Page 1

TOWARDS AN EFFICIENT ECONOMY CHE WEI (JACKY) LEE FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH V3.2

A GREEN ECONOMY ZHI JIAN (DAVID) WONG FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH V3.3

CREATING CREATIVE CHRISTCHURCH PRAVEEN KARUNASINGHE FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH V3.4

ADVISORS:

CAMIA YOUNG, CHRIS BARTON

AN ADAPTABLE HOUSING SOLUTION BIRAN HE FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH V3.5

THE EXPERIENCE ECONOMY ERICA AUSTIN FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH V3.6

Future Christchurch

V3.0

ALEX HARYOWISENO FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH V3.1

Prototype City

INNOVATION ECONOMY


students

Alexander Haryowiseno Che Wei (Jacky) Lee Zhi Jian (David) Wong Praveen Karunasinghe Biran He Erica Austin

Future Christchurch

V3.0

Prototype City

advisors

Camia Young Chris Barton


Produced by Studio Christchurch http://studiochristchurch.co.nz Future Christchurch course work http://futurechristchurch.wordpress.com FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH V3.0 PROTOTYPE CITY First published June 2013 Christchurch, New Zealand Intellectual Copyright Authors and The University of Auckland School of Architecture and Planning ISBN 978-0-9894723-0-2 This is a non-profit academic publication, self-published and printed online at: http://www.blurb.com/ Editor: Camia Young Graphic Designer: Erica Austin Students: Erica Austin, Alexander Haryowiseno, Biran He, Praveen Karunasinghe, Che Wei (Jacky) Lee, Zhi Jian (David) Wong


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This book was made possible through the support of The School of Architecture and Planning at The University of Auckland. We would also like to thank Aurecon for generously funding the production of this book.

5


6


TABLE OF CONTENTS

i. Introduction ii. Foreword: Matt Coetzee and Shaun Hardcastle 1. Economic Research

1.0 Introduction 1.1 Innovation Economy 1.2 Transportation Economy 1.3 Green Economy 1.4 Creative Economy 1.5 Housing Economy 1.6 Experience Economy

2. Urban Strategies

2.0 Introduction 2.1 Industrial Corridor 2.2. Multi-Modal City 2.3 Zero Carbon Energy Strategy 2.4 Education Intervention 2.5 Infill vs. Sprawl 2.6 De-Cluttering of Events

3. Architectural Systems

3.0 Introduction 3.1 Dynamic Zoning 3.2 Modular Interchanges 3.3 Optimal Ecological Systems 3.4 Distributed Classrooms 3.5 Adaptable Housing 3.6 Transformative Architecture

4. Collaboration 4.0 Introduction 4.1 Team Collaboration 4.2 Public Conversations 4.3 Public Collaborations 4.4 Public Presentations 4.5 NZIA Student Design Awards

7


Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

Zhi Jian (David) Wong

TRANSPORT ECONOMY TOWARDS AN

GREEN ECONOMY GREEN

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

Zhi Jian (David) Wong

EFFICIENT ECONOMY

ECONOMY

Praveen Karunasinghe

Alex Haryowiseno

?

INNOVATION ECONOMY

INNOVATION ECONOMY INNOVATION Alex Haryowiseno ECONOMY

Erica Austin

Erica Austin EXPERIENCE ECONOMY

Prototype City

Praveen Karunasinghe CREATIVE

CHRISTCHURCH

CHRISTCHURCHBiran He

EXPERIENCE ECONOMY CREATING

8

CREATIVE ECONOMY CREATING

HOUSING ECONOMY HOUSING Biran He ECONOMY


INTRODUCTION

Christchurch is at pivotal time in its history. Now that demolition is almost complete, with 80 percent of the buildings in the central business district carted away as rubble, and some 10,000 houses vanished, Christchurch is a city with plenty of vacant spaces. More than two years on from the devastating earthquakes of September 4th, 2010 and February 22nd, 2011, decisions made now of what to build where and when will come to define the city. It is a time of hope. New building is greeted enthusiastically as signs the recovery is underway. Two parallel approaches to rebuilding are in train. One aims to get the city moving again. Witness the Re-Start container mail, the Transitional Cathedral, the EPIC sanctuary, the Pallet Pavilion, Dance-O-Mat and other Gap Filler community driven projects. The other takes a longer term view involving further demolition and the government acquisition of vast tracts of central city land. The grand plan is encapsulated in the Christchurch Central Development Unit’s Blueprint (CCDU) of July 2012 with its proposed convention centre, sports stadium and “green frame” to redefine the city’s centre.

Both approaches seek to attract investment and bring growth and vitality back to the city. Recognising resources for reconstruction are limited, it is critical to think strategically about what types of construction could attract further investment, and what projects are more likely to act as catalysts for growth than others. The Future Christchurch project brings together a group of six thesis students from The University of Auckland’s School of Architecture and Planning to engage in a collective design project. Through a collaborative process, the project proposes a framework for the development and rebuild of Christchurch. It begins by researching local economies to identify potential catalysts for growth and inform urban strategies and architectural systems. The collaborative process enables a synergy between each of the strategies, recognising that economies intimately coexist, rather than stand alone.

Introduction

9


POPULATION MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE WESTERN SUBURBS

CCDU PLAN: INTENSIFY THE CBD

10

Prototype City

NETWORK OF TOWNS: INTENSIFY SUBURBS


ECONOMIC DRIVERS In August 2011 the City of Christchurch invited a series of international experts in post-disaster planning and reconstruction to present their insights and critique the Christchurch City Council’s newly released Central City Draft Plan. Throughout the presentations there was a consensus about the need for an economic strategy to support Christchurch’s proposed urban plan. There was a sense too, that the draft plan was limited in its scope as it encompassed the Central Business District (CBD), yet neglected to consider the city as a whole. It was from these two critiques that this agenda emerged, and the team set out to research the local economies to find drivers for proposed urban strategies. PROTOTYPE CITY Being ecologically conscious and implementing sustainable measures should be a given, and the means to achieve this is through a sound economic strategy. As we approach an era where fossil fuels are diminishing and climates changing there is a greater urgency to promote and choose lifestyles that are conscious of our environmental impact, which includes making informed choices as to how we live and work collectively. An underlying objective for this thesis group was to design proposals for a city where resources, economy and lifestyle work in balance with one another. Christchurch could be the perfect prototype city leading the way in 21st Century sustainable design for three reasons: first, it has the unique

advantage of abundant water, arable land and a moderate climate conducive to farming. Second, with a population of approximately 370,000 inhabitants, it is large enough to be relevant as a major city but also small enough for technology and infrastructure to be implemented quickly and efficiently. Lastly, because of the massive rebuilding effort following the earthquakes, there is an opportunity to rethink the urban form. Christchurch could capitalise on this opportunity by recognising these inherent traits and become a model city for the 21st Century. URBAN FORM The location for Christchurch’s rebuild was one of the main considerations within the project. A polycentric city model was identified as more resilient, in contrast with the mono-centric model proposed by the CCDU’s Blueprint, which caters to the CBD. The polycentric model of growth has the potential to address the current and emerging economic circumstances in Christchurch. By proposing multi-nodal development, the designs are able to harness the inherent potential of growth in multiple key activity areas of the city. This includes the identified growth of the western suburbs, the initial investments in the CBD, and other infrastructural assets such as the rail corridor. A multi-nodal development concentrating on key areas would create the opportunity for different identities to emerge across the city, which would cultivate confidence and attract a diversity of investors. This is critical for the success of the future reconstruction of Christchurch.

Introduction

11


12


MATT COETZEE

The world is experiencing a series of never-before-seen changes. For the first time in our history more people are living in cities than are not. We are experiencing the undeniable effects of climate change, both in terms of generally warmer conditions, but also a greater frequency of severe natural disasters. The centre of economic activity is shifting away from the traditional markets of Western Europe and the United States to those of Asia - but in many cases the number of urban poor in these now-wealthier countries is increasing. Managing the effects of these changes on the physical, social and economic fabric of our planet is not easy. Shying away from this is, however, not an option, and future generations, for some of us embodied in the children we tuck into bed at night, will judge us harshly if we are unable to develop effective solutions. I am writing this foreword on a plane flying across South Africa, a country I grew up in, and worked extensively in. And I am reminded of the great privilege I have had of spending the last 25 years observing and trying to manage the consequences of these mega-trends, both in this country, in other parts of Africa, in Asia and elsewhere. I have watched African workers struggle through smoke-laden air in Soweto, the consequence of many thousands of wood-fires needed because the supply and distribution of electricity has been poorly planned. Watched families secure the roof of their flimsy corrugated iron home in the slums of Manila in anticipation of yet another typhoon, and recognising the futility of it, sadly. And, more recently, I have been reminded through the effects of the 2011 earthquake

in Christchurch, that the heart-breaking effects of a disaster are not confined to the cities of the developing world. It seems clichĂŠd to say that the solution to these issues lies in mobilising the youthful energy, the unconstrained thinking and the intellectual fearlessness of the next generation of designers and planners, but it is entirely true. In this publication a group of ambitious students present us with some of the most thought-provoking, forward-thinking and engaging solutions to the challenges of our cities, that you will see. They provide answers to questions like how will we provide sufficient, affordable housing stock? How will we minimise the contribution of cities to carbon emissions? How will we leverage the power of social media to manage traffic congestion? And many-many more. It is now for those of us in positions where we can influence decision-making to very carefully examine these ideas and actively seek to further test and implement them. I have little doubt that the quality of the ideas in this book will engage you, as they did me, and I wholeheartedly recommend it to you. Enjoy being challenged! Matt Coetzee Aurecon Global Competency Leader, Urbanisation

Foreword | Matt Coetzee

13


14


SHAUN HARDCASTLE

Working for a large organisation with lots of services and unique individual talents is both invigorating and challenging. One of my roles as the HUBid leader for Aurecon is to manage the integration of disparate services by linking the right resources and team to suit a specific challenge. HUBid is an umbrella for these services with a focus on economics, land use and transport but it can also include many other disciplines. The Future Christchurch team and HUB-id have a similar approach to problem-solving, and the research-based design philosophy exemplified in this book, supports and demonstrates this integrated focus. Not only is the work compelling, but their collaborative approach is inspiring and exemplary of how I believe we should approach complex design problems with cross disciplinary team work. I met this ambitious bunch of students in late August 2012 when they were hosting a series of conversations related to their individual topics. I was invited to attend the Transportation Economy thesis by Jacky Lee, however I arrived early for the Green Economy and was hooked. I ended up staying the whole day and sitting in on every presentation. A light bulb went on, that what these students were achieving is a HUB-id approach to urban rejuvenation. They developed strong arguments for how each of the economies could lend to the regeneration of Christchurch, and at the end showed how these economies overlap and intertwine, coming together to create a whole that exceeds the sum of the parts. I was witnessing something rare, collaboration truly working. The six students prepared their own compelling story, which could be digested in isolation. But the real genius and strength in the approach is realised in the cross-over and

synergy between the six economies. Coming to grips with the depth and quality of the work presented across the six thesis books is rewarding, but time-consuming. This book is a summary of the work for those that want an overview of the process, the outcome and the thought leadership. There is no doubt this book and the work contained in the six separate books is special for many reasons, it is: • Emotional, because its study area is related to the tragic outcomes of the Christchurch earthquakes. • Compelling, because the principles and methods could be applied to any urban area in the World. • Intriguing, because marrying six different economies into an outcome is truly a task not for the faint-hearted. I read a lot in my professional capacity: online news pieces, thought leadership papers, conference papers and books. It’s important in a professional sense to pop your head out of your work and see what’s going on in other related fields. The brave new world of emerging economies coming to the fore that are marginalising commodity is forcing collaboration, creativity and integration. HUB-id is my contribution to managing and framing that thinking. This book is my recommendation to your busy professional life as a must-read if you want to understand what integration and collaboration within HUB-id means. Shaun Hardcastle Global HUB-id Technical Director, Christchurch 2013

Foreword | Shaun Hardcastle

15


Knowledge-Based Society Quality of Life

INNOVATION TRANSPORTATION ENERGY EDUCATION HOUSING EVENTS

Multi-Modal City Renewable Energy


Eventful City Lifelong Learning

URBAN STRATEGIES

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Green Zone


18


1.0 ECONOMIC RESEARCH

The purpose of this collective project is to propose development strategies for Christchurch based upon economic research, with the underlying goal of stimulating investment in the city. The project was initiated following two critiques of the Christchurch Central City Draft Plan released in August 2011 by an invited panel of international experts. Two findings stood out; that the plan was limited in scope due to its mandate to only consider the Central Business District (CBD); and that the plan lacked a financial strategy in order for its intentions to be realised. Based on these critiques, the team began research of local economies in order to find drivers for urban strategies that could be applied to the whole city. The Innovation Economy argues for a shift towards a knowledge-based society; the Transportation Economy introduces the notion of moving towards a multi-modal city; the Green Economy proposes a strategy founded on renewable energies; the Creative Economy outlines

the need for investing in education; the Housing Economy expands on the urgency for housing in the city and suggests appropriate typologies; and the Experience Economy points out the importance of events as a way of place-making. While the research was conducted into each economy, it is important to note they do not operate separately, but are highly interconnected. Midway through the project the Christchurch Central Development Unit (CCDU) released the Blueprint to rebuild the CBD, which is also driven by economic considerations. While its strategies offer a different approach, the intention to foster a healthy economy is shared. The CCDU’s Blueprint is a traditional masterplan which assumes a vision for the future based on large scale projects. The difference in the approach advanced by the Future Christchurch team is that it identifies catalysts for investment and suspends designing with an end result in mind.

Economic Research | Introduction

19


New Zealand’s Position within the OECD

High Work Input and Low Work Output

2000 AUS NZ

140

NZ

AUS

120 110

1975

100

AUS NZ

90

NZ

GRE

SPN

JPN

CND

AUS

AUT

NLD

FRA

AUS

1987

130

Index

+ 25 % - 20 %

+ 20 % + 0%

OECD

+ 20 % + 10 %

NEW ZEALAND’S RANKING WITHIN THE OECD - 50% Average The Organization for Economic Cooperation and OECD Development (OECD) report shows New Prosperity Index Zealand’s economic growth is in decline when compared to the OECD average. Although New Zealand started out well above the OECD average in the 1970’s, its position has declined and currently sits at 22nd out of 33 countries. (Little, S., 2010)

NZ

80 70

[+]

60

+ 50%

[-]

Hours Worked per Capita

50

D

2005

1995

1985

1975

40

[-]

High Work Input and Low Work Output

NZ

GRE

SPN

- 50%

[+]

[-]

JPN

CND

AUS

AUT

NLD

OECD Average Prosperity Index

Hours Worked per Capita

Output per hour worked

The decline in prosperity is caused by the tendency to invest in low output sectors

20

Alex Haryowiseno

[+]

Output per hour worked

The decline in prosperity is caused by the tendency to invest in low output sectors

FRA

+ 50%

[-]

[+]

HIGH WORK INPUT AND LOW WORK OUTPUT New Zealand is ranked well below other countries in terms of its prosperity because it has the tendency to invest in industry sectors Shift withTowards high Knowledge demand in working hours required, while the ratio of work output is relatively low. Based Economy Manufacturing

Knowledge Based


1.1 INNOVATION ECONOMY

ADAPTATION OF ENVIRONMENT

ORGANIZATIONS & POLICIES INNOVATION PROCESS WORKFORCE MARKET ATTRACTION INTERACTION

CONDUCIVE INNOVATION ENVIRONMENT ADAPTATION OF ENVIRONMENT

Christchurch’s manufacturing sector is in a state of decline, which is the primary provider of employment in the city. It has been recorded that the industry has been facing a significant downturn over the past five years, which has already affected more than 5000 jobs. Because of this shift, there is clearly a need to rethink the future employment landscape of the city; one possible solution is to improve the current condition by investing in the growth of high value sectors. This could be comprised of existing knowledge-based industries such as information and communications technology (ICT), which contributes over $200 million to the city’s gross regional product (GRP) and has been growing steadily over the past five years. By providing high value employment, there is the potential to shift the current employment landscape of Christchurch away from low value manufacturing commodities towards producing either high value manufacturing commodities or knowledge-based commodities. The extended benefit of investing in the provision of high paid employment opportunities could also act to fuel the education economy as well as attract investment back to the city.

URBAN DESIGN FACTORS Investing in the innovation economy puts the importance of innovation and knowledge-based commodities at the centre of a nation’s economic growth, alongside traditional primary and secondary commodities.

Economic Research | Innovation Economy

21


utput Graduates (Density p/sqkm)

NLD

FRA

High Impact Workers (Density p/sqkm)

+ 50%

Low Impact Workers (Density p/sqkm) Shift Towards Knowledge Based Economy

[-] Manufacturing

[+]

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Shift Towards KnowledgeKnowledge Based Shift Towards Knowledge Based Economy Based Economy Knowledge Based

Income (Density p/sqkm)

Knowledge Based

Communication Access (Density p/sqkm)

Lo

T

ors

22

Alex Haryowiseno


Revenue per Employee

$400,000

$300,000

Fisher & Paykell $200,000

Christchurch’s ICT Industries

$100,000

Wine Tourism

100,000

200,000

300,000

FTE (Number of Full-Time Employment) 1.3 Million Total

New Zealand workers put in as much as 15% more working hours while generating 20% less returns compared to OECD countries. New Zealand currently generates an average of $29,800 GDP per capita. In order to just maintain this rate (and thus its 22nd position out of 33 countries), New Zealand needs to generate $120,000 from every one of its 1,300,000 full-time employments (FTE). However, New Zealand’s current economic orientation towards primary exports in agriculture and forestry require lowskilled and low-impact employment, which makes this hard to do. Popular industries such as wine and tourism generate only around $100,000 and $80,000 per FTE. In order to prosper in the long term, New Zealand needs to consider other sectors that have the ability to create high-value employment. The key to generating value beyond the current minimum is to invest in sectors which create high impact margins. The science and technology industries, as well as the high value manufacturing and services industries are sectors which present us with this opportunity.

REVENUE GENERATED PER FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT (FTE) (Callaghan, P., 2009)

Economic Research | Innovation Economy

23


Manufacturing

Health Care

Retail Trade

Scientific, Technical Services

ICT

INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT COUNT An analysis of the gross regional product (GRP) per industry values reveal Christchurch’s emerging industries, notably in the health & community services area, as well as the communication services. The health and community services experienced and increase of GRP by 25% in the period between 2000 and 2009, and is currently the second largest employer in Christchurch next to manufacturing. The communications services (ICT) sector is an interesting case of a high growth sector. Although levels of employment remained modest (around 4500 people) in the period of 2010, the industry generated a high amount of GRP in 2009 and shows a significant growth, where

24

Alex Haryowiseno

the GRP grew by almost 50% within a period of 10 years. In 2010 the industry generated over $850 million in revenue, adding up to $190,000 per full-time employment (FTE). The survey of the industry’s engagement with the service export market also shows a strong return, with IT (part of the ICT industry) placing second in terms of income from overseas. The decline in employment of Christchurch’s main industry, as well as the trend in emerging sectors suggests that a shift is taking place which favours the emerging high impact technology industry.


Property & Business

Manufacturing

Communications

Health

Retail Trade

INDUSTRY GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT PROGRESSION An analysis of the employment and GRP per industry in Christchurch shows that the majority of its employment opportunities come from the manufacturing sector. This industry generated the second highest amount of GRP for the city in 2009, second to the property and business services. However the employment count of this industry reveals that it has seen quite a significant decline of around 15% between the period of 2006 and 2009 - a possible cause of this is the increasing value of the NZD between this period (0.59 to 0.75 index), which limits exporter income.

Economic Research | Innovation Economy

25


Proportion of High Skilled Worke

Proportion of High Skilled Workers Graduates Graduates (Density p/sqkm) (Density p/sqkm)

Graduates High Impact Workers (Density p/sqkm) (Density p/sqkm)

Proportion of High Skilled Workers Proportion of High Skilled Workers Graduates Proportion of High Skilled Workers (Density p/sqkm)

High Impact Workers

High Impact Graduates (Density p/sqkm) Low Impact Workers Workers (Density p/sqkm) p/sqkm) (Density (Density p/sqkm)

High Impact Workers Proportion of High Skilled Workers

Knowledge Based

(Density p/sqkm)

Low Impact Workers Graduates High Impact Workers Income (Density p/sqkm) (Density p/sqkm) p/sqkm) (Density (Density p/sqkm)

Low Impact Workers Proportion of High Skilled Workers (Density p/sqkm)

Knowledge Based

Shift Towards Knowledge Based Economy Knowledge Based

Income High Impact Workers Workers Graduates Low Impact Low Impact Workers Communication Access Low (Density p/sqkm) (Density (Density p/sqkm) p/sqkm) (Density p/sqkm) (Density p/sqkm)

High

Income The location of high skilled workers is revealed through ansus data mapping.

Knowledge Based

Communication Access Low Impact High Impact Workers Workers Income (Density p/sqkm) (Density (Density p/sqkm) p/sqkm)

(Density p/sqkm)

Low

High

The location of high skilled workers is revealed through ansus data mapping. Communication Access Low High

Knowledge Based

Income Income Low Impact Workers Communication Access Low (Density p/sqkm) p/sqkm) (Density (Density p/sqkm)

(Density p/sqkm) High

The location of high skilled workers is revealed through ansus data mapping.

The location of high skilled workers is revealed through ansus data mapping.

Knowledge Based

Communication Access Income (Density p/sqkm) p/sqkm) (Density

Low

High

PROPORTION OF HIGH SKILLED WORKERS A mapping of the city’s educated workforce was done by drawing various indicators from census data. These indicators comprise of factors such as the availability of tertiary students The location of high skilled workers is revealed through ansus data mapping. and graduates, high impact workers, spread of income, as well as communication access, amongst others. Overlaying this information reveals a linear divide in the urban fabric between the educated Low High Low High workforce in the north and the south. This information is beneficial as an urban planning tool to locate areas of development that would take advantage of Christchurch’s talent.

Communication Access Communication Access (Density p/sqkm) (Density p/sqkm)

The location of high skilled workers is revealed through ansus data mapping.

The location of high skilled workers is revealed through ansus 26

Alex Haryowiseno


An educated workforce is needed in order to establish a knowledge-based economy. Christchurch has the potential to foster this emerging sector of economic growth, given that it produces a substantial number of graduates from its universities (around 25% of New Zealand’s graduates) and is recorded as having over 10,000 people employed in the field of science and research. These are aspects that are beneficial in creating the initial talent pool needed to support the emerging knowledge-based businesses. By fostering an educated workforce the city could create a synergy with its existing manufacturing sector. The emerging industries in science and technology serve as potentials for development and could increase the amount of technological export products from New Zealand, while the existing manufacturing industries also stand to benefit from improved efficiency as a result.

EPIC INITIATIVE To foster growth towards an economy of innovation, it is important to acknowledge the need to promote existing innovative businesses as well as invest in an educated workforce. At the moment the Enterprise Precinct and Innovation Campus (EPIC) initiative is acting as a catalyst for this shift by gathering displaced high value businesses and attracting them back to the CBD.

Economic Research | Innovation Economy

27


Evolution Evolution of Christchurch of Christchurch Evolution of Christchurch 1785 1st Wave

Water Power Mechanism

1785 1st Wave 1785 Water Power

1845 2nd Wave

Steam Power Railroad

Mechanism 1st Wave Water Power Mechanism

1845 2nd Wave 1845 Steam Power 2ndRailroad Wave

Steam Power Railroad

1874

1874 Walking City1874 Walking City 3.2 Km

3.2 Km Walking City 3.2 Km

6TH WAVE OF TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY The evolution of transportation technology is directly related to the evolution of the urban fabric. It was the five waves of innovation (water power mechanisation, steam power rail, electricity, petroleum and digital networks) that contributed to societal changes for the last two centuries. While we are already entering the 6th wave of innovation, namely sustainable development,

28

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

1900 3rd Wave

1900 3rd Wave 1900 Electricty

Electricty Internal 3rdInternal Wave Combustion Engine Combustion Engine Electricty Internal Combustion Engine

1950

1950 4th Wave 4th Wave 1950 Petrol ChemicalsPetrol Chemicals Electronics Electronics 4th Wave Petrol Chemicals Electronics

1941

1941 1941

Transit City Transit City 10 Km 10 Km Transit City 10 Km

Christchurch’s urban form still lingers at the 4th wave, the automobile city. It is evident that it is time for Christchurch to move into the next age, which can be informed by integrating information technology to optimise commuting behaviours. The influence on the urban form will be shaped by innovative uses of energy and shared information technologies.

Softw


1.2 TRANSPORTATION ECONOMY

Target Problems Target Problems

0

1990

ve

5th Wave

als cs

1990 Digital Networks

Software Technology 5th Wave Digital Networks Software Technology

New Zealand

4TH HIGHEST 4TH HIGHEST Worldwide It was in the 19th Century that the zoned planning system was developed,

PRESENT 6th Wave PRESENT Sustainability

New Zealand

6th WaveRenewable Energy Sustainability Renewable Energy

2012

2012

Automobile City 30 Km Automobile City 30 Km

Decli

which meant cities were Worldwide divided into discrete parts and developed with single uses. While the aim was to improve quality of life, this approach was successful in that0.8 it VEHICLES/PERSON prevented social injustices such as industry being adjacent to housing, but it had other costly consequences on city 0.8 VEHICLES/PERSON developments. The largest and most pervasive is that of urban sprawl, which depends on automobiles to obtain most services. This sort of city development was shaped an era run by cheap oil. A system which 2.5by VEHICLES/HOUSEHOLD seemed to run efficiently then, is now problematic due to the growth 2.5 VEHICLES/HOUSEHOLD Poor Public T of population and private vehicle ownership over the past few decades. Servic Modern cities suffer an endless list of problems because of urban Poor Public Transport sprawl, including loss of productive land, traffic congestion and spiraling Service infrastructure costs among others. WORK JOURNEYS HAVE ONLY A WORK JOURNEYS SINGLE OCCUPANT HAVE ONLY A SINGLE OCCUPANT

95% 95%

EVOLUTION OF CHRISTCHURCH Christchurch, like most cities, has an urban history informed by modes of transport: from walking to public transit to the automobile. Each age enabled the city to form a new style of development, which resulted in a push outwards. This change of city size via change in transport technology is noteworthy in that while each advancement allowed for an expansion of the city, it also made the previous transport technology less effective.

