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TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

Derek Kawiti & Camia Young

GOTHIC RUIN NOURISHES THE FUTURE GREEN

what should be saved oscillated between historic value weighed against the

The series of earthquakes that hit Christchurch over the past year have changed

economics of cost and safety. For the people of Christchurch, their iconic

the city forever, of the 900 downtown buildings in the Central Business District

Gothic style city had been reduced to a pile of rubble, epitomised by the

(CBD) the majority are deemed unsafe and therefore will be or have been

final collapse of the famous Christchurch Cathedral in the subsequent weeks.

demolished, while a 100,000 homes have been damaged an estimated 11,500

Architecturally, the city’s heritage buildings were among some of the finest

will be demolished. This is in a city of 350,000 people, which means literally

examples of Gothic style architecture in the country; the city has lost not just its

everyone has been affected.

historic buildings but in a large part its identity and cultural heritage which is closely associated to these buildings.

The city faces the daunting task of rebuilding and reshaping its former urban fabric, in some cases entire neighbourhoods will be abandoned due

Much of the passionate discussion surrounding the rebuilding process seemed

to land depression and severe liquefaction. The displacement of residential

to highlight the question; “What makes Christchurch – Christchurch?” Its

neighbourhoods along with the urgent need to rebuild the city’s financial

architectural pedigree in this sense (nationally) was, is distinct. Some of the

centre requires thoughtful and rigorous planning; these next few years will be

answers to this question could also be: its landform (its geographic and natural

a critical turning point in the city’s history, which will be defined by the way it

beauty), its setting in the open landscapes, its parks and gardens, its flatness,

chooses to rebuild its urban, social and economic landscapes.

and its sprawl. There are also issues of climate that define Christchurch – such

The tragic loss of life and extensive damage to civic and private property

as the seasonal character of its wind and abundance of water as well as the

has been featured heavily in the national and international media through

microclimates and the wider environmental influences.

countless eye-witness stories and real time footage. Through these emotionally charged segments, we begin to understand the immediate reality of the

Should one be of the opinion to rebuild in the Gothic style, and actually

immense physical damage to both the built environment and infrastructure of

take on the task of resurrecting what was, they would be confronted with

the city, as well as the social and cultural loss expressed through the shock and

a complex task today. Apart from obvious seismic constraints in light of a

despair felt by those living in the local community and country.

possible reoccurrence of another major earthquake, the building traditions have changed and along with them codes and regulations. So how would the

6

In the weeks following the Christchurch earthquake, architects, engineers and

gothic be built as true gothic – and is this even possible? An attempt to repeat

planners began to sort through the rubble that now characterized the city

the past would be a reproduction of a city as a stage set or veneer, and it would

centre’s CBD to understand what had been lost and whether some buildings

appear as an artificial signifier of a past culture and lifestyle founded in a truly

could be saved and resurrected, and if so which ones. The debate about

colonial archetype. This seems to be an ethos that is at odds with its geography

Introduction


and its place in time as a contemporary New Zealand city, which is arguably no

THE DESIGN STUDIO

longer a colonial outpost favouring European styles.

This publication is the culmination of a design course taught at Auckland University’s School of Architecture during the second term of 2011. Twenty-

Over the past year there has been a shift in focus from a myriad of voices, from

seven students from two courses, 3rd and 4th year, came together to

popular print media and public opinion to the growing number of website

investigate specific topics in order to then develop design proposals, offering

blogs, heralding a move away from the retrospective orientations of ‘what

ideas and visions for the future of Christchurch based on understandings of

was the city and its past’ to ‘where are we going, and what could Christchurch

the city. Run as a vertical studio, the two courses overlapped for presentations

become?’ More recently we have started to see slogans promoting a renewed

and discussions which promoted an accelerated learning environment. The

garden city emerging as the city begins to gain a better picture of where its

students partnered in to teams of three and self-selected research topics. The

priorities possibly lie in terms of shaping its near and long term identity. In

4th year student’s research themes were: Infra-Structure & Geology, Micro-

light of the Garden City identity, the Gothic style has faded, but the interesting

Urbanism, Economic Hubs and Den-City; this group developed wider urban

parallel is their lineage to nature, and for Christchurch the inherent need for a

scale strategies. The 3rd year student’s research topics were: Heritage, Eco-Belt,

strong cultural identity to shape itself around. For a city and country to found

Water, Patterns and Transportation; they focussed their analysis of the wider

its future on its natural identity may not be so far from Gothic at the heart of the

city toward a building proposition.

issue, it may actually be the same inherent intention but simply look different. For architects, planners, designers and the public this question of identity in

Both groups, whether macro or micro in terms of their focus, used their

architecture demands a real retrospection of a community’s values, it is the

investigations to generate design strategies, looking for natural tendencies to

understandings that emerge from this thinking that will sit at the core of the

emerge. Design decisions were made based on understanding potentials born

motivations as the city takes decisions and shapes its future.

from the ecological and physical nature of Christchurch. The design solutions are innovative, daring and sometimes bold, yet real and thought provoking propositions for the future city of Christchurch grounded in understand the city’s unique conditions. The 4th year students developed toolsets and strategies and focused on creating research-based resources and methods for urban scale design. For example, the Den-City Team used scenario planning as a method to test possible future urban plans, they took four case studies, all plausible options,

Derek Kawiti & Camia Young

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8

and developed a system of measuring their potential success. While they

SHAPING ECOLOGIES

concluded with a suggested direction, their approach could be applied to

Some of the leading issues emerging among the students were angled

other future scenarios and one could take their means of measurement as a

toward thinking about the city as an organic system that could in the face

method for judging and decision-making. The Infra-Structure & Geology team,

of a catastrophe reveal its range or limits to respond to rapid change. We

with two of the three team members from Christchurch, set out to develop an

encouraged students to consider the finely balanced and enmeshed structures

understanding of the ground conditions in order to inform a city plan based on

of everyday life, their material manifestations, and the industries that act to

the natural geological composition. From their investigations they developed

hold together the productive reality of everyday life, and in doing so find the

a ground condition catalogue and assigned appropriate structural strategies to

inherent organizational principles that gives reason and rise to the physical

the different zones. While seemingly deterministic, they also offer a baseline to

environment. Research into the overall effects of the earthquake helped to

think about complex issues of fixed infrastructure as ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ ecologies

understand how the various objects or parts of the city were impacted and in

and their relationships to designing a resilient plan for the city. The 3rd year

some cases key commercial sectors were substantially affected or destroyed.

students built upon the issue of wider connections and their implications

Students grappled with how the cityscape adapted and responded to cope

drawing out linkages across scales from that of the large urban context to the

and perpetuate itself in albeit new ways due to the reconfiguration of formerly

finer scale of buildings through programmatic and formal interventions. For

stable urban spaces. The Economic Hubs team explored how the retail space

example, the Patterns team grafted various urban and ecological patterns

of the city adapted to altered conditions affecting its form, organisation,

across the macro and micro scales, finding inventive ways to design suburban

and relations of production. They found through their investigations that

developments as well generate programmatic concurrences and building plans.

the increase in mall subscription became a focus of how contingent systems

The Water team looked at the city’s use of water and found places to optimise

emerge to compensate and replace former modes of organisation and space

and manage it across three different locations, urban, suburban and rural.

within the city.

Students have responded to questions that at once relate to architecture but

The work is intended to provoke debate purposely, and avoids theoretical

because of their investigations, their proposals respond to wider systemic

frameworks, to delve into the rigorous logic drawn from information resources.

issues. This has been propagated in studio, encouraging students to search

It offers prosaic and pragmatic thinking by students grappling with massive

for connective ecological traits and tendencies across the city and its wider

complexities and demonstrates their willingness to use available technologies

precincts. Teamwork and cross-team collaboration and information sharing

and tools to test strategies, like in the Micro-Urbanism team’s environmental

was an important part of the process and enabled the suspension of individual

simulation where they used fluid java scripting language (processing) to

aims toward a more collaborative notion of a collective project.

understand complex visual representations of correlating data sets.

Introduction


In this way the work is intended to contribute to the developing knowledge

in understanding the complexity around the specificity of place. In this course

base of the city and is presented here as research based ‘toolsets’ to be utilised

students confronted the city and found it is inherently a problematic beast- it

and understood in a variety of ways hoping not to be discipline specific.

is an intensifier of relations of inequality, poverty and exploitation, which

Research based courses have allowed an unplugging from conventional

affect specific structures of space and time. Furthermore, it signifies promise,

notions of architecture in the sense that the research itself gives way to

ambition, freedom, community and solidarity in relation to the individual and

valuable strategic frameworks that reach across disciplines and engage the

the collective – although these are constraints and pitfalls they are also its

multiplicity of related fields rather then hiding in the all too contagious realm of

opportunities and successes.

specialization. We understand that our cultural and social identities in all their complexity are At first glance it may seem a rather cold response, especially to those who have

caught up in those piles of rocks and bricks yet we must believe that it can and

been directly affected or involved with the reality and complexity of the city.

does run deeper than this and over time it will become something else, it is a

But as one becomes familiar with the work, one will see the earnest sensitivity

matter of designing and defining what that will be. And this next generation

and consideration behind the design intentions. Each project is grounded in

of architects is well on their way to preparing themselves and us for these

understanding Christchurch, for what is was and what it can become.

complex design tasks ahead.

While architecture is arguably about place making, it must also accept that these places and spaces exist regardless as richly furnished material systems in themselves. For the editors of this book the notion of place making is defined by the responsive characteristics of architecture to relate to the inherent natural qualities of a place, and we continually support this deeper questioning of architecture’s role and how it could go beyond merely defining an era through aspects of style as a totem of a city. While the pressure on students to produce products or commodified containers or stylish envelopes has not yet been outweighed by wider ideas of social responsibility, cultural diversity, and sustainability, it reminds us of our shortfalls

Derek Kawiti & Camia Young

9


AN IMPERFECT TABULA RASA

Pip Cheshire

Inner Christchurch is an imperfect tabula rasa; that awful shaking has cleared

read the city’s story in its arrangement of streets, parks and major buildings.

much of the city’s built form, yet the pattern as it was before September 2010

The inner city had been in a graceful decline prior to the earthquakes,

is still clearly apparent in the layout of the streets and the arrangement of the

probably since the end of the wool boom of the Korean War but certainly

remaining buildings. This is a disruption of the normal evolution of the city

since Britain joined the EEC and assured sales of the hinterland’s primary

and presents a conundrum in the consideration of the city’s rebuilding – does

produce was lost.

one follow a geotechnical imperative, relocating the commercial heart to the more stable western land, seek to recover the past through the rebuilding of

The decline of the city’s relationship with the flatlands to the west is best

that which has been lost, or perhaps make a distributed ring of towns arrayed

symbolised by the construction of a hotel currently falling under the wrecking

around a green core? There are myriad options along a continuum from the

ball. Though the city is famed for its rigorous street grid, it is enlivened by

heart-felt and nostalgic to the ruthlessly pragmatic. We are not often faced

a diagonal street linking the port in the south east and the wealth-creating

with such an extreme discontinuity in the natural evolution of a city, nor of the

powerhouse of the North Canterbury grass lands in the north west. This axis,

consequent necessity of self-consciously choosing a possible future.

from High Street south of Cathedral Square through Victoria Street north of the square, is one of those gestures that, in a single stroke, provided striking

There is good evidence that prior to the onslaught of the earthquakes

evidence of the city’s raison d’être – a genteel service town for the rural rump.

