challenges many of the assumptions about why Vienna is different and brings the 2049 Vienna Biennale artist Ergün Demir to a crucial dilemma – should Vienna’s smart city operating system be restarted at all? When artist Ergün Demir stumbles upon an outdated, corrupted hard drive during his research for the 2049 Vienna Biennale, an entire chain of events starts turning his life upside-down. He has been commissioned to investigate the history of the Smart City Vienna, one of the most ambitious urban agendas set by a city to date. In 2014, the city embarked upon a framework strategy that would make Vienna “the smartest of all smart cities” by 2050. But a hack of the cities’ operating system in 2046 has brought almost all the smart city operations abruptly on hold and has consequently brought the emergence of many self-organised communities. Ergun’s research takes him to the City Archives, which leads him to a devastating find: not even much is left of the original archives. In desperation, he turns to his only source: an old hard drive, emerging from a battered black box. It is a leftover from a decommissioned work for the first, 2015 Vienna Biennale. Ergün is still not sure why that work had never seen the light. Ergün is a character in the future-fiction publication The Report, publication released in September 2015 by STEALTH. unlimited, Stefan Gruber and Paul Currion. The narrative has been triggered by a meeting in the Kaminzimmer of the MAK (Austrian Museum of Applied Arts / Contemporary Art), where in October 2013, on an invitation of curator Maria Lind, a select group of artists has evaluated the implication of the emerging commons debate for the upcoming 2015 Vienna Biennale: Ideas for Change. Not much evidence of that meeting remains, apart from the question: Why would we discuss the perspective of of the commons as a “new enlightment” in such a zombie-like institution? Not yet completely aware of the occasional ‘explosiveness’ considering the political side of unsolicited citizens initiatives in Vienna, we started work on this commission by investigating one of the earliest ‘commoners’ groups in Vienna: the Settlers movement. Settlers emerged in the aftermath of the collapse of Austro-Hungarian Empire, and pulled us into an exploration of Vienna’s last hundred years of citizen’s movements. Like Planquadrat (the self-managed publicly accessible garden created through an intense and media followed process in the mid 1970s), Sargfabrik (Austria’s largest self-managed housing and cultural project, open since 1996) or places like VinzRast Mittendrin (student and homeless social housing, triggered by the student protest in 2009). Some of the encounters with this history emerged from archives and books, but most from meetings with those people pushing for out-of-the-official horizons for the city. However, soon we gained the feeling that the nearly uninterrupted 100-years long rule of social democracy in Vienna has produced a milieu in which alternatives to the existing power relations seem difficult to imagine. The research for The Report has been accompanied with a series of MAK Nites. These started with a discussion on the threat and possible impact on Vienna’s future of a crisis of the welfare state. The topic awakened deep powers from within the institution, suggesting us to “stick to the substance and leave out the more polemical passages.” The discussion on the relationship between utopias and social change ‘from below’, as well as the visit to Vienna’s urban development site Seestadt Aspern, with the Zurich based writer p.m (best know from his blueprint for a future called bolo’bolo) would make us confident in bringing across these tensions as the core of our contribution to the 2015 Biennale. Throughout the research we encountered many initiatives that act from a variety of (different) beliefs, which in The Report got featured in close proximity or in support of each other, to confront the trust in a (closed-) technology driven Smart City Vienna. We gradually became aware that the work being developed for the Biennale produces a cultural currency of sorts – not uncontroversial, as we did not explicitly reach out to verify if the groups, initiatives and individuals appreciate for their documents, their photo’s, and details now being used by us to reveal the tension between the ambitions of citizens and the City of Vienna, between movements and their historization, or between past and present. At the 2015 Biennale opening, The Report emerged as a trailer of the upcoming publication to be launched few months later. This undated video message shows an exhausted researcher, bewildered, and somewhat puzzled of how to bring his message on. Although fictional artist Ergün Demir has made every effort to accurately represent the movements, organisations and public figures featured in the story, his work is based on reconstruction and speculation, resulting from a conversation with Abraxas – the artificial intelligence program that helps interpret information provided by the research into the 2015 archives.

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[hardcopy ] ISBN: 978-0-9563078-2-8 [team ] THE REPORT: Vienna Biennale 2049 is a project by STEALTH.unlimited (Ana Džokić, Marc Neelen, Belgrade/Rotterdam) and Stefan Gruber (STUDIOGRUBER, Vienna), in collaboration with Paul Currion (Belgrade/London). [text ] Paul Currion [original photos ] Stefan Gruber, Zara Pfeifer, STEALTH.unlimited [image alteration algorithm ] The glitch experiment by Georg Fischer [print ] STANDARD 2, Belgrade [contributors ] Conversations with following individuals provided the context for The Report, however they have not been involved or consulted on the textual or visual elements, and they do not represent their views: Katharina Bayer, Gerda Ehs, Andreas Exner, Angelika Fitz, Robert Foltin, Rainald Franz, Ernst Gruber, Esad Hajdarević, Willi Hejda, Elke Krasny, Christoph Laimer, Carsten Leonhardi, p.m., Elke Rauth, Andreas Rumpfhuber, Ula Schneider, Patrik Simić, Helmut Voitl, Markus Zilker, and members of the research group “Spaces of Commoning” (Anette Baldauf, Moira Hille, Annette Krauss, Vladimir Miller, Mara Verlic, Hong-Kai Wang and Julia Wieger). Additional thanks go to: Peter Chaffey, Helen Chang, Barbara Gruber, Elsa König, Christoph von Thun-Hohenstein and Marlies Wirth. [background ] The Report is an off-site commission for the Future Light exhibition, guest-curated by Maria Lind as part of the Vienna Biennale 2015: Ideas for Change at the Museum of Applied Arts / Contemporary Art (MAK), Vienna. Three MAK Nite Lab events have been organised as a part of the project: Do You Hear Me When You Sleep? (9 December 2014), Since The Machine Will Not Simply Watch Us As We Organize Our ‘Alternatives’ (24 March 2015), The Report, launch (15 September 2015). [timeline ] October 2014 – September 2015


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Culture of Access

TOKIO Von der Zugangsökonomie zur kollaborativen Stadt Stefan Gruber

Eigentumsverhältnisse prägen die zwischenmenschlichen Beziehungen im Kleinen wie im Großen. Dabei ist Eigentum ein schwer zu fassendes Konzept, ja eine bloße gesellschaftliche Konvention, die zudem einem ständigen Wandel unterliegt. Von der Feudalherrschaft zum Industriekapitalismus wie von der Konsumgesellschaft zur Dienstleistungsökonomie wurde der Begriff des Eigentums immer wieder neu definiert. Doch heute steht die Idee des Eigentums als solche zur Disposition. Dem amerikanischen Soziologen Jeremy Rifkin zufolge1 stehen wir vor einer Wende, in der Eigentum dem temporären Zugang zu Gütern und Dienstleistungen weicht. Angesichts eines Kapitalismus, der seinen materiellen Ballast abwirft und die Zeit selbst zum Wirtschaftsgut erklärt, warnt Rifkin vor dem Entstehen einer hyperkapitalistischen Kultur, in der das ganze Leben zu einer bezahlten und zu bezahlenden Erfahrung wird. 94

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Im @home-Maid-Café wird der Gast von einem Chor als Dienstmädchen gekleideter Teenager mit „Welcome Home Master“ begrüßt. In einem Rollenspiel kann er sich „wie zu Hause“ fühlen und die Fiktion freundschaftlicher Zuwendung erwerben.

Analog zum Eigentumsbegriff hat sich auch die Vorstellung vom eigenen Heim gewandelt. Jahrtausende lang war das Wohnhaus auch die Stätte wirtschaftlicher Tätigkeit und entwickelte sich erst mit der Industriellen Revolution von einem Ort der Produktion zu einem Ort des Konsums. Die moderne Massenproduktion verlagerte sich in die Fabriken, und Konsumgüter aller Art mussten somit auf dem Markt erworben werden. Privateigentum bestimmte von nun an über Status und Wohlergehen und mit wachsender Auto-Mobilität und der Flucht in die Vororte wurde das Einfamilienhaus zur Raison d’être der Menschen. Die jüngste Hypothekenkrise in Amerika ließ schließlich diesen Traum vom suburbanen Eigenheim für viele platzen und erneut drängt sich die Frage nach adäquaten Wohnmodellen auf. Über das Wohnhaus hinaus hat jede Form des Kapitalismus eigene Architekturtypologien und letztendlich auch neue Typen von Städten hervorgebracht: sei es die Pariser Passage als Identitätsort des aufsteigenden Bürgertums im 19. Jahrhundert oder die amerikanische Shoppingmall als räumlicher Ausdruck des suburbanen Lebensstils der Mittelschichten nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Der emblematische Charakter und die gesellschaftliche Bedeutung dieser Typologien wurden oft erst im Nachhinein mit kritischer Distanz erkannt. Heutzutage stecken die neuen Muster des Kapitalismus und seiner Kultur, wie sie Rifkin beschreibt, noch in ihrem Anfangsstadium; doch in keiner Stadt zeichnen sich die Charakteristika von Rifkins „Zeitalter des Zugangs“ stärker ab als in Tokio. Es folgt daher der Versuch, die japanische Hauptstadt und ihr urbanes Gefüge durch die Linse von Rifkins Zugangsökonomie zu lesen und ihr immanentes Raumregime offenzulegen.


Foto: Jürgen Krusche

Typische Straßenszene in Tokio.

NETZWERKE Die neue Ökonomie basiert auf dem Organisationsprinzip von Netzwerken. Dabei wird der Tausch von Eigentum auf Märkten zunehmend von einem kurzfristigen Zugriff auf Produkte und Dienstleistungen über Netzwerke abgelöst. „Während Eigentum an Sachkapital im Industriezeitalter den Kern des Wirtschaftslebens darstellte, verkaufen Unternehmen heute in einem gnadenlosen Wettbewerb ihren Grundbesitz“ 2 schreibt Rifkin. Angetrieben von der Notwendigkeit permanenter Innovation, kontinuierlicher Effizienzsteigerung und immer kürzeren Produktzyklen verschlanken Firmen ihr Inventar, leasen ihre Ausstattung und lagern ihre Aktivitäten aus. An die Stelle von Akkumulation treten strategische Allianzen: Unternehmen teilen Ressourcen, Kosten, aber auch Gewinne und sichern sich somit gegen Risiken ab. Wirtschaftlicher Erfolg hängt weniger von wiederholten Verkaufstransaktionen ab als vom Aufbau langfristiger Geschäftsbeziehungen. „Im klassischen Industriezeitalter wollten Firmen vorrangig ihre Produkte verkaufen; kostenlose Serviceangebote setzten Kaufanreize. Heute ist dies geradezu umgekehrt. Immer häufiger geben Unternehmen ihre Produkte buchstäblich umsonst ab: Sie hoffen stattdessen auf langfristige Servicebeziehungen zu ihren Kunden. Und auch die Verbraucher streben immer seltener nach dem Eigentum an einer Sache als nach ihrer Verfügbarkeit.“ 3 Besitz wird zwar weiterhin existieren, jedoch wird dieser von den Kunden auf der Basis von Mitgliedschaften, Abonnements und Lizenzverträgen genutzt. „In einer Ökonomie, deren einzige Konstante der Wandel ist, macht es wenig Sinn, bleibende Werte anzuhäufen“,4 so Rifkin. „Für die anpassungsfähige japanische Kultur“ sei es, so Sabine Kraft, „ein absurder Gedanke, Stabilität im Schutz und in der Unveränderlichkeit materieller Strukturen zu suchen, sie liegt in der sozialen Beziehung.“ 5 Die japanische Wertschätzung des Ephemeren ist bereits im zyklischen Naturverständnis des Shintoismus verwurzelt. Aber auch wiederkehrende Katastrophen und Kriege in der Geschichte Japans haben zu einem unsentimentalen Verhältnis zur Stadterneuerung beigetragen. Folglich ist Tokio auch unter normalen Umständen einem rasanten Transformationsprozess unterworfen. Hannes Rössler bezeichnet Häuser in Japan als „Strukturen auf Zeit, die sich an den Lebenszyklus ihrer Bewohner anpassen, Häuser mit Verfallsdatum, was Konstruktion und Kosten betrifft.“ 6 Auf städtebaulicher Ebene ist eine Grundvoraussetzung für Tokios schnellen Metabolismus seine netzwerkartige Organisation. Das kumulative und weitgehend emergente Wachstum der Stadt hat eine polyzentrische Struktur hervorgebracht, in der die Einzelteile ihre Autonomie bewahren, ohne sich einem größeren