Economic Research | Transportation Economy

29


Target Problems

PRESENT 6th Wave

Decline in Public Transport

New Zealand

4TH HIGHEST Worldwide

Sustainability Renewable Energy

Preference for Personal Vehicle Ownership 0.8 VEHICLES/PERSON

$

$

2.5 VEHICLES/HOUSEHOLD

2012

Automobile City 30 Km

Demand for Road Widening

Poor Public Transport Service

95%

WORK JOURNEYS HAVE ONLY A SINGLE OCCUPANT

Public Transport Patronage drops

TRAVEL-TIME BUDGET AND SIZE OF CITIES The average travel-time budget is around one hour per day, this is also known as the Marchetti constant throughout urban history. The pattern of the travel-time budget is a reoccurring phenomenon and reveals peoples tendencies: the preference of travelling on average is a half an hour for a person’s main journey to and from home. Thus the Marchetti constant dictates that cites can be no more than “one hour wide.”

30

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

DECLINE IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT The preference for personal car travel inevitably creates a high demand for road widening, thus putting extra stress on government funding. According to Parliament documents, 80% of total funds are allocated to road and state highways. This leaves only 14% of funds for public transport, which inevitably leads to poor services such as limited routes. The lack of patronage is further compounded by attitudes of public transport being for those who can’t afford a car. All of which contributes to the loss of appeal for public transport by the general public and therefore a high preference for personal car travel. (New Zealand Parliamentary Library, 2006)


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS The improvement of public transit services affects travel patterns in a variety of ways, which in turn has consequences for the economy. Vehicles that are removed from traffic via public transit use produce travel time savings for both public transit and highway users. Although these savings may be hard to pinpoint in quantitative terms, they reflect real improvements in mobility and accessibility at a personal, neighbourhood and community level.

The economic impact of transit investments is directly related to the fact that businesses and their employees have limited time and money. Therefore, a well-functioning transit system saves time and reduces travel-related costs. The benefit to businesses can be: fewer resources allocated to logistical costs; with these savings they can invest in a larger workforce; together this means businesses can develop competitive products and services.

Economic Research | Transportation Economy

31


2%

1% 4% 1%

11% 30%

SALE

WEEKLY TIME SPENT TRAVELLING PER PERSON

PERSONAL BUSINESS

17%

EDUCATION

RECREATIONAL

ACCOMPANY SOMEONE

SHOPPING

SOCIAL HOLIDAY

35%

Car DISTANCE TRAVELLED PER PERSON, PER YEAR, BY AGE GROUP (2004 - 2008)

0-4

5-14

15-24

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

Car Passen

75+

Pedestrian Cyclist

MODE OF TRAVEL

Cars are used

(Household Travel Survey)

New Zealand

Christchurch

Decreased Travel time

85% 5th 709 60% 96% of all daily trips

highest rate of vehicle ownership amongst OECD countries

Cars / 1000 persons

of residents drive to work

$

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

F

1/2 LAST LONGER

of them have only a

E

Single occupant Public Transit Investment

32

Increased Busin Lower Price

Decreased Cost of Living

Decreased Congestion

Decreased Transportation Costs


SALE

SHOPPING

65-74

$

SOCIAL HOLIDAY

75+

WORK

Car

Public Transport

Car Passenger

Motorcyclist

Pedestrian

Other Household Travel

Cyclist

Decreased Travel time

Increased Business Productivity Lower Prices and Costs

Decreased Cost of Living

F

1/2 LAST LONGER

$ PRODUCTIVITY

BUSINESS

$

Investment

Vehicle ownership is usually an appropriate indicator for assessing the autodominance of a city. After reviewing the latest household travel survey, it was evident that 85% of all trips are made in private cars and 19 out of 20 cars travelling to work have only a single occupant. Cars facilitate peoples’ need to travel further, faster, and more frequently than ever before. Cars are now comparatively easy to buy with easier access to loans and lowpriced imports. Compared with public transport, cars are often perceived to be substantially more convenient. Free parking within walking distance of Christchurch’s Central Business District or suburban employment areas contributes to perception of low costs. Consequently, vehicle ownership has increased over the past years.

TRANSPORTATION COST

E

Decreased Congestion

Decreased Transportation Costs

Decreased Business Costs

$

The way we travel is affecting our quality of life, infrastructure costs, and the environment. Improved information about sustainable travel choices and travel plans can de-incentivise commuting via personal vehicles. People need to know the benefits and costs in order to make well-informed decision about the way they travel. The design and location of work, education, health, leisure and community facilities can influence the way people travel. The further the distance, the greater the car dependency and energy consumption. Areas not in close proximity to transit corridors are associated with higher usage of personal vehicles. The availability of residential car parking also affects the way people travel. In order to shift Christchurch beyond its reliance on car dependent travel, alternative means of transport must be cost effective and time efficient.

Business Expansion and Attraction

Economic Research | Transportation Economy

33


red 75000

1,500,000

8 185

3 186

8 186

3 187

8 187

3 188

8 188

3 189

8 189

3 190

8 190

3 191

8 191

3 192

8 192

3 193

8 193

3 194

8 194

3 195

8 195

3 196

8 196

3 197

8 197

3 198

300000

6,000,000

Population Trend (Cencus)

NZ Population

Registered Car Trend

1990

1.60

3,000,000

PRESENT 150000

5th Wave

1.50

Cars

Population

New Cars Registered

6th Wave

Digital Networks Technology

Sustainability Renewable Energy

1.40 Software

1.20

0 1986

1

1

1

938

1

1% 4% 1%

2%

11% 30%

225000

WEEKLY TIME SPENT

NewTRAVELLING ZealandPER PERSON

0.8

17%

1991

1996

150000

928

1

1

933

1

938

New Zealand

Wellington

75000 Auckland

2000

943

1

2001 948

1

953

1

2002 958

1

2003 963

1

2004 1

968

973

1

2005 978

1

0.8 VEHICLES/PERSON DISTANCE TRAVELLED 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 0 2011 PER PERSON, PER YEAR, 0-4 3 3 8 8 3 8 9 198 BY 198AGE19GROUP 199 200 200 (2004 - 2008)

17%

85%

Worldwide

0.4

WEEKLY TIM TRAVELLING P

Cars are u

Canterbury

0

0 2001

3 8 8 3 53 8 8 3 3 8 8 3 73 8 78 3 3 8 8 3 3 8 8 3 3 8 8 3 194 185 194 186 19 186 195 187 196 187 196 188 19 188 19 189 198189 198190 199190 199 191 200 191 200 192

PERSONAL BUSINESS

EDUCATION

35%

1% 4% 1%

11%

4TH HIGHEST

0.6

VEHICLE OWNERSHIP PER HOUSEHOLD

of all daily 5-14

15-24

DISTANCE TR PER PERSON, 35BY AGE G (2004 -

2.5 VEHICLES/HOUSEHOLD 0.8 1.70

2012

Cars are used

0.4 1.40

1986 2000

2001

2002

2003 1991 2004

2005

2006

1996 2007

2008

2009

2010 2001 2011

2000

New Zealand

Christchurch

Cars are u

Canterbury

95%

Auckland 0.2

0

New Zealand

85% 5th 709 60% 85% 96%

Automobile City 0.4 Wellington 30 Km

1.50

1.200

New Zealand 0.6 Canterbury

0.2 1.30

2001

Poor Public Transp Service

0.8

1.60 0.6

Cars

1

933

8 200

0.2

1.30

928

3 200

75000

1,500,000

923

8 199

New Cars Registered

New Cars Registered

1.70

3 199

300000

225000

4,500,000

D

Target Problems 8 198

2%

918

DISTANCE TR PER PERSON, BY AGE G (2004 -

0

0

of all daily trips

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

WORK JOURNEYS Wellington HAVE ONLY A Auckland highest rate of vehicle Cars / 1000 persons ownership amongst SINGLE OCCUPANT OECD countries

2009

2010

of residents drive to work

2011

VEHICLE OWNERSHIP PER CAPITA

VEHICLE OWNERSHIP An effective transportation system is at the crux of an efficient economy. At the moment however, the state of Christchurch’s transport system hinders the economic potential of the city. It is recorded that the city’s ratio of car ownership is placed 4th highest in the world, with 0.8 cars owned per person and 2.5 cars owned per household. Further, 95% of the cars commuting to work are occupied by a single occupant, the driver.

34

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

This ultimately leads to serious traffic inefficiencies and a prevalence of congestion. However, there is potential to take advantage of the existing car culture to lead Christchurch towards a more effective transportation network. A car-sharing app called KiwiGo is introduced in the next chapter which could act as a catalyst for the future implementation of a smart multi-modal transportation system.

of them have of all daily

Single occ


=

There is an emerging shift in patterns of consumption, where individuals are beginning to share resources rather than own them privately. This concept is referred to as collaborative consumption. For example, we all own a home power drill even though on average it is only used twelve to thirteen minutes in its entire lifetime. The question asked is whether there is any reason for owning if what we need is the thing it provides, in this case the hole, not the drill. What’s preferred is to instead, rent the drill, or rent out one’s own drill to others in exchange for money. If in the context of Christchurch we introduced this notion of collaborative consumption, then the three vacant seats in single occupants vehicle could become a commodity, namely car-sharing. The problem is not the number of cars we own, but how we travel that makes a significant difference to the community; the preference is not by choice, but force due to the lack of choice. However, there are innovative solutions that promote car-sharing, while in parallel a more efficient transport strategy could be developed. By looking to new business trends of collaborative consumption, Christchurch could move past its autodependent state into a multi-modal city.

Economic Research | Transportation Economy

35


Australia’s Green Investments

+ Debunking Conventional Knowledge

=

$2,000,000,000,000 Over the next 5 years

The Global Green Market

China’s Green Investments

$370,000,000,000 Over the next 10 years

Significant Potential Market in Green Technology

$ 4,370,000,000 Over the next 5 years

RE-IMAGING THE RELATIONSHIP A Green Economy is economic development that takes into consideration ecological systems as having economic value. By re-imagining the relationship and placing the society and its economy within an ecological system, we understand that we are dependent on the natural environment’s ecology. This model suggests that no subsystem should be able to expand beyond the capacity of the total system of which it is a part.

250

200

150

100

50

0 33

75%

2004

57 57%

2005

90

2006

43%

Zhi Jian (David) Wong

129 23%

Year

2007

15

20

Global Investments in Re

US$ billion

36

INJECTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY NEEDED The economy, society and ecology are the three pillars of urban development. Conventionally these elements are seen separately but with some interaction. While the economic realm carries more importance in decision making, the communities bear the cost — but its the environment that pays the highest price. This is the conventional view of the economy, where waste and the associated environmental degradation is excluded from the economy. In a Green Economy there is no separation.


1.3 GREEN ECONOMY

Debunking Conventional Knowledge Australia’s Green Investments

+

ng Conventional Knowledge Significant Potential Market in Green Technology

+

Debunking Conventional Knowledge

Australia’s Green Investments

=

The Global Green Market China’s Green Investments

$370,000,000,000 Over the next 10 years

=

Global Investments in Renewable Energy $2,000,000,000,000 Over the next250 5 years

$ 4,37 Over t

32% 211

200

US$ billion

$ 4,370,000,000 Over the next 5 years

250

200

150

100

50

0

33 75%

2004

57 5

2005

Global Invest

US$ billion

Significant Potential Market in Green Technology

0.4%

23% 159

43%

150

he Global Green Market Green Investments

Significant Potential Market in Green Technology

129

57% 100

75%

160

90 57

Percentage share

$2,000,000,000,000 Over the next 5 years

The Global Green Market

China’s Green Investments

$370,000,000,000 Over the next 10 years

A Green Economy is an economic model based on sustainable development. Sustainability is defined here as being able to maintain a steady level of development without exhausting natural resources or causing severe ecological damage. Conventional thinking tends to be that one must choose between a growing economy and a sustainable economy, but this could not be further from the truth. Growth is acceptable if it doesn’t involve exploiting the natural or human resource for the benefit of economic growth at the expense of future generations.

50 33 Economic Research | Green Economy

0

37


ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OF TIMBER EXCEED THE PROFITS IN CHINA

THE ECONOMICS OF ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY (TEEB) In order to design a new plan for the future we need to understand how we evaluate what is of value to a city. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is an organization which brings into light the concept of the value of nature and the nature of value. The key point is that just because something is free it does not mean it is without value. For example, by applying the TEEB principle we can understand the true value of a timber industry in China, and then evaluate the pros and cons in economic terms. The market price of timber is half of the external costs to the country. These external costs range from flooding damage in 1998 to desertification. (TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity, 2011)

38

Zhi Jian (David) Wong

HIDDEN COST OF AIR POLLUTION IN CHRISTCHURCH

The TEEB principles can be applied locally to Christchuch’s air quality, where eighty percent of the winter air pollution comes from wood or coal burners and open fires while only ten percent comes from vehicles and ten percent from industry. The hidden economic health costs to Christchurch are estimated to be $168 million per annum. In addition, premature deaths related to air pollution is costing the city 158 lives a year. In today’s economy, Mother Nature does not charge us for the clean air we breathe nor the water we drink. The consequence is we tend to give no value to our eco-system. If we shift towards a Green Economy and include the value of nature, we could in fact save millions of dollars in hidden costs.


PERFECT PROTOTYPE SIZE

CHRISTCHURCH

ABUNDANT NATURAL RESOURCES

There are several strong reasons to support investing in a Green Economy for Christchurch. On the one hand it would enhance the South Island’s “clean and green” image, as well as support the notion of Christchurch as the “Garden City.” Beyond the image of the city, the age of cheap energy is over, and to avoid a major energy crisis, Christchurch needs to plan how to supply growing energy demands with renewable energy sources. Fortunately, Christchurch is abundant with natural resources; fresh water, long solar hours, and, arable land. The geographic location of Christchurch is well positioned to take advantage of its natural resources and create a sustainable energy strategy to support the city. Further, the size of Christchurch makes it a perfect candidate for a prototype city, where it could test a holistic energy strategy. Christchurch has a population of approximately 370,000 inhabitants, which makes it large enough to be relevant as a major city but also small enough for technology and infrastructure to be implemented quickly and efficiently.

OPPORTUNITY IN CRISIS It is estimated that approximately 8000 buildings will have to be demolished in the CBD. The estimated total cost of the earthquakes to the government is $13 billion, and the estimated cost of rebuilding Christchurch’s infrastructure is $2 billion. Additionally, 30,000 homes are in need of serious repair with each exceeding more than $100,000 in damage. (3 News, 2012; Fairfax NZ News, 2011) Christchurch is faced with the largest reconstruction project in New Zealand history, but with this also comes the unique opportunity to reconfigure the urban plan to create a more efficient and sustainable city. Will the people of Christchurch choose to simply rebuild the same way it was before the earthquake, or will they take this opportunity to rebuild for a more sustainable and resilient city that is prepared for the future?

Economic Research | Green Economy

39


Global Investments in Renewable Energy 250

Biofuels - 4%

32%

Renewable total

211 200

75%

Petrol - 27%

Fossil fuel

129

Fossil fuels - 9%

Percentage share

98%

160 159 Biomass

43%

57% 100

Electricity - 35%

Wind energy Geothermal

Electricity Composition

US$ billion

Hydro 0.4%energy

23%

150

Fossil fuels - 9%

1%

1%

Biofuels - 4%

Electricity - 35%

0%

0%

Energy Structure

Energy Structure

90 57

Petrol - 27%

50

on

Year

No Solar / Wind Energy

=?

2008

2009

2010

CHRISTCHURCH ENERGY SOURCES The majority of renewable energy in Christchurch comes from hydro sources, while fossil fuels account for 50% of Christchurch’s energy share. What is evident is that there are almost no traces of solar or wind energy, which are technologies expected to grow in the near future. (Christchurch Agency for Energy, 2012)

40

Zhi Jian (David) Wong

Post-Earthquake Energy Implication RENEWABLE VS. NON-RENEWABLE

1-Jul-2011

2007

1-Jul-2010

2006

1-Jan-2010

1-Jul-2011

$ 4,370,000,000 Over the next 5 years

2005

1-Jul-2009

2004

$

1-Jan-2009

0

Post earthquake

Non-renewable total

1-Jan-2008

Diesel - 25%

1-Jan-2011

33

1-Jul-2008

ogy

Post hquake

Diesel - 25%

Electric Compos


SOLAR

HYDRO

WIND

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

BIOMASS

The energy structure of Christchurch is currently vulnerable, as it is centered on a singular network that provides no back up in the case of emergencies and disasters. A more resilient energy network can be provided using a multi-level structure based on the implementation of renewable technologies. This multi-level structure could also generate energy from new emerging technologies such as, solar and wind energy systems. By doing this, the city could tap into the global market share of green technologies. It has been highlighted that Australia and China are heavily investing in renewable technologies. Even tapping into 1% of this market share, which is equivalent to $4.37 billion over a period of 5 years, could allow for a major boost that could help the city’s economy recover.

TRANSPORTATION

SUGGESTED SOURCES OF ENERGY

Economic Research | Green Economy

41


Global Inves

Debunking Conventional Knowledge

250

200

US$ billion

150

The Global Green Market

100

75%

57

Australia’s Green Investments

China’s Green Investments

+

Zhi Jian (David) Wong

0 2004

$ 4,370,000,000 Over the next 5 years

$2,000,000,000,000 Over the next 5 years

CHINA’S GREEN INVESTMENTS

THE GLOBAL GREEN MARKET New Zealand’s two main trading partners, Australia and China, are both heavily focused on their own renewable energy schemes. Australia is starting to implement a zero carbon blueprint and is estimated to invest approximately $370 billion over the next 10 years, while China is investing 10 trillion Yuan into its clean-tech industries over the next 5 years. (NZ Herald, 2012)

42

33

=

$370,000,000,000 Over the next 10 years AUSTRALIA’S GREEN INVESTMENTS

50

Significant Potential Market in Green Technology

SIGNIFICANT POTENTIAL MARKET IN GREEN TECHNOLOGY

200


Global Investments in Renewable Energy 250

Biofuels - 4%

32%

Renewable total

211 200

0.4%

23% 159

43%

150

129

57% 100

75%

160

Percentage share

90 57

New Zealand could take the opportunity in the rebuild of Christchurch to create a self-sustaining prototype city of the future. ThisElectricity would - 35% attract foreign investors and lead to more high value green jobs for New Zealanders. Now is the time to create an energy structure that relies fully on renewable energy. In order for this national change to be successful, Christchurch needs to create the necessary demand in the market. FossilThe fuels - 9% first step for this to happen is to transition Christchurch to become one of the first zero carbon cities in the world.

Petrol - 27%

50 33

Post earthquake

Non-renewable total

Diesel - 25%

2010

4,370,000,000 GLOBAL INVESTMENTS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY There is an increasing trend towards investing in renewable technologies globally. (United Nations er the next 5 years Environment Programme, 2011)

1-Jul-2011

2009

1-Jan-2011

2008

Year

1-Jul-2010

2007

1-Jan-2010

2006

1-Jul-2009

2005

1-Jan-2009

2004

1-Jul-2008

0

1-Jan-2008

US$ billion

Energy Struc

Post-Earthquake Energy Implication

Economic Research | Green Economy

43


Mismatch Between Education And Employment Mismatch Between Education And Employment The Rise of Public Education The Rise of Public Education

Education

Employment

Education

Employment

Successful Education Today

Successful Education Today

7, 40 low a

Little or no att Education

Employment

18% 7, 40

low a

Little or no att Education

MISMATCH BETWEEN EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT Educationalists like Sir Ken Robinson believe that a revolution needs to occur in public education systems. The biggest drawback of the old systems of learning is that conventional education does not prepare students for the demands of creative economies. Furthermore, he suggests that only a limited range of talents and skills is fostered by the traditional curriculum, leaving the vast majority of abilities unrecognised and consequently undeveloped.

44

Praveen Karunasinghe

Employment

His message to the educators of the world is centred around the notion that the old systems of education are insufficient to meet the needs of today. Therefore we need a paradigm shift in learning.

18%


1.4 CREATIVE ECONOMY

The Creative Economy is one where growth of cities and wealth of nations rely on the success of creative and innovative outputs. This is in contrast to the conventional view that attributes economic success to abundance in amenities and proximity to trade networks. This new age economy is what is referred to as the Creative Economy. Where creativity connotes originality, the capacity to rewrite the rules, the ability to defy convention, fresh thinking about common problems and an overall perspective that visualises and imagines future scenarios and solutions. In this way, creativity becomes an instrument that maximises the possible outcomes of a given situation, product or medium. Moreover, creativity specialises in adding value and meaning to the results of human endeavour in any field in which it is applied. TRADITIONAL WORKING CITIZEN

CREATIVE CITIZEN

LIFESTYLE DIAGRAMS The current education systems need to be revolutionised in order for today’s students to become tomorrow’s knowledge workers. Sir Ken Robinson and other educationalists see the limits of education transcending the schools, universities and other educational institutes and he calls for a shift towards a mode that allows for life long learning, a system of continuous learning where the boundaries between education, work, leisure and lifestyle are blurred.

Economic Research | Creative Economy

45


THE EDUCATION CYCLE OF A MANUFACTURING ECONOMY During the inception of public education in the industrial revolution, students were expected to memorise and repeat information through rote learning. The desired outcome was to train the factory worker, one who was capable of learning and repeating tasks. However what drives successful economies today is no longer an abundance of factory labour. Today’s knowledge economies demand creative thinkers, Apple, Samsung, Google and New Zealand’s own Fisher and Pykel Healthcare are globally influential companies. These companies are driven by highly educated innovators, inventors and creatives. Unfortunately, while the profile of employees has changed since the industrial revolution, education for the large part has not.

46

Praveen Karunasinghe


School Leavers Today

Work Output Efficiency Vs. Work Value

500

500

500

500

500 50 0

500 50 0

18, 874 higher achievers 31, 171 mediocre achievers

7, 409 low achievers Little or no attainment

18%

Hours worked per capita % of OECD average

Ne w

Ze al an d

US A Ire la nd Ge rm an Be y lg iu m Fr an ce

Tu rk ey Sp ai n Ja pa n Ic ela nd Ca na d Au a st ra li En a gl an d Fin la nd

school leavers in 2006 there were:

500

57, 454

500

0

0

50

50

Out of all

500

500

500

500

There is a global trend to transition from relying on low value manufacture based jobs to high value, creativity and innovation-based outputs. This stream of economic growth requires a large proportion of highly skilled knowledge-based workers known as the “creative class”. However, the economic research points out that the education system falls short of 130 these high value, creatively demanding jobs. It is preparing students for recorded that only 28% of New Zealand’s high school graduates gain direct 120 entry into tertiary institutions. In order to generate highly skilled workers, 110 an education-based intervention is necessary. 100 90 80

School level qualified without u.e

54%

University entrance or higher

28%

70

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

Value of work per hour as a % of OECD average

SCHOOL LEAVERS TODAY Out of all 57,454 New Zealand school leavers in 2006, only 28% attained direct entrance to tertiary education. The majority (54%) finish school with basic qualifications only. This leaves almost 20% with no qualification. (Dalgety. et al 2008)

Economic Research | Creative Economy

47


%citizens with higher level qualifications

70%

Global Comparisons

63.1

60% 49.8

50%

49

48.5

OECD Countries And Higher Level Qualification Rates 47.6

47.3

45

40%

43.4

42.9

42.6

39.9

38.9

38.8

38.7

36.5

35

34.9

34.9

32.4

31.4

30.6

30%

29.4 23.4

17.7

10% 0

d an el Ic

A

lia tra s u

l Po

d an

n Fi

nd la

w Ne

nd la a Ze

nm De

k ar N

nd rla he et

s

l ia ay nd en ga ak la rw ed rtu ov Ire No Sw Po Sl

n nd pa la Ja er ti z Sw

OECD countries

Uk

A US ch Cz

bl

pu Re

ic

da na Ca

ly Ita

n ai Sp

lg Be

m

iu

n Hu

ry ga

Comparison of Work Opportunities Country of 4million

Other OECD countries of tens and even hundreds of millions

GLOBAL COMPARISONS In the comparison of the proportion of 25 to 65 year-old citizens holding tertiary-level qualifications, New Zealand is ranked 5th among the OECD countries. Above us is Australia, but perhaps more interestingly, far lower than New Zealand are the US and UK. (OECD, 2011)

vs.

48

22.1

20%

Praveen Karunasinghe

rm Ge

y an

ria st

Au

ce ee Gr


%c %ci

10% 10% 0 0

NeNe

%citizens with higher level qualifications

4, 148

70%

G G

R ch ch Cz Cz

OECD countries OECD countries

5th

ato

Otago

Global Comparisons

Country of of 4million Country 4million

63.1

60% 49.8

50%

49

48.5

High Sk

Other OECD countries of of tens and even hundreds of of millions Other OECD countries tens and even hundreds millions

Immigration

OECD Countries And Higher Level Qualification Rates 47.6

47.3

45

43.4

40% 30% 20%

42.9

42.6

39.9

vs. vs.

38.9

38.8

38.7

36.5

35

34.9

34.9

32.4

31.4

30.6

29.4 23.4

22.1 17.7

10% 0

h

d an el Ic

A

lia tra us

l Po

d an

n Fi

nd la

w Ne

d an al Ze

nm De

k ar N

nd rla he et

s

l ia ay nd en ga ak la rw ed rtu ov Ire No Sw Po Sl

n nd pa la Ja er itz w S

OECD countries

Uk

A US ch Cz

bl

pu Re

ic

da na Ca

ly Ita

n ai Sp

lg Be

m

iu

n Hu

ry ga

rm Ge

y an

ria st

Au

ce ee Gr

Significant inflow of 3 (and children)

Emigration

Comparison of Work Opportunities Country of 4million

vs.