Christchurch had lost its way. Somewhere in the move away from an early

The Crowne Plaza hotel, constructed in the rush of nineteen eighties laissez

twentieth century farm service town to a city whose livelihood came from

faire economics and sited on the Victoria Street carriageway, effectively

industrial and tourist activities, the relationship between shape and utility had

amputated this symbolic connection with the city’s pastoral roots. In doing

been lost. This is not necessarily a concern of cities in which topography plays a

so, it reinforced the containment of an adjacent square and turned the city

more deterministic role, but on the flat pan of the Canterbury plains one could

back on itself.

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An Imperfect Tabula Rasa


The closure of this rural connection was matched by the sprawl of the city

reconfiguration of the city. The research projects are founded on the mining of

across the plains in the west and imperfectly filled estuarine mudflats to the

all available data, its analysis and the derivation of reconceptualised strategies

east. A ring of shopping malls some three or four kilometers from the city

for the regeneration of the city, and of possible future Christchurches. There is,

centre denuded the inner city of shoppers and consumer dollars were further

it seems, no measured activity that has not become grist to the computational

bled off to big box retailing on the city’s southern fringe. This left an inner city

mill – age of population, car trips per inhabitant, pollution, wind speed, the

composed of Victorian and Edwardian warehouses subsisting on cheap rentals

potential rooting depth of soil, and so on. These give rise to diagrams and

for niche retailers, backpackers and cafes. More recently the warehouses

graphs, invariably captivating in their graphic beauty and, at the very least,

and service lanes of the inner city’s south east offered purchase for a new

when seen en masse, suggesting the city is an ultimately knowable, observable,

generation of epiphyte-like developers. A number of new developments

construct. This is a big call. New Zealand has a long history of bureaucratic

offered a quirky reworking of the existing buildings which reinvigorated the

intervention in the monetary and fiscal ordering of the economy to achieve

inner city, though how far this might run, and how extensive the reoccupation

social goals. Yet even within that tradition the self-interested actions of

of the city building stock, we are, alas, not to know.

citizens aggregate into such enormous complexity in the contemporary state that we might ask if, in fact, Adam Smith’s “unseen hand” is ever completely

We are now faced with the result of a cataclysmic intervention that has swept

discoverable?

away so much of the city as to trivialise the incremental manipulations of the burgher and bureaucrat who have traditionally shaped it. We must now ask

Most of the projects bite off a manageable part of the city; one of the more

ourselves what are the criteria by which the city might be assembled, and how

challenging, gathering data on population density, consumption patterns,

will it be known by its inhabitants and those visiting the city?

walking distances and so forth, proposes a reworking of the ring of malls to

The Future Christchurch project seeks to provide strategies for the necessary

form a ‘polycentric’ city. In this scenario malls become town centres with all the

Pip Cheshire

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amenities of public life grafted onto their existing structures. The examples

This is not a comfortable notion for a city previously known, and occasionally

studied lie along existing arterial routes, the most closely studied being to the

derided, for its comfortable playing out of a middle class dream amid the

west of the city – an area relatively unscathed by earthquakes. The project

(apparent) solidity of colonial Gothic architecture. The reality was, of course,

seeks to open up the hermetic life inside the mall and embrace the remnants of

somewhat different with all the social and economic stratifications of the rest

main street retailing that linger still on the adjacent road.

of the country evident, yet the mythology of a ‘garden city’ served the tourist industry well.

The project does not examine the commercial mechanisms by which this may be induced to come about. The absence of a proposition to that end leaves

If the relocation of the commercial centre to the fringe malls is a challenge

the project open to being set aside as fanciful, yet its underlying proposition

to the city’s self image, the generation of city location and form through the

suggests a way of urban reconfiguration that is at once enticing and disturbing.

innumerable iterative calculations of pre-programmed digital agents is yet

The acceptance of the inevitability of the flight of consumer dollars from the

more challenging. Those disciplines with an interest and belief in their ability to

public space of the city to the private space of the mall will challenge the

shape the city through the application of dreams, theory or as is more common,

historic power and influence of inner city land and business owners. This will

rules, are sidelined by lines of computer code.

be especially poignant in a city founded on the translocation of middle class English society and in which the inner city’s rehabilitation has been publicly

The Micro-urbanism project gathers contextual climatic and geotechnical

championed by Richard Ballantyne, one of the inner city’s key remaining

data to create a digital stage upon which a number of free ‘agents’ with single

retailers. Though the project proposes retaining a city centre of increased

minded agenda are let loose. Thus a house agent will seek firm ground,

density and differentiation of use, one is tempted to strengthen the singularity

shelter from the wind, the company of others, look for roadways, supporting

of the students’ proposition by contrasting the supercharged ring of malls with

services and so on. This, in turn, will affect the location and interaction of

a park like city core populated only by the few remaining heritage buildings

commercial and cultural agents as they seek to optimise the requirements of

and devoid of commerce.

their programming. In doing so other agents’ contexts are altered and another

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An Imperfect Tabula Rasa


iteration of relocation is undertaken. The effect is a restless vibration as the

selection criteria applied. Some projects use the research data to propose

agents relentlessly seek to optimise the demands of their digital DNA and one is

specific buildings, museums, transport junctions, and so on, and while

reminded of computer-based simulation games such as SimCity or, indeed films

these are inventive they invariably reveal the shortcomings of a too literal

of speeded up human crowds.

use of metaphor as building generator. This is in contrast to the profound understanding of the city the outstanding research and analysis offers. Let

There is a disconcerting sense that the ability to affect ones future, or of our

us hope that those agencies charged with the reconstruction of Christchurch

collective ability to make a city, has been abandoned in favour of a cloud of

seize the day as these projects do – this is not a time for the faint hearted to

avatars in this project. As always, the hand that wields the pen wields the

hide behind the cant of laissez faire economics or the maudlin rebuilding of a

power, though in this case it is the hand that writes the code whose values

lost past.

we need to know. While I am excited by the possibility of dismantling the bureaucratic apparatus of statutory planning, the vast tomes of district plans do, at least, contain explicit expositions of the policy and strategy upon which the rules are based. If city hall within a mall is too bland a future to consider or you are unwilling yet to surrender to the mute demands of a swirling data cloud, those projects that closely examine the region’s water cycle, ecology or its built heritage offer a more familiar set of determinants. The heritage based project is the most poignant with its colour coded timeline bearing testimony to the losses the city has suffered, though its identification of recent ‘heritage’ buildings reveals either the poverty of contemporary architecture or the variability of the

Pip Cheshire

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FROM ADMIRATION TO ADAPTATION: CHRISTCHURCH LEADS THE WAY FOR CITIES TO MAKE THEIR FUTURE Bernd Gundermann

I spent the early years of my life in a town resembling a scene in a fairy tale:

CHRISTCHURCH C21

the medieval city of Lubeck in Germany with its monumental redbrick-Gothic

Universities are essential to our future; they are laboratories of young, expansive

churches and gabled streets. I still believe the beauty of those buildings

minds, and play an active part in shaping the latest thinking on science

influenced me to become an architect. Old buildings - far older than ourselves

and design through global networks of information technology. University

- inspire us and seem built to last forever, and just like the picturesque town of

students today are confronted with the very real and relevant challenges of

Lubeck inspired me, I’m certain that Christchurch has played a similar role in the

our day, equipped with a wealth of knowledge unprecedented in Universities,

lives of many New Zealanders.

they manage to pioneer new ideas and offer creative designs in the fields of architecture and urban planning, which I hope will open the door to create new

Unfortunately with natural forces well out of our control, we now see a very

possibilities for our urban society.

different Christchurch. Large-scale disasters like this test the very fabric of what a community holds dear, and they shake the foundation of all that we believe

I had the pleasure of visiting the year-four design class at the University of

to be solid and real. For a while the shock is petrifying and the only thing

Auckland’s School of Architecture and Planning led by Derek Kawiti and Camia

imaginable is to somehow find a way to get back what was lost and in some

Young. They worked extensively on the issue of Christchurch’s recovery,

way re-erect the city as it was before.

and provided a stunning demonstration of how the emerging generation of designers are prepared to deliver bold, thought provoking design strategies for

But once the dust has settled and reality sinks in, so does the realisation that

a new 21st Century Christchurch. After visiting the studio and reviewing their

we won’t get back what was lost. While this is painful, it also opens up the

work a few aspects stood out to me, in particular:

imagination to other options and a new and different Christchurch is possible, one where disaster becomes an opportunity for change and growth. It could

Soil: Visually, Christchurch appears to be flat, however after a closer inspection

even become a city that leads others (dealing with similar challenges) along a

into the soil conditions, a different picture emerges. The areas where

pathway to a better, safer future.

liquefaction occurred relative to the areas of more stable ground reveal a subtle

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From Admiration to Adaptation


but rich geological condition. The braided river and its banks of sediments

Perhaps a more radical idea proposed by the Micro-Urbanism project would

make it clear that the plains are an accumulation of sediments from the

be to organize the city based on its ecologies. These students applied field

Southern Alps combined with deposition of coastal sediment and volcanic lava

dynamics to the city and came to a ground-breaking, new understanding of

in the south. Once one understand this, one sees that the plains are actually

the city. This approach replaces the deterministic figure-ground zoning and

an exciting and varied landscape. I believe this differentiation could become

instead aims to create self-organising, adaptive developments that respond

a generator of a new, landscape-based plan for Christchurch. New buildings

to an ever-changing environment; their work suggests a performative ground

could be informed by the ground conditions, thereby activating the richness of

up approach that could characterise the future of urban environments and

subsoil and responding to the tectonic conditions below. We could learn from

transform zoning codes as we know them.

the earthquakes and create respectful structures informed by this landscape, rather than reverting to an imposed, monotonous grid that ignores the

Infrastructure: Technology has become increasingly mobile over the last 10

character of its environment.

years, and we have become accustom to the ubiquitous mobile devices that allow us to work or plug in almost anywhere. This could have huge implications

Density: What drives the densities of our cities? In Christchurch prior to

on how a city is organized, where potentially it could mean it is no longer

the earthquakes, we saw not such an unusual pattern where the centrally

the highway or railway line we depend on but the ‘Cloud’ or the fibre-glass

concentrated work place (the CBD in this case) was slowly deteriorating into a

cable could becomes the next realm of heavy traffic. This means the still-

vast residential suburbia with outlaying malls and congested traffic. Because

prevailing image of the traditional city (civitas) as a confined, spatially limited

of the earthquakes, Christchurch has the unique opportunity to reflect on its

phenomenon is no longer relevant, and future cities should be envisaged as

earlier condition and change this pattern. They could choose to replace the

an infinite exchange of goods, services and information, a well structured and

suburban model with something totally different, perhaps a city comprised of

energised tissue. The city should be able to provide niches for any kind of

compact precincts of modest densities with green links appropriate for walking

activity: dwelling, working or recreation, while service nodes (markets, schools,

and biking, as was proposed in the Den-City project.

offices) could be liberated from rigid zoning and sprout anywhere as needed.