Ganzen unterzuordnen. Diesem fraktalen System entsprechend findet sich die Netzwerkstruktur auf unterschiedlichen Maßstäben und in den unterschiedlichen Stadtsystemen wieder. So folgt etwa das System der Adressen keiner räumlich linearen Logik mit Straßennamen und Hausnummern wie in westlichen Kulturen, sondern besteht aus Bezirksnamen, Stadtvierteln, Straßenblocks und Hausnummern, die entsprechend ihrer Entstehungschronologie zugeordnet wurden. Ein kognitives Verständnis von Tokio erschließt sich daher aus topologischen Beziehungen. Räumliche Nähe und absolute Distanzen sind im Vergleich zur Anbindung an das Schienennetz und guten Anschlussmöglichkeiten zweitrangig. Urbane Zentren entstehen oft an Verkehrsknotenpunkten. Je größer die Durchgangsfrequenz und somit auch das transitorische Wesen eines Ortes, desto beständiger und bedeutender ist er im städtischen Wandlungsprozess. Diese Orte bilden Gravitationszentren, um die sich Nachbarschaften individuellen Charakters entfalten, welche sich durch eine Konzentration spezialisierter Aktivitäten auszeichnen. So gilt etwa Shibuya als Einkaufs- und Vergnügungsviertel, Akihabara als Elektronikmeile und Otaku-Treffpunkt 7, Harajuku als Trendsetter für street fashion. Hier drängen sich dicht nebeneinander Geschäfte ähnlichen Gewerbes nicht vornehmlich in Konkurrenz, sondern zunächst in synergetischer Beziehung zueinander, um innerhalb des hierarchielosen Stadtgefüges Identität und Standortvorteile zu erzeugen.8 Auf einer systemtheoretischen Ebene bietet das Netzwerk als Organisationsstruktur für Tokios Stadtmorphologie wie für Unternehmen der vernetzten Wirtschaft die Fähigkeit, Flexibilität und Robustheit zu verbinden und so trotz kontinuierlicher Veränderungen und Innovation eine beständige Identität zu wahren.

ENTMATERIALISIERUNG UND OUTSOURCING Um ihre Flexibilität zu erhöhen, entledigen sich Unternehmen heute durch optimiertes Raummanagement, „just-in-time“ Produktion und Warenbewegung auf Abruf ihrer aufwändigen Produktionsanlagen und ausgedehnten Lagerhaltung. Neben Sachwerten werden vor allem auch Funktionen und Dienstleistungen ausgelagert.9 Lukrative Unternehmen handeln heute mit immateriellen Werten, Ideen und Konzepten.10 Im Zuge der Entmaterialisierung der Wirtschaft und der Auslagerung von Verantwortung verwischen auch die Grenzen von Eigentumsverhältnissen. 九十五

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Culture of Access Während deren räumlicher Ausdruck und die klare Differenzierung zwischen Privatsphäre und Öffentlichkeit die europäische Stadt seit jeher geprägt haben, wurde die Unzulänglichkeit dieser Kategorien für das Verständnis japanischer Städte oft diskutiert.11 Die Auflösung dieser Grenze lässt sich sowohl auf traditionelle Wohntypologien als auch die Leichtbauweise der japanischen Architektur und die daraus resultierenden Beziehungen zwischen innen und außen, dem Wohnraum und seiner Umwelt, zurückführen. Das traditionelle japanische Haus setzt zunächst die umgebende Landschaft in einen Rahmen und erfüllt erst in unmittelbarer Beziehung zum Umfeld seinen ideellen Sinn.12 Auf dem Cha no ma – dem Viereinhalb-Tatami-Raum – aufbauend, besteht das japanische Heim traditionell aus einem kleinen, einfachen und flexiblen Raum, der je nach Tageszeit unterschiedlich genutzt und entsprechend der unmittelbaren Bedürfnisse fortwährend rekonfiguriert wird. Bedingt durch exorbitante Immobilienpreise und die zunehmende Anzahl von Singlehaushalten, hat das traditionelle Cha no ma in der „One-room-mansion“ eine zeitgenössische Entsprechung gefunden.13 Diese dient vornehmlich als Lager- und Schlafstätte. Andere Wohnfunktionen werden in die Stadt ausgegliedert. Die Tokioter Einzimmerwohnung steht – ähnlich dem ideellen Einklang zwischen traditionellem Haus und umgebender Landschaft – wenn nicht in ästhetischer, so zumindest in funktionaler Symbiose mit ihrem städtischen Umfeld. Denn erst durch den Zugriff auf eine Vielfalt von Dienstleistungen, Infrastrukturen und Räumen wird das verstreute Wohnen in der Stadt möglich. Diese Einrichtungen erweitern temporär den fehlenden Wohnraum. Der Wohnraum ist nicht länger als räumliche Einheit zu begreifen, sondern vielmehr als ein Netzwerk von Räumen auf Zeit, die entsprechend wechselnder Bedürfnisse spontan erschlossen werden. Die Auslagerung von Wohnfunktionen hat in Japan Tradition. Das 7IRXƚ, das öffentliche Badehaus in städtischen Wohnvierteln, das zur Reduzierung der Brandgefahr durch offenes Feuer in den Wohnhäusern ausgelagert wurde, erfüllt aber selbst nach der Einführung häuslicher Sanitäreinrichtungen als Treffpunkt nach wie vor eine soziale Funktion. In den 60er Jahren wird das nomadische Stadtleben zum Ausdruck eines emanzipierten Lebensstils. Kisho Kurokawa entwirft für den „homo movens“ 14 das Nakagin-Kapsel-Hochhaus in Tokio. Doch entspringt die Vielfalt heutiger Architekturtypologien für ein Wohnen auf Zeit weniger den metabolistischen Gedanken als vielmehr der anonymen Alltagskultur japanischer Großstädte. Das „Lovehotel“ zum Beispiel ist eine Fortentwicklung des Stundenhotels, welches auch verheirateten Paaren temporär eine Privatsphäre bietet und durch vielfältige Dienstleistungen und thematische Interieurs den Wohnraum auch atmosphärisch in Phantasiewelten fern des Alltags erweitert. Das berüchtigte Kapselhotel hingegen findet seine Verbreitung – weit entfernt vom avantgardistischen Anspruch der Metabolisten – als anspruchslose Bleibe für Nachtschwärmer oder Workaholics, die den langen Nachhauseweg nicht mehr auf sich nehmen können. Sicher tragen neben den engen Wohnverhältnissen gerade auch die langen Pendelzeiten zwischen Wohn- und Arbeitsstätte erheblich zur Fragmentierung des Wohnens bei. Für das Leben on the go greifen Pendler rund um die Uhr auf eine Fülle von Mikroinfrastrukturen zurück: Der öffentliche Raum ist mit Schließfächern, Verkaufsautomaten aller Arten, Münz-WCs und Waschsalons sowie Conbini (Convenient Stores) dicht übersät. Aber erst die Verbreitung des Mobiltelefons schafft eine persönliche städtische Infrastruktur, die einen Quantensprung des verstreuten Wohnens in der Stadt herbeiführt und die sozialen Beziehungen von Jugendlichen und Hausfrauen ebenso prägt wie die von Geschäftsleuten. Toyo Itos „Nomad Girl“ von 198515 imaginierte eine Zukunft des Wohnens im Informationszeitalter, die von auffallender Einsamkeit geprägt war. Mizuko Ito und Howard Rheingold hingegen verweisen in ihren jeweiligen Studien zur frühen japanischen Kommunikationsrevolution auf die sozialen Auswirkungen und die emergenten Verhaltensmuster, die sich aus der kollektiven Organisation vernetzter Individuen ergeben.16 Die vielseitigen Anwendungen und Aneignungen standortbezogener Mobiltechnologie ermöglichen den sofortigen Zugriff auf Informationen, Dinge und Menschen – überall und jederzeit. Damit definieren sie das Verhältnis von Raum und Zeit grundlegend neu und werden somit zu einer wichtigen Grundlage der Ökonomie des Zugangs. 96

九十六

Der Wandel zur Dienstleistungs- und Informationsgesellschaft führt zu einer Hybridisierung häuslicher und kommerzieller Sphären, die über eine Auslagerung von Wohnfunktionen hinaus eine neue Form städtischer Räume jenseits der Kategorien „öffentlich“ und „privat“ erzeugt, welche Jorge Almazán Caballero und Yoshiharu Tsukamoto als „Dividual Spaces“ bezeichnen.17 Dividuale Räume sind kommerziell betriebene Einrichtungen öffentlichen Charakters, die aber zu privaten Wohnzwecken genutzt werden. Die verhältnismäßig geringen Zugangskosten, so die Autoren, machen diese Räume zum integralen Teil des öffentlichen Lebens.18 Im Englischen impliziert der Begriff „dividual“ eine gleichermaßen teilende wie trennende Eigenart.19 Analog beschreiben Caballero und Tsukamoto Räume, die von anonymen Individuen geteilt werden, deren einzige Gemeinsamkeit die Suche nach Abgeschiedenheit darstellt. Die Charakteristika dividualer Räume lassen sich am Beispiel der so genannten Manga Kissa veranschaulichen. Ursprünglich eine Kombination von ComicBibliothek (Manga) und Café (Kissa), werden dort heute neben Getränken, Snacks und Tausenden von Manga-Heften auch Internet-Zugang, Filme, Spielkonsolen und sogar Duschen, Waschmaschinen und Spielzimmer für Kinder angeboten. Dank ihrer umfangreichen Einrichtungen ziehen Manga Kissa heute nicht mehr allein Otaku (japanisch für Comic-Freaks) an, sondern eine vielfältige Kundschaft.20 Jugendliche finden in den unterteilten Zellen einen Rückzugsort zum spielen, fernsehen oder lesen; Geschäftsleute und Freischaffende nutzen die Zelle als Büro, während der eine oder andere hier ein Schläfchen abhält. Bezahlt wird je nach Besuchsdauer im 15-Minuten-Takt. Der pauschale Nachttarif unterbietet bei weitem die Kosten eines Kapsel- oder Lovehotels. Für manche wird die Zelle des Internetcafés sogar zum beständigen Lebensraum. Eine wachsende Schicht von Geringverdienern, den sogenannten working poor, kann sich in Tokio trotz Erwerbstätigkeit keine Wohnung leisten und findet in einem Manga Kissa einen prekären Wohnungsersatz.21 Geschätzte 5.400 „cyber-homeless“ oder „net café refugees“ 22 leben heute Toyo Itos Vision der 80er Jahre aus – mit dem Unterschied, dass aus den hippen Stadtnomadinnen längst das urbane Prekariat geworden ist. Somit eröffnen „dividuale“ Räume in ihrer Mehrdeutigkeit nicht nur neue Möglichkeiten urbanen Wohnens, sondern bergen zugleich das Risiko, soziale Missstände zu verschleiern und zu perpetuieren. Freizeit und Arbeit, Flexibilität und Prekarisierung, Zugänglichkeit und Ausgrenzung greifen hier nahtlos ineinander.23 Sowohl für die Bewohner Tokios als auch für Unternehmen der globalen Ökonomie kann die Loslösung von materiellem Eigentum zunächst als eine Befreiung von Zwängen gedeutet werden. Die ausgelagerten Güter, Räume oder Dienstleistungen bleiben ja prinzipiell zugänglich und so zeichnet sich neben wirtschaftlichen Vorzügen auch die Chance für einen nachhaltigeren Umgang mit Ressourcen ab, der nicht grundsätzlich auf Verzicht basiert, sondern das Spektrum an Möglichkeiten sogar zunächst ausweitet. Mit der Auslagerung geht jedoch immer auch ein Verlust individueller Autonomie einher. In welchen Bereichen des Lebens eine Einschränkung der Autonomie hinzunehmen sei und an wen diese letztendlich übertragen wird, bleibt dahingestellt.