Numerically many opportunities forfor Numerically many opportunities high skill investment and work high skill investment and work

degree

Significant outflow of Austra

In this globalised age, prospects for the educated are relatively minor in New Zealand when compared to the rest of the world. Therefore, there is a significant outflow of educated workers

15, 000 10, 000 5, 000 0 -5, 000

from the country, contributing to the “brain drain.” To overcome this obstacle for economic -15, 000growth, -20,2009 000 Sir Paul Callaghan his opening address to the McGuinness institute in March that: Numerically manysuggested opportunitiesinfor high investment andsize-based work “We need toskill overcome our disadvantages by having an even greater proportion of highly educated and skilled workers.” Despite the acknowledgement of education as an economic driver by one of the New Zealand’s foremost advocates of science and innovation, little has changed. New Zealand continues to be heavily reliant on primary industry. Meanwhile, our education rates are among the only three countries in the OECD that have experienced negative growth over the past thirty years.

Economic Research | Creative Economy

1978

-10, 000

49

1980

COMPARISON OF WORK OPPORTUNITIES New Zealand students are fortunate as a large proportion of their education is funded by the taxpayer. Through the government, the taxpayer treats the Numerically few opportunities for student as an investment. Similar to skill investment andto work any investment, the goal is for thehigh investor (taxpayer) see return on investment. This return will be in the form of their productive outputs as a worker within the country as well as taxes over his or her lifetime. However when these educated minds leave the country, not only are they taking away potential productivity, but they also break an implicit contract with the taxpayer.

20, 000

1974

16, 756

1976

2006

1972

2005

Numerically few opportunities forfor Numerically few opportunities high skill investment and work high skill investment and work

Other OECD countries of tens and even hundreds of millions

age based net migration per annum

004

y c y Uk Uk USA SAubli blic nadaada Ital Italy painpain giumium gar gary anyany striastria eeceece U ep pu Ca an S S el lg un n rm rm Au u Gr re e u e e A e G B C H H R B

Comparison ComparisonofofWork WorkOpportunities Opportunities

Composition

93

l d d i a a nd d nd d l li a n a n nd d ark rk nds ds nd nd ay ay ga gal en en kia ia an an nd nd an n el ela tratra Pol ola inl inla la lan nm nma rla rlan Irelarela orworw ortu rtu wed ed ova vak JapJap erla rla c I Ic s s N N P Po S Sw Sl lo P F F ea a De e he e I itz itze S D et eth Z e Au Au Sw Sw N N w wZ


ns ns

Immigration Immigration

Qualification Rates Qualification Rates 34.9

34.9

34.9

32.4

31.4

32.4

30.6

31.4

29.4

30.6

29.4

23.4

22.1

23.4

22.1

Hi NZ Hi NZ

17.7

Hi NZ Hi NZ

Region Region

High Skilled Migration Patterns

Significant inflow of 30-49 year olds (and inflow children) from Asia Significant of 30-49 year olds

Inflow of 30-49 year olds (and children) fromyear the olds world* Inflow of 30-49 (and children)

Skills Distribution

(and children) from Asia

Immigration

Emigration Emigration Higher level qualified

Christchurch E

Non qualified 64%64%

nities nities

from the world*

KeyKey

Gr Gr ee ee ce ce

Hu Hu ng ng ar ar y y Ge Ge rm rm an an y y Au Au st st ria ria

Sp Sp ai ai n n Be Be lg lg iu iu m m

Ita Ita ly ly

Ca Ca na na da da

17.7

CD countries of tens and even hundreds of millions

CD countries of tens and even hundreds of millions

Hi NZ

Departures Departures Arrivals Arrivals

34.9

35

Bye NZ Bye NZ

47%

Hi NZ

44%

Bye NZ Bye NZ

53%

56%56%

35

Cz Cz U U ch ch S S Re ReA A pu pu bl bl ic ic

10, 000

-15, 000

2005 2010

year of -ve growth

20

60 50 40

35%

27%

25%

28%

20

22%

Construction

Manufacturing

20102010

Mining

20082008

20062006

20042004

Hi Ski Hi Ski

70

New Zealand

23%

-40

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

0

-30

Transport, Postal and Warehousing

10

20022002

40

20002000

19961996

50

% Composition 19981998

19941994

30%

25%

22%

25%

19%

28%

45%

59%59%

Key

30

0

*excluding Australia

37%

52%52%

% Composition

44%

17%

23% 19921992

19901990

19881988

19861986

60

30

Praveen Karunasinghe

40

-10

Small general outflow to the world*

52%

-5, 000

70

20

0

50

50%50%

Population

Departures Arrivals

Population

28%

21%

19% 19821982

19841984

19801980

19781978

Auckland

5, 000

-10, 000

50

10

0

30

24-30 year olds 30-50 year olds Under 14 year olds

15, 000

*excluding Australia

24-30 year olds 30-50 year olds 24-30 year olds Under 14 year olds 30-50 year olds Under 14 year olds

-20

-20, -15, 000 000 -20, 000

10

10 0

% Composition

20, 000

28%

-5, 000 0 -10, 000 -5, 000 -15, 000 -10, 000

56%

64%

20

51%

based net migration per annum

Significant outflow of 20-30 year olds to Australia

Departures Arrivals

30

50%

HIGH SKILLED MIGRATION PATTERNS high skill investment and work Although we gain a significant number of skilled middle-aged immigrants, particularly from Asia, we still lose a significant portion of our young graduates, mainly to Australia. This has been an expanding crisis made worse by the strengthening Australian economy.

40

59%

Bye NZ

50

19741974

Numerically many opportunities for high skill investment and work Numerically many opportunities for Bye NZ

60

15, 000 000 20, 10, 000 15, 000

5, 000 10, 000 0 5, 000

se

70 Small general outflow to the *excluding world*Australia

Christchurch

20, 000

low skill employment

Small general outflow to the world*

Australia

19761976

Emigration

Population

Key

Significant outflow of 20-30 year olds to Australia Significant outflow of 20-30 year olds to

19721972

Inflow of 30-49 year olds (and children) from the world*

age based age based net migration net migration per annum per annum

Significant inflow of 30-49 year olds (and children) from Asia

Departures Arrivals

Regional Comparison of Skill Levels

51%51%

Uk Uk

6.5

Higher le

Arts and Recreation Services

6.5

Higher le

diminishing demand for low

MORE MORE PAY!!! JOBS! N


atterns Skills Distribution Higher level qualified

Christchurch Employment Composition

Non qualified

28% 200

28% low skill

Population

24-30 year olds 30-50 year olds Under 14 year olds

60 50 40 30

35%

27%

25%

28%

22%

23%

37%

52%

51%

20 10

2010

2008

2006

2004

2002

1998

2000

0

High Skilled

Semi Skilled

% Composition

70

New Zealand

diminishing demand for low skill labour

JOBS MORE MORE BACK ! PAY!!! JOBS NOW!!

1976

Work

500 50 0

Tu d rk ey Sp ai n

an

Ze al

Education and Training

Other Services

Wholesale Trade

Ne w Hours worked per capita % of OECD average

*excluding Australia

Information Media and Telecommunications

eneral outflow to the world*

Financial and Insurance Services

0

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

10

Accommodation and Food Services

30%

25%

22%

25%

19%

28%

45%

59%

50%

20

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services

30

Public Administration and Safety

40

50

year of -ve growth

Administrative and Support Services

50

% Composition

60

100

0

0

70

Auckland

2005 2010

Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services

44%

23%

17%

28%

10

high skill

150

500

Bye NZ

21%

19%

28%

56%

64%

20

Construction

30

Arts and Recreation Services

40

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

50

Transport, Postal and Warehousing

60

Mining

Christchurch

% Composition

70

semi skilled employment

Christchurch tertiary students, yet its employment has the second highest number of employment population has a lower proportion of highly skilled workers when compared to the country as a whole. This is because the high skill departures from Christchurch outweigh the arrivals by 8%. By comparison, Auckland gains 50 % Growth over the last decade 40 9% inKeyhighly skilled workers. This net loss in Christchurch is largely due to 30 the region’s heavy reliance on primary industry for employment and the 20 10 subsequent lack of high skill work opportunity. Therefore, many of the young skilled workers leave Christchurch in search of more opportunities in -10 -20 places like Auckland or Australia. Data gathered following the earthquakes -30 shows that this phenomenon has been exacerbated. This leaves the city -40 composed of 44% low skill workers and a mere 28% engaged in high skill work. Manufacturing

Departures Arrivals

Population

Arrivals

Departures

Population

Departures Arrivals

Key

Regional Comparison of Skill Levels

Retail Trade

Hi NZ

44%

53%

Health Care and Social Assistance

47%

% of OECD average of GDP per capita

12th/3

0-49 year olds (and children) from the world*

1996

Nationa

130 120 110 100 90 80 70 70

80

Low Skilled

REGIONAL COMPARISON OF SKILL LEVELS

Economic Research | Creative Economy

51


School Leavers Today

Work Output Efficiency Vs. Work Value

500

500

500

500

500 50 0

500 50 0

Ireland Spain

School level qualified without u.e

1986

54%

year

1996

US A Ire la nd Ge rm an Be y lg iu m Fr an ce

Tu rk ey Sp ai n Ja pa n Ic ela nd Ca na d Au a st ra li En a gl an d Fin la nd

Ze al an d Ne w

130

University entrance or higher

New Zealand

Hours worked per capita % of OECD average

% of OECD average of GDP per capita

Australia

England

31, 171 mediocre achievers

1976

500

18, 874 USA higher achievers

150

18%

500

22nd/33 OECD countries

Norway

Little or no attainment

500

500

12th/33 OECD countries

50

0

200

7, 409 low achievers

50

school leavers in 2006 there were:

GDP in OECD Countries Over Time

100

500

0

57, 454

50

Out of all

500

National Economic Performance

120 110 100 90 80 70

2006

28%

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

Value of work per hour as a % of OECD average

GDP IN OECD COUNTRIES OVER TIME

VALUE OF WORK PER HOUR AS A % OF OECD AVERAGE

Work Output Efficiency vs. Work Value

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

NATIONAL ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE New Zealand was once highly ranked among the OECD countries in terms of the gross domestic product per capita. In 1976, the country was ranked 12th out of 33 OECD countries, but had fallen to 22nd by the year 2006. (OECD, 2011)

500

500 500 50 0

500 50 0

Ne w

Tu rk ey Sp ai n Ja pa n Ic el an Ca d na d Au a st ra l En ia gl an Fi d nl an d US A Ire la n Ge d rm a Be ny lg iu m Fr an ce

Ze al an d

0

0

50

50

52

130Praveen Karunasinghe

WORK OUTPUT EFFICIENCY VS. WORK VALUE While New Zealand chooses to engage in laborious low pay work, depending on farming and agriculture, other countries have invested in higher value industries. (OECD, 2011)


Christchurch Employment Composition

National Economic Performance in OECD Countries Over Time Significant patterns can beGDP observed when looking more closely at the composition 200 of Christchurch’s employment sectors. When comparing 12 /33 countries 22 /33 OECD countries the percentage growth ofOECD these sectors over the last decade, the most significant shrinkages happened to industries categorised asNorway low skill USA22% and employment 150 sectors. Agriculture and forestry have shrunk by Australia manufacturing by 11% in the last ten years. Unfortunately, these sectors England have the highest numbers of employees, as 44% of the Christchurch 100 workforce is engaged in low skill labour. What this means is Ireland diminishing demand for low skill labour, and subsequently job cuts and Spain lower pay Zealand for a large number of residents and workers. If New ZealandNew wants to 50 be an internationally competitive country, it needs to change from a 1996 2006 manufacturing-based1976 society into1986 a knowledge-based society, which comes year down to a fundamental change in education.

28% 44%

28% low skill employment

semi skilled employment

high skill employment

Work Output Efficiency vs. Work Value

50 40 30

% Growth over the last decade

Key 2005 2010

nd

% of OECD average of GDP per capita

th

year of -ve growth

20 10 500

500

500

500

500 50 0

0

0

50

50

500 50 0

500

500

500

500

EMPLOYMENT COMPOSITION

-20

500

500

0

-10 CHRISTCHURCH -30

Tu rk ey Sp ai n Ja pa n Ic el an Ca d na d Au a st ra l En ia gl an Fi d nl an d US A Ire la n Ge d rm a Be ny lg iu m Fr an ce

Ze al an d Ne w orked per capita OECD average

Education and Training

Other Services

Information Media and Telecommunications

Financial and Insurance Services

Accommodation and Food Services

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

Wholesale Trade

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services

Retail Trade

Health Care and Social Assistance

Administrative and Support Services

Public Administration and Safety

Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services

Construction

Arts and Recreation Services

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Transport, Postal and Warehousing

Mining

Manufacturing

-40

130 120 110 100

Economic Research | Creative Economy

53


Christchurch Dwelling Type 2006

Christchurch Dwelling Type 2006

4%

4%

22%

22% Separate House Two or more Flats or Houses Joined Together Separate House Private Dwelling Not Two or more Flats or Further Defined Houses Joined Together Others Private Dwelling Not Further Defined Others

74%

74%

CHRISTCHURCH HOUSING TYPES In 2006, there was a total of 134,718 privately occupied dwellings in Christchurch. Since 1986 there has been an additional 31,035 occupied private dwellings, equating to a 30% growth. The single detached typology continues to be the dominant dwelling type in the city at 74%. Multiunit dwellings are the second most popular option at 29,895. However, between 1986 and 2006, the number of private dwellings that were “two or more flats or houses joined together� increased by only 4,260, an increase of 16.6%. This suggests Christchurch has a strong preference for the separate house typology, which needs to change if the City Council wants to implement its new plans for higher density housing in the city centre. (Statistics New Zealand Data Set, 2006)

Household Growth by Region 2010-2019

17%

Household Growth by Region 2010-2019

Auckland Canterbury

17%

7%

46% 7%

46%

9%

Biran He

Waikato Wellington Bay of Plenty

Rest of N.Z

9%

12% 12%

54

Wellington

Canterbury

Waikato Bay of Plenty

9%

9%

Auckland

Rest of N.Z

HOUSEHOLD GROWTH BY REGION 2010-2019 Main urban areas like Auckland and Christchurch have heavy demands with respect to housing. Auckland alone accounts for around 46% of the total national demand growth over the next decade; it will need around 100,000 additional dwellings. Canterbury is the second highest on demand, with 12% of the national total. In the next 10 years 26,000 additional dwellings will be needed, or about 2,700 per year. (New Zealand Medium Population Projection, 2009)


1.5 HOUSING ECONOMY

Ashburton

Population: 30,100 Households: 10,821 Total Area: 6,187 km² Christchurch

Christchurch’s housing stock suffered due to the earthquakes in 2010/2011. An estimated 6000 homes will be demolished in the residential red zone. In addition, 350 hectares of land sustained damaged in the whole of Christchurch. With projections of 36,000 workers expected to move into the city for the rebuild by the end of 2013, there is a very real and urgent housing crisis. According to the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy (GCUDS, 2007), Christchurch City’s population is expected to grow by more than 70,000 people by the year 2041, which would mean an estimated 40,600 additional dwellings will be needed.

“…we need a total of another three Ashburtons inside Christchurch by the end of next year.”

Commerce Chief Executive Peter Townsend

CHRISTCHURCH HOUSING CRISIS The loss of housing added to the current housing demand means an area equivalent to three Ashburtons will be needed to cope with the projected housing demand.

Economic Research | Housing Economy

55


60% urban renewal (Christchurch Central City and inner suburbs)

less than 1500 hectares (uses 40% less land than Sprawl)

Public infrastructure cost for new housing

SPRAWLING CITY VS. A COMPACT CITY There are two housing options: to develop the fringe land, and create new subdivisions; or infill within the urban boundary and build higher density housing. Each option has advantages and $580 Million $430 Million disadvantages. Creating subdivisions on the fringe lands can cause significant infrastructure costs for roads and footpaths, water supply, electricity, and sewerage. So it is important to ensure infrastructure is in the right place, with the right capacities and at an affordable cost. A cost

Source: GCUDS, 2007

56

Biran He

79% new subdivisions (Spread across districts in towns and rural subdivisions)

INTENSIFICATION

40% new subdivisions (Around edge of towns and Christchurch )

21% urban renewal (Christchurch inner suburbs)

60% urban renewal (Christchurch Central City and inner suburbs)

SPRAWL

INTENSIFICATION

79% new subdivisions (Spread across districts in towns and rural subdivisions) 21% hectares urban renewal 3846 (Christchurch inner suburbs)

$580 Million

40% new subdivisions (Around edge of towns and Christchurch ) 60% urban renewal less than 1500 hectares (Christchurch Central City (uses 40% less land than Sprawl) and inner suburbs)

$430 Million

Source: GCUDS, 2007

3846 hectares

less than 1500 hectares (uses 40% less land than Sprawl)

Public infrastructure cost for new housing

Land for 50,000 new houses

3846 hectares

Land for 50,000 new houses

Public New infrastructure Housing cost forType new/housing Choice

21% urban renewal (Christchurch inner suburbs)

40% new subdivisions (Around edge of towns and Christchurch )

Land forLocation 50,000 for new houses new housing

79% new subdivisions (Spread across districts in towns and rural subdivisions)

INTENSIFICATION

New Housing Type / Choice

Location for new housing

SPRAWL

New Housing Type / Choice

Location for new housing

SPRAWL

analysis completed in 2011 by the Greater Canterbury Urban Development Strategy (GCUDS) partnership shows a compact city will cost $150 million less on public infrastructure than a $580 Million $430 Million sprawling one. The GCUDS partnership proposes to intensify the city, controlling sprawl at the urban fringe. The plan aims to change the intensification versus greenfield development ratio from 25:75, to 60:40 by 2041. (GCUDS, 2007)

Source: GCUDS, 2007


Economic Argument

$$$

INNER CITY $

CITY FRINGE $$

$$

SUBURBS

$$$

RURAL $

Housing Types Single Occupancy

ECONOMIC ARGUMENT The suburban lifestyle gives people a false sense of affordability and comes with undisclosed hidden costs. When comparing the costs of living in the fringe suburbs with living in the city, it is estimated that one can save: $6,448 by biking to work per year, 156 hours sitting in the car per year, and 1.3 tones of CO2 emissions per year.

Couples without children

?

Couples with children

Elderly Couples (Empty Nesters)

Economic Research | Housing Economy

57


Share of Projected Growth in Regio

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

-10.0%

New Zealand

Christchurch

Auckland

-20.0%

Couple

50.0%

50.0%

50.0%

50.0% 50.0% 50.0%

50.0%

40.0%

40.0%

40.0%

40.0% 40.0% 40.0%

40.0%

30.0%

30.0%

20.0%

20.0%

20.0%

10.0%

10.0%

10.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

-10.0%

-10.0%

-10.0%

-20.0%

-20.0%

-20.0%

Share of Projected Growth in Region, 2006-2031

30.0%

30.0% 30.0% 30.0%

20.0% 20.0% 20.0%

10.0% 10.0% 10.0%

0.0%0.0% 0.0%

-10.0% -10.0% -10.0%

Share of Projected Growth in Region, 2006-2031

60.0%

Share of Projected Growth in Region, 2006-2031

60.0% 60.0% 60.0%

Share of Projected Growth in Region, 2006-2031

60.0%

Share of Projected Growth in Region, 2006-2031

60.0%

Share of Projected Growth in Region, 2006-2031

60.0%

58

Biran He

Two Parent

Single Person

Other Multi-Person

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

-10.0%

Christchurch Zealand Christchurch Christchurch New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand Auckland New Zealand Auckland Auckland Christchurch AucklandNew -20.0% -20.0% -20.0%

Couple

Auckland New Zealand

-20.0%

CHANGING HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION 2006-2031 Projected demographic data from Statistics New Zealand indicates changing housing needs. By 2041 Christchurch will see more single person households, families will likely become smaller, and there will be more couples without children and an increase in “empty-nesters”. (Statistics New Zealand Data Set, 2006)

One Parent

Couple One Couple Parent One Two Couple Parent Parent Couple One ParentOne Couple Parent Two Parent Couple One Two Parent Parent Single One Person Parent Two Single Parent Person Other Two Parent Single Multi-Person Other Person Single Multi-Person Person Other Multi-Person Other Multi-Person

T S


Christchurch Quick Facts 2006 Population

348,435

2041 Population

422,100

Population growth from 2006 - 2041

73,665

Average annual growth rate

0.85%

New housing units needed to accomodate influx of workers

20,000+

New housing units needed to accomodate population growth

40,600

New housing units break down by type

74% Separate House 22% Two or more Flats/Units Joined 4% Others/ Not Defined

Average number of new housing units constructed per year

1000 aprox.

The make-up of society is changing, and that change will have a long-term effect on the way people live. This shift is evident around the developed world with populations aging and few couples having large families. In the coming years, it is predicted that only a quarter of households will include children, while a third will contain just one person. This global trend is emerging in Christchurch. The last Census highlights the shift: a quarter of the houses are occupied by one person, while over a third contain two, with the number of people per house predicted to reduce from 2.5 (2006) to 2,2 (2041). Yet despite the fact that nearly 60% of all households are made up of one or two people, Christchurch’s housing stock continues to be dominated by large, stand-alone homes, two-thirds of which have three or more bedrooms. This mismatch between smaller households and the large sized average Christchurch house — coupled with the increasing costs of construction materials, financing and home maintenance — is leading to a significant imbalance in supply and demand.

CHRISTCHURCH DEMOGRAPHICS AND HOUSING TYPE Market research shows that there are limited choices for home buyers in Christchurch, where single detached housing comprises 74%, of the market and multi-unit housing types account for 22%; there is a huge opportunity for the city to consider new housing typologies as it lays plans for its rebuild. (Statistics New Zealand Data Set, 2006)

Economic Research | Housing Economy

59


EDUCATION

HOUSING PRICES House pricesHOUSING and rentalPRICES rates continue

EMPLOYMENT EMPLOYMENT A huge influx of workers are

to increase as the availability of houses

support the rebuilding of Christchurch.

expected to

R FO LE SA

EDUCATION STANDARD OF LIVING STANDARD OFthe LIVING EDUCATION A large number of students have already left Due to lack of adequate the city and enrolled elsewhere around the

MIGRATION

MIGRATION With a limited amount of housing and high housing

option after the earthquakes, many people

price tags, Christchurch is finding it hard to

With that a limited amount Due to amount of of students AThe huge of workersposes are a Large lack influx of accommodation big country. The lack rental properties andthearelack incomingofmigrants. It is also hard to livingofinadequate sub-standard houses are attract housing andresidents; a highthose who cannot afford a after houses the that have inflated alreadyrental left the city and thehousing re-building rates continue to prices increase The effect of increased housing arising expected problem for for the the workers and their families prices leaves incoming option damaged. Further, are stillstock in retain price tags, Christchuch earthquakes, many people enrolled else-where around Christchurch. TheThis lackwillof cause as theshortages availability houses from severe could of have negative of moving into the city. students with little choice but to leave. new house afteristheir pay-out are leaving decent condition will have to accommodate finding it tohard to seeking attractaccommodation and work in people sub-standard the country. The lack of rental are livingmore a big decrease, setting off a long repercussions for economic growth and accommodation reluctance among theposes workforce to migrate the city in the short-term, leading incoming migrants. It isChristchurch also are damaged. properties and inflated rental houses that chain of events. problem for the living standards. to Christchurch for workers work. It isand estimated elsewhere. has already lost overcrowding issues. Unaffordable high rents that there will be around into 36,000 8,900 people due to the earthquakes; if no contributethat to this areproblem. still hard prices leaves the incoming Often the houses their families moving theworkers to retain usual heading This towards will Christchurch for students the to solve the housing problem, with little choice but in decent condition will have residents; thoseaction cause The effect of increased city. whois taken cannot rebuild in the next among 10-15 years. That will be very to accommodated for more afford a new it house to leave. theequates housing prices arising from reluctance afterdifficult to attract people to roughly 15,000 households. back to the city. people in the short-term, their pay-out are to new migrate and severe shortages could workforce leaving the “Students are finding no leading to overcrowding city seeking accommodation have negative repercus- work. accommodation, creating issues.. Unaffordable high and work elsewhere. sions for economic growth It is estimated that there will another reason to bypass rents contribute to this and living standards. for their problem. be SHORTAGE around 36,000 workers Christchurch We have already seen a loss THE “DOMINO EFFECT” OF THE HOUSING heading towards education for the next few of 8900 people from Christchurch for the rebuild years.” - Peter Townsend, Christchurch City due to the in the next 10-15 years. That Christchurch Chamber of earthquake. If no action is equates to roughly 15,000 Commerce Chief Executive taken to solve the housing new households. problem, it will be very difficult to attract people back into the city. House rental decrease, settingprices off a longand chain of events.

THE DOMINO EFFECT OF THE HOUSING SHORTAGE 60

Biran He


HOUSING SHORTAGE

DEMOGRAPHICS

WHERE? EXISTING HOUSING STOCK

NOW

FUTURE

Red Zone : 6, 000+ homes demolished

2013 influx of 36,000 workers

350 hectares of damaged land

Population growth: 40,593 houses needed by 2041

WHAT IS MISSING? WHAT TYPE?

FUTURE DEMAND

Demographics

Housing supply

Housing Mind Map

Mind map of the housing economic argument, and how it leads to the urban strategy.

74% Single detached

22% Multi-units

More choices of housing type

HOUSING CONDITION Christchurch will require even more dwellings in the future, because the population is increasing, while the average household size is decreasing. A solution to address the unprecedented demand for housing is to offer an alternative to the single detached house by building denser housing types in the city. This would offer choice at the same time addressing the current changing demographics. It is clear the single detached housing type from the 1960s no longer meets the demographic demand, and the hidden costs are taxing the economy and individual income.

Economic Research | Housing Economy

61


rience Production Expe

CONSUMER

EXPERIENCE ECONOMY

TOURISM ECONOMY (Tourist and Visitors)

Pr o s

u m p t i o n a n d C o c re

EXPERIENCE, TOURISM AND SYMBOLIC ECONOMY The Experience Economy recognizes that the Tourism Economy can not satisfy today’s consumers. This implies that consumers are now looking for experiences in addition to the existing services provided by the Tourism Economy. In order to create a successful Experience Economy, a combination of the Tourism Economy and what is referred to as the Symbolic Economy need to work together. The Symbolic Economy is the process through which wealth is created from cultural activities including: art, music, dance, crafts, museums, exhibitions, sports and creative design in various fields.