Bernd Gundermann

15


In this idealized, distributed city that which is needed is easily accessible and

their environment. I supplement these insights given to me from nature

could lead to the replacement of unhealthy concentrations of services (such as

with the structural traditions here in the Pacific, for example, in studying the

shopping malls or office parks). The physical consequence of the information

ancient double-hull canoes, which the ancestors built for their vaka moana,

age could mean cities may no longer require centralised, high-rise buildings

I learned that the Pacific preferred tensile structures, whereas Europe stands

and cities like Christchurch could become a low-rise, horizontal city, resonating

for structures driven by gravity such as arches or vaults. Tensile structures

perfectly with the vastness of the Canterbury plains.

are also more resilient to earthquakes. I can see a future vernacular of Pacific architecture shaped by parameters derived from the place and its

Environment: In 1964 New York’s Museum of Modern Art exhibited Bernard

unique conditions. This architecture would make any discussion about style

Rudofsky’s show ‘Architecture Without Architects’. The examples presented

meaningless; instead it would focus on the people and their environment.

emphasised that it is possible to produce architecture driven entirely by a smart response to the natural environment- architecture which is beyond fashion cycles, yet is powerfully intriguing. I relay this story because the students took an approach similar to Rudofsky’s, where they used environmental investigations to discover possible design solutions. The students surveyed varying conditions of Christchurch, such as water, geology and green space, and found emergent, creative ideas from which a new Christchurch vernacular could be developed. In my decades of practice in Europe I used to read the traces of former buildings, viewing sites as palimpsests. Since arriving in New Zealand, it is the landscape that teaches me how to create buildings that harmonise with

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From Admiration to Adaptation


A NEW PARADIGM ARISES

cities that are both placed attentively and operate adaptively. Christchurch

I believe Christchurch’s disaster could be an opportunity to make its recovery

could lead the way from admiration to adaptation, and create once again a

a case study and set trends for other cities around the world. New Zealand is

beautiful and “cheerful” city.

perceived as a clean, green place and we could take advantage of this in the redesign of Christchurch. Beyond mitigating natural disasters and building for safety, the new Christchurch could become a truly sustainable model for other cities struggling with the consequences of inadequate planning. Setting the stage and introducing a new urban paradigm could give Cantabrians a better home and attract global interest and recognition. The students in this course have shown great courage and creativity in setting out on this possible frontier. The emerging generation of architects demonstrates that they can bear the weight of huge tasks and develop creative solutions. Some 700 years ago, Albert the Great defined the beauty of a city by the cheerfulness of its citizens. He was at the forefront of his time, combining observation of the natural world with metaphysics. Later, the Age of Enlightenment abandoned metaphysics in favour of physics. Cities eventually became measured only through statistical analysis, which left planning to the realm of science. An emerging paradigm could reintroduce the metaphysical aspects of an environment, creating an intangible “sense of place.” Perceiving mankind as an integral part of the natural environment leads to buildings and

Bernd Gundermann

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Cantabrians pride themselves in being the capital Green City of the South Island which has gained them international recognition as the ‘Garden City’ of New Zealand. Development and urbanisation today has made it difficult to maintain a sense of what it means to be a truly green city. So why was Christchurch assigned this title in the first place? And does the southern centre live up to its birth name today? The key points we learned through our investigations were:

• The Black maps indicate Totara and Tussock are the most dominant native plant species. Their heights reflect the type of plains they were fostered in,

Extensive Public Space within the City Fringe

ranging from 0.80 meters to 45 meters.

• Protected trees in Christchurch have depreciated over time, with only 1800 protected trees remaining. Protected natives are the rarest, with most of them situated in Riccarton Bush (68 trees) and St. James park (79 trees).

• Christchurch’s total area is divided into two big components: Eco-Belt territory 56% and urban fabric 44%.

• This 56% Eco-Belt territory is divided into three types: rural, conservation and open space, with rural plains being the most dominant at 72%.

• Through further analysis, we realised that only 12% of the Eco-Belt is dedicated to public space.

Urban Fabric Is Encompassed by a Rural Belt

• Public space is divided into 6 categories, with the most dominant in number being local parks with 518 of them.

• However, in terms of area we discovered regional parks are the largest at 74%. • Also there appears to be a differentiation in areas across the 6 public spaces, which is influenced by location and function. We concluded that Christchurch is most definitely a Garden City simply because 56% of the area is open space, yet whether it will stay true to its name sake in the future is unknown. Because our research shows there is only 12% public open space and 88% private open space, we believe there needs to be greater

Spacious Corridors Consisting of Broad Avenues and Greenways

emphasis put into creating public open spaces throughout the Canterbury region, doing this is crucial to maintaining Christchurch’s identity.

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Eco-Belt | Introduction

Suburbia Dominates the Built Environment


Eco-Belt Thomas Denhardt, David Ma, Tina Martin


Houhere

18

Kowhai

Eco-Belt | Analysis

Ti Kouka

Tussock

Pukio


Totara

Kahikatea

Ake Ake

Pingao

Oi Oi

CHRISTCHURCH ECOSYSTEM - BLACK MAPS OF 1856 Looking 155 years back, the city was divided into three main regions: dry, wet and coastal plains. These subdivisions influenced the density and type of ecosystems that were fostered in the Christchurch region. Our investigation into Christchurch’s ecosystems reveals that Totara and Tussock were the most prominent throughout the region. Te Kakahi is the least dense, which suggests that the plains are naturally conducive to extensive vegetation and agriculture. Thomas Denhardt, David Ma, Tina Martin

19


Eco-Belt Components: Rural Plains, Conservation Zones, and Open Space

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Eco-Belt | Analysis


Most Dominant Divisions within Eco-Belt Components

Thomas Denhardt, David Ma, Tina Martin

21


PUBLIC SPACE While 56 % of Christchurch is dedicated to Eco-Belt territory, the other 44% is the urban fabric. Through further analysis however, we came to the conclusion that only 12% of the 56% Eco-Belt territory is public space. These public spaces are divided into 6 typologies: regional parks, riverbank and conservation, garden and city heritage, sports parks, cemeteries and local parks. Out of these 6 typologies, local parks are the most dominant in number, while cemeteries are the least. 22

Eco-Belt | Analysis


COMPARISON OF FACTION AREAS We grouped the different public spaces and found that the regional parks are the largest in total area while the local parks are the greatest in quantity.

RANGE OF AREAS WITHIN FACTIONS Regional parks have the greatest range from fairly small to gigantic, with a broad spectrum of sizes in between. The other factions do not show the same range from the smallest to the largest, yet their ranges demonstrate a vast variance in areas across the Christchurch region.

Thomas Denhardt, David Ma, Tina Martin

23


HAGLEY PARK: CASE STUDY Being at the heart of Christchurch since the 1850s, it offers a diverse range of entertainment and recreational facilities close to the city centre. Hagley Park has wide-open spaces and mature woodlands, while also accommodating a range of sports including netball courts, a golf course, soccer fields and rugby pitches. Hagley Park is highly regarded in the Christchurch, and is a huge part of the city’s identity. 24

Eco-Belt | Analysis


RICCARTON BUSH: CASE STUDY Riccarton Bush is one of Christchurch’s most beautiful reserves, originally established in 1914 as a movement towards preserving native forests. Comprised of 12 hectares, it is renowned for the fact that it includes Christchurch’s last remaining stand of low lying Kahikatea forest as well as Matai and Totara trees. Historically, Kahikatea forests existed throughout much of New Zealand, but today only about 2% of these remain. Thomas Denhardt, David Ma, Tina Martin

25


Waimakariri River

Site

Traced Figure Ground

Existing Pathways

2

3 4

1

5

6

7 9 10

8

11 12

Site Plan 13 14

Building Status

15

make safe partially demolished areas demolished

26

Eco-Belt | Design | Woven Inhabitation

WOVEN INHABITATION I chose the site because there were a number of buildings deemed unsafe and likely to be demolished, as well the Avon River runs through the two block area. My proposal is to replace the total floor area lost with new buildings. The conceptual approach is to create a green network that lends to a new urban form based on making

connections. The project aims to integrate built forms with public open spaces. The design was generated by grafting a section of the Waimakariri River into the chosen site. The river translated into pathways, and the landforms between became massing, structures and parks.