DIE KOMMODIFIZIERUNG VON ZEIT, ERLEBNISSEN UND MENSCHLICHEN BEZIEHUNGEN Im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts hat sich in Tokio eine Form privater Stadtentwicklung ausgebildet, die die Metropole als Ganzes überlagert und sich von den suburbanen Vororten bis in die Stadtzentren erstreckt.24 Diese Gegebenheiten gehen auf die Pionierzeit privater Eisenbahngesellschaften zurück, als diese ab den 1920er Jahren Wohnsiedlungen entlang der Bahnlinien entwickelten. Der Schlüssel zum kommerziellen Erfolg lag aber in der typologischen Fusion von Kopfbahnhof und Kaufhaus. Der tägliche Wohn-, Pendel- und Arbeitszyklus wurde so mit dem Konsum kurzgeschlossen und die Bürger bewegten sich von nun an als Passagier bzw. Konsument in einem zeitlichen Kontinuum, ohne die kommerzielle Sphäre des Unternehmens je verlassen zu müssen. Christian Teckert


Foto: Jürgen Krusche

Pachinko-Spielsalons bieten Unterhaltung ohne soziale Zwänge und eine Fluchtmöglichkeit aus einem von Gruppenzugehörigkeit geprägten Alltag.

Grundriss eines Manga Kissa 1) Rezeption 2) Mitarbeiter 3) Café Bereich 4) Toiletten 5) Duschen 6) Getränke 7) Manga-Regale 8) Kabinen

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hat diese Strategie als „Total Living Industry“ bezeichnet: „Was ursprünglich als Kopplung von Bahnlinie, Department Store und Landverwertung begann, wurde im Verlauf der Jahrzehnte immer mehr zu einer fast alle Aspekte des täglichen Lebens abdeckenden Stadtproduktionsindustrie.“ 25 Dabei verlagert sich das unternehmerische Augenmerk kontinuierlich auf die „immer umfassendere Produktion eines spezifischen, marktorientierten Lebensgefühls, auf Imageproduktionen jenseits primär räumlicher Koordinaten […] Die mediale Bild- und Imageproduktion wird zum umkämpften Territorium, in dem die Hegemonie über die ‚dominant fiction‘ verhandelt wird“, so Teckert.26 Die kommerzielle Fiktionalisierung des Privaten findet heute in Akihabara ihren Höhepunkt, das sich in den späten 80er Jahren zum Refugium für Otakus entwickelte, die sich in der Science-Fiction- und Manga-Welt vor dem kosmopolitischen Lebensstil Tokios zu verschanzen suchen.27 Im fünften Stock eines mit übergroßen Comic-Heldinnen verkleideten Gebäudes werden Besucher beim Betreten des „@home-Maid-Cafés“ von einem Chor als Dienstmädchen gekleideter Teenager mit „Welcome Home Master“ begrüßt. Hier können Otakus der Einsamkeit ihrer One-roommansion entfliehen und in einem Rollenspiel „wie zu Hause“ die Fiktion freundschaftlicher Zuwendung erwerben. Neben der Speisekarte gibt es ein Menü, aus dem man sich die Gesellschaft einer Maid bestellen kann: ein fünfminütiges Gespräch, eine Runde Kartenspielen oder ein gemeinsames Erinnerungsphoto. Natürlich ist jedes dieser Erlebnisse zeitlich bemessen. Während das Maid Café zunächst als japanische Kuriosität wirkt, beschränkt sich seine Klientel heute nicht mehr auf Otakus. Ferner nehmen auch ConbiniBetreiber das Rollenspiel familiärer Fürsorge auf, indem sie ihre anonymen Kunden am Ende des Tages auf dem „Nachhauseweg“ und beim Bezahlen des Abendessens und der dazu passenden Abendunterhaltung mit einem kleinen „Geschenk“ verwöhnen. Während sich die eigenen vier Wände schrittweise auflösen und das Wohnen sich über 九十七

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Für das Leben on the go greifen Pendler rund um die Uhr auf eine Fülle von Mikroinfrastrukturen zurück: Unerlässlich für das Überleben in der Stadt sind Conbini (Convenient Stores).

die gesamte Stadt zerstreut, wird ihre materielle Absenz durch simulierte Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen des Sich-Zuhause-Fühlens kommerziell substituiert. Das Alltägliche an sich wird zum Objekt der Begierde und somit auch zur Ware. Diese Entwicklung ist ein schlagendes Beispiel für Rifkins These, dass – nach Raum und Waren – nun zwischenmenschliche Beziehungen und erlebte Erfahrungen ins Zentrum des kommerziellen Interesses rücken. Immer mehr gesellschaftliche Aktivitäten und Alltagsbeschäftigungen, die einst im häuslichen Umfeld stattfanden, werden vom Markt absorbiert und werden zur Ware. Anstatt einzelne Produkte an eine möglichst breite Kundschaft zu verkaufen, versuchen Unternehmen heute einem einzelnen Kunden über eine lange Zeit so viele Produkte wie möglich zu verkaufen 28. Ziel ist es, zum Konsumenten eine möglichst langfristige und intime Beziehung aufzubauen, welche durch die Antizipierung und sofortige Befriedigung jeglicher Bedürfnisse genährt wird, die anhand umfangreicher Verhaltensstudien und Kundenprofile mit den Mitteln vernetzter Informationstechniken bestimmt werden. Um die Aufmerksamkeit der Verbraucher zu gewinnen und in lebenslange Beziehungen zu verwandeln, investieren Unternehmen in die Bildung von Interessensgemeinschaften und besetzen strategische Zugangspunkte, womit sie zu Pförtnern dieser kommerziell und sozial begehrenswerten Gemeinschaften werden. 98

九十八

VON DER ZUGANGSÖKONOMIE ZUM KOLLABORATIVEN KONSUM Viele von Rifkins Prognosen von 2001 sind heute Realität oder von ihr überholt worden. Soziale Online-Netzwerke sind die allgegenwärtigen Pförtner unserer Freundschaften, Aktivitäten und Vorlieben. Mit der beständigen Frage „What’s on your mind?“ fordert Facebook uns überall und jederzeit auf, unsere Gemütsbewegungen mit Freunden und somit auch mit Marktforschern zu teilen. Kombiniert mit den peniblen Aufzeichnungen unseres Alltags entsteht durch Smartphones, Kreditund Mitgliedskarten ein komplexes Psychogramm unseres Selbst, auf das wir allerdings keinen Zugriff haben. Andererseits befähigen das Web 2.0 und standortbezogene Mobildienste einzelne Individuen, komplexe Netzwerke zu formen, die durch ihre dezentrale und hierarchielose Organisation, ihre Anpassungsfähigkeit und Schlagkraft in der Lage sind, den hegemonialen Einfluss großer Unternehmen, Institutionen oder sogar Regierungen herauszufordern. Von dieser Analyse ausgehend, deuten einige jüngere Autoren, die mit Rifkins Analyse der neuen Zugangsökonomie zwar weitgehend übereinstimmen, ihre sozialen und kulturellen Implikationen jedoch als Potential und nicht als Gefahr. So entwerfen Rachel Botsman und Roo Rogers in „What’s mine is yours – how collaborative consumption is changing the way we live“ 29 ein Gesellschaftsmodell, in dem sich Konsumenten selbst organisieren und zu aktiven „Prosumenten“ 30 werden. Sie schaffen neue ökonomische Kreisläufe, die abseits des Finanzkapitalismus auf Tauschgeschäften, eigenen Währungen oder Online-Vertrauen basieren. Sie beschwören eine alternative Form des Konsums, in dem Ressourcen und Produkte gemeinschaftlich genutzt und einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich werden. Botsman differenziert zwischen drei Formen des kollaborativen Konsums: Redistributionsmärkte, Produktdienstleistungssysteme und Peer-to-Peer-Netzwerke.