62

Erica Austin

PRODUCER

SYMBOLIC ECONOMY (Cultural Activities/ Events)

a ti o

n


1.6 EXPERIENCE ECONOMY

NZ Tourism Share of GDP

Established and Emerging Art Init Christchurch Art Gallery COCA

The New Zealand Institute of Economic Research report (NZIER, 2011) statesofthat River Arts tourism accounts for 8.7% of New Zealand’s national GDP and 9.6% of employment. Revenue from international tourism was $9.5 billion in the year to March 2010, even larger than the most important commodity export, dairy ($8.9b). It also contributes significantly to many of the subindustries, such as transport, accommodation, cafés, restaurants, and retail.

10.2%

8.4%

8.7%

8.6%

8.8%

9.2% 8.9%

8.8%

9.1%

9.0%

9.2%

9.5%

9.2% 9.1%

GDP %%ofof GDP

9.4%

9.6%

9.6%

9.9%

9.8%

9.7%

9.9%

10.0%

8.2% Mar-09

Mar-07

Mar-05

Mar-03

Mar-01

Mar-99

8.0%

New Zealand Tourism Share of the GDP

Events add personality to a city’s identity and attract tourism while at the same time increasing the quality of life for residents. The Experience Economy can be a catalyst for attracting capital and private investments back into the city, while also creating Canterbury Museum employment opportunities. Bridge of Secondary sectors such as hospitality, food services and Remembrance retail shops Arts Centre would also benefit, which would lead to the city’s revitalisation. Re:START ArtBOX

Art Initiatives Established

NEW ZEALAND TOURISM The tourism sector in New Zealand was at its peak around 2001 to 2003. Since then, the tourism share of the GDP has gradually decreased to 8.7% in 2010. This is a reflection of the stronger growth in other sectors as well as reduced tourism spending in recent years following the global financial crisis. (Statistics NZ, NZIER, 2011)

Emerging

0

200m

N

CPIT

Economic Research | Experience Economy

63


ation Composition

5, 893

4, 148

%citizens with higher level qualifications

Hi 70% 60%

5th

Waikato

Otago

49.8

50%

49

48.5

Immigra

OECD Countries And Higher Level Qualification Rates 47.6

47.3

45

40%

43.4

42.9

42.6

39.9

38.9

38.8

38.7

36.5

35

34.9

34.9

32.4

31.4

30.6

30%

29.4 23.4

22.1

20%

17.7

10% 0

4th

Global Comparisons

63.1

d an el Ic

s Au

lia tra

l Po

d an

n Fi

nd la

w Ne

d an al Ze

s k ar nd rla nm he De t Ne

l ia ay nd en ga ak la rw ed rtu ov Ire No Sw Po Sl

n nd pa la Ja er itz w S

OECD countries

Uk

A US ch Cz

bl

pu Re

ic

da na Ca

ly Ita

n ai Sp

lg Be

m

iu

n Hu

ry ga

rm Ge

y an

ria st

Au

ce ee Gr

Significan (an

Emigra

Comparison of Work Opportunities Country of 4million

vs.

2006

a

degree

82

16, 756

Significan

1%

Numerically few opportunities for

high skill investment and work CITY WITH EVENTS VS. EVENTFUL CITY To become an eventful city, a mere staging of single events is insufficient. An eventful city requires a multiplicity of events with a range of programmes. The distinction between a city with events and an eventful city depends upon a distinctive programme of quality events and festivals to build the city’s image. This in turn stimulates community participation and encourages tourism.

28%

64

Erica Austin

Numerically many opportunities for high skill investment and work

Further, the awareness of cultural expressions through-event making offers the city an opportunity to create its own unique identity in the consumer age. The critical question then arises: how does a city shape events and how do these events in turn shape the city? A holistic approach to organising an events programme effectively is needed in order to become an eventful city.

20, 000 15, 000 10, 000 5, 000 0 -5, 000 -10, 000 -15, 000 -20, 000 1974

2005

1972

2004

age based net migration per annum

2003

Other OECD countries of tens and even hundreds of millions


Cities often turn to using architecture to regenerate their urban fabric and improve economic conditions. The famous Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao by Frank O. Gehry has generated a ripple effect in other cities around the world. Despite attempts to imitate the “Bilbao Effect” elsewhere in the world, very few new museums or galleries outside capital cities have succeeded in attracting the same number of visitors. Such projects have fallen short of creating Bilbao-like images, where tourists flock by the thousands bringing with them healthy revenue. And the unfortunate consequence of building numerous hopeful arts centers is that they can become heavy tax burdens for their local communities — ultimately working in reverse of its intention to generate revenue. While events are vital to a city’s economy, an alternative approach for Christchurch is possible, where instead of supporting large expensive event centres, the city could support existing and emerging grassroots initiatives and allow for a distribution of events throughout the city, making Christchurch an eventful city. This in turn could lead to a desirable quality of life, which could act as a point of attraction for tourism, new residents and future investments. PROMOTING CHRISTCHURCH AS AN EVENTFUL CITY The Christchurch City Council (CCC) is by far the biggest single source of funding for events and festivals in the city, spending in the order of $2.5M to $3M per annum. The Events Strategy, established in 2007, has identified strategic issues to be addressed: • There are few events that attract a significant number of visitors to the city. • More visitor and participation-oriented events are needed. • At least one or two new major events are needed for autumn, winter and spring. • Christchurch had one of the best mix of venues for events/festivals in the country prior to the earthquakes; better use could be made of these by investing in remaining venues and attracting new events venues. (Christchurch City Council, 2011)

Economic Research | Experience Economy

65


Christchurch Art Gallery COCA

Established and Emerging Art Initiatives NZ Tourism Share of GDP Christchurch Art Gallery COCA

10.2%

Established 0

N

200m

9.7%

9.6%

8.7%

8.9%

9.2%

9.1%

Vacant Site

EPIC

Vacant S

Re:START

Bridge of Remembrance

8.0% Re:START

ArtBOX

ArtBOX

2.5

5

Red ZonC

kilometres

EPIC

Vacant Sites Vacant Sites Red Zone

CPIT

Art Initiatives

Established 0

200m

N

LINKING ESTABLISHED AND EMERGING INITIATIVES The River of Arts aims to use events to help rediscover the city and offer the wider community the chance to participate in the regeneration of Christchurch. The idea of the River of Arts is based on a series of interconnected arts-based initiatives integrated into the city’s urban fabric. Both established and emerging art initiatives would collaborate to coordinate an events strategy driven by the arts community and related industries and businesses in Christchurch. (Arts Voice Christchurch, 2011)

Erica Austin

Arts & Craft Studio Assistance

0

8.2%

2.5 kilometres

Mar-07

Art Initiatives

8.4%

Mar-05

Arts Centre

0

8.6%

Mar-03

Canterbury Museum

Mar-09

8.8%

8.7%

(Arts Voice Christchurch, 2011)

8.8%

Bridge of Remembrance

River of Arts Arts & Craft Studio Assistance

9.2%

9.0%

Arts Centre RIVER OF ARTS CONCEPT IMAGE

9.5%

9.2% 9.1%

Canterbury Museum

Mar-99

% of GDP

9.4%

Mar-01

8.7%

9.6%

9.9%

9.9%

9.8%

66

Isaac Theatre Royal LUXCity

10.0%

Mar-09

River of Arts

Emerging

Isaac Theatre Royal LUXCity

8.8%

River of Arts

Emerging Art Initiatives

Em Estab

CPIT

Established Emerging

0

200m


ESTABLISHED ARTS ORGANISATIONS

In a Symbolic Economy the various arts initiatives are the producers and the tourists and visitors are the consumers who experience the events they produce. The River of Arts concept proposes connections be established between the various arts organisations such as Centre of Contemporary Art (COCA), Christchurch Symphony Orchestra and the emerging art initiatives like Gap Filler, Life in Vacant Spaces (LiVS) and the Art Box. This could build up communities around the events, and support a shift toward creating an eventful city shaped by the creative class and the public. The emergence of pop-up events can be a way to test ideas and to encourage a fresh, uncompromised look at the potential of a place. By working with local residents and creative arts industries, these projects can start to re-activate vacant sites during the restoration and reconstruction phase. Building on the River of Arts initiative, the Experience Economy can be used to revitalise the central city and extend into the surrounding suburbs. Further, the notion of Experience Shopping can start to develop outside tourism zones and less familiar areas can cater for the demands of other segments of the visitor population.

EMERGING ARTS INITIATIVES

Economic Research | Experience Economy

67


Knowledge-Based Society

Multi-Modal City

Quality of Life

Renewable Energy

INNOVATION TRANSPORTATION ENERGY EDUCATION HOUSING EVENTS

ECONOMIC RESEARCH


Eventful City Lifelong Learning

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

URBAN STRATEGIES

Green Zone


70


2.0 URBAN STRATEGIES

Inherent in the development of the work was the ambition to develop an appropriate strategy for Christchurch, one that paves the way for its future. This requires understanding what makes Christchurch unique, while at the same time reflecting on 20th Century planning - to learn from it and develop a 21st Century approach. Cities, like nature, evolve and adapt to changing trends, technologies and economies. In the late 20th Century it was common for large areas of cities to be developed as new financial centres, like Canary Wharf in London or La DĂŠfense in Paris, but once completed they lacked the character and qualities the older parts of these European cities offered. Such developments were 15-20 year-long construction projects, and were conceived of as large-scale modern developments with a fixed end result. Because of the way these projects were designed, they were unable to adapt to change in an organic, responsive way as is evident in older areas of European cities. Once completed these large developments often felt static and lacked character, which was certainly not the intention upon conception. Further, due to the current exponential rate of innovation, the future is rather unpredictable. For these reasons, the proposals aim to anticipate the inevitable nature of change and its inherent unpredictability. To do this, each urban strategy is approaching planning not from an end result but rather from a starting point.

In the Industrial Corridor, Alex Haryowiseno recognises that Christchurch is undergoing a typical evolution where low value manufacturing is being replaced by high value manufacturing. Alex develops a strategy that promotes dynamic zoning, accommodates mixed-use developments and responds to changing demands. Che Wei (Jacky) Lee proposes to transition Christchurch from a city congested with single occupant vehicles towards a Multi-Modal City that can efficiently move people and goods. Zhi Jian (David) Wong also proposes a transition — in this case from a fossil fuel-dependent economy towards a renewable energy-based economy. His research advances a Zero Carbon Energy Strategy for Christchurch. In the Infill vs. Sprawl chapter, Biran He argues for the development of inner city housing by showing there is a demand driven by demographic shifts and that such development can be cheaper than living on the city fringes. In the Education Intervention Praveen Karunasinghe argues there is an opportunity and urgency to make a change in the approach to education given the inherent links between low decile schools, low paying jobs and low skill employment. Erica Austin builds on the River of Arts initiative by suggesting a network of vacant sites be linked to create an infrastructure to support an eventful economy.

Urban Strategies | Introduction

71


BARRIER

72

Alex Haryowiseno

EPIC - CATALYST FOR GROWTH ALONG THE CORRIDOR


2.1 INDUSTRIAL CORRIDOR

ADAPTATION OF ENVIRONMENT

ORGANIZATIONS & POLICIES INNOVATION PROCESS WORKFORCE MARKET ATTRACTION INTERACTION

CONDUCIVE INNOVATION ENVIRONMENT ADAPTATION OF ENVIRONMENT

URBAN DESIGN FACTORS

The economic research outlines the role of the knowledge-based industries as one of the keys to regenerating the city’s economy. A mapping of Christchurch’s census data points towards a linear divide within the urban fabric. This linear divide can be traced back to the location of the city’s historic freight line, as well as the declining manufacturing industries. It is the aim of this urban strategy to transition the declining manufacturing corridor into a high value businesses. The provision of workspaces and the quality of life necessary in order to attract and retain educated workers is one of the main factors that will determine the success of this shift towards an Innovation Economy. As previously mentioned, the EPIC initiative acts as a seed for this shift to occur, by clustering displaced high-value businesses in one area. This initial development could potentially act as a catalyst throughout the industrial corridor and create a synergy with the existing manufacturing facilities. The further attraction and retention of the necessary critical mass depends on the business and lifestyle ecosystem. A successful Innovation Economy relies on a strong relationship with other aspects of the economy, such as the notion of achieving an eventful city, as explored by Erica Austin in the Experience Economy; and the notion of life-long learning through the provision of new learning spaces as proposed by Praveen Karunasinghe in the Creative Economy. The synergy between the different economies is critical and is already emerging in Christchurch with initiatives such as EPIC, Arts Circus and the Unlimited School. It is through investing in these types of initiatives that Christchurch can attract local and international talent and businesses that will ultimately drive the Innovation Economy.

Urban Strategies | Industrial Corridor

73


AIRPORT

CBD

Redevelopment of Industrial Corridor

- CATALYST FOR GROWTH LONG THE CORRIDOR

GREEN ZONE

Innovation Precinct

INNOVATION PRECINCT

The innovation precinct acts as an anchor REDEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CORRIDOR The decline in manufacturing-based employment, which makes up the majority of Christchurch’s workforce, provides the city with an opportunity to think about how existing assets can be used to help the transition towards an economy based on knowledge and innovation. The city’s rail corridor has dictated the way manufacturing facilities populate the city’s urban fabric. At the

74

Alex Haryowiseno

moment, however, it acts as barrier which severs the connection between the north-western and southern suburbs, which is where the educated workforce reside. Addressing this condition through the active revitalisation of this corridor could provide the opportunity for high value businesses to grow.


HORNBY 5000 m2

WIGRAM/SOCKBURN

MIDDLETON

RICCARTON SOUTH

ADDINGTON

0.5

4865 m2

Industrial Land Plot Progression

0.33

0.27

0.31

3000 m

3088 m2

0.4

0.35

0.3

3340 m2 0.22

2000 m2

0.2 1452 m2

1000 m

1196 m2

2

Industrial Building to Land Plot Ratio

0.38

4000 m2

2

SYDENHAM/CBD

0.1 915 m2

0

LAND PLOT SIZE : LAND PLOT RATIO As one might expect, the average land plot size increases as one moves towards the city’s fringes. This trend shows characteristics that are endemic of urban sprawl. As land availability is exhausted in the central areas of the city, more land is opened up in the fringe areas with increasing land plot sizes. However, what is interesting is that there is an overall decline in the building to land ratio, despite the increasing size of average land titles. In outer industrial zones in Hornby, the building

0

area takes up only around 0.21 of the overall land plot size, which leads to the appearance of residual spaces within these areas. When taking into account the overall size of the city’s industrial zone (approximately 14 sqkm), the current trend would create roughly 7 to 8 sqkm of residual space.

Urban Strategies | Industrial Corridor

75


PICTON

3. Ferrymead

1. Sockburn

ROLLESTON

2. Middleton

CHRISTCHURCH’S INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT NETWORK The current form of Christchurch’s urban fabric is influenced by its nature as a city that relies on the manufacturing sector as a main source of generating Gross Regional Product (GRP) and employment. As a result, investment in rail infrastructure was made early in the city’s history, which to this day still serves the city’s manufacturing and agricultural sectors. Agricultural commodities are brought to Christchurch from around the South Island via the rail network. Along this network, several freight terminals are located for the purpose of

76

Alex Haryowiseno

4. Lyttelton

LINCOLN

loading and unloading goods. The transport network then reaches its final destination at Lyttleton seaport, where the cargo gets shipped to overseas destinations. By making use of the existing infrastructures within this industrial zone, such as the rail network, there is a potential to turn the historic manufacturing corridor into a point of attraction for the development and agglomeration of high value businesses.


AIRPORT

CBD GREEN ZONE

INNOVATION PRECINCT

SEAPORT

CCDU’S PROPOSED INNOVATION PRECINCT

INNOVATION PRECINCT The Innovation Precinct, as identified in the CCDU’s Blueprint (2012), and David Wong’s proposed Green Zone in the western suburbs could catalyse development along the industrial corridor. At the same time these two projects could connect growth in the western suburbs to the CBD through an upgraded rail infrastructure.

Innovation Precinct

M

The innovation precinct acts as an anchor for the redevelopment.

M

Urban Strategies | Industrial Corridor

77


PROGRAM PHASES The EPIC business incubator is the first phase of development in the Innovation Precinct (CCDU Blueprint 2012), and is a vital catalyst for high value business growth. The central location of the precinct serves as an attraction between the northern and southern parts of the city, where the critical mass live. This second phase, the Innovation Precinct itself, will harness the momentum

78

Alex Haryowiseno

created by the EPIC business incubator to further support the growth of high value businesses as well as draw together the otherwise divided city. The Innovation Precinct could act as the catalyst for a much larger urban scheme, one that has the ability to regenerate the city’s industrial corridor.


Scenario 1.1

Scenario 1.2

Scenario 1.3

Scenario 2.1

Scenario 2.2

Scenario 2.3

Scenario 3.1

Scenario 3.2

Scenario 3.3

Multiple Scenario Planning

CELLULAR AUTOMATA The Cellularchanging Automata process would allow for organic growth of the urban fabric, where With the Innovation Precinct therescenario is the opportunity to test a newthe development Multiple planning allows strategyparadigm to accomodation demands. incremental development would respond to emerging socio-economic demands. This organic urban where the urban fabric grows incrementally, rather than towards a singular vision of a masterplan. growth model would therefore cater to the unpredictable nature of innovation by freeing it from This approach is in line with the serendipitous nature of innovation and its inherent demand for conventional zoning conditions. a non-linear methods of growth. A possible approach could be to borrow from the Cellular Automata process, which is essentially a framework within which multiple scenarios are possible.

Urban Strategies | Industrial Corridor

79


Kiwigo Mobile Appli

AIRPORT

WESTERN GROWTH (HORNBY) CBD

RAIL RAIL EXPRESS EXPRESS BUS BUS

LYTTELTON

LOOP LOOP BUSBUS CYCLE LANES CYCLE LANES LOCAL DIAL LOCAL DIAL A RIDEA RIDE

MOBILE INTEGRATION

80

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

TRANSPORTATION NETWORK’S KEY NODES


2.2 MULTI-MODAL CITY

RAIL NETWORK Demographic data prior to the earthquakes showed a population shift towards the west. This shift was accelerated after the earthquakes. The key growth areas such as Hornby, Riccarton and Papanui already indicate the formation of a network of suburbs. These suburbs are conveniently located in close proximity to the railway line, which means they could benefit from upgrading of this corridor to become a reliable inter-suburb transport solution.

The proposed transport network addresses four identified nodes of importance: the CBD, the western growth towards Hornby, the Airport link and the Lyttelton Harbour. Layered into these key nodes is a system of multiple modes of transport that are seamlessly integrated through efficient use of modern technology. The strategy includes: • High frequency rail for passengers to allow movement from the west to east along the declining manufacturing corridor; this will connect the expected population growth areas in the west to the CBD via public rapid transit. This upgraded infrastructural line could assist to attract investment and revitalise the current manufacturingoriented corridor. • High frequency bus corridor from the CBD to the Airport and from Hornby to the Airport creates a loop between three of the key activity centers. This connection recognizes the Airport has a vital role to play in future economic growth as it is a significant gateway for both people and high value commodities. • Innovative transport solutions such as bike share and car share services will also be integrated into a seamless multi-modal system through a mobile application initiative called KiwiGo. KiwiGo will act as a “front-end” of the transportation network, providing clear information about efficient travel choices, which will reduce travel time and associated costs.

Urban Strategies | Multi-Modal City

81


VEHICLE AREA PERCENTAGE

82

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

VEHICLE AREA PERCENTAGE EXTRUSION MAP


56% ROAD & CARPARK

CATHEDRAL SQUARE UNIT

1,756

35

1,171

3,904

POSSIBLE USE IF CAR PARKING AREA RECLAIMED

Retail stores

Single detached house

Parks & Recreation

Medium density housing

400 m2

20,000 m2

600 m2

180 m2

TYPICAL AREAS OF DIFFERENT USES

AREA DEDICATED TO VEHICLES IN CATHEDRAL SQUARE AREA UNIT The aerial photograph of a section in the southern CBD’s zone shows 56% of the area is dedicated to vehicular travel. This is a clear indication that Christchurch is designed for cars and not for the people.

CAR PARK RECLAMATION If car use can be decreased, the need for road widening and demand for car parking can be considerably diminished, allowing the spaces dedicated to cars to open up for other uses. For example if we take the Cathedral Square area it consists of 32.0% car parking, 23.1% road and 40.2% building footprint. The total area for car parking is the equivalent to 1,756 shops or 1,171 homes or 3,904 offices. Why is Christchurch dedicated to the car when it could be so much more?

Urban Strategies | Multi-Modal City

83


ure Implementing Strategy

Train

S

M XL

S

XL

M

XL S

XL

XL

S

XL S

L L

XL

M

S

M M

S

M

L

S

S S

L

L

M L

L

S

S

S

L

M

S

S

XL

M

M

L

L L

M

L

S

S

L

S

M

S

XL

S

S

M XL S S

MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION NETWORK The interchange stations range in scale depending on the transport they serve. Each of the modules, S, M, L, XL, accommodate different combinations of transportation modes. These interchanges are designed to be easily plugged into Christchurch’s urban fabric.

84

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

L

Bus

Bike Share

Dial a Ride


ENTS

Architecture Implementing Strategy

M XL

M XL S M

L

S

XL

M

XL S

XL

XL

S

XL

XL S

S

L L

M

S

M M

S

M

L

S

S S

L

L

M L

L

S

S

S

L

M

S

S

XL

M

M

L

L L

M

M S

S

L

S

S

L

S

M

S

S

S

M XL S S

CLEAR NAVIGATION PURPOSES The objective of the interchanges is to encourage commuters to use public transport by making multi-modal easily identifiable and efficient. Through clear urban design, commuters would quickly understand what modes of transportations are available at each interchange station.

Urban Strategies | Multi-Modal City

85


PERSONAL HYPER CONSUMPTION

VIA MODERN TECHNOLOGY

COLLABORATIVE CONSUMPTION “DON’T OWN, SHARE”

$

$

$

CUT DOWN TRAVEL COST!!

LETS TURN OUR CARS INTO

CAR SHARING

PUBLIC TRANSPORTS!

CYCLE+PEDESTRIAN LANE

DEDICATED BUS/LIGHTRAIL SPACE

CAN ACT AS A CATALYST TO CHANGE THE URBAN FABRIC

KIWIGO: CATALYST FOR CHANGE

86

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

CYCLE+PEDESTRIAN LANE

CYCLE+PEDESTRIAN LANE

CYCLE+PEDESTRIAN LANE


$

KiwiGo is a mobile application proposed for Christchurch to enable its users to navigate through the city seamlessly, using multiple modes of transportation. This is a solution to effectively push Christchurch past its auto-dependence state, into a multi-modal city – as previously mentioned, it is about shifting Christchurch’s urban form past the fourth wave of innovation (petrol chemicals) into the fifth (digital networks). KiwiGo envisions a fundamental change in the way people perceive their personal vehicles. It is a smart car-sharing application that takes advantage of the sea of cars and allows drivers to actively rent out the vacant seats to others heading in similar directions, allowing drivers to turn their personal vehicles into privately-run public transport. KiwiGo also integrates existing public transportation systems to ensure seamless transfer across all modes of transport.

KIWIGO MOBILE APPLICATION

Urban Strategies | Multi-Modal City

87


A Sustainable Energy Strategy for Economic Growth and Stability

Biomass supplies peak heating energy demands to the CBD and other satellite hubs during the winter months which typically require more energy. Biomass is a good source of heat generated from waste; which has the additional benefit of reducing waste by-products instead of putting them into landfills. Two possible examples of sources for biomass heating come from timber waste generated in the forest and construction industry, and from harmful polluting gases (Methane) in the landfills.

0% -$20

FOREIGN INVESTMENT INTO CHRISTCHURH INNOVATIVE RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGY SECTOR

Solar energy would provide the peak base load energy during the day and would provide excess energy in times of good solar collection; which would be fed back to the smart grid system. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels could be implemented where repairs for damaged buildings need to be done, as well as in any new construction.

26

%

00

If the government invested in renewable energies such as wind, as opposed to oil explorations; it would be investing in a long term energy strategy rather than a short term fix. The added benefit could help spark an economy around the demand for renewable technologies, which is a high-value product.

Hydro power supplies back-up base load energy when the wind and solar energies do not meet the demand. Since the majority of the energy demand can be met by other renewable energy sources, this means the strain on the stored energy at the hydro dams can be reduced.

5% -$1

Wind energy supplies intermittent base energy demands. Wind energy could be used in Christchurch by forging an alliance with the energy companies and persuading them to invest within Canterbury into wind technologies. There is sufficient wind to make the investment economically viable, and instead of relying on coal as a source of energy, wind power could be harnessed instead.

-$158

Energy efficiency plays a vital part, even though energy is generated from renewable sources, wasting energy is unsustainable. Architecture plays an important role to ensure energy efficient methods of construction are implemented and because Christchurch will undergoing a massive reconstruction; there is the opportunity to upgrade existing buildings to be as energy efficient as possible.

There are two aims: to change the behaviour of using cars in the city. This can be accomplished in several ways: via a car sharing mobile application (KiwiGo), improved public transportation, and urban planning measures that allow for housing to be closer to areas of work. Secondly, through a shift towards using electric vehicles (EV) that can be charged at home. The transition towards using EVs can be done by ELECTRIC VEHICLES ARE providing incentives and the necessary infrastructure (battery 5 TIMES MORE EFFICIENT swap centres). Having an EV network within the city would THAN FOSSIL FUEL CARS provide Christchurch with a significant amount of stored energy.

1.

COST OF PETROLEUM FOR 2011 ONLY =

$530 MILLION

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) panel generate

GLOBAL WIND

power from the sun. 2.

Electric vehicles are used as a portable

GLOBAL SOLAR

battery pack charged by PV panels.

PV PANEL SYSTEM SMART GRID

3.

The car battery can be used to run

ELECTRICITY (Retail)

home appliances if and when needed. 4.

In times of crisis, solar energy in conjunction with electric vehicles becomes the solution for providing the city with emergency back-up power. The way to encourage solar adoption is to have different solar feed-in tariffs rewarding the early adopters with a fixed tariff which would help to gain momentum for a move towards solar energy adoption in Christchurch.

When the PV panels are unable to

PETROL (Retail) SOLAR (Hot Water)

supply the energy needed the Smart grid is available for back-up. In times when excess energy is generated, the electrivity can be sold back to the Smart

SOLAR (Electricity)

Grid system.