2

3

5

4

1

6

11,12,13,14 7

Building 1

9 10

8

11

15 12

13 14

Level 1-2

15

1 lifts

6,7,8

Level 3-4

5 Level 5

3,4

`

2

10

Level 6-7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

15 14

12 stories 8390 sqm

2 stories 585 sqm

2 stories 185 sqm

1 story 845 sqm

6 stories 3855 sqm

3 stories 2535 sqm

1 story 645 sqm

1 story 200 sqm

2 stories 1350 sqm

2 stories 505 sqm

4 stories 3975 sqm

10 stories 7040 sqm

2 stories 1770 sqm

2 stories 3795 sqm

1 story 195 sqm

9 Renovated Building : Previous Building

Demolished Buildings Area Calculation

David Ma

27


PUBLIC INTERCONNECTIONS My project aims to increase the public space by creating an urban corridor and making connections to built space. The selected site is situated to the east of the Christchurch Cathedral. By taking advantage of empty lots from the demolished building sites, I aim to create green spaces and gardens for the city centre. Using a figurative approach, I mapped the Waimakariri River over the site. It weaves and braids the terrain, creating a series of flat platforms and berms. This ecological pattern was considered as a 28

Eco-Belt | Design | Public Interconnections

conceptual starting point in the search for a new garden city architecture. The new public space corridor parasitically occupies the site and introduces new programmes into the CBD, such as playgrounds, sports parks, plant corridors, gardens, commercial pods (cafes, bars, restaurants and markets) and a recreational running track. My project aims to enhance Christchurch’s true Garden City identity.


Thomas Denhardt

29


Christchurch is home to a complex and unique water network involving rainfall, rivers, groundwater and wetlands. The mountain ranges to the west support abundant annual rainfall which flows through a series of rivers across the plains and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. The city is fortunate to be able to rely solely on the abundant fresh water aquifers situated beneath the ground for its water. Much of this ground water surfaces into spring-fed rivers that meander through the city fabric. These same rivers are also used as the city’s drainage system. Given the recent earthquakes, there is an opportunity to evaluate the city’s relationship with its water sources. Through our investigation we looked at how the city is both cooperating with and working against its relationship with water. From our findings we aim to establish potential opportunities to improve and optimise the use of water for the community of Christchurch. Our investigation focuses on the water network through three main categories: rainfall, surface water (rivers) and groundwater are each analysed to find individual patterns within and also to establish their relationship to the city. The water network of Christchurch is dependent on the wider Canterbury region. Our research and analysis takes into account two scales: the greater Canterbury region and the local city of Christchurch. The regional analysis focuses on establishing trends in data and their influence on Christchurch as a whole while Christchurch will be analysed on a smaller scale with a closer relationship to the suburbs and the existing building footprint.

30

Water | Introduction


WATER Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus


WATER IN THE CANTERBURY REGION This diagram illustrates the water cycle of the Canterbury region. Firstly, water falls to the ground through rainfall concentrated on the high mountains to the west, the Southern Alps. This water flows down the mountains and across the Canterbury Plains through rivers, such as the Waimakariri and Rakaia Rivers, and eventually leads to the Pacific Ocean. Across the plains, a large proportion of the water from the rivers is lost and permeates through the gravels into aquifers. The thickness of these aquifers increase the closer they are to the ocean before splitting up into separate thinner aquifers below the city of Christchurch. On the western side of Christchurch, springs also form where the aquifers have been forced upwards because of the impermeable volcanic rock of Banks Peninsula. These springs feed many small rivers that meander through the central city. The aquifers do not stop at the coast but rather continue underground for approximately 40km before eventually merging with seawater on the continental shelf.

Water in the Canterbury Region

Christchurch CATCHMENTS

AIRBORN

Christchurch

RAINFALL

RIVERS DRAINS

OCEAN

HUMAN USE SPRINGS WATER TABLE GROUND SOAKAGE

ce of Flow forAQUIFIERS Canterbury Rivers WELLS

Glacier Mountain water Mountain sourced Hill Source ofsourced Flow for Canterbury Rivers Low Elevation water Glacier mountain water Lake sourced Mountain sourced Spring fed Hill sourced

Low elevation water Lake sourced Spring fed 32

Water | Analysis

Source o

Gl Mo Hi Lo La Sp


CATCHMENTS

AIRBORN

RAINFALL

RIVERS DRAINS HUMAN USE SPRINGS WATER TABLE GROUND SOAKAGE

AQUIFIERS

OCEAN

SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS Rainfall: Christchurch is in a location of reasonably low rainfall relative to the wider Canterbury area. There is a clear connection between the magnitude of rainfall and elevation. The shallow topography means the Canterbury plains have a reliable and consistent source of water coming from the Southern Alps. Surface Water: The Avon and Heathcote Rivers are dominant in terms of both river flow and storm water drainage dependency. The highest drainage density is within the Avon and Heathcote catchments.

WELLS

Relationships Between Water Sources in the Canterbury Region

The overall directions of the main rivers differ between the wider Canterbury area and the main rivers of Christchurch. The city’s rivers average 48 degrees from north while the wider region of Canterbury’s rivers average 126 degrees from north. A difference Sourc of 78 degrees between them. Intermediate grids show the closest connection to the average river flow directions on both a city and regional scale. There is a strong link between liquefaction caused by the February earthquake and the path of the Avon and Heathcote Rivers. These two catchment areas also show a far higher reliance on man-made drainage to control water. Sub-Ground Water: There is also a notable relationship between the height of the water table and the effect of liquefaction from the February earthquake. The overall magnitude of the aquifer thickness is greater to the west with thinner aquifers closer to the coast. River flow directions across the wider Canterbury area have a southeasterly direction of 126 degrees which is consistent with the aquifer flow direction and the rainfall gradient.

Water in the Canterbury Region Relative to Height

Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus

33


86

Relative Humidity

Temperature/Wet Days/Rainfall

25

20

80

Average Temperature ( C)

15

Wet Days (>0.1mm) Relative Humidity (%)

10

Rainfall (cm) 70

5

Average rainfall of 6.69cm

66

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Christchurch Climate Christchurch Climate

134mm

66mm

Cantebury Plains.

Christhurch City.

44mm

800m above sea level.

Rainfall (mm)

Rainfall (mm)

Elevation (m)

Rainfall Elevation Relative to Elevation (m)

Land Elevation

Sea level

34

Relative Humidity

Temperature/Wet Days/Rainfall

RAINFALL IN CHRISTCHURCH AND NORTH CANTERBURY 25 Rainfall increases as the elevation increases over the Canterbury region. From the86mountainous areas, through Christchurch and to the sea, rainfall shows a direct linear relationship to elevation. The Christchurch area has a dry, temperate climate. Whilst there is a large variation in rainfall across the 20 Canterbury region due to the variation in topography, the Christchurch area itself has relatively low 80 rainfall compared with the rest of New Zealand. 15

Water | Analysis

Average Temperature ( C)

The Christchurch area on average has 669mm of rain annually where Auckland and Wellington see almost double this with 1243mm and 1251mm respectively. Whilst Christchurch’s rainfall is lower than what might be expected, humidity levels reflect the city’s surrounding water, ranging from 73% to 84%.


Monthly Rainfall

Rainfall in North Canterbury.

Rainfall in Christchurch suburbs.

Averages for previous 5 years.

Averages for previous 5 years.

Rainfall in North Canterbury. 435mm.

Rainfall in Christchurch suburbs.

Mt Bryne has the highest average

Averages for previous 5 years.

Averages for previous 5 years.

annual rainfall of

The lowest average rainfall is in Christchurch’s Western suburbs with

<40mm anually.

Mt Bryne has the highest average annual rainfall of

435mm.

The lowest average rainfall is in Christchurch’s Western suburbs with

<40mm anually.

Belfast

Marshland

Belfast Papanui

Mairehau St Albans

Burnside

Merivale

Avonhead

Burwood Shirley

New Brighton

Marshland

Threlkelds Road has the lowest average annual rainfall of

47mm. Hornby

Burnside Avonhead

Mairehau

Middleton St Albans

Wigram

Threlkelds Road has the lowest average annual rainfall of

Cathedral Square Linwood

Papanui

Merivale

BurwoodBromley

SydenhamShirley

Cashmere

New Brighton

Ferrymead

Cathedral Square Linwood

47mm. Hornby

Middleton Wigram

Sumner

Bromley

Sydenham

Cashmere

Ferrymead

Lyttelton

Sumner

Annual Accumulative Rainfall

High and Low Annual Rainfall

The highest average rainfall is in Christchurch’s South-eastern suburbs with

60-70mm anually.

Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus Lyttelton

35


OLD SOUTH BRANCH The Otukaikino is a spring fed river, once called the Old South Branch of the Waimakariri River, which was separated from the main branch during the course of major works in the 1930â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. The river is situated north of the city in a rural setting.

Old South Branch Styx Avon

STYX RIVER The Styx River flows into the Waimakariri River close to its mouth via Brooklands Lagoon. The river emanates from springs near the airport and weaves through rural land and some of the northern suburbs of the city.

HEATHCOTE RIVER The Heathcote River is fed from springs near Templetons Road. It meanders around the suburbs at the base of the Port Hills from west to southeast where it drains into the Avon Heathcote estuary.

36

Water | Analysis

The Four Major Rivers in Christchurch

12,500

10,000

Flow Rate (L/s)

AVON RIVER The Avon River is spring fed and flows along a meandering course through the centre of Christchurch, from its source in the outer western suburb of Avonhead through to the estuary.

Heathcote

7500

5000

2500

0 0

10

50

100

Distance Along River (km)

Christchurch Riverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Flow Rate Comparison

RIVER FLOW RATE The average flow rate of the four main city rivers increase as they make their way eastwards and when catchment branches intercept with the main flow of water. The path of the flow of water is not direct, nor is the increase in flow rate a linear progression through the city. The Avon and Heathcote Rivers are clearly much higher

magnitudes in flow rate as they get closer to the estuary in which they discharge. The most significant increase occurs after the rivers pass through the city where the drain outlet frequency is greatest. There is, therefore, a relationship between the higher density of drains in these catchments and the increased flow rate.


Length indicates flow rate at that point.

Direction indicates direction of river flow at that point.

River Flow Rate

Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus

37


o

average 48

o

difference of 78

N

north

N

o

average 48 average o126

o

difference of 78

N

north

N

o

average 48

average o126

o

difference of 78 Canterbury Region and Christchurch River’s Magnitude and Direction

Urban Fabric vs. Natural Flow of Waterways

north

N

N

o

average 48

o

difference of 78 average o126

Christchurch River’s Magnitude and Direction N

38

Water | Analysis

Canterbury River’s Magnitude and Direction

URBAN GRIDS RELATIVE TO WATERWAYS While it self evident that Christchurch is reliant on its waterways, the urban fabric’s relationship to the natural paths of water has little to no relationship. Whilst the city centre’s north orientated grid plan may have been logical for building and infrastructure at the time, as the city has densified its lack of orientation to the natural water ways could become an issue for the efficient drainage of surface water and man-made waterways under the city.


Street Angles

Location in Christchurch

Typical Rigid Grid

RIGID GRID The rigid central city grid is in stark contrast to the dominant direction of the flow of water. The initial central city plan was organized in a rational north orientated grid. There is a directional conflict between the grid and natural waterways.