Um ihre jeweiligen Grundzüge zu erklären, sei hier als Beispiel das AutoMit seinem Modell einer Local Community Area bildet auch Riken Yamamoto mobil angeführt: Während Rifkin 2001 den Übergang vom Automobilkauf als das verstreute Wohnen in der Stadt in einem Mikrokosmos für 500 Einwohner nach. Statussymbol zum Leasinggeschäft schildert31, hat sich Carsharing als Produkt- Inspiriert vom Lebensstil Tokioter One-Room-Mansion-Bewohner reduziert YamaDienstleistungssystem heute zu der am schnellsten wachsenden Branche des moto die Privatsphäre ebenso auf eine Einzimmerwohnung und lagert sogar Bad Verkehrsgewerbes entwickelt. 32 Produktdienstleistungssysteme sind besonders und Küche aus, kompensiert die minimalen Individualbereiche allerdings durch eine dann sinnvoll, wenn die Anfangsinvestition für das Produkt hoch und die Benut- Fülle unterschiedlicher Gemeinschaftseinrichtungen und Freiräume. Im Gegensatz zungsfrequenz niedrig sind. Beim Auto sprechen sowohl ökonomische als auch zum vernetzen Wohnen in der Stadt erlaubt die einheitliche Behandlung des ökologische Gründe dafür. Der Schritt zum Peer-to-Peer-Carsharing liegt nahe. Komplexes allerdings eine präzise räumliche Differenzierung und vor allem die So können Autobesitzer nun Geld damit verdienen, indem sie ihren Nachbarn Bildung einer entkoppelten lokalen Ökonomie. Yamamoto spricht hier von Beteiihr Auto vermieten, das meist 23 Stunden am Tag ungenutzt herumsteht. Das ligung und Austausch, Gemeinschaftssinn und Nachbarschaftshilfe, als ob es Prinzip an sich ist nicht neu. Aber erst die digitale Vernetzung macht das befris- selbstverständlich sei, dass Architektur derartige soziale Milieus zu erzeugen vertete und gemeinsame Nutzen von Gütern reibungslos möglich, während die mag. Er wehrt sich dezidiert gegen die Kommerzialisierung von Wohnraum und Finanz- und Ökologiekrise es für breitere Bevölkerungsschichten attraktiv macht. misst den Erfolg seines Modells daran, dass die Miete eines Individualraumes hier Die Liste von Anwendungsbeispielen kollaborativen Konsums ist lang: vom nur einen Bruchteil der Übernachtung in einem Manga Kissa kosten würde. 35 Couchsurfen zur Werkzeugbibliothek, von der Zeitbank zum Crowdfunding. Allerdings ist die Local Community Area bislang noch im Projektstadium, und Welche möglichen typologischen Auswirkungen ein kollaborativer Konsum auf Rifkin würde wahrscheinlich davor warnen, dass Yamamotos Modell den Kräften die Architektur und Stadt haben kann, soll abschließend anhand von drei archi- des Marktes zum Opfer fallen und als Gated-Community der amerikanischen Art tektonischen Projekten, die in dieser Ausgabe vorgestellt werden, veranschau- realisiert werde, wobei die Nutzung der einzelnen Einrichtungen entweder als licht werden. 33 pay-as-you-go oder all-inclusive-Mitgliedschaft verrechnet würde. Es mag jeIn seiner Studie Void Metabolism formuliert Yoshiharu Tsukamoto vom Atelier doch auch sein, dass die Erfahrungen mit sozialen Medien und Peer-to-PeerBow-Wow eine urbanistische Strategie für die gemeinschaftsorientierte Transfor- Netzwerken, die Neudefinition des Raum-Zeit-Verhältnisses durch die Zugangsökomation von Nachbarschaften. Auf der Basis der Erkenntnis, dass Tokios Häuser nomie und Mobiltechnologien sowie der Einfluss der globalen Rezession und knapper werdender Ressourcen einen neuen Gemeinschaftssich alle 26 Jahre erneuern, propagiert er die Ent1) Jeremy Rifkin: The Age of Access – the new culture of hyperwicklung von nachbarschaftsspezifischen Regel- capitalism where all of life is a paid-for experience, New York 2000 sinn hervorbringen und als Konsequenz auch den Willen werken, um den Wandel graduell zu steuern. 2) Vgl. Jeremy Rifkin: Access – Das Verschwinden des Eigentums, wecken, jenseits altbewährter ökonomischer Grundsätze neue Typologien des Zusammenwohnens zu testen. Dabei kehrt er das Modell der Metabolisten aus 3. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main 2007, S. 11 3) Ebd., S. 12 den 1960er und 1970er Jahren um: Statt von 4) Ebd., S. 13 einem permanenten Kern mit austauschbaren Zel- 5) Sabine Kraft: „Megalopolis Tokio“, in: ARCH+ 123, Sept. 1994, S. 22 21) Der 33-jährige Obdachlose Kentaro Shimada machte im Jahr 2005 len auszugehen, sollen die Leerräume zwischen 6) Hannes Rössler (Hg.): Minihäuser in Japan, Salzburg 2000, S. 5 7) Otaku ist die japanische Bezeichnung für Comic- und Computer- japanweit Schlagzeilen, als er nach einem fast zweimonatigen ununden Häusern als Konstante gelesen werden. Laut freaks. terbrochenen Aufenthalt in einem Manga Kissa in Nagakoa flüchten Tsukamoto haben moderne Kommunikationsmittel 8) Kiwa Matsushita bezeichnet dieses Phänomen als „Coopetition“. wollte, ohne seine inzwischen auf 520.000 Yen (etwa 3.500 Euro) und die vielen städtischen Dienstleistungen die Vgl. dazu ihren Essay „Depato“, in: Harvard Design School Guide angewachsene Rechnung zu bezahlen. Quelle: Lee. Cafe non-conÂMGX. http://www.wordpress.tokyotimes.org/?p=674, [ Zugriff 28. Mai to Shopping, Köln 2011, S. 245 zukünftige Generation von Häusern von funktio- 9) Vgl. dazu das Kapitel „Logistische Landschaften“, in: ARCH+ 205 2012 ] nalen Zwängen befreit. So könne man nun „den 10) Rifkin behandelt ausführlich die Veränderung betriebswirtschaft- 22) Quelle: http://waterweek.wordpress.com/2007/10/17/new-japanese-underclass-net-cafe-refugees-emerges-homeless-and-low-paidFokus des Wohnbaus auf gemeinschaftliche und licher Eigentumsverhältnisse durch Franchising. 11) Vgl. u. a. Jürgen Krusche, Frank Roost: Tokyo. Die Strasse als living-in-cubicles-and-net-lounges/ [ Zugriff 28. Mai 2012 ] kollektive Aspekte zurücklenken“. 34 In diesem Zu- gelebter Raum, Baden 2010, S. 46 23) vgl. Gabu Heindl: „Das Leben in Zellen – Von Räumen zum Vergessammenhang sind die zahlreichen privaten Ein- 12) Vgl. Christiana Hageneder: „Wohnen außer Haus“, in: ARCH+ 151, sen, Kapseln und sheep boxes.“ In: Dérive 34 (2009), S. 28–32 24) vgl: Hiromi Hosoya, Markus Schäfer: „Tokyo Metabolism“, in: familienhäuser, die Atelier Bow-Wow bisher rea- Juli 2000, S. 47 13) Vgl. Kyoichi Tsuzuki, Tokyo: a certain style, San Francisco 1999, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, Köln 2011, S. 749–762 lisiert hat, in ihrer Summe als urbanistisches Pro- S. 18 25) Christian Teckert: „Total Living Industry – Strategien privater Stadtjekt zu verstehen. Durch die differenzierte Gestal- 14) Kisho Kurokawa: From the Age of the Machine to the Age of produktion in Japan“, in: Dérive 28 (2007) tung von Übergängen zwischen Stadt und Life, unter: http://www.kisho.co.jp/page.php/310 [ Zugriff 2. August 26) Ebd. 27) Kaichiro Morikawa: Learning from Akihabara: The Birth of a 2012 ] Wohnraum arbeitet Atelier Bow-Wow Haus für 15) Mit dem Projekt „Pao for the Tokyo Nomad Girl“ von 1985 entwarf Personapolis, Tokio 2003, S. 123–125 Haus an einer umfassenden Vision der kollabora- Toyo Ito eine Vision der modernen, urbanen Nomadin. 28) Marketingexperten sprechen in diesem Zusammenhang von „life16) Vgl. Howard Rheingold: The Next Social Revolution – Trans- time value“, dem kumulativen Wert der Lebenszeit eines Menschens. tiven Stadt. forming Cultures and Communities in the Age of Instant 29) Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers: What’s mine is yours – how Im gleichen Sinne lässt sich Ryue Nishizawas Access, Cambridge 2002. S. auch Mizuko Ito u. a. (Hg.): Personal, collaborative consumption is changing the way we live, London Moriyama House deuten. Hier wohnen vier un- Portable Pedestrian – Mobile Phones in Japanese Life, Cam- 2010. S. auch Richard Florida, The Great Reset: How new ways of living and working drive post-crash prosperity, New York 2010 terschiedliche Parteien in einer losen räumlichen bridge 2005 17) Jorge Almazán Caballero, Yoshiharu Tsukamoto: „Tokyo Public 30) Alvin Toffler führte 1980 in dem Buch „The Third Wave“ den EngliGemeinschaft auf zehn Baukörper verteilt. Die ein- Space Networks at the Intersection of the Commercial and the schen Begriff „prosumer“ ein und bezeichnet damit Verbraucher oder zelnen Wohneinheiten sind derartig reduziert, dass Domestic Realms. Study on Dividual Space“, in: Journal of Asian Kunden, die gleichzeitig Produzenten sind. Quelle: Alvin Toffler, Die der Wohnraum ohne die umliegenden gemein- Architecture and Building Engineering 308 (November 2006), dritte Welle. Zukunftschance. Perspektiven für die Gesellschaft des 21. Jahrhunderts, München 1980 S. 301–308 schaftlichen und öffentlichen Freiräume nicht denk- 18) Vgl. Commercial settings that provide immediate public admittance 31) vgl. Rifkin (wie Anm. 2), S. 100 bar ist. Die poröse Anordnung der Baukörper und to non-supervised and fully-equipped personal space by charging the 32) Der Umsatz des amerikanischen Carsharing-Marktes betrug 2009 $253 Millionen und wird für 2016 auf $ 3,3 Milliarden geschätzt. Quelle: die differenzierten Binnenräume fungieren als user a low price by short increments of time. Ebd., S. 302 19) Deleuze verwendet den Begriff, um auf die Mechanismen der heu- Wall Street Journal: http://blogs.wsj.com/deals/2010/06/01/theSchwelle und Verbindung, als Durchgangswege tigen Kontrollgesellschaft aufmerksam zu machen, in der das Indivi- 411-on-the-zipcar-ipo/ [ Zugriff 7. Juli 2012 ] und Aufenthaltsräume zugleich. Die Wohneinhei- duum im Verhältnis zur sozialen Gruppe (Klasse, Gemeinschaft, Fami- 33) Zwei der Beispiele wurden im japanischen Beitrag für die 12. Architen machen sich den öffentlichen Straßenraum zu lie) durch den Markt auf eine numerische Erfassung und deren Zufütte- tekturbiennale 2010 gezeigt. rung auf Datenbanken reduziert wird. Vgl. Gilles Deleuze: „Postscript 34) Vgl. den Beitrag „Metabolismus der Zwischenräume“ von Yoshiharu eigen, weiten diesen aber zugleich in die Privat- on the Society of Control“, in: October 59 (1992), S. 3–7 Tsukamoto in dieser Ausgabe. sphäre aus. Die vernetzten Bauteile sind autonom 20) „On an average weekday at i-Café Akihabara about 400 cus- 35) Für 15 Quadratmeter zahlt man in einer „Local Community Area“ und unzertrennlich zugleich. Nishizawa verwan- tomers – mostly businessmen, furita (part-timers) and students – roll nur 344 Euro; 75 Quadratmeter kosten knapp 1.100 Euro. Das ist weitthrough their doors, a number that rises to 600 on weekends.“ Quelle: aus billiger, als im Internet-Café zu leben (hier zahlt man im Schnitt für delt den einzelnen Raum zum Haus und das Haus David Hickey: Tokyo’s ‚manga‘ cafes serve a restless generation, zwei Quadratmeter 600 Euro im Monat). Quelle: http://media.bauzur Stadt. netz.de/dl/1327027/baunetzwoche_263_2012.pdf Crisscross News, 18. Juli 2005 九十九

99


VIENNA: SLOW CAPITAL?