DIESEL (Retail) The economic value savings/cost for each person every year in Christchurch when compared to the “Business as Usual� Oil Scenario

OIL BIOMASS (Electricity)

Cost Million pa. ($)

WIND 700

GAS

600

COAL

500

BIOMASS (DES Fuel Only)

400

MASS (Heat)

300

HYDRO

200 100

0.00 27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

28 20 29 20 30 20 31 20 32 20 33 20 34 20 35 20 36 20 37 20 38 20 39 20 40

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

11 20

20

10

0

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

$ Price/kWh

TIMELINE RENEWABLE SHARE

OIL SHARE

References and resources can be found in the final thesis publication*

88

Zhi Jian (David) Wong


2.3 ZERO CARBON ENERGY STRATEGY

The Zero Carbon Christchurch 2030 Energy Plan outlines a technically possible, realistic and economically attractive strategy to transition Christchurch towards using 100% renewable energy. Christchurch is undergoing a massive reconfiguration of the city due to the damage of the earthquakes which leads to opportunities to rebuild in a more sustainable way. The plan is the outcome of the previous research to use an injection from the green energy boom as a catalyst for economic growth and recovery after the earthquakes. The rationale behind becoming zero-carbon by the year 2030 is based on four phases: phase 1 (2013-2015) is for the recovery and implementing early stages of the plan; phase 2 (2016-2020) involves developing catalyst projects to gain momentum for phase 3 (2021-2025), which is establishing key infrastructure for the whole of Christchurch; and the final phase 4 (2026-2030) is when Christchurch becomes zero-carbon by the year 2030. The transition away from petroleum is through a gradual exchange of energy commodity capital. The money used to import petroleum would instead be used for investing in renewable sources. This amount would increase over time, so that by 2030, nothing would be spent on importing petroleum. At the end of the plan, in the year 2030, it is estimated that every Cantabrian would save $600 per annum as a result of this energy transition when compared to the same “business as usual” scenario. Christchurch has nothing to lose but everything to gain, in fact by the year 2040 it is estimated that the city would save a total of $6.6 billion – but this is only possible if the change begins now.

Urban Strategies | Zero Carbon Energy Strategy

89


CENTRALIZED ENERGY GRID The term resilience is used often in Christchurch now, but the current energy grid system is anything but resilient, as proven when the earthquake struck. Christchurch, like most cities, relies on a centralised grid system where hydro power and fossil fuels feed into the grid. This places stress on the grid and when one link is broken the whole system fails. What if the main connection to the hydro dams fail in the future or prices for fossil fuels overseas are so expensive that we can no longer afford energy? Christchurch would be in another state of emergency, an energy crisis.

90

Zhi Jian (David) Wong

DECENTRALIZED ENERGY GRID NETWORK However, there is an alternative to a centralised energy system, The Zero Carbon Christchurch 2030 Energy Plan is a proposal for a resilient energy scheme by implementing a decentralised, self-sustaining energy network. This system relies on multiple sources of renewable energy to complement one another: • A network of individual solar energy sources fed into a smart grid would provide the peak base load energy during the day. The excess energy in times of good solar collection would be fed back to the smart grid system. • Wind energy supplies intermittent base energy demands. • Biomass supplies peak heating energy demands to the CBD and other satellite hubs during the winter months which typically require more energy. • Hydro supplies backup base load energy when the wind and solar energy resources cannot meet the demand.


Zero Carbon Christchurch 2030 Energy Plan Energy efficiency Transportation efficiency

$

Wind Solar Biomass Hydro

Invest

$6.6 BILLION

Total Profit Through Savings $6.6 billion

The Choice for Christchurch

Biomass Hydro Other fossil fuels Petroleum

ZERO CARBON CHRISTCHURCH 2030 ENERGY PLAN Christchurch is at a crossroads: it can either take the path of a Green Economy which would be ecologically and economically responsible, or continue with business as usual which neglects the long-term consequences for immediate returns. If Christchurch continues with the business as usual scenario, energy prices will continue to increase as the supply of fossil fuels will inevitably run out and New Zealand will be forced to import clean tech from abroad, leaving us to catch up with other countries rather than lead the way. This would have a negative consequence on New Zealand’s image as a clean, green country and would lead to the continued degradation of air quality through pollution, which has the related consequences of negative health effects.

Risk

$

$

$ $

$

to attract investment and recover from the earthquakes. By building on New Zealand’s identity as a clean green country, Christchurch could capture the attention of foreign interests looking to invest in sustainable technologies. The Green Economy is about being able to affordably provide energy for everyone in New Zealand, starting with Christchurch. It is also about maintaining the priceless scenic natural environment of New Zealand and motivating people to stay in Christchurch, where professionals gather to see how sustainability can be put into practice to rejuvenate life and activity within this fallen city. Being sustainable is not about getting rich quickly, but rather creating a high quality of life that everyone enjoys now and for future generations to come.

If Christchurch takes steps towards a Green Economy and invests in renewable energy technologies, this could lead the way for New Zealand in choosing a responsible and economically sound future. This approach could be the catalyst for investment and future growth, which Christchurch needs Urban Strategies | Zero Carbon Energy Strategy

91


ENERGY EFFICIENCY TRANSPORT SHIFT WIND SOLAR BIOMASS HYDRO OTHER FOSSIL FUELS PETROLEUM

Business as usual (BAU) - fossil fuel energy The Zero Carbon Christchurch 2030 Energy Plan (ZCCEP) - renewable energy

ENERGY EFFICIENCY The Zero Carbon Christchurch Energy Plan requires less energy then the “business as usual” approach, because it calculates into the equation energy efficiency. Methods to reduce energy use include: • Improved construction methods in both repaired buildings and new construction, for example the use of quality insulation, double pane glazing and vapour barriers would greatly reduce energy demands. • Localized food production would reduce the energy demand to transport food long distances, as well it would have the added benefit of creating food security, which is a growing concern in the increasingly urbanised world. • A shift in transportation towards a multi-modal network as explored by Che Wei Lee in the Transportation Economy would greatly reduce energy use as well as free up valuable land for other uses. 92

Zhi Jian (David) Wong


Comparison of Energy Costs Total energy cost (2012 - 2040)

Zero Carbon Year

Cost

Zero Carb

2040

2035

2030

2025

2020

2015

Time

2012

Zero Carbon Christchurch Energy Plan Total Cost $18.3 billion Total energy cost (2012 - 2040)

Total Profit Through Savings $6.6 billion

The Cho

Business As Usual Energy Plan = $100 million of petroleum Cost

= $100 million of green energy = $100 million of energy savings

Seaport

Economic Savings

COMPARISON OF ENERGY COSTS The economic savings is By comparing the costs of the petroleum-reliant business as usual scenario, and the Zero Carbon Christchurch 2030 Energy Plan, it becomes evident that a small increase in investment in the initial phases more than pays off in future phases.

Total cost $24.9 billion

to be $6.6 Billion by the year 2040.

Urban Strategies | Zero Carbon Energy Strategy

93


Shirley-Papanui Fendalton-Waimairi Ward Burwood-Pegasus Papanui High School Zone

S

Sockburn Hornby

P

P

P

I

I

I P

F

P P F

F S

S S

S

S Christchurch Boys’ High School Zone

I

S

P

Shirley Girls High School Zone

F

I I

F

F

F

Christchurch Girls’ High School Zone

P

I

S

Shirley Boys High School Zone

F

Arnui I Bromley

P

P

Hagley-Ferrymead

I S

Spreydon-Heathcote

Cashmere High School Zone

Riccarton-Wingram

MAP OF CHRISTCHURCH SCHOOLS (Education Counts 2006)

94

Praveen Karunasinghe

H high decile zones

I

I

I S

Cashmere

full schools years 1-13

L

S F

I

Riccarton High School Zone

P

F

F

P

intermediate schools years 7-8

P

Burnside High School Zone

I

primary schools years 1-6

I

S secondary schools years 9-13

F S

I

Holmwood Merivale

P

low decile zones “concern areas”


2.4 EDUCATION INTERVENTION

The negative effects of educational deprivation are not theoretical, nor do they solely occur in remote third world countries. New Zealand can reverse its own negative indicators (declining OECD rankings, reliance on primary industry, diminishing quality of life, and excess of low skill labour) by investing in education. The argument put forward in the Education Economy identifies the need for investing in education as a means by which to transition Christchurch from a manufacturing society to a knowledge society. The urban strategy begins with an investigation into the existing schools in Christchurch, with a particular focus on decile ratings. A decile rating corresponds to the wealth of the neighbourhoods adjacent to schools. Decile one schools have the highest proportion of students from low socio-economic backgrounds whereas decile ten schools have the highest proportion of students from high socio-economic backgrounds. The hypothesis was to investigate the common association of less affluent neighbourhoods with residents who are likely to experience lower quality education. The cycle describes a biased system which deprives the poor and favours the affluent. Moreover, these residents are most likely to contribute negatively to the GRP and slow the progression of Christchurch into a post-industrial knowledge society.

CYCLE PROMOTING BIASES IN EDUCATION

The following graphs illustrate the correlations between income, education levels and skill level of jobs. The R2 value suggests the amount of variability in the y-axis, which can be attributed to the x-axis variable. Given that these regressions are modelling human data, with greater variability in the population, the R2 values in the range of 0.3-0.5 indicate a strong correlation of x and y. The regions highlighted in red are student-rich zones. These suburbs skew the data and can be considered to be outliers.

Urban Strategies | Education Intervention

95


Median income 1% increase in higher educated

1% increase non educated proportion

$1109 increase in median income

$970 reduction in median income

Low value employment proportion vs. median income 45

High value employment proportion vs. median income 70

Low value employment proportion vs. median income 45

High value employment proportion vs. median income

Aranui

40

70

Merivale

50

40

30

Merivale

40

Hornby Hornby

35

Holmwood

Islington 35

50

30

Mona Vale Ilam

30

Halswell Domain

Mona Vale

Aranui

40

Ilam

Halswell Domain Aranui Spreydon

30

Spreydon Riccarton West 20

Riccarton West

10

y = 0.0013x + 5.142

Bexley Wigram

Hornby

20

R² = 0.362 y = 0.0013x + 5.142

Bexley Wigram

Hornby

%composition of low value employment

%high value employment composition

60

Holmwood

R² = 0.362

10

%composition of low value employment

%high value employment composition

60

Aranui

25

20

Islington

25

Riccarton West

Sydenham

Wharenui Riccarton West

20

Sydenham

Wharenui Upper Riccarton 15

Ilam Riccarton HIGH VALUE WORKUpper : MEDIAN INCOME 15 There is a clear positive correlation between the proportion of residents engaged in high value Ilam 10 y =-0.00093x + 40.48 work and the median suburban income. 10

Fendalton

5

Fendalton

5 0 5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

40000

Median Income

0 0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

1% increase in higher value employment proportion Median Income 1% increase in higher value employment proportion

0

5000

35000

0

15000 20000 25000 1% increase 10000 in low value employment proportion Median Income

10

Aranui Aranui

30

y = 1.037x - 5.751

20

10

R² = 0.763 y = 1.037x - 5.751

Woolston West Wigram

Hornby

R² = 0.763

Woolston West Wigram

Hornby

10

20

30

70

50

40000

60

Kenndy's bush Merivale

Aidanfield Aidanfield Templeton

70

Holmwood Kenndy's bush Cashmere Merivale

Ilam

Holmwood Cashmere

Ilam

Templeton 60

Bromley Hornby

50

Bromley Hornby

40

Aranui

Linwood

Fendalton

Linwood

40

30

20

10

30

20

R² = 0.319 y = 0.677x + 37.29 R² = 0.319

10

0 10

20

30

70

40

50

60

70

%higher educated composition of given suburbs 10

20

30

40

50

60

1% increase in domestic internet availability 1.33% increase in higher education proportion %higher educated composition of given suburbs 1% increase in domestic internet availability

70

1.33% increase in higher education proportion

Graph of non educated proportion vs. median income

1.04% increase in higher value employment proportion 60

Proportion of high value employment vs proportion of non educated proportion Deans Bush

Holmwood Bryndwr

60

Deans Bush Holmwood Bryndwr Cashmere 50 50

Diamond Harbour

Merivale Cashmere Merivale

50

Mc Leans

Ilam

Lincoln Mc Leans

Upper Riccarton

40 40

Holmwood Kenndy's bush Merivale Cashmere

Upper Riccarton

Ilam

Ilam

Wharenui

Upper Riccarton

Riccarton Riccarton West

30

Sydenham Cathedral Square

Halswell Domain

Aranui

y = 0.001x + 13.92

Avon Loop

Aranui

Sockburn

R² = 0.374

Middleton

Riccarton

Hornby

Riccarton West Aranui

20 20

Riccarton West

10

30

20

Riccarton West

y = -0.9152x + 58.397

Bromley Hornby

R² = 0.6422 y = -0.9152x + 58.397

Bromley Hornby

Wigram

10

Aranui

North HIGHER-EDUCATED RESIDENTSHornby : MEDIAN INCOME 40 There is a clear positive correlation betweenIslington the proportion of higher educated residents and the Mc Leans median suburban income.

Linwood North

Wigram

20

% of non -educated composition

% higher educatedcomposition compositionof suburb % high value employment

Kenndy's bush 60 Kenndy's bush

30

50

0

ProportionGraph of highof value employment vs proportion proportion ofvs. non educated proportion higher education Median Income

70

40

60

%higher educated composition of given suburbs

70

50

70

10 20 30 40 60 70 1% increase in higher educated proportion 1.04% increase in50higher value employment proportion %higher educated composition of given suburbs

1% increase in higher educated proportion

60

40

30000 35000 $930 drop in median income

$930 drop in median income

80

0

0

40000

Proportion of domestic internet availability vs. higher education proportion

0

0

35000

Tai Tapu Fendalton HIGH VALUE WORK : HIGHER LEVEL QUALIFICATIONS Aranui Tai Tapu There is a clear positive correlation between the proportion of residents engaged in high value y = 0.677x + 37.29 work and the proportion of residents holding higher level qualification.

0

0

% high value employment composition of suburb

Merivale

Mc Leans

80

%domestic internet availability composition of given suburbs

HolmwoodMerivale Kenndy's bush Cashmere

%domestic internet availability composition of given suburbs

20

%high value employment composition of given suburbs

%high value employment composition of given suburbs

30

R² = 0.361

Holmwood

30000

Proportion of domestic internet availability vs. higher education proportion 90

90

Mc Leans

25000

1% increase in low value employment proportion

Holmwood Kenndy's bush Cashmere

60

40

20000

5000

$1321 increase in median income

70

40

15000

R² = 0.361 y =-0.00093x + 40.48

Holmwood

Median Income

40000

High value employment proportion vs. higher education proportion

50

10000

0 30000

$1321 increase in median income

High value employment proportion vs. higher education proportion 70

50

Cashmere Merivale

0 0

60

Cashmere Merivale

10

R² = 0.6422

Ilam Upper Riccarton

Cathedral Square

Fendalton

Holmwood

Hagley Park

y = -0.001x + 40.52

Kenndy's bush

10

0

0

0

0

0 0 0

5000

10

10000

20

15000

1% increase in non educated proportion

96

20000 30

25000

40

30000

50

35000

Median income %non educated composition of suburbs 10 40 50 1% increase in20higher educated 30 $1109 increase in median income 1% increase in non educated 0.92% drop in higher employment proportion %nonproportion educated composition of suburbs

Praveen Karunasinghe

40000 60

60

0 10000 15000 most20000 30000 nationwide 35000 40000 All data was5000gathered from the recently25000 conducted census.

1% increase non educated proportion

0.92% drop in higher employment proportion

High value employment proportion vs. median income

Median Income

(Statistics New Zealand 2006)

$970 reduction in median income

Low value employment proportion vs. median income 45

70 40

Aranui


5000increase in10000 20000 25000 1% higher value 15000 employment proportion Median Income

0

40000

1% increase non educated proportion

1% increase in low value employment proportion

35000 income 40000 $132130000 increase in median

$970 reduction in median income

Proportion of domestic internet availability vs. higher education proportion

High value employment proportion vs. higher education proportion

70

Low value employment proportion vs. median income Holmwood Kenndy's bush Cashmere

60

Aranui

%composition of low value employment %high value employment composition of given suburbs

40

Merivale Hornby

50

Mc Leans

35

Islington Aranui

30 40

25

Riccarton West

30

Sydenham

Wharenui

20

15

R² = 0.362

10

y = 1.037x - 5.751

Upper Riccarton

20

R² = 0.763

Woolston West Wigram

Ilam Hornby

%domestic internet availability composition of given suburbs

90

45

y = 0.0013x + 5.142

$930 drop in median income

Aidanfield

80

Ilam

Kenndy's bush Merivale Holmwood Cashmere

Templeton

70

60

Bromley Hornby

50

40

Linwood

Fendalton

Aranui

Tai Tapu

LOW VALUE WORK : MEDIAN INCOME y = 0.677x + 37.29 value work There is a clear negative correlation between the proportion of residents engaged in low R² = 0.319 and the median suburban income. 30

20

10

10

y =-0.00093x + 40.48 R² = 0.361

Fendalton

5

Cashmere Merivale

0 0

10

20

30

40

Holmwood

50

60

70

1%5000 increase in higher proportion 10000 educated 15000

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

%higher educated composition of given suburbs 1% increase in domestic internet availability

%higher educated composition of given suburbs

0 40000

0

1.33% increase in higher education proportion

1.04% increase in higher30000 value employment 25000 35000 proportion 40000 Median Income 20000

1% increase in low value employment proportion

$930 drop in median income

Proportion of high value employment vs proportion of non educated proportion 70

Proportion of domestic internet availability vs. higher education proportion

% high value employment composition of suburb %domestic internet availability composition of given suburbs

Kenndy's bush

Deans Bush

Holmwood Bryndwr

90

60

50

Kenndy's bush Merivale

Aidanfield

Cashmere

80

Holmwood Cashmere

Ilam

Merivale

Mc Leans

Templeton

70

Ilam

40

60

Aranui

Upper Riccarton

Riccarton Bromley Hornby

50

30

40

Linwood

Fendalton

Aranui

Riccarton West

Tai Tapu

20

y = 1.037x - 5.751 R² = 0.763

30

y = -0.9152x + 58.397

Bromley Hornby

Wigram

R² = 0.6422 y = 0.677x + 37.29

1020

HIGH VALUE WORK : NO QUALIFICATIONS There is a clear negative correlation between the proportion of residents engaged in high value work and the proportion of residents holding no educational qualifications.

R² = 0.319

10 0 0

10

20

0

10

30

40

50

%non educated composition of suburbs

0 20

30

40

50

60

60

70

%higher educated 0.92% composition givenemployment suburbs 1% increase in non educated proportion drop inofhigher proportion 70

1% increase in domestic internet availability

1.33% increase in higher education proportion

Graph of non educated proportion vs. median income

60

50

y = 0.001x + 13.92 R² = 0.374

% of non -educated composition

ale

Aranui

NON-EDUCATED RESIDENTS : MEDIAN INCOME There is a clear negative correlation between the proportion of uneducated residents and the median suburban income.

Hornby North 40

Islington Mc Leans 30

20

Riccarton West

10

Ilam Upper Riccarton

y = -0.9152x + 58.397

Cathedral Square

Fendalton

Holmwood

Hagley Park

y = -0.001x + 40.52

Kenndy's bush

R² = 0.6422 0 0

40000

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

40000

Median Income 1% increase non educated proportion

60

$970 reduction in median income

Low value employment proportion vs. median income 45

Aranui

Urban Strategies | Education Intervention

97


Demographic Data Terrains Education High proportion Tertiary Graduates

Employment Premature school leavers

Income

Labourers and Factory Workers

Income>$50,000

Managers and Professionals

Population Mean income

Population (2006) Income<$30,000 Population (2031) DEMOGRAPHIC DATA TERRAINS Comparisons of education, employment and income across Christchurch suburbs reveal strong correlations. In order to identify the suburbs least conducive to the post-industrial transformation, The demographic information helped identify areas of concern within the demographic data sets were compared against population growth. This revealed the suburb of Hornby as a serious concern area followed by Bromley and Aranui to the eastern side of the city.

Data Mapping

98

Praveen Karunasinghe

the city.

Key

Low proportion


Comparison of Combined Terrains N

Higher Educated Proportion (-)

Hornby 20%

(-)

Bromley 22%

(+) Cashmere 57%

60% 52% 44% 36% 28% 20%

High Skill Proportion (-)

Hornby 6%

(-)

Bromley 10%

(+) Cashmere 45%

49% 40% 31% 22% 13% 4%

Median Income (-)

Hornby $11K

(-)

Bromley $19K

(+) Cashmere $34K

Population Growth (+) Hornby 78% (-) Aranui -3% (+) Cashmere 68%

colour key (-) negative indicator

$36 700 $31 400 $26 100 $20 700 $15 400 $10 100 78% 62% 46% 30% 14% -3%

POSITIVE INDICATORS: Merivale: Apart from its population, Merivale is a constant positive indicator. Limited population growth in this suburb is most likely related to affordability of housing relative to Christchurch incomes: only the wealthy can afford real estate here. Cashmere: A constant positive indicator. Desirable quality schools lead to highly qualified workers and higher incomes. NEGATIVE INDICATORS: Hornby: Apart from its population, Hornby is a constant negative indicator. The sharp rate of population increase is occurring without the necessary educational infrastructure needed to support this growth. Bromley: A constant negative indicator. Similar to most eastern suburbs, the population does not grow very fast here. This suburb is also home to high proportions of low income earners, uneducated residents and low impact workers. Aranui: A constant negative indicator. Similar to most eastern suburbs, the population does not grow very fast. Ilam: Many negative indicators including income and employment as well as moderately low levels of higher qualified residents. However, it is important to note that this area also has a low median age. This indicates that there is an abundance of young people in this region, which can be attributed to the fact that the University of Canterbury is located in Ilam. The low earnings of these university students collectively skew the data and appear to highlight Ilam in a negative way. Jellie Park: The highest proportion of unemployed residents.

(+) positive indicator COMPARISON OF COMBINED TERRAINS

Conclusion

By superimposing collated maps, these concern areas were pin-pointed.

Urban Strategies | Education Intervention

99


1

2

HORNBY Hornby is among the least wealthy and least academically qualified suburbs in Christchurch with: a high proportion of low income earners (%36) and far fewer high-income earners (4%); and a deficit in the proportion of residents with higher educated achievements (20%) compared to the uneducated (57%) demographic. However, it is important to recognise that due to the abundance of factory work and relatively moderate unemployment, this suburb is not considered the poorest suburb in the Canterbury region. The composition of its built environment reveals an abundance of low value manufacturing (64%) followed by residential (24%). There is little priority being given to high value manufactured goods and services. However, this suburb has large plots of vacant land, which may contribute to the further population growth, common to the western suburbs, of 73% over the past ten years.

MERIVALE Merivale is among the most wealthy and educated suburbs in Christchurch with: a high median income of $36,900; a low proportion of low earners (4%); a high proportion of high income earners (49%), a higher proportion of educated (60%); a relatively low uneducated proportion (32%). In the composition of its built environment, there is an abundance of residential (73%) followed by education (11%). There is little priority given to businesses outside of retail and no priority given to low value manufacturing. Merivale is among the most densely built suburbs outside of the central city, which contributes to the stagnant population growth (3% growth over the last decade).

High Value Industry Low Value Industry

3

4

SYDENHAM Sydenham is among the suburbs closest to the Christchurch average: with a medium income of $23,000; a medium proportion of low earners (30%); a medium proportion of medium income earners (31%); a medium educated proportion (43%) and a medium uneducated proportion (43%). In the composition of its built environment, there is an abundance of retail (27%) followed by low value employment (25%), residential (25%) and high value manufactured goods and services (14%). Sydenham is among the most mixed built suburbs in Christchurch.

BROMLEY Bromley is among the least wealthy suburbs in Christchurch with: a relatively low median income of $19,000; a low proportion of high income earners (10%); a high proportion of low income earners (35%); a high proportion of uneducated people (56%); and a high unemployment rate (8.3%). However it is not the poorest due to an abundance of factory work and some high value manufacturing employment opportunities. In the composition of its built environment, there is an abundance of low value manufacturing (56%) followed by residential (30%). Similar to many other eastern suburbs such as Aranui, Bromley is experiencing stagnant population growth.

100

Praveen Karunasinghe

Urban Fabric Colour Key (Statistics New Zealand 2006)


1

2 3

4

In order to support the emerging knowledge-based industries in Christchurch, it is key to invest in education, which in turn has the potential to stimulate the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic regeneration. Through analysis of census data it is revealed that the western and eastern suburbs currently lack opportunities for high quality education as is shown in the low rates of higher level educated residents. As a consequence, many of these residents engage in low skill, low value jobs and have low incomes. Given the west is predicted to grow, it is a prime opportunity to improve the quality of education, and by increasing the opportunities for students and adults to participate in creative education, it is possible to reverse the growing reliance on low skill labour. Furthermore, Christchurch can invest in educating high skill inventive workers, who are needed to fuel the Innovation Economy further explored by Alex Haryowiseno.

HORNBY, MERIVALE, SYDENHAM AND BROMLEY The suburbs of Hornby, Merivale, Sydenham and Bromley were chosen to understand the composition of the built environment. These suburbs represent the poorly performing, moderate and thriving suburbs of the city.

Urban Strategies | Education Intervention

101


Distance to CBD Access to services and amenities Active and public transport options SPRAWL

CBD

INNER CITY LIVING

Private car use and associated fuel cost Section size

Section price

Housing Relat

Relationship betw

102

Biran He


2.5 INFILL VS. SPRAWL

Inner-city living can be much more sustainable and economical when compared to developing fringe land for further suburban sprawl. This is especially true given the shift in demographics, which suggests there is an incongruent relationship between the housing stock and the population. Two-thirds of the housing stock is comprised of three bedroom single detached houses, yet the population demographics show there is an increase in the demand for housing for singles and couples.