INTERMEDIATE GRIDS The intermediate grids show a considerably stronger relationship to the directions of near by rivers. Outside the central city there are a number of rational grids that are angled to respond to the natural direction of the waterways.

FLEXIBLE GRIDS The flexible grids are slightly influenced by the direction of waterways, where the curvature of their paths inform a more organic urban fabric and a deformed street pattern emerges.

Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus

39


Heathcote River

Avon River Old South Branch

Styx River

36.4

51.8

Styx River Old South Branch

78.2

Estuary

11.0

92.0

Area (sqkm)

Avon River

Estuary Heathcote River

95

451

4320

Number of Drain Outlets

193

1759

Catchment Areas

3

9

Outlets/sqkm

55

18

19

100

90

OSB

OSB

80

Styx 70

Area (km2)

29.9%

68.2%

Avon

60

50

40

Heathcote

39.9

Estuary

30 96.4%

15.1

20

100% 24.0 10

0

15.4 6.1

Avon Avon River

39.6

Heathcote Heathcote River

Estuary Estuary

unaffected slight liquefaction

21.6% 38.8

moderate liquefaction severe liquefaction

3.4

Styx River Styx

Old South OSB Branch

drain outlets

Liquefaction and Drainage Tables

Liquefaction and Drainage Map

CATCHMENTS, LIQUEFACTION & THE WATER TABLE The Avon and Heathcote catchment areas have a significantly higher density of drain outlets. This is because of the lower proportion of permeable surfaces within these boundaries due to urbanisation. There is a clear relationship between the paths of rivers and the severity of liquefaction. Nearly all severe liquefaction occurred within close proximity to the Avon and Heathcote rivers, this is due to the top soil having a high water content around these areas. There is a also a correlation between the

density of drain outlets and the extent of liquefaction within each catchment. The maps above show a clear relationship between the location and severity of liquefaction, catchment area and the water table height. When an earthquake occurs, the pressure underground increases as particles are forced together and the void space (where water is often situated) between them is reduced. This pressure forces the water upwards and liquefaction occurs. The table above shows the statistics generated from these maps. They clearly reinforce the relationship between the water table and liquefaction with 89% severe and

40

Water | Analysis


Liquefaction. Total area (km²) Liquefaction within area where water table is above ground level.

Minor

Moderate

Severe

Total

46.6

40.8

6.9

94.3

67%

84%

89%

74.7%

Liquefaction

Water Table Above Ground

Liquefaction in Christchurch

Water Table Levels

84% moderate liquefaction occurring within the area where the water table is above the ground level. The area where Christchurch is built was historically the site of marshy swamp land. When Europeans established in the area, they set out a gridded street plan, paying little attention to the location of rivers and swamps. As the town developed and expanded, these rivers and swamps were drained or channelled to suit the layout of the grid pattern. The water table shown is measured using a piezometer. This instrument is placed into the ground until it reaches water and then the pressure of this water is

measured. The measurement corresponds to the height the water would reach if there was no resistance to its movement from the layers of soil above. The water table gets closer to the surface nearer to the coast. The water table intersects with the ground plane at around Hagley Park and then reaches a peak of 4m above ground level in the CBD area. The height of the water table corresponds to the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic swamp, although the swamp has been drained, the ground where it was located still maintains a high level of water content. This is an area of 122.8 km2 and corresponds to 27.8% of Christchurch. Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus

41


Location Water Content

Christchurch Airport

Belfast

New Brighton

Riccarton

Christchurch Cathedral

57.1%

51.5%

29.4%

36.9%

33.8%

0m

Aquifer 1

Aquifer 2

-150m

Aquifer 3

Christchurch Area

Total Water Volume: 88.2km3 40.8% Water Content by Volume

Built-Up Christchurch Area Total Water Volume: 29.2km3 37.3% Water Content by Volume

CBD Area

Total Water Volume: 1.17km3 31.3% Water Content by Volume

Aquifers Below Christchurch

AQUIFERS The values above the diagram show the amount of water underground as if a bore would have been taken into the ground at each point. The value is a percentage of total water at each point which includes all three aquifers. It is clear to see that the percentages get lower heading east towards the coast. The values below the graph show the volume of water across each geographic area. They show that the average water content is around 40% but this is biased by the thicker aquifers to the west of the 42

Water | Analysis

city. The aquifers underneath the Canterbury region have been formed over hundreds of thousands of years due to glacial and inter-glacial periods affecting the sea level and the location of the coastline. The movement of the coastline east and west has caused different layers of sediment underground. The composition and permeability of a layer that allows water to flow, causes an aquifer to form. The aquifers are vital for water supply to the Canterbury region. Approximately 300 million m 3 are extracted


Total Aquifer Thickness

from the groundwater system annually. This water is used for agriculture (85%), industry (3%) and domestic supply (12%). All drinking water in Christchurch is obtained from the aquifers. Incredibly, this valuable resource has shown no signs of depletion in over 40 years of monitoring. The aquifers decrease in thickness towards the south-east. This also reflects the direction of water flow through these underground layers as they generally flow toward the sea in a south-easterly direction. Water is

recharged into the aquifers through seepage sourced from rainfall and rivers across Canterbury. Water entering the aquifers follows a path downwards and westward due to gravity. As the aquifers approach the Banks Peninsula, some of the water is forced up and reaches the surface in the form of springs to the west of Christchurch. Other aquifers underneath Christchurch flow out past the coast underneath the sea floor before merging with sea water around 40km from the coastline. Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus

43


WATER SYSTEM INTERVENTION While looking at Christchurch’s unique and complex water system we uncovered areas of weakness. We see these weaknesses as areas of great potential, and we aim to take each ‘crisis point’ and turn it into an advantage for the community of Christchurch. Looking at three distinct settings of Christchurch: the urban, suburban and rural sectors, we have conceived three interventions, one for each sector. Each intervention has the shared goal of preserving the qualities of the water network, reducing the use of the valuable resource, and reusing grey water for new community benefits.

Urban Site: Christchurch CBD

Suburban Site: Richmond

Rural Site: Lincoln 44

Water | Design | Introduction


Aquifers

EXISTING WATER CYCLE The existing water cycle is largely wasteful of the Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water resources. It is also detrimental to the local ecology.

Rain Springs

Waste

River

Well

Pumping Station

Irrigation

Domestic / Commercial / Industrial Use

Drains

Roof / Roads / Pavement

Stock Water

Cow Shed Cleaning

Stock

Effluent

Sewage

Storm Water Pipes

Manure

Holding Ponds

Pumping Plants

Drain Outlet

Solids

Liquid

Treatment Plant

Garden Compost

Paddock Fertiliser

Oxidation Ponds

Flow to Estuary

Aquifers

Flow to Ocean

Rain

Roof Catchment

Irrigation

Aquifers

Domestic / Industrial Greywater

Wetland Filtration

Pumping Station

Well

Wetland Filtration

Drains

Cow Shed Cleaning

Sewage

Storm Water Pipes

Effluent

Pumping Plant Filtration Algae Photo-Bio-Reactor Tubes

Drain Outlet

Biomass harvesting

Reservoir

Water

Biogas

Reciprocating Engine / Generator

Pool to deflect light onto algae

Small portion.*

Most.

Anaerobic Digestion

Pyrolysis

Reverse Osmosis

Heat

Boiler

Local Grid

Farm

Turbine + Alternator

Cleaning of Plant + Natural Release to Ground + Evaporation.

Space heating/ Water heating

Stormwater redirected away from River

Electricity / Energy

Sun

Cistern Filter Pump Turbine

Flow to Estuary

Wetlands

CH3 (biogas)

Electricity

Reduced Contaminated Electricity / Energy Wastewater Run-off

WATER CYCLE WITH PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS The proposed interventions aims to efficiently use the available water resources and reduce the toll on the ecology.

Roof / Roads / Pavement

Domestic / Commercial / Industrial Use

Anaerobic Digestion

Organic Fertiliser

River

Tank

Effluent Tank

Wastewater (contaminanted)

Rain Springs

Solar Panels

Wetland Treatment

Electricity

Watering system

Temperature Regulation

Winter Lighting

Greenhouse

Flow to Ocean

Restored Green Space

Crop Production

Jason Barnes, Richard Jones, Charlotte Laus

45


Site Site

Avon Avon RiverRiver FlowFlow RateRate

Magnitude and Flow of the Avon River

Magnitude and Flow of the Avon River Around the Site

North Elevation

Plan View of Primary Structure

Perspective of South-West Facade

Perspective of North Facade

GOING GREEN - URBAN INTERVENTION The Avon River is relied on as the core component of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s storm water drainage system. The urbanization and industrialization of the city has resulted in polluted runoff, causing damage to the health and quality of the natural waterways. At the same time, the high discharge of storm water drainage into the river results in high river flows and increases the likelihood of flooding. 46

Water | Design | Going Green

In an endeavor to take this crisis and turn it into an advantage for the city, the following intervention is proposed. The path of the storm water drainage is redirected away from the Avon River in order to protect the riverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water quality and to lower the possibilities of flooding. The redirected water will instead be used to support the working of a self-sustainable green house and botanical gardens. The


Elements: Water Storage

Roof Plan

SYSTEM Site Plan flow diagram SOLAR PANELS

STORM WATER INLET GREEN HOUSE FILTER

Elements: Water Generates Electricity

BACKFLOW

Green House and Atrium Plan

CISTERN TURBINE FILTRATION TREATMENT COOLING GENERATOR

STORAGE

WETLANDS

System Flow Diagram

Elements: Electricity Stored to Power the Site

Maintenance and Storage Plan

Green House Section

incoming water will fuel a hydro turbine generator and will then be cleaned through a natural wetland

as emphasise the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity as the Garden City. The new wetland and park can also become a new

filtration system for the use of on site irrigation and cooling. In summer, electricity is gained through solar panels while water for irrigation will be used from an on site reservoir, which in winter will provide flood retention. The benefits for the community will include the supply of all year local produce, as well

space for leisure, ecology education and recreational purposes for the community.