Vienna: Slow capital? A short history of the world’s most liveable city —or on the risk of throwing out the proverbial baby with the bathwater By Stefan Gruber

STUDIOGRUBER

girardigasse 1/31 1060 wien office@studiogruber.com


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-&3/&/70/$63*5*#" &3'0-(&6/% .*44&3'0-(&'3Âľ)&3 45"%5",616/,563 STEFAN GRUBER

Stadtforschung und -planung (IPPUC), welches zum Ziel hatte, Urbanisierungsstrategien nicht nur vorzubereiten, sondern auch umzusetzen. FĂźnf Jahre später wurde Jaime Lerner zum BĂźrgermeister der Stadt ernannt, eine Funktion, die er während dreier Amtsperioden (1971–75, 79–83, 89–92) innehatte, bevor er Gouverneur von ParanĂĄ wurde (1995–2002). Als Folge davon genoss Curitiba eine ungewĂśhnliche politische Kontinuität, ohne die der inkrementelle Ansatz seiner Stadtplanung kaum eine Chance auf Erfolg gehabt hätte. So ist z.B. Curitibas ausgezeichnetes Bussystem das Ergebnis vieler ad hoc getroffener, aber kumulativ wirkender Entscheidungen, die meist darauf abzielten, schnell, pragmatisch und zu geringen Kosten Ergebnisse zu zeitigen. Jede Entscheidung folgte dennoch einem Ăźbergeordneten Leitbild – dem einer entlang von Radialen linear organisierten kompakten Stadt. Auf der Grundlage dieser Beobachtungen kĂśnnen wir drei Theoreme fĂźr Akupunktur-Urbanismus ableiten: 1. Ein „physiologisches“ Verständnis von städtischen Systemen: Die Beziehungen der einzelnen Teile zueinander und der Teile zum Ganzen haben Vorrang. Durch lokale Abhängigkeiten verstärken sich die Eingriffe gegenseitig und bringen ein Ergebnis hervor, dessen Wirkung grĂśĂ&#x;er ist als die Summe seiner Teile. 2. Die Initiierung von Prozessen: Statt ein Endergebnis vorwegzunehmen und die Entwicklung der Stadt als Ganzes zu kontrollieren, zielt Stadt-Akupunktur auf neuralgische Punkte ab, die als Katalysatoren eine allgemeine Veränderung bewirken sollen. Eine solche Strategie entfaltet sich von unten nach oben („bottom-up“) und stĂźtzt sich ebenso stark auf die Mitverantwortung der BĂźrger wie auf die städtische Verwaltung. 3. Die Geschwindigkeit der Umsetzung: Nur effektive MaĂ&#x;nahmen entfalten unmittelbare Wirkung und lassen frĂźhzeitige Einschätzung und RĂźckkopplung zu. Denn schrittweise Veränderungen kĂśnnen kontinuierliche Anpassungen auffangen, sind im Vergleich zu groĂ&#x;en Plänen robuster und dem Risiko des Scheiterns weniger ausgesetzt. Ein einschlägiges Beispiel ist das erste Projekt, das Jaime Lerner umsetzte: die Rua das Flores. An einem Freitagabend begannen städtische BehĂśrden in einer Blitzaktion die Umwandlung von sechs StraĂ&#x;enzĂźgen in der Innenstadt – ungeachtet des Widerstands der Besitzer angrenzender Läden – und richteten binnen 72 Stunden Brasiliens erste FuĂ&#x;gängerzone ein. Die Botschaft war eindeutig: Curitiba soll eine Stadt fĂźr Menschen, nicht fĂźr Autos sein.

Als 1960 BrasĂ­lia, die neue Hauptstadt Brasiliens eingeweiht wurde, galt sie weltweit als herausragendes Exempel modernistischer Stadtplanung. Der von LĂşcio Costa und Oscar Niemeyer entworfene „Plano Piloto“ stand ganz im Zeichen der Automobilität und der Repräsentation staatlicher Macht. Nur fĂźnf Jahre später erarbeitete der Architekt Jorge Wilheim einen Stadtentwicklungsplan fĂźr Curitiba, die Hauptstadt des Bundesstaates ParanĂĄ, mit dem sich diese als Gegenpol zu Brasilias urbanistischem Paradigma proďŹ lierte. Anstelle ausgedehnter Autobahnnetze, imposanter PrachtstraĂ&#x;en und Repräsentationsbauten setzte man in Curitiba auf Ăśffentliche Verkehrsmittel, FuĂ&#x;gängerzonen und Recyclingprogramme. Damit steht die Stadt fĂźr Nahverkehr einen erstaunlich frĂźhen Paradigmenwechsel von einem Ă–ffentlicher Von Anfang an ging es bei Curitibas Haltung gegen den Autoverkehr um Top-Down-Städtebau zu einer Bottom-Up-Steuerung mehr als die Schaffung einer idyllischen Innenstadt. Vielmehr sah man und, lange bevor es Mode wurde, fĂźr eine nachhaltige Mobilität und Ăśffentliche Verkehrsanbindung als probate Mittel gegen die städtische Zersiedelung. Der Radialstruktur von Alfred Agaches Plan aus Stadtentwicklung.1 In jĂźngster Zeit geht es jedoch mit den bislang positiven Planungsindikatoren der „GrĂźnen Hauptstadt SĂźdamerikas“2 abwärts und man fragt sich, ob die Stadt nicht ein Opfer ihres eigenen Erfolgs geworden ist. Vor allem der starke Zuzug einkommensschwacher Zuwanderer stellt Curitiba vor groĂ&#x;e Herausforderungen. Weltweit sehen sich städtische Ballungszentren einem ähnlichen Wachstumsprozess ausgesetzt, bei gleichzeitiger Schrumpfung anderer Gebiete. In beiden Fällen mĂźssen die Städte lernen, mit der daraus resultierenden Ressourcenknappheit umzugehen und strategische stadtplanerische Eingriffe zu entwickeln, die minimal sind und doch eine maximale Wirkung entfalten. Vor diesem Hintergrund gewinnt Curitibas jahrzehntelange Erfahrung in strategischer Stadtplanung, fĂźr die der Begriff der „StadtAkupunktur“ geprägt wurde3, mehr denn je an Bedeutung. Denn in einer Zeit ďŹ nanzieller Krisen, schwächlichen Regierungshandelns und Ăźberproportionalen Ă–lpreisanstiegs stellt der Akupunktur-Urbanismus eine vielversprechende Alternative dar. RĂźckblickend erscheint es als glĂźckliche FĂźgung, dass Curitiba 1965 mit begrenzten ďŹ nanziellen Ressourcen einen Prozess rascher Industrialisierung und schnellen BevĂślkerungswachstums durchlebte. Heute sagt Jaime Lerner, das Aushängeschild von Curitibas Erfolgsgeschichte und ein Anhänger grifďŹ ger Parolen: „Kreativität beginnt, wenn man aus seinem Budget zwei Nullen kĂźrzen muss.“4 Aber damals hatte Lerner wenig zu verlieren. Gerade mal 30 Jahre alt, Ăźbernahm er die Leitung des soeben gegrĂźndeten Instituts fĂźr 

dem Jahr 1943 folgend, sollte Curitiba linear entlang fĂźnf struktureller Hauptachsen wachsen, die den GroĂ&#x;teil des Ăśffentlichen Verkehrs aufnehmen, aber auch die BevĂślkerungsdichte regeln: Je näher Häuserblocks am Ăśffentlichen Personennahverkehrsnetz liegen, desto hĂśher die zulässige Bebauung. Folglich spiegelt die Stadtsilhouette den „Modal Split“, d.h. die Verteilung des Transportaufkommens auf verschiedene Verkehrsträger und -mittel (Modi). Da man fĂźr den Bau einer U-Bahn weder Geld noch Zeit hatte, entwarfen Curitibas Planer das weltweit erste Massentransport-Netzwerk mit Bussen, das sehr viel gĂźnstiger ist und doch die Kapazität eines U-BahnNetzes erreicht.5 Sie umgingen kostspielige StraĂ&#x;enverbreiterungen und komplizierte Enteignungsprozesse, indem sie bestehende StraĂ&#x;enzĂźge in ein 3-trassiges Verkehrssystem umfunktionierten. Die Haupttrasse besteht aus zwei fĂźr Busse reservierte Fahrbahnen. Die Busse genieĂ&#x;en durch synchronisierte Ampelschaltungen uneingeschränkte Vorfahrt. Links und rechts der Bus-Korridore dienen Pkw-Spuren allein der Ăśrtlichen ErschlieĂ&#x;ung. Der Durchgangsverkehr indessen wird durch mehrspurige EinbahnstraĂ&#x;en gelenkt, die einen Häuserblock entfernt parallel zur Hauptrasse verlaufen. Die Steigerung der Effektivität und VerkĂźrzung der Haltedauer konnte vor allem durch den Entwurf rĂśhrenfĂśrmiger Haltestellen erreicht werden: Mit einfachen Mitteln werden so nach dem Prinzip der U-Bahn Fahrscheinkauf und -kontrolle vom Einstieg getrennt. Zudem erhĂśhen spezielle Doppel-Gelenk-Busse von Volvo, die 27 Meter lang sind, die BefĂśrderungskapazität auf 270 Fahrgäste.


Über die Leistungssteigerung des Busnetzes hinaus veranschaulicht das Finanzierungs- und Betriebskonzept den integralen Planungsansatz. Das Projekt wird sowohl mit öffentlichem als auch privatem Kapital finanziert: Die Stadt stellt Straßen und Haltestellen bereit, während Unternehmen die einzelnen Buslinien betreiben. Die Stadt zahlt den 26 Unternehmen unabhängig von der Zahl der Fahrgäste einen festen Betrag, der sich nach der Länge der Fahrt richtet. Im Gegenzug erhält die Stadt die Fahrgeldeinnahmen. So können ein Ausgleich zwischen unterschiedlich stark frequentierten Linien geschaffen, entfernte Stadtteile unterstützt und allen Einwohnern zum Einheitspreis gleiche Dienstleistungen geboten werden. Je mehr Einwohner die öffentlichen Verkehrsmittel nutzen, desto mehr Geld kann die Stadt wieder in neue Kommunalprojekte investieren. Diese Wechselwirkung verursacht eine positive Rückkopplungsschleife6, durch die Curitibas öffentlicher Nahverkehr kontinuierlich verbessert wird und im Vergleich zum Individualverkehr attraktiv bleiben sollte.

Abfall-Management Curitibas Planungsstrategie zielt auf Synergie-Effekte, die aus der engen Verknüpfung seiner Programme erwachsen. Zum Beispiel wurde das Finanzierungsmodell für Curitibas öffentlichen Nahverkehr auch dazu benutzt, das Problem der Müllbeseitigung anzugehen. Wie in vielen lateinamerikanischen Großstädten entstehen auch hier Favelas etwa auf Hügeln oder in Überschwemmungsgebieten. Dort ist die Zufahrt für die Müllabfuhr unmöglich. Daher richteten die Behörden zentrale Müllsammelstellen ein, wo Bewohner organisch und anorganisch getrennten Abfall gegen Busmarken tauschen können. Mit dem Erlös wiederverwertbarer Materialien kauft die Stadt Überschussprodukte von Landwirten auf; diese Lebensmittel wiederum werden an Bedürftige als Entlohnung für das Einsammeln von Müll verteilt. Bereits 1990 – im Jahr, in dem Deutschland den „Grünen Punkt“ einführte – sammelten Fuhrwerker, so genannte Carrinheiros, auf eigene Faust 70% der wiederverwertbaren Materialien in der Stadt ein und gewannen für Curitiba den Umweltpreis der Vereinten Nationen.7 Die Maßnahme wurde von einem breit angelegten Informations- und Kindererziehungsprogramm begleitet. Über die Schulkinder wurden Problem- und Verantwortungsbewusstsein in der Bevölkerung verbreitet.