Urban Strategies | Infill vs. Sprawl

103


Available Available Sections Sections

(as of (asApril of April 2012) 2012) 1969 1969

Urban Urban Boundary Boundary

Urban Urban Boundary Boundary

Residential Areas Residential Areas

Residential Areas Residential Areas

EXISTING AVAILABLE SECTIONS The developments in Christchurch that have five sections or more and have obtained subdivision consent from the Council are far from the city centre. There are few sections available within a 10kms radius of the CBD, with most of the available sections located 15km away. This poses a serious problem if the city centre in is to be developed with housing. (Christchurch City Council , 2012) Available Available sections sections in relation relation to to existing existing residential residential areas. areas.

Existing ExistingAvailable AvailableSections Sections

104

Biran He

Future Future Development Development within within next next 2 years 2 years

17879 17879 (as of (asApril of April 2012) 2012)

PROPOSED SECTIONS Indications from developers are that there will be up to 3,170 greenfield sections released on the market during the next two years in Christchurch. (Christchurch City Council, 2012). The majority of these will be in the south west (Halswell) and Belfast areas, the two areas identified in the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy best able to areas. accommodate future urban Proposed Proposed sections sections in in relation relation to(GCUDS) as to existing existing residential residential areas. growth and development. Proposed lots are all at fringe locations, which is contradictory to the intended intensification strategy proposed by the GCUDS. Christchurch will not achieve higher density or a more compact city if it keeps opening fringe land for housing developments.

Proposed ProposedSections Sections


ING

CBD Distance to CBD

Central City CBD

Urban Village

Central City

Urban Village

Suburban

Rural Edge

Suburban

Rural Edge

Distance to CBD Access to services and amenities

Access to services and amenities

Active and public transport options Active and public

transport options

Private car use and Private associated fuel costcar use and

The location of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home has a large impact on how one lives. Many people in Christchurch live on one side of the city, send their kids to school on the other and work somewhere else. This all equates to a lot of travel time, normally by car. As Christchurch continues to grow, more sustainable housing must be introduced so that people can live closer to their daily needs. Because there were so many homes destroyed by the earthquake, there is an opportunity to think about how and where to build housing. For a start, inner city sections could accommodate two houses instead of one. Available Sections

associated fuel cost

1969

Available of April 2012) 1969 (as Sections (as of April 2012)

Urban Boundary Urban Boundary

Section sizeSection size

Residential Residential Areas Areas Section priceSection price KEY

KEY high high

medium

medium

low

low

Housing Relationship Matrix

HousingRelationship Relationship betweenMatrix location and amenities, public transport, land-cost and section size.

Relationship between location and amenities, public transport, land-cost and section size. HOUSING RELATIONSHIP MATRIX

Existing Available Sections

P

Existing Sections Available sectionsAvailable in relation to existing residential areas.

Available sections in relation to existing residential areas.

A study of 27 American metropolitan areas by the Centre for Housing Policy found that the cost of commuting cancels any savings on lower-priced suburban homes. When comparing the person living in the fringe suburbs with the person living in the city, it is estimated that one can save as much as $6,448 on commuting costs. City land maybe more expensive, but if higher density housing is built, then the cost of land will be shared. Given this, city living can be more affordable, and in some cases, even cheaper considering all the hidden costs of living in the outer suburbs.

Urban Strategies | Infill vs. Sprawl

105

P


Housing Types and Location SINGLE DETACHED HOUSES (suburban or rural detached houses)

1 Average Density : 13 dwellings / ha

SINGLE STOREY FLATS (multi-units or flats)

2 Average Density : 20 dwellings / ha

LOW RISE APARTMENTS (terraced, townhouses and mixed use)

3 Average Density : 40 dwellings / ha

MID RISE APARTMENTS (high-rise and mixed use)

4 Average Density : 80 dwellings / ha

Density of Christchurch Living Zones Christchurch City Net Density (2001) = 26.6 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.3 pp/ha

LEGEND Living 1 Living 2 Living 3 Living 4 Living H Commercial and Business Zones Urban Boundary (Christchurch City Council, 2011)

CHRISTCHURCH LIVING ZONES Christchurch is separated into four living zones, each having its own density bracket, getting concentrically denser the closer one moves to the CBD. These zones are: Living 1: mostly suburban developments, with a low density of 13 dwellings per hectare (dph). Living 2: slightly denser with subdivisions and smaller sections, with a density of 18dph. Living 3: a combination of subdivisions and multiple-units, with a medium density of 33dph. Living 4: predominantly multiple units, with a relative high density of 44dph.

106

Biran He


Dwelling Density in the Christchurch Living Zones Dwelling Density in the Christchurch Living Zones 100m

100m

100m

100m

Dwelling Density in the Christchurch Living Zones LIVING 1

LIVING 2

LIVING 3

LIVING 4

100m LIVING LIVING 1 1

100m LIVING LIVING 2 2

100m LIVING LIVING 3 3

LIVING LIVING 4 4

LIVING 1

LIVING 2

LIVING 3

LIVING 4 100m

100m

100m 100m

100m 100m

100m 100m

100m 100m

100m 100m

100m 100m

100m 100m

100m 100m

100m

100m

Living 4 Net Density (2001) = 45.1 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 7.4 pp/ha 100m 100m

13 Dwellings Per Hectare

18 Dwellings Per Hectare

33 Dwellings Per Hectare

40+ Dwellings Per Hectare

13 Dwellings Per Hectare

18 Dwellings Per Hectare

33 Dwellings Per Hectare

40+ Dwellings Per Hectare

100m

100m

13 1Dwellings Per Hectare 182Dwellings Per Hectare Living Living Net Density (2001) = 26.1 pp/ha Net Density (2001) = 32.3 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.2 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.0 pp/ha Living Living Living 11 Living 22 Net Net Net Density Density (2001) (2001) = = 26.1 26.1 pp/ha pp/ha Net Density Density (2001) (2001) = = 32.3 32.3 pp/ha pp/ha Living 1 Living 2 Increase Increase Increase in in Density Density (1991-2001) (1991-2001) = = 2.2 2.2 pp/ha pp/ha Increase in in Density Density (1991-2001) (1991-2001) = = 2.0 2.0 pp/ha pp/ha Net Density (2001) = 26.1 pp/ha Net Density (2001) = 32.3 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.2 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.0 pp/ha DWELLING DENSITY The changing population demographic, reflected in an aging population, greater ethnic diversity, a smaller proportion of traditional families and more people living individually, requires different types of housing. There are opportunities to explore new forms of medium density housing that can provide desirable alternatives to single-detached housing and bland multi-unit housing.

100m

333Dwellings Per Hectare Living Net Density (2001) = 38.1 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.6 pp/ha Living Living 33 Net Net Density Density (2001) (2001) = = 38.1 38.1 pp/ha pp/ha Living 3 Increase Increase in in Density Density (1991-2001) (1991-2001) = = 2.6 2.6 pp/ha pp/ha Net Density (2001) = 38.1 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.6 pp/ha

100m 100m 100m

Living 3 Net Density (2001) = 38.1 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.6 pp/ha 100m

40+ Dwellings Per Hectare

100m

100m

100m

100m 100m 100m

Living 2 Net Density (2001) = 32.3 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.0 pp/ha 100m

33 Dwellings Per Hectare

100m

100m

100m

100m 100m 100m

Living 1 Net Density (2001) = 26.1 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 2.2 pp/ha 100m

18 Dwellings Per Hectare

100m

100m 100m 100m

100m

100m

13 Dwellings Per Hectare

100m 100m100m 100m

100m

100m 100m100m 100m

100m 100m100m 100m

100m 100m100m 100m

100m

100m

100m

100m

100m

100m

100m

40+ Living 4 Dwellings Per Hectare Net Density (2001) = 45.1 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 7.4 pp/ha Living Living 44 Net Net Density Density (2001) (2001) = = 45.1 45.1 pp/ha pp/ha Living 4 Increase Increase in in Density Density (1991-2001) (1991-2001) = = 7.4 7.4 pp/ha pp/ha Net Density (2001) = 45.1 pp/ha Increase in Density (1991-2001) = 7.4 pp/ha

(Christchurch City Council, 2011)

Urban Strategies | Infill vs. Sprawl

107


HOUSING TYPE CATALOGUE HOUSINGlaneTYPE CATALOGUE lane house house 37 dph 37 dph 1

TALOGUE

1 1

1

80 dph walk-up corner 9 37 dph garden court 2garden court 37 dph 40 dph 40 dph 2lane house

lane house

3

3 3

four-square green green 44 dph 44 dph 3four-square

mixed unit corner 56 dph 10 four-square green 44 dph terraced courtyard four-square green 44 dph48 dph 48 dph terraced courtyard

4

4

5

5 5

terrace corner48 dph 48 dph 5terrace corner

6

terrace mews terrace corner +green48 dph

9

terrace corner garden48 dph corner 40 dph80 dph square garden square walk-up 40 dph

7

7

GUE

9

ph

2 2

four-square green 40 dph 44 dph124 dph 3garden 11court 5-storey court garden court

40 dph

mixed green unit corner44 dph 56 dph 3 10four-square

h

4

ph

terraced courtyard

4 4

terrace cornercorner 48 dph48 dph148 dph 6-storey 5terraced 12 courtyard

5

corner mews 48 dph 6terrace terrace +green

48 dph

7

40 dph

48 dph

terraced courtyard

garden square

48 dph

7 7

HOUSING TYPOLOGY CATALOGUE â&#x20AC;&#x153;Exploring New Housing Choices for Changing Lifestylesâ&#x20AC;? is a report produced by the Christchurch City Council in conjunction with JASMAX Architects. It aims to introduce a range of housing types to meet the density targets set by the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy (GCUDS). It shows that there are a wide range of potential housing typologies that can be adopted for areas that require higher density housing under the GCUDS.

courtyard 4 12terraced 6-storey corner

ph

108

Biran He

48 dph 148 dph

7

square 8garden walk-up apartments

40 dph72 dph

48 dph

walk-up corner

80 dph

8

walk-up 72 dph garden square 40 dph apartments garden square 40 dph 124 dph 5-storey court

11

cornercourt 9 11walk-up5-storey

80 dph124 dph

9

walk-up corner

80 dph

10

mixed unit corner

56 dph

6

terrace mews +green

10

mixed unit corner

56 dph

6

terrace mews +green

11

5-storey court

124 dph

12

6-storey corner

148 dph

unit corner corner 56 dph148 dph 10 12mixed 6-storey

10

12

8

6

mixed unit corner

6-storey corner

walk-up apartments

mews 8 terracewalk-up apartments +green

These alternative typologies also respond to the poor quality of many existing medium density developments in the city and offer alternative ways of building higher density housing using existing Christchurch plot sizes with improved spatial qualities. The report encourages City Council staff to work with developers and landowners to promote high quality residential developments around the city. It is also intended to help stakeholders to become aware of the diverse range of choices available for housing types, instead of the typical suburban developments on the fringe.

11

5-storey court

124 dph

12

6-storey corner

148 dph

8

walk-up apartments

7


ZONE 4

6 storey corner 5 storey court walkup corner walkup apartments

mixed use corner

terrace corner

terrace mews+green

terraced courtyard

garden court

four-square green

garden square

detached laneway ZONE 3

37

houses/ hectare

1

narrow section

40

houses/ hectare

44

houses/ hectare

2

standard sections

2

standard sections

48

houses/ hectare

1

standard section

48

houses/ hectare

1

standard section

48

houses/ hectare

2

standard sections

40

houses/ hectare

2

standard sections

72

houses/ hectare

2

standard sections

80

houses/ hectare

2

standard sections

56

houses/ hectare

2

standard sections

124 3

houses/ hectare standard sections

148

houses/ hectare

2

standard sections

ALTERNATIVE HOUSING TYPOLOGIES RELATIVE TO LIVING ZONES In recent years the problem of housing affordability has grown. Design and planning alone cannot solve this problem, but it can help by showing high-quality, cost-effective alternatives to traditional housing. Alternatives such as compact housing in central areas can require less land to achieve spacious and attractive homes, while reducing the daily travel costs. It is possible to design higher density housing solutions, in line with the Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plans, without increasing the housing density beyond living zones 3 or 4.

Urban Strategies | Infill vs. Sprawl

109


Event Locations

Existing Event Locations (2012)

Event Locations

Events Calendar

Event Locations JANUARY

Events Calendar

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

Proposed Event Locations Proposed Events Calendar

110

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

Erica Austin Existing Events Calendar (2012)

MAY

JUNE

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH APRIL JANUARY

Existing Events Calendar (2012)

Existing PROPOSED EVENT CALENDAR

Proposed Event Locations EXISTING EVENT CALENDAR (2012)

JANUARY

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBE

JULY

AUGUST

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

Proposed Events Calendar

Existing Event Locations (2012)

MARCH

MARCH

PROPOSED EVENT LOCATIONS JANUARY

FEBRUARY

FEBRUARY

Proposed Event Locations Proposed Events Calendar

Existing Event Locations (2012)

EXISTING EVENT LOCATIONS (2012)

JANUARY

Events Calendar

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

MAY FEBRUARY

JUNEMARCHJULY

AUGUST APRIL

Events Calendar (2012)

SEPTEMBER MAY

OCTOBER JUNE NOVEMBER

DECEMBER JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBE


2.6 DE-CLUTTERING OF EVENTS

Stemming from the Experience Economy research, the aim for the urban strategy is to create an infrastructure to support an eventful economy, which in turn would support the revitalisation of Christchurch. The proposal builds on an emerging initiative called, “The River of Arts,” which aims to connect different creative groups by threading them together through the city. Vacant sites throughout the city could be used to extend this programme beyond the CBD, taking the successful work of Gap Filler and Life in Vacant Spaces further. The River of Arts could act as framework for the different grassroots initiatives and become a platform for introducing a greater range of events into the city. The event calendar of 2012 shows that most events happen during summer in the CBD. This proposal introduces the idea of “decluttering” which aims to populate the event calendar by evenly distributing events throughout the year. This notion of de-cluttering is proposed in order to reduce duplications of events and attractions in a few venues, and instead distribute events throughout the city creating a more eventful and year-round event schedule. The goal is to make Christchurch a more connected city that encourages innovation and collaboration between creative disciplines through event making, and to improve the well-being of people and increase the overall quality of life.

Urban Strategies | De-cluttering of Events

111


merging Art Initiatives

Emerging Network Connecting

Christchurch Art Gallery COCA

Isaac Theatre Royal LUXCity

Residential Red Zone 6000+ Homes to be Demolished

CBD

Arts & Craft Studio Assistance 0

EPIC

Re:START

VACANT SITES As of May 2012 there were more than 800 buildings fully demolished in the CBD, totalling an area ArtBOX of approximately 62 hectares. Once all demolition from the earthquakes is complete, Christchurch will have lost 1,400 buildings in CBD alone, excluding the 10,000+ homes to be demolished throughout Christchurch. (Rebuild Christchurch, 2012)

CPIT

112

2.5

5

kilometres

Bridge of CBD Remembrance

Erica Austin

Vacant Sites

Emerging Netw (CERA, May 2012)

Vacant Sites

Vacant Sites

Red Zone

Red Zone

Emerging Netw Demolished Bu


Network twork Connecting ConnectingVacant VacantSites Sitesfrom fromDemolished DemolishedBuildings Buildings

4

4

6 3

2

2

1

1

7

7

5 8

6 3

5

8 9

10

Emerging Emerging Network Network Vacant Vacant Sites Sites Red Zone Red Zone

EMERGING NETWORK Emerging Emerging Network Network from from By connecting the various vacant sites a network emerges which links the city centre with other Demolished Buildings Buildings regions in Demolished Christchurch, such as Lyttelton, Sumner and New Brighton. Extending the arts and event infrastructure into outlying areas surrounding the CBD could help improve the quality of life for the whole of Christchurch. In places like New Brighton, which has a low socio-economic standing, events could be a welcome boost to their economy.

9

10

Potential Potential Regions Regions Potential Potential Regions Regions POTENTIAL REGIONS Nine regions with the greatest number of vacant sites were identified for further investigation to determine their potential to support the Experience Economy and develop event spaces outside the central city. These suburbs were mostly around the CBD and radiated out towards the east, south-east and southern part of Christchurch.

Urban Strategies | De-cluttering of Events

113


MERIVALE - PAPANUI

AVONSIDE - ARANUI

RICCARTON - WHARENUI

RAWHITI - NEW BRIGHTON

WOOLSTON WEST - FERRYMEAD

SYDENHAM - BECKENHAM

MT PLEASANT - SUM

WALTHAM - ENSORS

33,377m2 (5.3%) VACANT SITE TOTAL AREA

5%

27,052m (4.3%) 2

27,474m2 (4.4%)

4%

26,197m (4.2%) 2

19,062m2 (3.1%)

3%

18,293m2 (3%)

2%

13,076m2 (2.1

4,513m2 (0.7%)

1%

EVENT VENUE TOTAL AREA

0% 5000

2,047,919m2

4000

59,939m2

3000

14,920m2

2000 1000

249,896m2

26,325m2

165,512m2

650

620

3

4

3

1

1

50,096m2

0 m2

270

0

1

3

1

1

EVENT VENUE TOTAL CAPACITY

0

2000000

5,180

1500000 1000000 500000

2,950

0

1,515

1,250

AVAILABLE ACCOMMODATION

58 50

41

40 30 20 10

2

COMMUNITY FOCAL POINTS

0

114

Erica Austin

2

1

0

2 1

1

0


N

SYDENHAM - BECKENHAM

MT PLEASANT - SUMNER

WALTHAM - ENSORS

HEATHCOTE VALLEY - LYTTELTON

) 24,912m2 (4%) 18,293m (3%) 2

13,076m2 (2.1%)

4,513m2 (0.7%)

165,512m2

620

3

0

50,096m2

0 m2

0 m2

270

0

0

1

3

1

1

1

POTENTIAL REGIONS FOR EVENTS OUTSIDE THE CBD These nine regions are ranked according to their potential to become successful satellite event hubs. Their potential was measured based on calculating the available green spaces, existing community focal points, available accommodation, remaining event venues and the vacant sites. The darker the colour, the greater the potential for development. Identifying these various factors also reveals what is lacking within the areas, which suggests further development or enhancement in these regions may be required.

0 Urban Strategies | De-cluttering of Events

115


COLOMBO ST CATHEDRAL SQUARE

GLOUCESTER ST

WORCESTER ST

VACANT SITES ALONG GLOUCESTER STREET

GLOUCESTER STREET Gloucester Street passes through the central city “red-zone,” a cordoned area that has been in place since the February 22nd earthquakes in 2011. The street opened to pedestrians just before the LUXcity event, and on the night of the event many people were coming to the city centre for their first time since the earthquakes. While the area was heavily effected by the earthquakes, it still remains urban in that there are a few remaining tall buildings. However, there was not a single

116

Erica Austin

business open and the entire area was vacated. LUXcity brought life back to this area, and for just one night it was again a city alive with activity. The students’ projects were located along various vacant sites to create an urban atmosphere that was unique to Christchurch at that moment in time.


CLIENT/ PROGRAMMES

LUXCITY CURATION

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

SITE AVAILABILITY/ SIZE

STUDENT PROJECTS

LUXcity was a live case study within Christchurch’s city centre, and an example of how an event can transform the urban fabric through the use of vacant sites and creative installations. Such events can act as primary drivers for Christchurch’s rebuild and attract people, capital and employment back to the city.

MACHINERY REQUIREMENT

LUXCITY LUXcity, the opening event for the Festival of Transitional Architecture (FESTA), was a city made from light for one night. Over 350 architecture and design students from across New Zealand designed and built 16 installations for pop-up functions: bars, cafés, live music venues, theatre and a gallery. The whole of Christchurch was invited to return to the vacant city centre on the 20th of October 2012 to enjoy and experience this unique urban atmosphere. The designs used light in conjunction with large-scale demolition machinery to create structures that were both ephemeral and contended with the vastness of the urban scale. LUXcity addressed the potential of transitional projects to stimulate collaboration, explore a range of architectural possibilities, regenerate the central city and create excitement and hope for the city’s burgeoning recovery.

The project was organised as a collaboration between the School of Architectural Studies at CPIT, the School of Architecture and the School of Design at Victoria University Wellington, the Architecture Department at Unitec, the Spatial Design Department at Auckland University of Technology, and the School of Architecture and Planning at The University of Auckland. The Christchurch-based businesses and organisations that provided the activities and entertainment for LUXcity were experienced operators from across the hospitality, retail and arts and culture sectors. Each studio partnered with a local “client” which included: Beach Bar, The Darkroom, George Parker (Free Theatre), POD, Volstead, Black Betty’s Café, Cassels Brewery, The Twisted Hop, Fledge, Infinite Definite, Richard Till, Pure Pulp, Lyttelton Coffee Company, Southern Expresso Rescue, and White Elephant Trust.

Urban Strategies | De-cluttering of Events

117


URBAN ELEVATION OF LUXCITY (20.10.2012)

KLOUD 118

Erica Austin

K-LOUD School: SoAP Client: White Elephant Trust Programme: Youth Venue

ELITE School: SoAP Client: Volstead Programme: Bar

ARCHROBATICS School: Unitec Client: Beach Bar Programme: Bar

ARCHROBATICS

TEAM TENSILE School: Unitec

ALTITUDE SOUND CONE School: Unitec School: Unitec Client: Cassels & Son Client: Fledge Programme: Bar Programme: Live Performance


ATMOSPHERE School: SoAP Client: Twisted Hop Programme: Bar

SILHOUETTE CARNIVAL

MURMUR School: SoAP Client: Richard Till Programme: Food

IN YOUR FACE School: SoAP Client: Infinite Definite Programme: Fashion Event

ETCH A SKETCH School: SoAP Client: Black Betty’s Programme: Cafe

ETCH-A-SKETCH Urban Strategies | De-cluttering of Events

119


Knowledge-Based Society

Multi-Modal City

Quality of Life

Renewable Energy

INNOVATION TRANSPORTATION ENERGY EDUCATION HOUSING EVENTS

ECONOMIC RESEARCH


Eventful City

Green Zone

Lifelong Learning

URBAN STRATEGIES

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS


122


3.0 ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

Emerging from the economic research and development of urban strategies are architectural examples. Shared among them is the aim to find catalysts for development rather than defining solutions for a distant future exemplified by most conventional master planning. To do this, each project designed a framework capable of adapting to change, which are represented through a series of case studies. Alex Haryowiseno takes EPIC as a seed project and proposes a framework for development for future phases of growth. His aim is to attract investors from various innovative research and development companies by promoting dynamic zoning that responds to changing demands. Che Wei (Jacky) Lee developed a series of stations that seamlessly bring together the different modes of transport in order to reduce travel costs and time by creating choice and efficiency in the transportation network. In the Energy Economy, Zhi Jian (David)

Wong proposes a Green Zone to showcase sustainable living, working and playing. Starting with this initial development, the ideas could then spread throughout the city. Biran He developed housing that adapts to trends and transforms over time to meet changing demographics. Praveen Karunasinghe designed modular units for creative learning spaces: the learning lounges are directed towards younger students, while the mediatheques are aimed at life-long learning facilities. Both provide community spaces and are open and inviting to the public. Erica Austin explores how the shift from an event city (static venues) to an eventful city (transformational venues) can be achieved through the design of an event hub for the Arts Circus, with satellite structures that populate the city at different times of the year. All these projects relate to one another, recognising that a city is multifaceted, and the economic regeneration of Christchurch relies on the interaction between the different initiatives, voices and interests.

Architectural Systems | Introduction

123


1. IDENTIFY URBAN FABRIC & GRID

2. PROXIMITY TO HIGH TRAFFIC FLOWS

3. IDENTIFY EXISTING PROGRAMS & VALUE

4. IDENTIFY VACANT PLOTS

5. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ADJACENT PROGRAMMES

6. DETERMINE FOCAL POINTS OF DEVELOPMENT

124

Alex Haryowiseno


3.1 DYNAMIC ZONING

The non-linear process of innovation calls for a dynamic urban planning language that is able to accommodate change and react to demand. This is where the Cellular Automata responsive system becomes a useful model. Cellular Automata is essentially defined by two aspects: it is set up using a regular grid, and cells have the ability to respond to their environment. By following a series of conditional statements, a highly dynamic process emerges from the recursive steps taken through this cellular logic. This system is designed to respond to changing socio-economic demands as well as provide a model to assess possible scenarios. The advantage of this system is that it accommodates the ever-changing nature of innovation by providing a framework for organic growth rather than a deterministic outcome for an unknown future.

Generate program Generate based program on analysis based on analysis 7. GENERATING NEW ZONING TYPOLOGIES

(4)

(5)

(5)

(6)

(6) Architectural Systems | Dynamic Zoning

125


1. (EPIC & CPIT)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

URBAN GROWTH PROCESS The Cellular Automata urban growth logic is applied to the Innovation Precinct site, where the The Enterprise Precinct and Innovation Campus (EPIC) business incubator and the Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT) buildings are the catalyst for the development (shown by the two business and one education components in the first grid, respectively). This sequence shows a preliminary testing of the Cellular Automata script logic. By establishing a conditional framework to guide the development, the system is able to generate land use zoning parameters that will subsequently inform the architecture proposal.

126

Alex Haryowiseno


Live

Work

Learn

Leisure

Work

Business

Learn

Education

Leisure

Events

Live

Living

In order to maintain a business and lifestyle ecosystem that attracts and retains the educated workforce as well as enables the transfer of knowledge between institutions and businesses, it is important to consider an urban growth model that goes beyond the provision of workspaces. The interaction between working and learning components becomes key to the cycle of knowledge creation and innovation. This creates a business ecosystem that sustains the development of knowledge and new intellectual properties. In addition the interaction between living, leisure and learning components creates the lifestyle ecosystem necessary to attract and retain the educated workforce as critical mass.

MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT

Architectural Systems | Dynamic Zoning

127


BUSINESS

LIVING

EDUCATION

EVENTS

LAND USE ZONING APPLICATION Following the Cellular Automata growth process, the land use zoning parameter is mapped onto the Innovation Precinct site. This is a test case in which an urban system can generate one of many possible scenarios.

128

Alex Haryowiseno


EPIC PHASE 1 SITE

DEMOLISHED BUILDINGS

EXISTING BUILDINGS

VACANT LOTS

LAND TO BE DEVELOPED

EPIC EPIC is an initiative that aims to foster the growth of technology and high value manufacturing companies in Christchurch. The long term plan involves forming a hub and campus that is expected to attract more than 100 companies, which equates to approximately 1500 jobs. The CCDU Innovation Precinct site is the test case site for the sake of this proposal, and EPIC the catalyst for the development. If successful the long term vision could be to re-purpose Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s industrial zones. An analysis of the site shows the buildings that could be retained, vacant lots and therefore the possible land area to be developed within the Innovation Precinct site.