Jason Barnes

47


Algae Photo-Bioreactor Pipe 0.1m Diameter x 6m Length

Monthly Shadow & Solar Exposure Analysis

30째 Solar Orientation to Avoid Direct Summer Sunlight and Take Advantage of Winter Sunlight

ALGAE PIPES summer shadows

ALGAE PIPES moderate shadow

WATER no shadow

Orientation Angled to Take Advantage of Indirect Sunlight Reflected from the Water

STRUCTURES winter shadow

Solar Exposure During Summer Months 48

Water | Design | Avon Algae Park

Annual Shading Overlay

Algae Location Based on Solar Exposure

Site Plan

Height Increased to Minimize Exposure to Too Much Shade


Closed Loop Energy System

Site Location: 2.6sqkm Includes an Estimated 2,500 Households

Perspective in Algae Park

Algae Pipe Park Plan

AVON ALGAE PARK - SUBURBAN INTERVENTION A unique and captivating landscape of glowing green algae photo-bioreactor pipes provides a passive and alternative sewage treatment system, as well as creates a sustainable waste processing system by giving back energy and heating for the surrounding 2,500 households in the 2.6sqkm vicinity. The pipes that make up the park landscape subtly undulate and respond to their environment, leading park visitors toward the machine building where they can enjoy, explore and learn about the innovative energy system. Charlotte Laus

49


Perspective Through Passage Cutting Through the Public Machinery Building

Section 50

Water | Design | Avon Algae Park


Axonometric of Machinery Building

public staff & machinery

Machinery Building

Interior Public Space of Machinery Building

Reverse Osmosis Purifies Water

Anaerobic Digester Produces Biogas

Biogas Fuel Generation of High Pressure Steam

6,000 Pipes - Each 6m tall

Turbine

Alternator to Grid

Rotary Vacuum Filter Harvests Biogas or Algae Sludge

Pyrolysis Produces Biogas

Mechanical System for Sewage Treatment and Energy Production Charlotte Laus

51


Reference Image

Conceptual Site Plan

Site Plan high

Shelter Belt Plan Studies Relative to Wind Patterns 52

Water | Design | Milking It

low

Minimize Wind Across Site Except at Wetlands Area Where Evaporation is Desirable


To Lincoln (1.5km)

Springs Rd

Springs Creek

Flow of Water down Terraces Flow of Piped Water pumped from the Stream

Human Circulation Animal Circulation

Existing Buildings Existing Stream

Collins Rd

0m

Farm Layout

500m

1km

Flows to Lake Ellesmere (8km)

Water Movement

RURAL INTERVENTION - MILKING IT Although there is a vast network of aquifers under Canterbury, water is still a precious resource which could easily be contaminated through over-abstraction. Currently, the three rural regions surrounding Christchurch all abstract at least a third more water from the aquifers than they are allocated. The trend is getting worse and if not addressed, the consequences could be disastrous. The spring fed streams that flow through Christchurch could potentially dry up and saltwater could leach into the aquifers contaminating the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pristine drinking water. This rural dairy farm proposal aims to minimise the water abstracted from the aquifers and use it efficiently on site. By utilising grey water from the local Lincoln township, catching rainwater, and by re-using water on the farm, the required abstraction from

Circulation

the aquifers can be reduced. Through careful site design, such as making use of native shelter belts to reduce wind and efficient water movement across the site, the water will be more efficiently managed. Wetland filtration will also be used on the site to reduce the associated problem of contaminated run-off into waterways, which will also lend to the local ecosystem through the creation of a new habitat. The farm also incorporates an anaerobic digestion system which will process effluent created by the cows to create biogas. With engines and generators this can be converted into electricity for use on the farm and excess can be sold back to the local grid. The proposed rural dairy farm will act as a precedent for subsequent developments and retrofits, with the aim to reduce the water demand for agricultural industries. Richard Jones

53


Wetland Filtration Process Water Cow Shed / Yard

Anaerobic Digester

Manure

Up to 40m

Biogas Pinus Radiata (Pine)

h 50h

Wind Reduction up to 5 x height (windward side)

Liquids

Effluent

5h

Wind Reduction up to 50 x height (leeward side)

Separation Tank Mixing Sludge

De-Watering Pit Fertilizer

Evaporation Digestate

Plagianthis Regius (Manatu)

Up to 15m Griselinia Littoralis (Papaumu)

Pittosporum Tenuifolium (Kohuhu)

Residential Heating

Hot

Up to 10m

ases

ust G

Exha

Farm Phormium Tenax (Flax)

Electricity Up to 2m

Fence

Fence

.75m 1m

1.5m

2m

2m

1.5m

Grid

Excess Generator

Paddock

Engine

Biogas Storage

Paddock Terrace 1 Retaining Wall Primary Tank

Secondary Tank

Paddock Terrace 2

Grey Water In

Piping under retaining wall Separation Tanks

Sub-Surface Flow Wetland Filtration

Raceway Clay and Gravel

Clean (Non-Potable) Water Out

Vertical Flow Wetland Filtration

54

Water | Design | Milking It

Paddock Terrace 3


Building Roof Plan

5.5

18.0

11.0

72.0

38.0

24.0

66.0

270.0

Building Plan

Building Section Richard Jones

55


The geology of a site and the strength of a building upon it are inherently linked.

As these trends continue, the resources which drew people to Christchurch will

If the ground on which a structure is built becomes highly unstable, it is likely

no longer be adequate to support a growing population. For the future of the

buildings will fail structurally. The aims of the reconstruction of Christchurch

city, we need to look at how the resources are used, and how Christchurch as

should be for a city that can withstand a higher level of earth movement than

a hub of affected and affecting elements can respond to the gradual series of

current standards permit. The best way to achieve this is with a thorough

changes occurring within it. These elements have to do with the ground, as well

knowledge of what buildings failed in the earthquakes and why with an

as with the way the society works including the demands of today’s offices and

emphasis on the ground conditions and makeup of the terrain. From our research contemporary culture. These elements affect the buildings we build and the we aim to understand where different structural types can be built and perhaps

way the city operates, and if these changes are not in keeping with the existing

where structures should not be built at all.

elements which effect Christchurch, then the city cannot work. The buildings that ultimately failed were a product of a lack of understanding about the ground

Everything in the system that affects Christchurch is related. It is impossible to

conditions and its related systems. The aim of our research is to develop an

define where any single “chain of events” starts, because each system relates to

understanding of the ground conditions as part of a larger system so that design

all the other systems and so all systems must be taken into account. The idea of

proposals can be better informed for the future reconstruction of Christchurch.

the mountains is nothing without the idea of the water which erodes them. The idea of alluvial plains is nothing without the idea of the coast which erodes and regulates it’s ever changing shoreline. There is no single event which begins the process of creating the alluvium, because it acts not as a chain but as a complex lattice. The city is a product of these systems- they are the field from which it has grown and developed. The nature of Christchurch as an interlinked city, and the very reason it was formed where it currently exists, is changing. The safety of the buildings, as they grow larger and heavier, becomes less certain with the risk of earthquakes. The springs and wells from which water is drawn are at risk from intrusive seawater, as well as the toxins and chemicals used by the farming community of the plains. The coastline through which the city trades both nationally and internationally is being pushed further and further away from the hub of the city, while the New Brighton spit grows, the nearby port fills with silt. The farming capacity of the plains has been reached, and while this supports a long term economy, it cannot easily grow or expand due to the limits of it’s area. Liquefaction and fault movement are gradually changing the topography of the city.

58

Infra-Structure & Geology | Introduction


INFRA-STRUCTURE & GEOLOGY Johnathan James Guest, Duy Khang Phuong, Scott Alexander Riley Thorp


A

A’ Mountains

B

Plains and Braided Rivers

Farm lands

Erosion of Mountains and Rock Transportation of Impermeable Materials Water Absorption through Permeable Alluvium

Christchurch

Springs

Port Hills

Volcanic

B’ Impermeable Rocks Force Groundwater Upwards Deposit of Fertile Rock Dust from Glaciers

C

C’ Sections Illustrating the Formation of the Alluvium Soils in Christchurch Key: Geological Map Faults Precambrian 300m Undifferentiated Quartenary Alluvium From Present up to 1.8 Million Years Ago Highly Permeable Fine Sediments 145m Red Bluff Tuff 1.63 - 5.28 Million Years Old Permeable Tuff 130m Lyttelton Basaltic Lava 9.7-11 Million Years Ago Impermeable Layer 545m Eyre Group Greensand 55 - 65 Million Years Ago Impermeable Layer

Paleozoic Mesozoic Tertiary Quaternary

Lakes For further information, see the NZ Geological Timescale, in the appendix.

Torlese Formation >150 Million Years Old (Gondwanaland Continental Plate) Impermeable Greywacke

General Subsurface Composition Under Christchurch

Geological Map

TECTONIC SYSTEMS New Zealand’s tectonic plates are a product of the collision between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, and result in the uplift of a former Gondwanaland land mass into the Southern Alps, a mountainous barrier to the western rains. A fault is where two plates collide, and one plate move and slide over the other. As a result of the forces which are applied to the Pacific and the Australian plates, there is a significant amount of geological movement along this major fault line.

As the fault line changes direction, there are stresses created in adjacent land, which has happened around Christchurch- this creates much lesser movements and faults to relieve the built up stress. This stress is released as movement, the energy of which is so great it causes the ground around it to shake in what manifests as an earthquake. The minor fault which caused the earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 is highlighted in red on the adjacent map, and is an example of a release of stress in the ground.

60

Infra-Structure & Geology | Analysis


Southern Alps

Pegasus Bay

Banks Peninsula

B Alpine fault, 27mm movement per year

Fault Locations

Alpine Alpine fault, fault, 27mm 27mm movement movement per per year year

C

Greendale Greendale fault, fault, cause cause of of christchurch christchurch earthquake, earthquake, 0.2mm 0.2mm per per year year movement movement Other Other minor minor active active faults faults in in area area Geological Geological section section lines lines

As the plates move not only sideways, but also vertically, you can see how mountain ranges are formed as the uplift of one plate over another causes a rise in the surface. Because the plates under the Southern Alps are colliding, there is a large amount of energy being released as movement all the time, consequently these mountains are still growing.

Greendale fault, cause of christchurch earthquake, 0.2mm per year movement Other active faults in areaper year Alpineminor fault, 27mm movement Greendale cause Geological fault, section linesof christchurch earthquake, 0.2mm per year movement

0km

30km

Other minor active faults in area

The sediment eroded from these mountains forms the alluvium under Christchurch. The epicentre of both Geological section lines recent earthquakes was centred far below this alluvium, which the sectional diagrams show taking up at most the upper 300m of ground. It is most likely the earthquake took place in the Torlesse compound, or the old Gondwanaland land mass underneath all the layers of deposition around Christchurch. Johnathan James Guest, Duy Khang Phuong, Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

61


COASTAL PROCESSES The coastal processes around Banks Peninsula play a large role in the composition of not only what goes on at the coast, but also what exists under the soil of Christchurch. There are several long rivers, which bring sediments and rocks down from the Southern Alps to the sea. The length of these rivers determines the nature of the sediments deposited at different points along their length. The larger the rocks or sediments, the earlier they get deposited along the river, while the smaller sediments stay suspended and are moved further along. The smallest sediments are deposited at the point where there is the lowest movement of water. In this case, this is the sea, or where the tidal water meets fresh water. Because of this principle, in conjunction with the long length of the rivers, the coastal soil and deposition along the coast is primarily of small or fine sediments.