Integrale Planung und wechselseitige Abhängigkeiten Über Innovationen auf den Gebieten des Transports und Abfall-Managements hinaus hat das IPPUC Programme für Überschwemmungsschutz und den Erhalt städtischer Grünanlagen, den sozialen Wohnungsbau, Mikrodarlehen und Erziehungseinrichtungen ins Leben gerufen. Diese Entwicklungen vollziehen sich in kleinen Schritten und auf sich wechselseitig verstärkende Weise. Jede einzelne Maßnahme entfaltet ihr volles Wirkungspotential als Bestandteil einer umfassenden Strategie erst, wenn sie mit anderen eng verknüpft ist. Nur dann entstehen Synergien, so dass punktuelle Eingriffe – wie von einer unsichtbaren Hand geleitet – einen übergreifenden Nutzen entfalten. Folglich macht sich Stadt-Akupunktur den emergenten Charakter von Städten zunutze. Planung wird als Problem organisierter Komplexität verstanden, das sich nur „bottom-up“ lösen lässt.8

Diese Defizite mögen den nachlassenden Erfolg einiger IPPUC-Programme erklären. Die Zahl der Autos nimmt seit zehn Jahren stetig zu und nur 22 Prozent des Abfalls wird heute noch für Recycling sortiert. Noch schwieriger als Bürger zu überreden, ihr Auto stehen zu lassen, scheint es, sie zur Mülltrennung zu erziehen.11 Besorgniserregender ist jedoch, dass die kommunalen Anstrengungen zur Aufklärung der Öffentlichkeit über Wiederverwertung signifikant zurückgefahren werden. Diese Entwicklung deutet auf ein grundsätzlicheres Problem: Curitibas Stadtregierung hat sich oft auf die Einleitung von Projekten und ihre breite mediale Präsentation konzentriert, um dann die weitere Ausführung zu vernachlässigen. Paradoxerweise hat die Stadtregierung durch die Propagierung ihrer Erfolge oft das Gegenteil bewirkt. Je mehr Entscheidungen von oben getroffen werden, desto weniger fühlen sich die Bürger für die Umsetzung verantwortlich. Angesichts vorherrschender Ressourcenknappheit sollte die Regierung die Bürger bewegen, für die Fortführung und nachhaltige Umsetzung dieser Programme Verantwortung zu übernehmen. Und nicht zuletzt sollte Curitibas Verwaltung sich weniger der Pflege des internationalen Renommees widmen als sich wieder um die dringenden Bedürfnisse ihrer Einwohner kümmern, wie zum Beispiel Kanalisierung und Wasserversorgung.12

Von der Stadt zum großstädtischen Ballungsraum Das Image Curitibas als „Grüne Hauptstadt Lateinamerikas“ und „Stadt für das Volk“ hat nicht nur mächtige Konzerne und Investoren angelockt, sondern auch eine wachsende Zahl von Wanderarbeitern. Diese lassen sich meist in Favelas am Stadtrand nieder und verschärfen das soziale Gefälle zwischen Kern und Peripherie. Tatsächlich ist die Stadt seit den 60er Jahren von 350.000 Einwohnern auf 1,8 Millionen und im Großraum Curitiba auf 3,2 Millionen gewachsen. Bei der Planung müssen somit zahlreiche Kommunen im Umland Curitibas mit teils konkurrierenden Interessen einbezogen werden. Ohne seine einstige zentrale Planungsbefugnis kann das IPPUC nicht mehr so leicht Maßnahmen gegen lokale Anliegen durchsetzen, die den Nutzen für das Gesamtsystem im Blick haben. Denn die Stadt lässt sich heute weder geographisch noch politisch als Einheit einfach bestimmen. Unterdessen reichen ökologische Auswirkungen oft weit über administrative Grenzen hinaus. Angesichts der beschriebenen Entwicklungen steht Curitiba zweierlei Herausforderungen gegenüber: Es braucht eine Vision für den gesamten metropolitanen Ballungsraum sowie ein verstärktes staatsbürgerliches Verantwortungsbewusstsein. Die Vision für den Großraum Curitiba muss Verwaltungsgrenzen überwinden und regional gedacht werden. Bürgerbeteiligung muss durch die Regierung erleichtert werden, nicht nur zum Zweck der Förderung demokratischer Prozesse und sozialer Gerechtigkeit; es geht vielmehr auch darum, den Bürgern das Bewusstsein zu vermitteln, dass Stadtplanung auch ihre Sache ist. Stefan Gruber führt in Wien das Architekturbüro STUDIOGRUBER. Er ist stellvertretender Institutsleiter des Instituts für Kunst und Architektur der Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien, wo er Architekturentwurf und Urbanismus lehrt.

Mangel an Partizipation Bedauerlicherweise können wir von den Schwierigkeiten, die Curitiba heutzutage belasten, genau so viel lernen wie von seinen früheren Erfolgen. Schließlich kratzen immer mehr kritische Stimmen am makellosen Bild, das Curitibas Planer auch durch geschickte Öffentlichkeitsarbeit während der letzten 40 Jahre gepflegt haben. Curitibas wesentliches Versäumnis liegt darin, die Bürgerbeteiligung vernachlässigt zu haben. Der Mangel an demokratischer Partizipation und die schnellen Planungsprozesse sind Ausdruck paternalistischen Denkens. Tatsächlich wurde „die fortschrittliche Stadtplanung von Curitiba […] nicht durch einen demokratischen Prozess initiiert, sondern vielmehr von der Militärdiktatur, die 1964 die Macht ergriff und Brasilien bis in die 1980er Jahre regierte“.9 Obwohl die Umsetzung vieler IPPUC-Initiativen auf die Beteiligung der Bevölkerung angewiesen war, wurden die Einwohner nur selten in Entscheidungsprozesse einbezogen. Die Bürgerschaft hat sich daran gewöhnt, die ungeschriebenen Regeln der Stadtregierung zu achten, sich nur für unmittelbar dringliche Bedürfnisse einzusetzen und darauf zu vertrauen, dass sie das Bestmögliche erhält.10

1) Vgl. Otl Aicher. Planung und Steuerung, in: Arch+ 98 Entwurf der Moderne, 1989. 2) Diese Bezeichnung erscheint u.a. in Kris Herbst: Brazil’s Model City, in: Planning 9 (1992). 3) Jaime Lerner in: Acupunctura Urbana, Rio de Janeiro 2003. 4) Siehe Vortrag von Jaime Lerner während der TED Konferenz 2007, www.ted.com. 5) Die Kosten für das Bussystem betragen ca. 1 Mio. $ pro km. Eine U-Bahn kostet im Vergleich 100 Mio. $ pro km. Vgl. Lucian Kroll, Creative Curitiba, in: The Architectural Review 127 (2007). 6) Positive Rückkopplung liegt vor, wenn sich ein Signal verstärkend auf sich selbst auswirkt. Rückkopplung kann in allen Systemen auftreten, in denen es möglich ist, Ausgangsgrößen zum Eingang zurückzuführen.

7) Vgl. Marta E. Fausto: Planning Theories and Concepts, Implementation Strategies, and Integrated Transportation Network Elements in Curitiba, in: Transportation Quarterly 1 (1999). 8) Vgl. Jane Jacobs The Kind of Problems Cities are, in: Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York 1961. 9) Teresa Urban, Journalistin und Bürgerrechtsaktivistin aus Curitiba, in: Arthur Lubow: The Road to Curitiba, New York Times Magazine, 20. Mai 2007. 10) Siehe Clara Irazábal: Behind the Scenes of Wonderland: re-assessing Curitiba’s planning model, in: Aula 1 (1999). 11) José Antonio Andreguetto, Curitiba’s Umweltabgeordneter, in: Lubow 2007 (wie Anm. 9). 12) Siehe Anm. 10.




FROM FORM FINDING TO PERFORMATIVE STRUCTURE

STUDIOGRUBER

girardigasse 1/31 1060 wien ofямБce@studiogruber.com


URBANITY AFTER ALL?

STUDIOGRUBER

girardigasse 1/31 1060 wien ofямБce@studiogruber.com


UBLICATIONS

STUDIOGRUBER’s projects have been featured internationally in Frame, Arch+, bracket among others, as well as exhbition catalogues and newspapers.


PIECE PROCESS LECTURE PODS

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168 : STUDY SPACES : STUDIO GRUBER

PIECE EC EC CEE PROCES ROC ROCES R RO O OC C CES CE EESS For the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, Studio Gruber created a process-led sequence of contemporary study spaces in perfect harmony with their historical host building. WORDS SHONQUIS MORENO PHOTOS COURTESY OF STUDIO GRUBER

GUBER’S ORIGINAL DESIGN GENERATED 1600 UNIQUE PIECES IN 42MM SLICES.


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THE LECTURE PODS, AS THE ARCHITECTS CALL THEM, PLAY ON GRADATIONS OF LIGHT AND SHADOW WITH THEIR FACETTED, CROSS-HATCHED FORMS. PHOTO MARKUS KROTTENDORFER


STUDIO GRUBER : STUDY


174 : STUDY SPACES : STUDIO GRUBER THE PODS COCOON SOME OF THE DEPOT’S NEO-CLASSICAL COLUMNS; OTHERS ARE LEFT STANDING FREE. PHOTO THOMAS FREILER

This method of mass customization enabled a highly contextual strategy

SEMPER DEPOT LECTURE PODS LOCATION Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, Austria DESIGNER Studio Gruber: Stefan Gruber with

Andrei Gheorghe (studiogruber.com) CLIENT Academy of Fine Arts Vienna MATERIALS Cross-laminated timber, steel, glass, plasterboard CONSTRUCTION METHOD CNC-milled prefab CARPENTER Holzer Holwein AREA 410 m2

on choreographing a fabrication process. Initially, he modelled and then vertically dissected a three-dimensional volume, generating 1600 unique pieces in 42-mm slices. Each slice was given an identifying code and drilled with a particular series of holes that made the parts resemble large wooden Lego blocks or Lincoln Logs. These markers were then mapped onto large sheets of plywood along with the outlines of the slices in order to minimize waste during the milling process. By taking this approach, Gruber remained faithful to Gottfried Semper’s belief that walls were born of textiles long ago and should possess both structural and aesthetic qualities. In German, linguistic similarity underlines Semper’s theory: ‘wall’ is Wand, while Gewand means ‘garment’. Gruber’s fabrication process connects

the two concepts just as clearly: when he CNCmilled the plywood sheets for the lecture pods along their vector lines, he was, in fact, cutting his wall elements out of the ply exactly as a tailor cuts a pattern from fabric to make a jacket. More importantly, however, the design of a particular process instead of a particular product has the virtue of generating an exceedingly simple operating procedure. For one thing, it can be scaled as desired; for another, it can be automated, since an algorithm is nothing more than a set of instructions. It also meant that workmen were able to assemble the pods – using the codes and reference holes that identify each piece – like a giant puzzle, without the need for plans. Essentially, Gruber had folded instructions for construction into the building components themselves: the copious visual cues

he left indicated both the sequence of assembly and the precise position of each element. So, in the Semper Depot, each lecture pod could be tailored to fit a specific space in the interior and to fit the individual needs of its users. Working in a historical building, this method of mass customization enabled a highly contextual strategy. And, once the prototyping process was defined, Gruber’s team could devote all its attention to the differentiation of each pod without risking running over cost or over time. ‘Conceptually, this approach changes the way we design and build,’ says Gruber. ‘If the process is designed intelligently, differentiation is no longer more expensive than serial repetition.’ Customization as inexpensive as mass production? Architects should be learning fast.


STUDIO GRUBER : STUDY SPACES : 175 A DEGREE OF TRANSPARENCY AIDS THE RELATIONSHIP OF NEW WITH OLD. PHOTO LISA RASTL


BRACKET: GOES SOFT


RUNNER-UP/ GRAZ/ MAGNETIC URBAN FIELD STUDIOGRUBER

PROJECT COLLABORATORS BASED IN WEB E-MAIL

Stefan Gruber (DE/FR) Gilbert Berthold (AT), Philipp Soeparno (AT) Vienna, Austria www.studiogruber.com office@studiogruber.com

STUDIOGRUBER is a Vienna-based design and planning practice for architecture, urbanism and research. We are dedicated to the performative capacity of space: how architecture, its material organization and atmosphere affect people and the environment. Projects engage and challenge prevailing ecologies, inscribed cultural codes and the local socio-political forces at play. Through strategic interventions arising from the thorough investigation of a milieu, we aim at producing maximum effects with minimal means.