Architectural Systems | Dynamic Zoning

129


IDENTIFY URBAN GRID TYPE

DEFINE CORE PLACEMENT

DEFINE PROGRAMME PLANES

STITCH TOGETHER PLANES THROUGH STRUCTURAL CORE

BUILDING SYSTEM LOGIC DIAGRAM

130

Alex Haryowiseno


LINEAR TYPOLOGY

CENTRALIZED TYPOLOGY

DIAGONAL TYPOLOGY

Architectural Systems | Dynamic Zoning

131


LINEAR TYPOLOGY

132

Alex Haryowiseno

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS & EDUCATION

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS & EDUCATION

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS & EVENTS

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS & EVENTS

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS

CENTRALISED TYPOLOGY


ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS & EDUCATION

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS & EVENTS

ZONING SCENARIO: BUSINESS

The architectural system mediates the model of organic urban growth with a building language that responds to variable demands. Inherent in the design of the architecture is the need to provide for a range of different mixed-use building typologies generated by the Cellular Automata growth system. Three case studies are explored along High Street. Each site typology is a test case showing how the architectural system can relate to the urban context as well as accommodate different programmatic needs. These three test case typologies illustrate the flexibility of the system to be applied to different site conditions. The test cases conform to the available land parcel shapes along the Innovation Precinct site which includes a linear, centralised, and diagonal typology. Inherent in the design of each of the case studies is a circulation spaces that brings together the different uses and creates spaces for interaction. It is this space that is critical to innovation as it has been identified that the shared space becomes an incubator for propagating new ideas.

DIAGONAL TYPOLOGY

Architectural Systems | Dynamic Zoning

133


134

Alex Haryowiseno


Architectural Systems | Dynamic Zoning

135


5 X 5 GRID

LIFT UP CORNER

5 X 5 Grid5 X 5 Grid 5 X 5 Grid

ace for Movement Flow

Modular System

pace for Movement Flow

MODULAR SYSTEM

Modular System

136

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

Lift Up Corner Lift Up Corner Lift Up Corner

Base Module: Strip

Modular System

Hiearchy of Movement

Module: Strip CUT STRIPBase MODULE

Base Module: Strip

CREATED SPACE UNDERNEATH

Created Space Created Space Created Space

Space forSpace Movement for Movement Space Flow for Mo Flo

Vertical Circulation

Hiearchy of Movement HIERARCHY OF MOVEMENT

Hiearchy of Movement

Vertical Circu

Ver


3.2 MODULAR INTERCHANGES

SPACE FOR MOVEMENT FLOW

Created Space

Hiearchy of Movement

Space for Movement Flow

Implementing a multi-modal transportation system that seamlessly connects different modes of transport would help to create a more efficient transportation network. Designing interchange nodes within the multi-modal network allows for easy access between different modes of transportation. The identifiable architecture is achieved through a modular system of construction that can be applied across a variety of scales. This modular system is based on a strip module that is lifted on its end to create space. By recombining this strip, a number of different permutations Modular System Base Module: Strip are created, addressing the need to design for a range of scales.

Vertical Circulation VERTICAL CIRCULATION

Architectural Systems | Modular Interchanges

137


STRIP MODULE

SHELTERED SPACE

SEAT + CANOPY

MULTI-DIRECTIONAL

Small Small Small Module Module Module Module S SSSmall S This This This configuration This configuration configuration configuration cancan cater can cater can cater forcater for both for both for both sides both sides sides ofsides aofbus of a bus aoflane. bus a lane. bus lane. lane. S SMALL MODULE

138

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

M


Train

Bus

Bike Share

Car Share

Bus

Bike Share

MEDIAN BUS STOP

S M L

Train

XL S

Car Share

TRAIN STOP

M L XL ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING STATION

Architectural Systems | Modular Interchanges

139


90° ROTATION The “medium” module is derived by rotating the previous “small” module.

M

BIKE SHARE + FIXTATION INTEGRATION Arranging the modules in this way creates larger bus stop areas while the middle can be used for bike “fixtation” services. Bike sharing service can also be integrated.

Medium Medium Medium Module Module Module M M M Seperated Seperated Seperated bike path bike bike and path path bus and and waiting bus bus waiting waiting area area area

MEDIUM MODULE

140

SEPARATE SPACES This rotation creates separated spaces to accommodate dedicated cycle lanes in the middle while the two outer spaces can be used as bus stops on a median bus strip.

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

L


Train Train

SS

Bus Bus

Bike Share Share Bike Share CarCar Share

BUS STOP + BIKE SHARE The image on the left is an example of how a â&#x20AC;&#x153;mediumâ&#x20AC;? module can sit on a median bus strip to accommodate both bus stops and bike-sharing stations.

MM LL XLXL DEDICATED CYCLE LANE Proposed as part of the urban strategy, dedicated cycle lanes run in the middle of the median bus strip. This gives cyclists access to safe and reliable dedicated cycle lanes down key bus corridors.

Architectural Systems | Modular Interchanges

141


MIRROR The “large” module is derived by mirroring the “medium” module along its long axis.

L L

Large Module

BATTERY STORAGE The leftover space is used as storage space for batteries ready to be swapped.

Tunnel for battery switch station and battery storage space

LARGE MODULE

142

BATTERY SWITCH STATION This creates a 6-metre wide tunnel, which can accommodate electric vehicle battery switch stations.

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee


Train Train Train

SSS

Bus Bus Bus

Bike Share Share Bike Share Share Bike ShareCarCar Car Share

MULTI-MODAL INTERCHANGE

MMM LLL XLXLXL

Architectural Systems | Modular Interchanges

143


S

Small Module

dium Module

erated bike path and bus STRIPwaiting MODULE area

LIFT INNER SECTION

L

RAILWAY + BIKE LANE The railway and a dedicated bike lanes run underneath the structure.

XL EXTRA LARGE MODULE

144

Che Wei (Jacky) Lee

Seperated bike path and bus waiting area

Tunnel and battery storage space INTERCHANGE ENTRANCE BRIDGEfor battery switch station Create a bridge structure over the railway track.

Extra Large Module as Train Interchange Medium Module M XL L Footbridge railway track. Seperated bike pathover and bus waiting area

ange

Medium Module

Large Module

The strip module is placed along the two sides of the railway track, with the middle part raised.

a bus lane.

M

This configuration can cater for both sides of a bus lane.

ACCESSIBLE ROOF The roof is accessible to pedestrians and cyclists, connecting the two sides of the railway track.

Large Module

The ends of the structure are extended and widened to be used for entrances.

Tunnel for battery switch station and battery storage space

ROOFTOP PUBLIC SPACE The middle strip, which is flat, becomes a public space.

FLEXIBLE SYSTEM This modular system can be multiplied to allow for expansion when necessary.


Train Train Train Train

SS S S MMM M

Bus Share Car BusBusBusBike Bike Share CarShare Share Bike Share Car Share Bike Share Car Share

INVITATION TO ROOFTOP Ramps on either side of the entrance invite people to access the rooftop, as well as bridge over the railway track.

LL L L XL XLXLXL ROOFTOP GARDEN

Architectural Systems | Modular Interchanges

145


Zero

Airport

Green Zone

CBD

Seaport

146

Zhi Jian (David) Wong


3.3 OPTIMAL ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Capitalising on the projected increase in population, a Green Zone is proposed in the west, creating a self-sustaining prototype district that demonstrates the principles of zero-carbon design. The aim is for the Green Zone to become a public demonstration of sustainable living and working through various scales of design; from green community living to businesses that make renewable energy technology. The success of the Green Zone relies on a strong connection to the CBD and the seaport via rail and the airport via a transport corridor, as outlined in the Transportation Economy. The jobs created could fill the declining manufacturing employment sector with high value employment in technology-driven companies, as outlined in the Innovation Economy. In order to create an attractive lifestyle, a range of events and learning facilities are integrated into the Green Zone, as explained in the Experience Economy and the Creative Economy. Working in conjunction with the notion of life-long learning, the Green Zone operates as a key education hub, serving as a campus for “green education.” By manifesting the knowledge and technology behind green living through multiple showcases within the city’s fabric, the Green Zone demonstrates how to live, work, play and learn in a more sustainable way.

Architectural Systems | Optimal Ecological Systems

147


STAGE 1

STAGE 2

STAGE 3

STAGE 4

148

Zhi Jian (David) Wong


STAGE 5: ORGANIC GROWTH PROCESS The Green Zone demonstrates an organic growth process, similar to the Cellular Automata urban growth model explained in the Innovation Economy, a framework is developed that accommodates unforeseen implications given the unpredictable nature of the future. The framework is a system for growth rather than a â&#x20AC;&#x153;plannedâ&#x20AC;? masterplan with a pre-defined end solution. The first step in this growth process is to identify the key node within the site, which is the proposed transportation station. From there, development grows into the adjacent parcels. The programmatic functions are determined by the size of the parcel and the relationship to its surroundings. In the case study shown, the process is frozen and a snapshot of what the architecture could look like is shown.

Architectural Systems | Optimal Ecological Systems

149


EQUAL

EQUAL

rametric Control Points

Parametric control over aerodynamic profile curve

Aerodynamic profile curve projected to sides

Environmental Parameters

Wind Flow Optimization

Natural Daylight Optimization

Rain Water Harvesting

WIND FLOW OPTIMIZATION

SOLAR GAIN OPTIMIZATION

NATURAL DAYLIGHTING OPTIMIZATION

RAIN WATER HARVESTING

The prevailing winds are from east-northeast, north-west and south-west. The massing is designed so that the wind flows above the form with minimal turbulence and can be guided to where it can be useful, and away from where it would be problematic.

The form is designed to have maximum solar radiation so the energy can be converted to electricity via photovoltaic panels.

To increase the energy efficiency of the buildings, the form is adjusted to optimize natural daylighting. This results in a central hole that merges with diagonal voids to allow for maximum diffusion of natural daylight within the lower interior levels.

The organic nature of the form provides for edible gardens located at the corners of the building. Rain water flows into these gardens and can be harvested via a filtration system.

ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS

150

Solar Gain Optimization

Zhi Jian (David) Wong


Parametric Form Generation

EQUAL

EQUAL

tric Control Points

Parametric control over aerodynamic profile curve

Aerodynamic profile curve projected to sides

AERODYNAMIC PROFILE CURVE

ADJUSTED FORM

The architecture is informed by the concept of Morphogenesis, where the building is designed to work with nature, rather than against it, in order to maximise output while minimising input. The form of the buildings are shaped to take advantage of wind flow, optimise solar gain, maximise natural daylight, and allow for rainwater harvesting. This parametric framework is implemented across individual sites, which then creates a range of forms respective of scale and context.

Environmental Parameters

Wind Flow Optimization

Solar Gain

Natural Daylight

PARAMETRIC CONTROL POINTS Optimization Optimization The parametric framework starts by defining a bounding box in relation to the planned area for the programmatic functions. Then an optimized curvature for wind flow is created through CFD analysis, where the profile is aligned to the prevailing wind flow on the site. This profile curve is created by using control points that manipulate the curvature. The next step is to project this curve to the edges of the bounding box and merge these resultant curves to create a surface.

Rain Water Harvesting

Architectural Systems | Optimal Ecological Systems

151


SOLAR GAIN PRINCIPLES A solar simulation is run to analyze the total energy generated from the building. Each form is ranked according to it performance and the best is selected. This process is repeated until an optimal form is derived.

WIND FLOW ANALYSIS Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, the form is controlled to create a clear divide between high and low speeds. This can be translated into the architecture where higher speed winds can be channelled and used for natural ventilation, and where there are lower wind speeds circulation corridors can be located.

152

Zhi Jian (David) Wong


SOLAR IVY PANELS Solar Ivy is a new and innovative Solar Photovoltaic Panel that is inspired from the form and function of leaves on a tree. Solar Ivy has already been implemented in various projects around the world, but it is still a new product and is in need of more funding to become commercially competitive. Hence, implementation of such innovative technologies would attract innovators to grow their business in the fertile environment created by the Green Zone. (SMIT, 2011)

DOWNLAND GRIDSHELL SYSTEM Buro Happold has developed and patented, the design for a nodal clamp for the use of a double lattice Gridshell system; otherwise known as, the Downland Gridshell. The Clamp consists of three plates and are held together by four bolts. The central plate has a rod that penetrates the laths, thus fixing their relative arrangement but still enabling them to rotate. Another advantage of this component is that it can be easily accommodated to be attached to additional bracing, where required. This bracing would absorb both compression and tension forces; and cladding can be installed directly onto this bracing member. (Richard Harris, 2004) EXPLODED STRUCTURAL AXONOMETRIC

Architectural Systems | Optimal Ecological Systems

153


GREEN ZONE CROSS SECTION The concept is to create a showcase where living, working, playing and learning can be done in a village like setting. The Green Zone is a place where design ideas can be prototyped and once perfected, replicated throughout the city.

154

Zhi Jian (David) Wong


GREEN BUILDING PERFORMANCE The building emulates an eco-system: with solar ivy panels that collect the harsh direct sunlight, while still allowing natural daylight to be diffused into the space; a thermal chimney to help naturally ventilate the building; and ultra-lightweight EFTE panels both insulate and maintain a comfortable temperature by running water pipes through a centralised biomass generator.

Architectural Systems | Optimal Ecological Systems

155


Spaces

CATALOGUE OF NECESSARY SPACES The creative learning programmes consists of a balance between individual, collaborative and community-based learning environments. The different environments can be complimentary, for example, free WIFI spaces could attract the community into a public learning lounge, and on their way they might pass through adjacent exhibition spaces taking in student work.

156

Praveen Karunasinghe

Intended User Group

Learning Space


3.4 DISTRIBUTED CLASSROOMS

The proposed architecture is modular and can be assembled to create different scales of learning facilities targeting a range of possible ages. The design is based on a flexible system that can adapt to different demands based on learning types, scale and location. Three types of learning environments are possible: learning lounges are designed to target the younger generations, while the mediatheques are life-long learning facilities for adults and can be tailored to suit specific high skilled learning; finally, learning hubs are designed for teaching staff to collaborate and develop curriculum or train new staff.

Architectural Systems | Distributed Classrooms

157


Design Process

1

2

3

4

5

North South East

6

West

7

8

Indicative S

distance = f(x) Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

20 of speration

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

e

an

t Pl Cu

17

18

19

20

The Voronoi System

The design for these informal classrooms was derived from Voronoi geoemetry.

THE VORONOI SYSTEM The Voronoi based design process culminated in the generation of eight modules. Each of the modules is comprised of two units, a lower and upper floor. Apart from the two grey modules, the remaining six Voronoi cells are symmetrical. The grey modules act as intermediate units, mediating the transition between the other cells. This results in highly adaptable, meandering geometric arrangements.

158

Praveen Karunasinghe

21

22

23

Possible Sc


55o

7

8

Indicative Section

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

20 of speration

15

16

e

55o

lan

tP Cu

23

Indicative Section

INDICATIVE SECTION The 55째 pitch is a balance between suburban envelopes and maximising the usability of the interior space. The steep angle of the roof pitch makes for a high ceiling and promotes natural stack ventilation. The rainwater runoff is either directed to a gutter system housed within the mass of the building or is directed to courtyard spaces to water plants. The design allows the facade to be free of down pipes and other such services. The different levels not only help to differentiate between the public programmes on the ground floor and the private learning spaces on the upper floor, but the step in the levels also introduces more faces, increasing the opportunities for structural connections as well as introducing a space for a clerestory.

Possible Scenario

MODULAR SYSTEM The eight modules generate spatial relationships that function optimally in specific programmatic arrangements. The ground floor is dedicated to predominantly public programmes such as gallery and performance spaces. This means that upon entering the space one is met with a showcase of work produced by the students. These spaces will work in conjunction with the free community WIFI initiatives which will attract the general public to the creative learning spaces. The upper floor is dedicated to both individual and group-based learning spaces. The subtracted modules indicated in the diagram form internal courtyards and informal meeting spaces.

Architectural Systems | Distributed Classrooms

159


EXHIBITION SPACE The exhibition space has an active red colour with the obvious intention of emphasising drama. It is in this space that the exposed structure can be appreciated. The ceiling rafters/floor joists consist of what appears to be a collection of random timber polygons, however there are only two different members. This greatly reduces the complexity for construction purposes while maintaining the aesthetic of the cellular design. Additionally, there are clerestory light shelves connecting to the spaces above.

160

Praveen Karunasinghe

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING SPACE The collaborative learning spaces take full advantage of the geometry of the ceiling/walls for projection surfaces. The orange dominant interior encourages social interaction.


COURTYARD The courtyard has frosted glass tiles on the floor allowing for mini light-wells to the floor below. Due to the pitch of the surrounding rooves, rain is directed inward and can be collected to water the plants.

INFORMATION COMMONS Borrowing from colour theory, the information commons is designed for individual learning spaces using tones of purple which is said to be the colour of mystery and discovery. Its darker hue allows the room to function well even with direct solar penetration. The low-e glass has a purple tint which introduces softer daylight with a mild plum colour.

Architectural Systems | Distributed Classrooms

161


External walls

Steel frames

JOIST CELLS (NODE)

Timber louvres

Low emissivity glazing

Welded steel corner joints

JUNCTION DETAIL

Timber frames

Floor plan

Timber joists

JUNCTION CONSTRUCTION

162

Praveen Karunasinghe


LEARNING LOUNGE

Architectural Systems | Distributed Classrooms

163


Unit Planning Rules Unit Planning Rules Unit Planning Rules Unit Planning Rules Unit Planning Unit PlanningRules Rules

Atleast one side will face MINIMUM ONEgreenery. SIDE FACES GREEN Atleast oneside sideface willface facegreenery. greenery. Atleast one will east one side will greenery. Atleast one side will face greenery. Atleast one side will face greenery.

COMMERCIAL UNITS FACE THE STREET

North-east facing FACING greenGREEN facades actAS as NORTH-EAST FACADESto ACT North-east facing green facades to actasas North-east facing green facades to act North-east facing green facades to act as PREVAILING DAMPERS prevailing windWIND dampers. North-east facing green facades to as as prevailing wind dampers. prevailing wind dampers. prevailing dampers. North-eastwind facing green facades act to act prevailing wind dampers. prevailing wind dampers.

REMOVE UNITS FOR ACCESS

Green connectors separate GREEN CONNECTORS SEPARATE EACH DWELLING each dwelling. Green connectors separate eachdwelling. dwelling. Green connectors separate Green connectors separate eacheach dwelling. Green connectors separate each dwelling. Green connectors separate each dwelling.

SMALL UNITS ATTACH TO LARGER UNITS

Removing units for street access. Street facing units will be used for Small units always attach to larger units. Removing units forstreet street access. Street facing units will be used for Small unitsalways always attach larger units. Removing units for access. Street facing units will be used for Small attach totolarger Removing units for street access. Street facing units will be used for Small unitsunits always attach to larger units.units. commercial purposes. Removing units for for street access. Street facing units willwill be be used for for commercial purposes. Small units always attach to larger units. UNIT PLANNING RULES commercial purposes. commercial purposes. Removing units street access. Street facing units used Small units always attach to larger units. to diffuse harsh sunlight. To create a sense of privacy and distinction between each dwelling, The units are planned according to a few simple rules: to maximise views to greenery; to establish commercial purposes. commercial purposes. green connectors are used. These connector modules house small gardens or become pergolas for clear connections to surrounding context; and to create a mixed use development for both commercial and residential. This first and most important rule is for each unit to have a visual connection to greenery - it maybe direct access to a small indoor garden, a shared courtyard, or a view of trees. Where rooves are visable they will be planted and used for small gardens. North and east-facing faรงades will have green panels which will act as an organic damper for the prevailing wind. The green facade will also work as natural louvres during the summer months

164

Biran He

plants. The street-facing units on the ground level are allocated for commercial use, as these units have high rental values given their street frontage. Commercial spaces on the ground level will add value to the entire block, while also providing amenities for the residents. Units on the ground floor can be removed where access to the residential areas is required,


3.5 ADAPTABLE HOUSING

What Makes a House?

Unit Planning Rules S

Land

Single Type Studio

Living

Laundry Bedroom

M Couple Type

Garage Toilet

Kitchen Bathroom

The housing solution is comprised of a modular system that can be adapted to suit a range of demographics and peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s changing lifestyles. By breaking down the basic living unit into components of different scales, a recombination of these varying elements makes it possible to address the different user group requirements. And because it is a modular system, North-east facing green facades to act as Atleast one side will face greenery. it can be deployed to suit different sites and accommodate a broad range prevailing wind dampers. of dwelling densities. The aim is to address the urgent housing crisis with an efficient modular system that can immediately address the influx of workers, but in the future could adapt to changing demands. The advantage of this type of modular unit is that it can be reconfigured when the demographics change in the future. This system proves that adaptable infill housing is not only possible, but it is more economical than living in the outlying fringes.

L Family Type

Street facing units will be used for commercial purposes.

Removing units for street access.

WHAT MAKES A HOUSE?

Architectural Systems | Adaptable Housing

165


Single Bed

XS

S

M

Double Bed

M

L

Studio

Toilet

XS

XS

S

S

M

PROGRAMME TYPES The different programmes of a house fit into different sized modules, according to the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s preference. For example, a bedroom can be configured to different sized units depending on the user - it can be very small, to fit a single bed for a student, or it can be a large bedroom for a couple.

166

Biran He

Kitchen

Living Room

M

M

L

L


3m

L

M

S

3m

L

S

S

S

C

L

S

C

L

M

C

L

S

S

C

L

M

M

C

L

3m

C

C

S

S

M

M

M

M

C

C

4.8m

3m

S

L

S

M

S

3m

L

S

S

S L

C

3m

M

C

S

M

M

C

C

S

C

C

C

C

S

M

4.8m

3m

S

S

C

M

M

M

L

L

C

S

M

C

S

C

C

C

S

C

3m

S 2.4m

S

L C

L

M

4.8m

L

L

C

3m

S

L

S

M

S

3m

EXAMPLE DWELLING COMBINATIONS The house can adapt to change by adding or removing different modules. This builds into the design of the house a life cycle that accommodates change in demographics and demand in the housing market. This modular design also provides choice to buyers. As seen in earlier research this is lacking in Christchurch and could be addressed through smart design.

Architectural Systems | Adaptable Housing

167


studio

bedroom

studio

bedroom

walkway

garden

bathroom

Biran He

garden

bathroom

kitchen

living

kitchen

living

EXAMPLE DWELLING 3D AXONOMETRIC The design allows the user to make changes on many levels. Not only can the modules move, be added to or be removed, but within the modular units themselves one can change panels on the facade and interior. This allows some control over the relationship with changing external conditions, and gives the residents the capacity to adapt their living spaces to changing environments and lifestyle demands. Simple modules can be added to customise the house. such as terraces, canopies, pergolas and sun shades can be added to enrich the outdoor spaces. Sustainable solutions like photo-voltaic panels can also be added to the roof structure to improve

168

walkway

performance. There are no limits to how one could modify the interior to suit different needs because one can change entire panels. The plywood frame construction technique allows for adjustments to its interior by using interchangeable panels. The panels make it easy to reconfigure a space depending on the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s preference. An â&#x20AC;&#x153;exoskeletonâ&#x20AC;? made of glu-lam timber box sections creates a robust structure to support the stacking of the units. This frame structure can be added to or removed with the modules.


Architectural Systems | Adaptable Housing

169


sting Buildings)

2. Maximum Area

3. Building Envelope 1. Site Buildings) 2.(Existing Maximum Area

1. Site (Existing Buildings)

Maximum Area 3.2.Building Envelope

4. Co

COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL

Area = 3705 m2

Area = 3705 m2

HOUSING

Area = 3705 m2

Area = 3705 m2

2.Site Maximum Area 1. (Existing Buildings) 2. Maximum 5. Green Area Corridors

3. Building Envelope 2. Maximum Area 3. Building Envelope 5. Courtyards Green Corridors 6. GREEN CORRIDORS

MAXIMUM BUILDING AREA

HOUSING

4. Control3.Building Envelope Building EnvelopeHeights Courtyards 4. Control Building Envelope 7. 6. Unit Type Heights Distribution PROGRAMME DISTRIBUTION

4. Con7 1

Inner City Location (Residential Demo Site) Cnr Madras St & Glouchester St

Target:

2. Maximum Area

n Corridors

6. Courtyards

3. Building EnvelopeCOMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL HOUSING HOUSING

7. Unit Type Distribution

80 28 4. Control Building COMMERCIAL Envelope Heights SHOP

3705 sqm HOUSING 216 dph

Single Occupancy

S 

COMMERCIAL HOUSING Couples without children

M 

Couples with children

L 

4. Control Building Envelope Heights 6. Courtyards 6. Courtyards 5. Green Corridors BUILDING ENVELOPE

7. Unit Type Distribution 6. Type Courtyards 7. Unit Distribution COURTYARDS

8. Unit7.Layout 8. Unit Unit TypeLayout Distribution COURTYARD HOUSING TYPOLOGY

COMMERCIAL HOUSING

SITE PLANNING LOGIC The housing demonstration site proposed in the CCDU Blueprint (2012) was chosen for a case The layout of the site is based on a few rules. The existing buildings are identified and maintained. study. It is located in the CBD on the edge of the new Green Frame. The housing typology The maximum building area is calculated in relation to the existing buildings. The building envelopes is designed to accommodate a range of people from young singles to small families to empty are extruded form the maximum building areas, and their heights controlled according to context Distribution 8. Unit the Layout nesters. The aim6.isCourtyards to encourage community living in close proximity to work and play. The housing7. Unit andType existing building heights. Green corridors are then introduced to provide access throughout typology is targeted at aspiring creative workers and demonstrates a new alternative option for site. Courtyards branch off of the green corridors to provide shared spaces for the residents. All housing that challenges conventional suburban sprawl. street-facing units on the ground level accommodate commercial purposes; housing is distributed throughout the rest of the building envelope. The final form of the housing development will depend on how the residents decided to build their own dwellings. The rendering (right) shows an example of a fully developed site at peak density of 216 dwellings per hectare in 2030. 8. Unit Layout

170

Biran He


Architectural Systems | Adaptable Housing

171


EVENT FACILITIES

CBD DISTRIBUTION

URBAN STRATEGY

Events Calendar

Event Locations

JANUARY

172

Erica Austin

MARCH

APRIL

Existing Event Locations (2012)

Proposed Events Calendar

Proposed Event Locations

Existing Events Calendar (2012)

JANUARY

URBAN EVENT DISTRIBUTION

FEBRUARY

CBD EVENT DISTRIBUTION

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

EVENT FACILITIES

MAY

MAY

JUNE

JUNE

JULY

JULY

AUGUST

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

DECEMBER


2.6 TRANSFORMATIVE ARCHITECTURE

The design proposal embraces the transitional, where the architecture can respond to ever-changing programmes. This requires re-thinking the idea of conventional event architecture; which is often fixed and static. Instead the idea is to create an architectural system that can be reconfigured to encourage public engagement and create unexpected experiences with each new event. By providing facilities that can be used for a range of different events, life and vibrancy can be reintroduce into the city, which would benefit both the local residents and the tourism economy. Using this transformative system, the strategy of de-cluttering can be achieved to reduce duplications of events and attractions clustered within a few areas of the city. Working with both the permanent and transformative design applications, these would ultimately support Christchurch in becoming an eventful city. TRANSFORMATIVE ARTS CIRCUS

FIBONACCI SEQUENCE A modular system based on the Fibonacci sequence is proposed to provide spaces for events. This sequence allows for different design scales, and the transformative nature of this system allows for different configurations and promotes a range of programming. There are two typologies: transitional units and fixed units. The smaller 2m, 3m, 5m and 8m units are for the transitional programmes, and can be delivered to and assembled on any flat site. The larger 13m, 21m, 34m, and 55m units are used for a permanent hub for events, the Art Circus. The continuity in the design creates a recognisable architecture and gives an identity to events in the city, which supports the River of Arts concept.