Pegasus Bay

Banks Peninsula Port Hills

Geological Processes

0

7.5km

Active Beach

Active Dune (Beach Sand)

Loess

Lyttelton Volcanic

Alluvium in Active River Bed

Late Last Glacial Dune

Governors Bay Andesite

Diamond Harbour Volcanic

Young Terrace/Plain Alluvium

Young Dune Deposit (River Sand)

Rakaia TZ1 Greywacke

Bradley/View Hill Volc/Marine Dr

Young Alluvial Fan

Young Beach Deposit

Allandale Rhyolite

Mt Herbert Volcanic

Young-Medium Age Alluvial Fan

Young Swamp Deposit

Charteris Bay Sandstone

Alcaroa Volcanic

Old River Alluvium/Out wash

Young Estuarine Deposit

Late Last Glacial Alluvium

Anthropic Deposit

Alluvial Deposits: Material built up over a large period of time deposited by the flow of water along the course of a river or over a flood plane. Glacial Deposits: Material built up over a large period of time carried by the movement and melting of a glacier. Coastal Erosion and Deposition: Material built up by the deposition of material from coastal currents along the shore. Wind Erosion and Deposition: Material that has been picked up and transported by the wind to its current location. Volcanic: Material created and deposited from a volcanic eruption.

62

2.5km 5km

Infra-Structure & Geology | Analysis

Water

Due to the relatively large and energetic movements of most coastlines, these fine sediments are often quickly moved along or away from the beach, and so do not linger. However, Banks Peninsula, as a large solid protrusion into the sea, stops these ocean currents from acting normally in Pegasus Bay. In terms of the Southland current (the major ocean current along the shore of the eastern seaboard), Pegasus Bay is in the lee of Banks Peninsula, which creates an eddy current in Pegasus Bay. This current acts much more gently in a southward direction, as opposed to the north, which is the case in the Canterbury bight. So the rivers which flow into the Canterbury bight have all their fine sediment eroded away to the north, while the Waimakariri and other rivers which flow into Pegasus Bay, have their sediments moved southwards towards Christchurch and the Port Hills of Banks Peninsula. As a result, the soil and coastline around Christchurch are full of fine sediments and are growing at a much greater rate than most other coastlines of New Zealand. The major line in the adjacent map corresponds to the coastline approximately 4000 years before present. This illustrates the very rapid growth of the coast in this area. In addition, the floodplain of the Waimakariri includes the area of Christchurch, which is evident in the many different layers of sediment around the region. When the Waimakariri floods, there is a large out wash of large pebbles and stones, due to the greater force applied to the alluvium by the water.


AGE OF SOILS Christchurch is made up of two vastly different processes caused at two very different times. The oldest parts of Christchurch are the Port Hills to the south of the city centre. These were formed by the eruptions of Akaroa, Lyttelton, Mt Herbert, Diamond Harbour and other Banks Peninsula volcanoes. These date back many millions of years, and have even thrust up some greywacke which dates back 250 million years. In contrast to this is that the vast majority of land that Christchurch city is built on, which is relatively new (within the last 30,000 years) and some areas are still being formed (see Geological Process Map). This new creation is mainly due to alluvial flows across the Canterbury plains from the Southern Alps in ‘recent’ years closing the gap between the Alps and Banks Peninsula.

Port Hills

Banks Peninsula

Lyttelton Harbour

Age (Millions of Years)

~

0.524

0

8.1

250.4

0km

10km

COINCIDENCE / OVERLAP This map is on overlay of the September earthquake’s liquefaction with the areas affected by springs, and the an overlay of the February earthquake’s liquefaction with the relatively young coastal area. This reveals clearly two points: Firstly, as mentioned earlier, the relatively young coastal zone in front of the green line contains small particles and sediments that have washed south from the Waimakariri River mouth, this ground type is highly susceptible to liquefaction. The second coincidence of the spring locations and the liquefaction from the earlier earthquake shows the nature of the springs and their role in forming the ground conditions of the area around Banks Peninsula. Springs bring several things to the area in which they emerge. Firstly, and most importantly, they bring water, and thus life in the form of both natural systems and also human settlements. The water rising to the surface near the volcanic layer of Lyttelton indicates a very high groundwater level. This water, in travelling through gravels of a specific type (usually medium to coarse gravels), would cause an erosion of fine sediment particles under the surface, which would be transported by water to the surface. These sediments, with the high water content of the soils are conducive to two specific things happening: first, naturally occurring wetlands and swamps in the areas or ponds around springs, and second, ground liquefaction in the even of earthquake. This map clearly shows where there is a strong correlation between spring occurrences, liquefaction and bogs or swamps.

Springs and Liquefaction Volcanic Lyttelton and Akaroa Basalt

Spring Locations Old Alluvium Compacted Large Gravel

Coastline 4000 Years Ago

Liquefied Zone February Earthquake

Liquefied Zone September Earthquake

10km

0km

Beach or Dune Deposits

Johnathan James Guest, Duy Khang Phuong, Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

63


R:

Resources from Ground

lluvial

Sand

ALLUVIAL

Sand

Larger stones

Larger Stones

Aggregate

Aggregate

Clay

Clay

Peat

Peat

Groundwater

Ground Water

Warm springs

Warm Springs

Rip Rap

Rip Rap

gneous

Scoria

IGNEOUS

Scoria

Basalt

Basalt

Metamorphic

Limestone

METAMORPHIC

Limestone

GROUND RESOURCES Possibly the most direct influence the ground has on Christchurch is through the resources it provides. One of the reasons people settle in a place is to work with the resources an area offers, be it in terms of food, water, minerals, or simply stone. Christchurch has a plethora of resources under or on the ground. The resources the ground provides lend to the buildings built. It is the local elements found in a specific geographical location and the relationship people have to them that most define a place. When people 64

Infra-Structure & Geology | Analysis

use the local aggregate in concrete, or when they use the stones in gabions, there is a direct association between the built and the natural landscapes. Above is a catalogue of elements found in Christchurch, some more valuable and present then others. There are few degrees of separation between the resources Christchurch has and any element that makes up the city: the culture, the livelihood, and the economic and social success of Christchurch is intimately linked to its resources.


MAIN SOIL TYPES The majority of the soil under Christchurch is made up of forms of gravel with a large amount of sand under the eastern suburbs. Pockets of peat and pug exist in areas, due to the high water content of these areas they have mostly been left as parks and wildlife areas as they are structurally very weak.

Sand Peat Gravel Sandstone Loess Hawaiite Basalt

In the event of an earthquake, gravel and sand are prone to settling, which is further complicated due to Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high water table. The water combined with the sand and gravel can cause liquefaction, as seen in the September and February earthquakes.

Andesite Rhyolite Water

Main Soil Type

0km

10km

Silt Sand Silt Gravel Shingle Sand Sand Silt Peat Sand Silt Clay Siltstone Mudstone Chert Mudstone Greenstone

SUB SOIL TYPES The majority of Christchurch is built on a layer of sand and silt. This is problematic as it is can lead to liquefaction, as seen in the recent earthquakes. When the water table rises it takes the fine sand and silt and forces it through cracks and gaps to the surface, this ejection of the underground content means that the foundations and buildings in these areas are susceptible to subsiding and sinking.

Mudstone Sandstone Basalt Tuf f Breccia Basalt Trachyte Tuf f Pyroclastic Epiclastic Basalt Breccia Tuf f Agglomerate Trachyte Hawaiite Basanite Breccia Andesite Dacite Obsidian Breccia

Sub Soil Type

0km

10km

Johnathan James Guest, Duy Khang Phuong, Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

65


DENSITY OF SUBSOIL Beneath the main layers of Christchurch are much less dense soil types. This is where earthquakes can cause the most damage by amplifying the shock waves that push the layers of different densities at different periods. This is one of the major contributing factors to the destruction of so many buildings in the CBD during the February 22 earthquake. Soft Soil Amplification: Soft soil types allow for a greater transmission of forces to pass through them unhindered. For example a clay based soil will transmit the power of an earthquake higher than that of rock. Trampoline Effect: The vertical movement of layers of soil with different densities causing them to move at different speeds and collide with each other resulting in an amplified movement of the ground.

Port Hills

Soil Density (kg/m3) 0

2768

Density of Subsoil (kg/m3)

10km

0km

Soil Density (kg/m3) 0

2768 No observed land damage

Minor land damage but no observed liquefaction Moderate liquefaction but no lateral spreading Severe liquefaction but no lateral spreading Moderate lateral spreading Severe lateral spreading

Density of Subsoil (kg/m3) Overlaid with Land Damage 66

Infra-Structure & Geology | Analysis

0km

2km


DENSITY OF MAIN SOIL Main soil types in Christchurch are quite dense because of the large amount of gravel. However it is worth noting that the Port Hills to the south of Christchurch are much more dense as they are made of volcanic rock. At the base of the Port Hills the Loess is the least dense soil type in Christchurch (even less than water). This is because it is made up of fine wind borne particles caught in the valley. There is a direct relationship between the high areas of ground damage and the areas where there is a low to medium soil density. Port Hills

Soil Density (kg/m3) 0

Density of Main Soil (kg/m3)

2768

10km

0km

Soil Density Soil Density (kg/m3) 0

2768 No observed land damage Minor land damage but no observed liquefaction Moderate liquefaction but no lateral spreading Severe liquefaction but no lateral spreading Moderate lateral spreading Severe lateral spreading

Density of Main Soil (kg/m3) Overlaid with Land Damage

0km

2km

Johnathan James Guest, Duy Khang Phuong, Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

67


POROSITY OF SOIL Christchurch has a very high water table and the majority of the city is below 10m above sea level. Groundwater depths in Christchurch appear to range between 0.5m and 4.8m. For examples here are a few of the variance in depths for: - Bexley and Aranui 3.4m to 0.6m; - Fendalton and Merivale 2.7m to 1.0m; and - Richmond 3.4m to 1.0m.