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“Magnetic Urban Field” proposes to intensify the spot by intermingling the various flows of movement in a space of critical proximity and exciting compression. The clear idea to create a “theatre” of traffic can be seen as the primary condition for an attractive urbanity. This is a most valuable “message” for the urban planning strategy, offering an alternative response which includes the potential of the existing and extrapolates its qualities in a poetic way.

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GRAZ | RUNNER-UP | MAGNETIC URBAN FIELD

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EUROPAN12 EUROPEAN URBANITY

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The projects suggests an interesting field of coexistence between mobility and public spaces, suggesting a folded surface development which tries to merge the different organizational levels … the project demonstrates a strong and unique approach, which addresses the intermingling of programmes as a scenario of dramatic and attractive coexistence. “Magnetic Urban Field” takes the power of traffic to be translated directly in urban qualities.

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Field infrastructure

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Project site plan

GRAZ | RUNNER-UP | MAGNETIC URBAN FIELD

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Situated at Graz’s urban fringe, Magnetic Urban Field combines a transportation hub, park-and-ride facility with a large parking lot for the city’s soccer stadium and a 100 m tall housing high-rise performing as a gateway when entering the city from the south. In the ambiguous environment of urban sprawl, most buildings demonstrate an autistic behavior towards their context. Adding another singular piece – regardless of size or style – would make little difference. Instead the project reconfigures “found objects” in Graz’s sprawling cityscape – kiosks, street lamps, parked cars – and condenses them into a new artificial landscape: a field condition blending the notion of landscape, architecture and infrastructure. Their intricate aggregation acts as a catalyst to activate the latent space of the parking lot (sized for occasional peak events) and re-imagines it as a public space for a variety of formal and informal urban activities. Thus the project responds to the harsh rhythms of events and turns underused resources into a community asset. A clockwise spiral organizes flows of cars, public transport, bicycles and pedestrians on a unifying topography cross-programmed with temporary commercial, cultural and leisure activities. Here the spectacle of the arena is transposed to its urban setting: the props of suburbia’s everyday turn into a stage for the “choreography” of traffic and re-frame its condition as an urban potential. Rather than a fixed design, the project is syntactical in nature, offering a robust framework to accommodate change as needs and desires evolve.

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Yo.V.A.3 YOUNG VIENNESE ARCHITECTS

“A vibrant generation of young architects lives and works in Vienna. Yo.V.A. - Young Viennese Architects is an exhibition and publication series initiated by the Vienna City Administration to promote young Viennese architects. This book, the catalogue of the eponymous exhibition, presents the work of 12 young Vienna-based architecture firms. The teams were selected by a jury presided by Professor Wolf D. Prix.”

STUDIOGRUBER

girardigasse 1/31 1060 wien office@studiogruber.com


Yo.V.A.3 YOUNG VIENNESE ARCHITECTS

STUDIOGRUBER

girardigasse 1/31 1060 wien office@studiogruber.com


UBLICATIONS

on students’ work and teaching.


BIG! BAD? MODERN:


B

BIGNESS

The Architecture of Late Capitalism or Whatever Happened to the Avant-garde? Stefan Gruber

In 1995 Rem Koolhaas developed his theory of Bigness to proclaim a new type of architecture: one that due to its sheer size, would produce a >“city within the city”. Bigness, according to Koolhaas, promises to recover the profession’s ability to act within a new world order. Bigness is a natural phenomenon, an “architectural Big Bang”1 arising from the confluence of evolutionary forces. “Fuelled initially by the thoughtless energy of the purely quantitative,” Koolhaas wrote, “Bigness has been, a century, a condition almost 1) Rem Koolhaas, “Bigness or the Problem of Large”, in: ture of congestion is articulated through thefor Man- nearly Small, Medium, Large, Extra-Large, New York: Monahattan >grid: it is on the street that we ultimately 2 Press, 1995 thinkers,celli a revolution without program.” experience the city ofwithout exasperating differences. 2) Ibid. Even more so, the “City in the City - Berlin as a 3) Ibid. Green Archipelago” project that Koolhaas develThus Koolhaas to free Bigness from 4)attempted Ibid. oped along with Oswald Matthias Ungers is based 5) A term Koolhaas will coin in OMA/Rem Koolhaas, Content: Perverted Architecture,project Köln: Taschen, 2004 on the dialectical natureideology of the city: a composition and revive the very of Modernity. 6) Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York. A Retroacof different and opposing forms that finds an artive Manifesto for Manhattan, New York: Thames ticulation in islands floating in an ocean of infor“Only through Bigness,” he claimed, &“can architecHudson, 1978 mality and self-organized activity. As Pier Vittorio 7) Ellen Dunham-Jones, “Irrational exuberance: Rem Aureli has pointed out, ture Ungers anddissociate Koolhaas’ early itself exhausted artistic/ Koolhaas andfrom the 1990s”, in:the Peggy Deamer (eds.), collaboration is based on an interest in turning the Architecture and Capitalism. 1845 to the Present, New York: Routledge, 2014 splintering forces of theideological metropolis into architecmovements of >Modernism and for8) Ibid. tural form that addresses the collective dimension 9) Pier Vittorio Aureli, The Possibility of an Absolute of the city. Aureli writesmalism “Berlin as a Green Archito regain its instrumentality as vehicle of Architecture, Cambridge/Mass.: MIT Press, 2011 pelago postulates a city form that, in order to be 10) Rem Koolhaas, “Bigness or the problem of Large”, 3 defined, requires confrontation with its opposite modernization.”op. cit. – urbanization – and with the city’s most controversial aspects, such as division, conflict, and even In the sweeping spirit of Modernism, Koolhaas destruction.” So even though the idea of the city is captured in architectural islands, it is always only theorized Bigness as a universal phenomenon, in relation to one another and in relation to the interstices that the city can be read. independent of geographic or historical If, however, we are to read Bigness as autonomous architectural island, the only scenario in specificities. Meanwhile, the context in which which Bigness might fulfill its potential as a city is if it remains public, that is, built and regulat“Bigness” appeared in 1995 is highly specific and ed by the state. It is no coincidence that one of OMA’s most >successful building to date remains crucial forafterthe the Seattle public library, a space sought by impact it will have on the discipline. researchers and homeless alike. If we would still With the fall like to believe that “only Bigness instigates the re- of the Berlin Wall (coincidentally gime of complexity that mobilizes the full intelthefields,” subject of Koolhaas’ diploma project and ligence of architecture also and its related we need to revisit the projects of the ‘60s and ‘70s – entry to the international architecture scene), the BIG!BAD?MODERN: projects – in which the State was the driving force behind building for the capitalism seems to have finally won, clearing the public at large. Zara Pfeifer, Flyer for the second way for the boundless proliferation BIG!BAD?MODERN: exhibition inof the neoliberal Mehrzwecksaal in the Semper Depot, October 2011 | HTC design studio “Curating BIG!BAD?MODERN:”. policies and privatization through global market 9

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deregulations. Indeed, Bigness is intricately tied to the dynamics of late capitalism and the fact that the big business, big money and big government so essential for the architecture of Bigness remain aptly implicit in Koolhaas’ argument, should make us wary of his claim for a “post-realignment with neutrality”4. Can architecture ever be apolitical or free of ideology? If so, why would a building’s >scale or its typological organization make it less or more neutral? In effect, Bigness has historically been coopted by ideologies of all kinds. The four BIG!BAD?MODERN: projects under scrutiny here, for instance, stand for a last attempt of the state to provide welfare to its citizens through architecture: mass-housing, mass-education, masshealth care and mass-media are pursued through the logic of modernization, centralization and an economy of scale. Typologically speaking, these buildings do indeed share many of Bigness’ features: their scale, their dependency on mechanical circulation, their surface-area ratio and disjunction between the in- and exterior. The driving forces behind these public projects of the post-war Austrian Welfare State, however, fundamentally differ from the ‘90s developments arising from a global ¥ $-regime.5 Koolhaas, more than any other architect, has framed his work in relation to the social, political and economic context that shapes the built >environment. So what are we to make of this flagrant contradiction? How are we 75

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to reconcile Koolhaas’ acute sensibility for sociopolitical circumstances and his claim for Bigness’ neutrality? In 1995 Koolhaas was at a turning point of his career: With Euralille under construction, the self-professed surfer finally caught a massive wave. Euralille presented a unique opportunity to apply the lessons of Delirious New York6 to the old Continent. But as the hip “soixante-huitard” engaged with the authoritarian establishment and became the master-planner of a shopping mall, a business and convention center and a high-speed train station, he also found himself under pressure to renegotiate his image as an avant-garde provocateur. Ellen Dunham-Jones, in her essay “Irrational exuberance: Rem Koolhaas and the 1990s”,7 effectively explains how “the powerful combination of 1960s irreverence and 1990s relevance in his work catapulted his star status while revealing the contradictory paradox involved in trying to marry art and capitalism, radicalism and pragmatism, icon-making and city-making.”8 She further argues that Bigness can be read as a “public-relations campaign” in which Koolhaas invites the rest of the architecture profession to join him in restoring its credibility. Thus, rather than preemptive justification, Bigness becomes a project to redefine the role of the architectural avant-garde altogether. It marks the end of a critical engagement with society and clears the way for an entire architecture generation to embrace big corporate commissions while clinging to the status of the avant-garde. The successive global proliferation of Bigness indiscriminately designed by avantgarde and corporate firms alike is a tribute to this moment of theoretical legitimization. This might be, Dunham-Jones concludes, Koolhaas’ ultimate legacy vis-à-vis progressive architecture. In order to fully understand the political implications of the theory of Bigness, however, we have to turn to its relation to the city. The political is here understood as agonism, the productive con-

frontation of differences. According to Koolhaas, Bigness will inevitably absorb any difference: “If Bigness transforms architecture, its accumulation generates a new kind of city. The exterior of the city is no longer a collective theater where ‘it’ happens. There’s no collective ‘it’ left. The street has become residue, organizational device, mere segment of the >continuous metropolitan plane where the remnants of the past face the equipment of the new in an uneasy standoff. Bigness can exist anywhere on that plane. Not only is Bigness incapable of establishing relationships with the classical city, at most it coexists. But in the quantity and complexity of the facilities it offers, it is itself urban.” Of course it would be naïve to assume that anyone can find access to the new city that is Bigness. Bigness is a private city, an enclave guarded by private security that grants entry to whoever promises to consume. And herein lays the essential flaw of Koolhaas’ argument. While Bigness as rendered by Koolhaas depends and is built on Capitalism, Capitalism inherently depends on externalizing cost, on producing an outside. Similarly Architecture and the City are ontological opposites: While architecture’s essential conditions is to separate, to draw a line between in and outside, the very idea of the city, politically speaking, is the coexistence and confrontation of differences, the spatial coincidence of antagonisms. But as soon as separation (read architecture) occurs, exclusion takes place, differences emerge and agonism persists. Thus architecture will always produce the city and can never be the city. Koolhaas might choose to ignore the “residue” outside of Bigness, but this will not eradicate the massive population that dwells at the margins of capitalism, especially in the so-called “emerging markets” that Koolhaas targets. It is here that Bigness also breaks with Koolhaas’ previous work. In Delirious New York the cul73