Architectural Systems | Transformative Architecture

173


MARKET STALLS

WORKSHOP

EXHIBITION SPACE

PERFORMANCE HALL

174

Erica Austin


LOCAL PERFORMANCE SPACE

The transitional event units can be reconfigured to provide spaces for a range of events in the city. These facilities cater for any form or scale of events and are easily transportable. Their assembly is relatively fast as well. In the current situation of Christchurch, given the constraints of space, and scale, it was felt that a highly complex logistical operation was not what was required. Rather, to enable performers, artists and community organisations to build their own adequate, purpose-designed event facilities, these pre-fabricated elements seemed more appropriate. Using vacant sites from demolished buildings, events could pop up, giving the community the ability to engage in staging events in their areas. The transitional event architecture can be distributed throughout the city and can support such events as performances, markets, exhibitions, lectures and other community events. When these transformational events facilities are not in use around the city they are housed at the Art Circus, a central hub for the arts.

CONFERENCE SPACE

Architectural Systems | Transformative Architecture

175


Local Band Pavilion/Shelter Pavilion/Shelter Local Band Farmers Market/Farmers Market/Workshops Farmers Market/Pavilion/Shelter Workshops Farmers Market/ Workshops Workshops Community FunctionsCraft Fair Community Functions Craft Fair Craft Fair Craft FairCommunity Functions

TYPICAL MODULE TYPICAL MODULE

TYPICAL MODULE

TYPICAL MODULE

POSSIBLE POSSIBLE CONFIGURATION CONFIGURATION

POSSIBLE CONFIGURATION

POSSIBLE CONFIGURATION

POSSIBLE PLANS POSSIBLE PLANS

POSSIBLE PLANS

POSSIBLE PLANS

MODULE MODEL MODULE MODEL

MODULE MODEL

MODULE MODEL

176

Erica Austin

Art Exhibitions Local Band Art Exhibitions Pavilion/Shelter Community Functions

Church Church Local Art Exhibitions Band Dance Performance Dance Performance Orchestra/MusicOrchestra/Music Concert Concert

Church Com Art Exhibitions Dance Performance C Orchestra/Music Concert


n/Shelter Pavilion/Shelter Local Band orkshops Local Band y Functions Community Functions

Art Exhibitions Local Band Art Exhibitions

Church Church Art Exhibitions Dance Performance Dance Performance Orchestra/Music Concert Orchestra/Music Concert

Church Comedy Show/ Dance Performance Conference Orchestra/Music Concert

Comedy Show/ Conference

Comedy Show/ Conference

Architectural Systems | Transformative Architecture

177


PROGRAMME RELATION

178

Erica Austin


CIRCULATION Building Circulation Greenry Event Platforms Public Site Access

PROPOSED Proposed Buildings Greenry Platforms

The Arts Circus, a project originally conceived by George Parker and Jason Mill, is meant to provide performance spaces for everything from music gigs to stand-up comedy, busking to theatre. This proposal builds up-on their concept by offering a design solution that would incorporate transitional event facilities. The transformable nature of the modular events facilities means there is the possibility to rearrange the site for a particular event theme or idea. There is also the potential to develop a number of new events that would contribute to pushing Christchurch to becoming an eventful city. The Arts Circus creates a neighbourhood for the arts, reflecting the human-scale, integrated, grass-roots nature of the arts. The design would create a variety of smaller venues to allow for a greater range of arts and entertainment. Besides creating a peoplefriendly atmosphere, it would insure costs are low and demand high for the performances on site. The case study site is adjacent to the CCDU proposed Innovation Precinct.

EXISTING Retained Buildings Buildings to be Demolished

Architectural Systems | Transformative Architecture

179


GROUND LEVEL

LEVEL ONE

THE ARTS CIRCUS The Arts Circus is a â&#x20AC;&#x153;permanent transitionalâ&#x20AC;? complex that acts as a central hub for the performing arts. The modular events facilities are staged on the site when they are not in use in other parts of the city. Providing an infrastructure for events creates the possibility for a diversity of experiences. The Arts Circus design consists of four buildings with a central courtyard. Event platforms flank the courtyard and can be used with or without the modular event facilities. The four buildings create a loop around the central space, and are designed according to the following programmes: pre-show, workshop, showcase and collaboration spaces.

LEVEL TWO

180

Erica Austin


Architectural Systems | Transformative Architecture

181


Shaun Hardcastle

Murray Marquet

Tom Taylor

Geoff Butcher

Tim Church

HUB-id Leader

Director at Canterbury Power Solutions

Green Party

Consultant Economist at Butcher and Partners

Principal at Boffa Miskell

Michael Blyleven Senior Traffic Engineer New Zealand Transportation agency

Tim Bishop Vicky Buck

Coordinator at SHAC

Jonathan Ewing

Richard Carr

Solutions Architect at KLDR

Operations Manager at Trademark Investigation Services NZ

Coralie Winn

Ryan Reynolds

Coordinator at Gap Filler

Coordinator at Gap Filler

Robert Henderson

Edward Wright

Malcolm Locke

David Falconer

Director at Venture Bicycles

Operations Manager at Environment Canterbury

Director at Wholemeal Ltd

Senior Policy Planner

Martin Trusttum

Grant Wells

Stakeholder Manager

Business / Systems Analayst at Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority

Wil McLellen Will MacLellan

Jurg Honger

Wil McLellen Will MacLellan

Director at the Enterprise Precinct and Innovation Campus

Programme Manager at Tait Communicate

Director at the Enterprise Precinct and Innovation Campus

Jason Mill

Hugh Pavletich

Alastair Wells

Vicky Buck

Alan Booth

Architect at ZNO

Coordinator at Cantabrians Unite

Coordinator at Unlimited School

Ex-Mayor or Christchurch

EnaSolar

Kaila Colbin Social Media Marketer


Laura Taylor

Jessica Halliday

Deane Simmonds

George Parker

Rod Oram

Transitional City Coordinator at Christchurch City Council

Director of FESTA

Director at Lazy Fly Ltd

Lecturer at University of Canterbury

Political Commentator and Writer

Andrew Just Architect at F3 Designs

Sheralee Macdonald Windflow

Danny Squires

WikiHouse NZ

Jane Quigley

Matthew Ayton

Barnaby Bennett

Coordinator at the VIVA Project

Coordinator at Unlimited School

Publisher

Michael Fisher

David Sheppard

Christchurch City Council

President of NZIA

COLLABORATION


184


4.0 COLLABORATON

Initiatives in a range of fields such as arts, education and technology are informing the rebuild of the city, alongside government-initiated efforts. It was important therefore to engage with these organisations as well as government bodies. The aim of the many discussions and extensive research was to discover inherent assets in Christchurch in order to develop informed proposals. Through extensive discussions with a broad range of individuals it was clear that everyone we met shared one common interest: to rebuild Christchurch and make it a model city of the 21st century. The debate lingered on what that was and how to do it.

Collaboration | Introduction

185


FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH STUDIO, MARCH 2012 Camia Young (Advisor), Khang Phuong, Jacky Lee, Biran He, Erica Austin, Alex Haryowiseno, David Wong, Praveen Karuasinghe

FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH TEAM, OCTOBER 2012 top: Jacky Lee, Biran He, bottom: Praveen Karuasinghe, Erica Austin, Camia Young (Advisor), Alex Haryowiseno, David Wong

186


4.1 TEAM COLLABORATION

vid

MA

xH Ale

Da

ITO ED

Wo ng

GE M EN T

F

HIE

NC

RI

no ise

ow

NA

ar y

The outcomes achieved were made possible through working collaboratively as a team. Through setting up an office-like structure, a working and learning environment was created in which the sharing of knowledge was facilitated. This aspect required each team member to take on a unique role within the group, based on their individual strengths. The added benefits was we learned from each otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strengths and improved our own skills. Biran He

MARKETING

PUBLIC RELATIONS ust

Eric

aA

CO

AN SnMasinghe E OKKaru

P

SPraveen

in

OR

DIN

ATI ON

Jacky Lee

Locating the projects within the public realm also yielded a number of opportunities for the team. Each member was able to engage and build up a network of connections with the people involved in the rebuild of Christchurch. This process of interaction with local organisations and initiatives such as the Arts Circus, Unlimited School, EPIC and many others, informed the direction of each respective project. Not only did this help give the design a rooted foundation, but because of our collaborative working model we could draw crossovers between the different initiatives. We sincerely hope that the successful outcome of this approach, both as a learning model and as a way of creating discussions within the public realm, inspires future projects for the next generation of Future Christchurch courses, Studio Christchurch and beyond among the Christchurch community.

Collaboration | Team Collaboration

187


CHRISTCHURCH CONVERSATIONS AUGUST 2012 Hosts: Erica Austin, Chris Barton (Advisor), Alex Haryowiseno, Biran He, Praveen Karuasinghe, Jacky Lee, David Wong, Camia Young (Advisor) Invited Guests: INNOVATION: Richard Carr (CDC), Harry Knight (POD), Jason Mill (Pivinic), Martin Trusttum (CPIT) ENERGY: Geoff Butcher (Cooperative Sections), Richard Carr (CDC), Shaun Hardcastle (Aurecon), Harry Knight (POD), Murray Marquet (Canterbury Power), Tom Taylor (Green Party) HOUSING: Geoff Butcher (Cooperative Sections), Richard Carr (CDC), Michael Fisher (CCC), Shaun Hardcastle (Aurecon), Andrew Just (F3), Harry Knight (POD), Danny Squires (Space Craft) CREATIVE LEARNING: Matthew Ayton (School Unlimted), Richard Carr (CDC), Shaun Hardcastle (Aurecon), Harry Knight (POD), Jason Mill (Pivinic), Jane Quigley (Viva Project), Alastair Wells (School Unlimited), Coralie Winn (Gap Filler) CHRISTCHURCH CONVERSATION: PROTOTYPE CITY AUGUST 2012

EVENTS: Richard Carr (CDC), Jessica Halliday (FESTA), Shaun Hardcastle (Aurecon), Harry Knight (POD), Jason Mill (Pivinic), George Parker (Arts Circus), Deane Simmonds (Arts Circus), Laura Taylor (CCC) TRANSPORT: Michael Blyleven (NZTA), David Falconer (CCC), Shaun Hardcastle (Aurecon), Robert Henderson (Bicycle Ventures) Harry Knight (POD), Malcolm Locke (METRO Android App) PROTOTYPE CITY: Barnaby Bennett (Free Range Press), Tim Church (CCC), Jonathan Ewing (KLDR), Shaun Hardcastle (Aurecon), Rod Oram (Journalist), David Sheppard (Sheppard & Rout), Grant Wells (Nextant) AUCKLAND CONVERSATION MAY 2012: Martin Axe (Steven Leach Partners), Dushko Bogunovich (Associate Professor, UNITEC), Matthew Bradbury (Senior Lecturer, UNITEC), Marianne Riley, Architect (Associate Architect at Jasmax Ltd.), Aaron Sills, Architect (Sills van Bohemen Architects)

AUCKLAND CONVERSATION MAY 2012

188


4.2 PUBLIC CONVERSATIONS

During the year we hosted two conversations that were invaluable for the progress of the work: one in Auckland (May 2012) and another in Christchurch (August 2012). The aim of the conversations were to bring together a wide range of professionals to discuss the practical implications of the proposed projects and gather informed feedback. The willingness of the invited guests to offer their time and input during these conversations was proof to us that there is a shared belief that from the crisis of the earthquakes there is a unique potential for Christchurch to become a model city of the 21st century. What was particularly notable about these conversations was that people with similar interests who would not otherwise come together to think through creative solutions had the opportunity to do so. These conversations extended the collaborative model beyond the studio and into the public realm.

Collaboration | Public Conversations

189


Martin Axe (Steven Leach Partners), Matthew Ayton (Unlimited School), Barnaby Bennett (Free Range Press), Tim Bishop (SHAC), Mark Billinghurst (HitLAB), Michael Blyleven (NZ Transportation Agency), Dushko Bogunovich (UNITEC), Irene Boles, Alan Booth (EnaSolar), Matthew Bradbury (UNITEC), Vicky Bucky(Christchurch Ex-Mayor), Geoff Butcher (Butcher and Partners), Richard Carr (CDC), Tim Church (Boffa Miskell), Kaila Colbin (Ministry of Awesome), Jonathan Ewing (KLDR), David Falconer (CCC), Michael Fisher (CCC), Jessica Halliday (FESTA), Shaun Hardcastle (Aurecon), Robert Henderson (Venture Bicycles), Jurg Honger (Tait Communications), Bernd Gundermann (Stephenson & Turner), Andrew Just (F3 Designs), Harry Knight (POD), Gun Lee (HitLAB), Malcolm Locke (Wholemeal Ltd), Sheralee Macdonald (Windflow), Murray Marquet (Canterbury Power Solutions), Wil McLellan (EPIC), Jason Mill (ZNO, Pivinic), Hugh Nicholson (CCC), Rod Oram (Political Commentator), George Parker (Free Theatre, Art Circus, Arts Voice), Hugh Pavletich (Cantabrians Unite), Jane Quigley (VIVA Project), Ryan Reynolds (LiVS), Uwe Rieger (The University of Auckland), David Sheppard (NZIA President), Aaron Sills (Sills van Bohenmen Architects), Deane Simmonds (Lazy Fly Ltd), Danny Squires (WikiHouse NZ), Laura Taylor (CCC), Tom Taylor (Green Party), Martin Trusttum (CPIT), Nicky Wagner (Christchurch National MP), Charles Walker (AUT), Alastair Wells (Unlimited School), Grant Wells (Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority), Coralie Winn (Gap Filler), Edward Wright (Environment Canterbury)

190


4.3 PUBLIC COLLABORATIONS

The aim from the start of the thesis year was to extend beyond the academic realm to locate the projects within the current context of Christchurch. We were only able to do this by engaging with people who were involved with the proposed developments. Because of how the work was divided between us, we were able to reach out to a wide spectrum of professionals. While we each developed individual projects that could stand on their own, we also gave them a framework that could be read as a whole. It meant we could have both specific and general conversation with a wide range of individuals. The process of discussion and feedback helped give a strong practical grounding to the proposals. And being a student-based group gave us a privileged neutral position in analysing the current problems and coming up with possible solutions. This process of public collaboration created a connection between academia and the professional realm, through which all who were involved gained valuable knowledge.

Collaboration | Public Collaborations

191


FESTA PRESENTATION, JACKY LEE

FESTA PRESENTATION, ERICA AUSTIN

192


4.4 PUBLIC PRESENTATIONS

Upon completing our project, we were invited to make two presentations in Christchurch: first to the Christchurch City Council and then to a wider public audience during the Festival of Transitional Architecture (FESTA). On both occasions we were met with overwhelmingly positive responses and were often asked when and how the work could be accessed. The work is available our blog: www.futurechristchurch.wordpress.com. As well, we were sponsored by Aurecon to make this abridged version of our six thesis books. It is rewarding to know that what we have completed could help to shape the future of Christchurch, even if it is simply to introduce alternative ideas on how to approach design problems. After the FESTA presentation, one of the attendees talked with us about the future of Christchurch and how what we were doing by focusing on the potentials and looking for catalyst projects was exactly what Christchurch needed and should be doing. These kind of bottom-up transitional projects have already proven to be successful, as can be seen from the Gap Filler initiatives and the spectacular one night event of LUXcity. We sincerely hope the work we have presented here will lead to further discussions and inspire bottom-up design thinking.

Collaboration | Team Presentations

193


NZIA PRESENTATION NOVEMBER 2012

THESIS BOOKS AVAILABLE THROUGH BLURB.COM

194

NZIA JURY CITATION “This is an exceptionally professional treatment of a challenging situation – the reconstruction of post-earthquake Christchurch – presented in an exemplary manner. Indeed, the presentation would be the envy of many professional bodies or agencies. The rigour of the research is evident, as is the concerted effort to make sense of the findings. The whole exercise demonstrates the virtue of collaboration; the project could not have been realised to this level if it had not been a collective effort. Therefore, besides being admirable in itself, it shows the way forward for the architectural profession by highlighting the skills architects bring to complex urban problems.”


4.5 NZIA STUDENT DESIGN AWARDS

The NZIA Graphisoft Student Design Awards is an annual competition that highlights the top thesis student projects in New Zealand, and is chosen from the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s three schools of architecture (The University of Auckland, UNITEC and Victoria University). The Future Christchurch group was fortunate enough to be given the opportunity to compete as one of the twelve finalist projects. A First Prize, as well as two Highly Commended titles were choosen by a judging panel consisting of David Sheppard (President of NZIA), Bergendy Cooke and Ian Moore. The competition presented the group with a challenging format: to present the six proposals within just 20 minutes, rather than 90 minutes as previously done in the FESTA and CCC public presentations. Once again, this competition served as an avenue to test our collaborative skills. The presentation became a consolidation of the yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work and acted as an introduction to the in-depth information offered in each of our theses. The Future Christchurch team was honoured with a Highly Commended award, which was an extraordinary acknowledgment from the profession, especially given it was the first time a team project was allowed to be entered into the competition. We are extremely grateful for the acknowledgment, especially as it has extended the work to an even wider audience.

Collaboration | NZIA Student Design Awards

195


Kiw G

Kiw G

INNOVATION ECONOMY

TRANSPORT ECONOMY

GREEN ECONOMY

CREATIVE ECONOMY

HOUSING ECONOMY

EXPERIENCE ECONOMY

Alex Haryowiseno

Jacky Lee

David Wong

Praveen Karunasinghe

Biran He

Erica Austin

FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH THESIS 2012

196

Kiw G


SECRET WEAPON

ADVISOR

ADVISOR

Khang Phuong

Chris Barton

Camia Young

Special thanks to Khang Phuong, who was working with the Future Christchurch studio and whom we sincerely appreciated as our structural backbone and dear friend. And of course we need to give a genuine thank you to Chris Barton, our thesis advisor who offered us endless support with regards to addressing the political nature of this project. The background knowledge and support Chris provided was crucial in developing the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s critical arguments. And lastly and perhaps most importantly thank you to Camia Young, who with her spirit and energy brought the team together and guided us through this incredible year.

Collaboration | Future Christchurch Thesis 2012

197


vellupt aspere, vellupt odipsunt aspere, est,odipsunt nem ulpa est,ipsum nem ulpa laboriipsum omnislabori dellupti omnis nonsequam dellupti nonsequam doluptis Nusdoluptis es Nus es The Future Christchurch The Future project Christchurch brings project together brings a group together of six a thesis group students of six thesis from students the University from the of Auckland’s University of Auckland’s molorest, que molorest, pe milisque illabo. pe milis Obitius illabo. quiaObitius evelitam quia id quo evelitam verorei id quo caecti verorei occaborro caectiintum occaborro utem intum utem School of Architecture Schoolnossenis of and Architecture Planning and to quia engage Planning in to a collective engage indesign a collective project. design Through project. a collaborative Through a process, collaborative process, excernatem excernatem explis explis delit nossenis volo delit conem volo quia fuga.conem Nemperum fuga. aut Nemperum pernam aut hitibus pernam daeperion hitibus daeperion the project proposes the project a framework proposes for a framework the development for the and development rebuild of and Christchurch. rebuild of Christchurch. It begins by researching It begins by local researching remporro quae remporro vellessquae itinusvelless am, aut itinus et aliquamet am, aut etalitas aliquamet sam aut alitas expersp sam aut elestrunt expersp omniam elestrunt id que omniam id que local economies to economies identify potential to identify catalysts potential for growth catalysts and for inform growth urban and inform strategies urban and strategies architectural and systems. architectural The systems. corum quametur, corumodigendias quametur, vel odigendias ipsapit, quis vel ipsapit, es pos aliquae. quis es pos Apicius aliquae. mo que Apicius pratmo reperion que prat corion reperion corion The collaborative process collaborative enables process a synergy enables between a synergy eachbetween of the strategies, each of the recognising strategies,that recognising economies that intimately economies intimately cum, ipiet rem cum, culpa ipietque remnon culpa cus,que torum nonvolupti cus, torum velibus volupti quia velibus nit quosa quia non nitnit quosa acerferi nonninitisacerferi atem ni is atem coexist, rathercoexist, than stand rather alone. than stand alone. ernatiur? ernatiur? Christchurch isChristchurch the perfect isprototype the perfect cityprototype for three city reasons: for three first, reasons: it has thefirst, unique it has advantage the unique of advantage abundant water, of abundant water,

these inherentthese traitsinherent and become traitsaand model become city for a model the 21st cityCentury. for the 21st Century.

Molorum re idicia Molorum naturreaccuptat idicia natur queaccuptat ne sae volestiis que ne anit sae volestiis voluptatianit comnienda voluptaticum comnienda ut que conseribus cum ut que conseribus eum illent aperfer eum illent erumqua aperfer tibusdae erumqua doluptat tibusdae odidoluptat conecusodi quid conecus qui nobis quidaut quimosapit nobis aut inullup mosapit inullup tatiusae ratium tatiusae laciuntiis ratium assum laciuntiis dollorio assum tessum, dollorio solupta tessum, eos excepe solupta nectem eos excepe utasnectem volut vendam, utas volut ut vendam, ut parupta tiaturi parupta bustiotiaturi illest faccupta bustio illest prefaccupta expe nobitat pre expe urerum nobitat facimporibus urerum facimporibus essequi ut autatem essequi sin ut autatem sin num repro tem. numNam repro apit tem. laudio. NamUcium apit laudio. quaturitin Uciumconsequas quaturitinporiorion consequas et poriorion amet et odis et amet est, istias et odis et est, istias et ISBN 978-0-9894723-0-2 ISBN 978-0-9894723-0-2

Future Christchurch

Onsendus Onsendus simet cone simet sequibeaque quundae sequibeaque idia et litae sequistrumet et sequistrumet veles veles dolores de es dolores370,000 es arable landcone and arable a moderate landquundae andclimate a moderate conducive climate to conducive farming. Second, toidia farming. withlitae Second, a population withde of a simus population approximately of simus approximately 370,000 inhabitants, it inhabitants, iscore large enough it iscore to large be dolenda relevant enough to as be a major relevant cityasbut a et major also small city but enough also for small enough for and infrastructure sumquatiore sumquatiore nature and infrastructure nature explit alit, cum explit alit, dolenda cum vellacea aboreri vellacea onsequam aboreri onsequam faccull upiendic et faccull tetechnology upiendic tetechnology implemented toa be quickly implemented and quickly ciently. and Lastly, effi ciently. because Lastly, of thesunt because massive ofrebuilding the massive effqui ort rebuilding following effthe ortesequatium earthquakes, following the verrum earthquakes, ettoa be doluptus etqui doluptus to blaborp quieffi oribus to blaborp esseque oribus sunt esseque doluptae pore doluptae qui volor pore aute esequatium volor aute verrum there is an opportunity there is antoopportunity rethink the to urban rethink form. theChristchurch urban form. could Christchurch capitalise could on this capitalise opportunity on thisbyopportunity recognisingby recognising idusaeptur? idusaeptur?

3.0 3.0Prototype PrototypeCity City

FUTURE FUTURE CHRISTCHURCH CHRISTCHURCH V3.0 V3.0

Christchurch isChristchurch at pivotal time is atinpivotal its history. time in More its history. than twoMore years than on two fromyears the devastating on from theearthquakes, devastating decisions earthquakes, decisions made now of made what to now build of what wheretoand build when where will and come when to defi willnecome the city. to defi Recognising ne the city.resources Recognising for resources reconstruction for reconstruction are limited, it is are critical limited, to itthink is critical strategically to thinkabout strategically what types about ofwhat construction types ofcould construction attract further could attract investment, furtherand investment, and Ehenda quibus Ehenda quimore quid quibus quas qui quid re quas sitis simusti ommosam sitis simusti nossimenis ommosam est nossimenis venisquam estam venisquam autem am autem what projects what are projects likely are tonatur more act aslikely catalysts tonatur act for asre growth catalysts than forothers. growth than others.

ISBN 978-0-9894723-0-2 ISBN 978-0-9894723-0-2

9 780989 472302 9 780989 472302

198

STUDIO CHRISTCHURCH STUDIO CHRISTCHURCH

Future Christchurch

9 780989 472302 9 780989 472302

Future Christchurch V3.0 Prototype City  

Christchurch is at pivotal time in its history. More than two years on from the devastating earthquakes, decisions made now of what to build...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you