BIG! BAD? MODERN:

ture of congestion is articulated through the Manhattan >grid: it is on the street that we ultimately experience the city of exasperating differences. Even more so, the “City in the City - Berlin as a Green Archipelago” project that Koolhaas developed along with Oswald Matthias Ungers is based on the dialectical nature of the city: a composition of different and opposing forms that finds an articulation in islands floating in an ocean of informality and self-organized activity. As Pier Vittorio Aureli has pointed out, Ungers and Koolhaas’ early collaboration is based on an interest in turning the splintering forces of the metropolis into architectural form that addresses the collective dimension of the city. Aureli writes “Berlin as a Green Archipelago postulates a city form that, in order to be defined, requires confrontation with its opposite – urbanization – and with the city’s most controversial aspects, such as division, conflict, and even destruction.”9 So even though the idea of the city is captured in architectural islands, it is always only in relation to one another and in relation to the interstices that the city can be read. 1) Rem Koolhaas, “Bigness oras the Problem of Large”, in: however, we are to read Bigness autonoture of If, congestion is articulated through the ManSmall, Medium, Large, Extra-Large, New York: Monahattan >grid: it is on the street that we ultimately celli Press, 1995 experience city of exasperating differences. mousthearchitectural island,2) the only scenario in Ibid. Even more so, the “City in the City - Berlin as a 3) Ibid. Green Archipelago” project that Koolhaas develwhich Bigness might fulfill4) Ibid. its potential as a city oped along with Oswald Matthias Ungers is based 5) A term Koolhaas will coin in OMA/Rem Koolhaas, Architecture, Taschen, 2004 on nature of the city: a compositionthatContent: istheifdialectical it remains public, is,Perverted built andKöln:regulat6) Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York. A Retroacof different and opposing forms that finds an artive Manifesto for Manhattan, New York: Thames & ticulation in islands floating in an ocean of infored by the state. It is no coincidence that one of Hudson, 1978 mality and self-organized activity. As Pier Vittorio 7) Ellen Dunham-Jones, “Irrational exuberance: Rem Aureli has pointed out, Ungers and Koolhaas’ early building OMA’s most >successful remains Koolhaas and theto 1990s”,date in: Peggy Deamer (eds.), collaboration is based on an interest in turning the Architecture and Capitalism. 1845 to the Present, New York: Routledge, 2014 splintering forces of thepublic metropolis into architecthe Seattle library, a space sought after by 8) Ibid. tural form that addresses the collective dimension 9) Pier Vittorio Aureli, The Possibility of an Absolute of the city. Aureli writes “Berlin as a Green Archiresearchers and homeless alike. If we would still Architecture, Cambridge/Mass.: MIT Press, 2011 pelago postulates a city form that, in order to be 10) Rem Koolhaas, “Bigness or the problem of Large”, defined, requires confrontation with its“only opposite Bigness op. cit. like to believe that instigates the re– urbanization – and with the city’s most controversial aspects, such as division, conflict, and even gime of complexity that mobilizes the full inteldestruction.” So even though the idea of the city is captured in architectural islands, it is always only ligence of architecture and its related fields,”10 we in relation to one another and in relation to the interstices that the city can be read. need to revisit the projects of the ‘60s and ‘70s – If, however, we are to read Bigness as autonomous architectural island, the only scenario in the BIG!BAD?MODERN: projects – in which the which Bigness might fulfill its potential as a city is if it remains public, that is, built and regulatState was the driving force behind building for the ed by the state. It is no coincidence that one of OMA’s most >successful building to date remains public atlibrary, large. the Seattle public a space sought after by

1) Rem Koolhaas, “Bigness or the Problem of Large”, in: Small, Medium, Large, Extra-Large, New York: Monacelli Press, 1995 2) Ibid. 3) Ibid. 4) Ibid. 5) A term Koolhaas will coin in OMA/Rem Koolhaas, Content: Perverted Architecture, Köln: Taschen, 2004 6) Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York. A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, New York: Thames & Hudson, 1978 7) Ellen Dunham-Jones, “Irrational exuberance: Rem Koolhaas and the 1990s”, in: Peggy Deamer (eds.), Architecture and Capitalism. 1845 to the Present, New York: Routledge, 2014 8) Ibid. 9) Pier Vittorio Aureli, The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture, Cambridge/Mass.: MIT Press, 2011 10) Rem Koolhaas, “Bigness or the problem of Large”, op. cit.

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researchers and homeless alike. If we would still like to believe that “only Bigness instigates the regime of complexity that mobilizes the full intelligence of architecture and its related fields,”10 we need to revisit the projects of the ‘60s and ‘70s – the BIG!BAD?MODERN: projects – in which the State was the driving force behind building for the public at large.

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Zara Pfeifer, Flyer for the second BIG!BAD?MODERN: exhibition in the Mehrzwecksaal in the Semper Depot, October 2011 | HTC design studio “Curating BIG!BAD?MODERN:”. Zara Pfeifer, Flyer for the second BIG!BAD?MODERN: exhibition in the Mehrzwecksaal in the Semper Depot, October 2011 | HTC design studio “Curating BIG!BAD?MODERN:”. 75


VIENNA: SLOW CAPITAL ACUPUNCTURE FOR THE CITY

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VIENNA: SLOW CAPITAL ACUPUNCTURE FOR THE CITY

Vienna: Slow Capital challenges the city’s urban development over the past twenty years. It dismisses the dire attempts at global competitiveness and the generic representation of financial power through sheer size—to rediscover one of Vienna’s utmost characteristics: slowness. Slowness is a privilege, one that maybe only the “world’s most desirable city to live in” can afford, but also at the risk of losing its rank in order to maintain its quality. Slowness also suggests that the city’s quality of life might be determined by how it resists certain trends to concentrate on its unique attributes instead. “Vienna: Slow Capital” questions the city’s gradual paradigm shift away from soft urban renewal to the extensive urban developments since 1989. How will future generations evaluate the urbanization of Vienna’s so-called second Gründerzeit? Are the large developments typical of Vienna’s ‘90s and the first decade of the millennium truly incompatible with the historic city? Student projects from the platform for Geography, Lanscapes and Cities at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna challenge the seeming incompatibility. They explore the potentials of instrumentalizing the capital investments of the big projects for transforming urban life in the dense Gründerzeit neighborhoods. Through careful readings of the urban milieu, the projects aim to have a systemic impact on the city by triggering effects that exceed the physical boundaries of a site—Acupuncture for the city. Stefan Gruber, Lisa Schmidt-Colinet (eds.) Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, 2011

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How to live? Lecture Series Winter Term 2006/7 While society and culture are subject to accelerating change, our modes of living have always resisted evolving. Meanwhile, our living environments have become inadequate for our contemporary and future lives: Global mobility and the fragmentation of social structures supersede our notions of domesticity, while free markets and communication technologies have redefined our understanding of public and private. Graying demographics require inventing new models of cohabitation, while climatic changes force us to reconsider our environments on a large scale. The Winter Term 2006/7 lecture series asked: How are we to live? Rather than seeking biographical responses, the question calls for broad views and foresight on the matters of living. We invited critics and thinkers and asked them to address the question through the lens of others: other people, other places, or other moments in time. The otherness is an attempt to provide the required distance for evaluating whether architecture has the capacity to support our projections of life.

Next Life Lecture Series Summer Term 2007 In a continuous endeavor to question how we live, the summer-term lectures focuses on architecture’s projective capacities. Traditionally, the construction of habitats has been a conservative act. We build shelters to preserve our lives; they are sanctuaries for restoring ourselves, as well as for storing our belongings. In contrast, designing and planning are primarily forward-looking practices: we challenge the present to uncover latent potentials and project better living conditions. It is a vigorous act to break with familiar and depart into unknown territories. How are we to overcome this fundamental dichotomy? Modernist utopias and post-structuralism caution us against exaggerated idealism, yet architects cannot deny their responsibility in projecting the future. Demographic shifts, climatic changes, and the reconfiguration of global resources challenge our future lives and force us to rethink common buildings and cities. These fundamental developments are overlaid with consumer culture’s permanent proclamation of “the next thing.” How can we avoid the pitfall of trendy prognostics and still engage in changing life conditions? How are we to distil the essential from the superficial in shaping the architecture of the next life? Curated, organized and edited by: Stefan Gruber, Antje Lehn


NEXT LIFE REVIEW IV

STUDIOGRUBER

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Rethinking Geometries Lecture Series Winter Term 2007/8 The winter term lecture series aims to focus on recent developments in advanced geometry and to speculate on its impact on the discipline of architecture. A renewed interest in geometry in architecture has emerged in recent years due to the advancement of two fields: the development of digital technologies, and the development of new materials, fabrication techniques and assembly. Computer technologies have expanded possibilities to generate and describe complex geometries. Surface topologies and double-curvature, tiling and subdividing algorithms have grown to be more than mere theoretical or analogue models, but viable and conceivable models within architectural practice. Due to this tendency, disciplines that genuinely deal with complex geometries, like mathematics and physics, gain increasing attention in the field of architecture. Complex geometries are simultaneously being investigated at a microscopic scale in order to enhance specific material performances, as well as at an urban scale to regulate traffic, micro-climates or urban growth. Advanced geometries have thus entered the reality of our built environment.

Geometries of Emergence Lecture Series Summer Term 2008 Following the winter term lecture series which began a multidisciplinary dialogue on advanced geometries, this term’s lectures will focus on the Geometries of Emergence. Emergent phenomena build spontaneously from interactions among individual parts and their adaptive learning through environmental feedback. The resulting whole is smarter than the sum of its parts. As developments in neuroscience and biomathematics fundamentally change how we conceive of emerging systems, their self-organizing principles figure into artificial intelligence and bottom-up computational models as analytical and generative tools. Applications have transformed digital interfaces from online dating services to computer gaming, financial markets and daily weather forecasts. But while self-organizing systems produce intelligent behavior in natural organisms and computational simulations, architectural application awaits. Emergent behaviors generate patterns of material organization, complex structures and multi-layered networks—the very tools architects use to design and build at various scales, ranging from urban morphologies to envelope skins. The talks will investigate how to generate design, evolve forms and structures in morphogenetic processes within a computational environment. Which criteria and parameters are used for the breeding and selecting of the ’fittest’ architectural species? Can we rethink architectural history and the evolution of building typologies as an emergent organization of matter? Curated and edited by: Stefan Gruber, Erhard Kinzelbach and Antje Lehn


Sunday, June 22nd

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Monday June 23rd

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10:00

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Tuesday, June 24th

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18:00

Eating Together dinner provided)

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Teach-in #1

15:00

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Field reports and discussion

18:00

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19:00

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13:00

Teach-in #2

Wednesday, June 25th

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What do we need to unlearn to learn the commons? i.e. What we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;t learn in art school/university... 15:00 / 17:00

Teach-in #3

18:00

Opening

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What is a common curriculum? What practices can we carry forward into the commons of our time together?

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Thursday June 26th

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Saturday, June 28th

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10:00

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12:00

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13:00

Silent listening walks to sites of occupation

16:00 / 18:00

Production of shared testimony

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14:00 / 16:00

Mapping the commons

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Friday, June 27th

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exchange networks in the city of crisis

Sunday, June 29th

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15:00

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15:30

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18:00

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15:00

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15:30

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18:00

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12:00

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STUDIOGRUBER  

STUDIOGRUBER is an international architecture, urbanism and research office based in Vienna, working on projects of various scales and compl...

STUDIOGRUBER  

STUDIOGRUBER is an international architecture, urbanism and research office based in Vienna, working on projects of various scales and compl...

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