Bexley & Aranui Richmond Fendalton

The high water table in Christchurch, combined with the low elevation and the high soil porosity are a problematic combination for the city. This combination allows for water to move through the soil, and thus the cause of high levels of liquefaction in Christchurch. This can be seen when the porosity map is overlaid with the liquefaction map; it is clear the liquefaction occurred in areas of medium to high porosity soils adjacent to nearby bodies of water.

Porosity (percentage) 0

100

Porosity (percentage)

10km

0km

Bexley & Aranui

Richmond

Fendalton

Porosity (percentage) 0

100 Areas of Observed Minor Liquefaction

Areas of Observed Moderate and Severe Liquefaction Areas of Observed Lateral Spreading Cracks

Porosity (percentage) Overlaid with Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading 68

Infra-Structure & Geology | Analysis

0km

2km


Smyrou, 2011

Particle Size Distribution

Air Water Water

Air

Solids Solids

Solids

Water

Land Classification

Solids

Green Orange Partially Saturated Partially Three Phase Soil saturated

Red

Three phase soil

Severe

Soil Compaction

Moderate

Saturated

Dry

Saturated Dry Two Phase Soil Two phase soil

No Visible Liquefaction Trace

0km

5km

Liquefaction Map

LIQUEFACTION Liquefaction occurs when soil loses strength and behaves as a liquid during an earthquake. Loose soil compacts (increasing in density and reducing in volume) when subjected to earthquake vibration. Christchurch’s soil is highly susceptible to liquefaction because it is saturated, loose, well sorted silt and sand, or sandy gravels. Liquefaction is also associated with settlement, which causes further compaction and expulsion of liquefied soils through the topsoil. Peat soil beneath Christchurch did not liquefy or lose strength during the vibration, but it is likely that it consolidated, which caused ground settlement. Soil property varies in shape, size (in both mechanical and physical properties) and in the extent to which the void between soil particles are filled with water or air, which creates a “multiphase” of solid, air, and liquid. Soil can be classified as either cohesive or cohesiveless: sand and gravel are cohesiveless, in other words they resist shear forces only by friction. Clay and like soils are cohesive, they resist shear by both cohesion and friction.

Liquefaction induced structural damage occurred in the southern CBD and in areas adjacent to rivers. Most of the structures in the CBD that failed due to liquefaction were the ‘super structures’. Approximately, 1000 residential houses in Kaiapoi and 5100 houses in Dallington, Richmond, Avondale and Bexley had foundation damage or foundation settlement. This was related to the common use of heavy concrete foundation slabs, which imposed additional load during the earthquake. The map of liquefaction overlaid with the swamp map from 1850 indicates the areas of liquefaction were either swamp, or wetland in 1850. This correlation is reinforced by the area’s bore holes, which show a layer of peat in those locations which used to be swamps.

Johnathan James Guest, Duy Khang Phuong, Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

69


g MAP Engineers normally assume the Peak Vertical Acceleration (PVA) to be about two third of the Peak Horizontal Acceleration (PHA). However, the February earthquakeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ratio of PVA to PHA is much higher the further it moved from the epicentre. During the earthquake structures were subjected to up-throwing because the PVA was over 1g, which was the cause of a great deal of damage. In vertical acceleration, the maximum acceleration occurs at the top due to gravity, and is mainly from axial forces. However, the damage from PHA is from shear and bending. The amplification of PVA in buildings is greater than that of the PHA. Ground motion with high Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for a short-period causes less damage compared to high peak ground accelerations with a long period. The Heathcote Valley had very shortperiod components despite being close to the epicentre, while the stronger period components were concentrated close to the CBD. The strong period components close to the CBD correlates to the damage of certain structure types. Most of the buildings outside the CBD are low rise buildings, and were effected by a short period compared to the mid rise buildings in the CBD which were effected by a long period. This explains the concentration of damage within the CBD in the recent earthquakes.

Forces Felt in the February Earthquake (Smyrou, Tasiopoulou, Bal, Gazetas, and Vintzileou, 2011)

SaNS (Ty = 1.36s) for 6 - stry RC frame - wall structures (g) Peak Ground Acceleration (%g)

Intensity of Forces 0

2

4

Make Safe Partial Demolish Demolish Fault February 11, 2011 Epicentre February 11, 2011 SM Station

70

Infra-Structure & Geology | Analysis

0km

5km


SPECTRAL ACCELERATIONS Seismic waves travel through rock and then soil from the source in their journey to reach the surface. Therefore, the soil characteristics greatly influence the ground motion. Soil acts as a filter to seismic waves by attenuating the motion at a certain frequencies and amplifying the motion at other frequencies. The liquefaction map shows that the northern and eastern areas have soft, liquefiable soil. The soft soil in these areas was subjected to high ground acceleration compared to the firmer soil in the west and south, which indicate the soil characteristics were influenced by the direction and intensity of waves. The seismic measurements show that the CBDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s east and north sides experienced higher forces compared with any other direction closer to the epicentre.

Spatial Distribution of Spectral Accelerations (Smyrou, Tasiopoulou, Bal, Gazetas, and Vintzileou, 2011) SaNS (Ty = 1.36s) for 6 - stry RC frame - wall structures (g) Peak Ground Acceleration (%g)

Intensity of Forces 0

0.5

1

1.5

Make Safe Partial Demolish Demolish Fault February 11, 2011 Epicentre February 11, 2011 SM Station

The level of ground motion that induced damage to structures in the Christchurch earthquakes was varied depending on the structureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s height and the material construction. A two storey un-reinforced masonry building has a short natural period compared to a six storey reinforced concrete framed building. The resonant effect will affect five to seven storey buildings in the northern CBD, because this area has expected response accelerations of 0.7s period (equal to the period of a 5-7 storey building). Therefore, the risk in these areas is higher compare to other areas. 0km

5km

The ground motion produced by the February earthquake had a 2s period and therefore affected mid to high rise buildings (6-15 storeys). The increased effect on certain buildings is known as resonance effect, which is where a building experiences a greater force when the ground motion has the same period of the structure. The resonance effect produces a greater effect in soft ground compared to firm ground because soft ground often increases the period of earthquake vibration closer to that of a building. Johnathan James Guest, Duy Khang Phuong, Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

71


Christchurch 2010

Destroyed

Future Christchuch

Structurally Damaged

Minor Damage

URBAN STRUCTURAL STRATEGY My project’s aim is to develop a catalogue of possible structural types relative to soil types. The structural capacity is set to minimize structural repairs in the event of another large earthquake, and allow the city to be up and running within a short period of time. The current structural code NZS 1170.5 allows for a permanent deformation and deflection of the structure in an earthquake. This essentially means that buildings can deform but not collapse, known as ‘fail safe.’ Ductility “μ” is the strength of a structure’s elasticity (the ability of a structure to return to centre itself after an earthquake). A ductility focused design method is very economical compare to full strength design approach. However, the high ductility design factor caused a large number of Christchurch’s buildings to fail safe in the intense earthquake of February 2011, the consequence of which is excessive social and economic loss. Christchurch is in a high seismic zone, and in the last year the city was subjected to three intense earthquakes. In order for future buildings to sustain such earthquakes, they need to increase their strength to reduce their ductility which would minimize the number of fail safe buildings. In addition to increasing the strength to reduce the ductility level, the structural strategy herein outlines suitable building foundations, possible structural types to mitigate earthquake forces, possible cladding materials, and a suggested minimum building gap to avoid the effects of pounding. A building reacts to seismic force due to the movement of the ground, this creates a shear at the base of the structures (V_base). The shear force at the base is then transmitted to building floors. The top level attracts the highest lateral force and reduces as the height decreases. As principle of physics, Force (F) = Mass (m) x Acceleration (a) The heavier a structure the higher the lateral force, therefore, the lighter the structure the better. This also applies to selecting a cladding type, as a lighter cladding avoids unnecessarily imposing extra load on a structure. FOUNDATION Liquefaction causes damage to a structure by way of lateral forces acting on the main structural elements such as floors and columns, which in turn transmit force to the foundations. There are a series of possible foundation types that can be used to prevent damage due to liquefaction. Raft foundations are used to spread the loads from a structure over a large area; however, they are only suitable for smaller structures such as single detached homes, because of their light loads. They function well to mitigate the causes and effects of settlement due to liquefaction as long as the building is light relative to the raft foundation. End bearing piles are suitable for multistory buildings. However, the piles must reach a soil bearing layer to be able support the loads transmitted through them. Cellular raft foundations, also known as buoyant rafts, are ideal for different settlements in expected locations, it’s fundamentally based on buoyancy theory by utilising the overburden pressure of the excavated soil from the site. When the load of the excavated soil is removed the soil will lift upward. If the load of the building is equal to the load of the excavated soil, the building will float. If the building’s load is heavier, and the stress is not significant, piles can be used to provide extra support. 72

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Structural Strategy

STRUCTURAL OPTIONS There are possible structural options to mitigate earthquake forces. It helps to reduce the lateral deflection and therefore reduce the permanent deformation of a structure. The function of seismic isolation is to keep the building stationary while the ground moves back and forth. The benefit of base isolation is 25% reduction response from the increase damping, as well it increases a building’s natural period, which changes the impact of forces by spread it over time. Viscous damper is also a viable option, as it absorbs energy and turns it into heat and as a result of reduction in lateral deflection. The advantage of using a damper is that it is easy to install in a building frame as a diagonal member or brace frame. There are many new construction methods to mitigate the effect of earthquakes developed in New Zealand and around the world. These methods should be used in future buildings in Christchurch, especially because the cost is not much different to the conventional construction method. The new construction method such as Precast Seismic Structure System (PRESSS), or Hybrid LVL (laminate veneer lumber) is designed with rocking mechanisms, which allows the structure to re-centre itself following an earthquake. If damage occurs, the structural elements are easy and cheap to replace. Southern Cross Hospital is using precast technology and passed the test of the recent earthquakes with only cosmetic damage. Most of the new technology aims to minimize the level of damage by either separating nonstructural element from structural elements, or they design non-structural elements to move along with structural elements. Timber shear walls are used extensively for residential and commercial construction in New Zealand. Timber structures normally perform very well in seismic regions because they are much lighter compare to steel and concrete. A midply wall is also a possible structural solution to use for Christchurch. Midply walls have the advantage of nails that work in a double shear compared to a single shear in a standard wall. The nail penetrates through a sandwich of studs with a plywood sheathing in the centre, which prevents the nail from pulling through the plywood. Midply walls have the average lateral load capacity three times stronger than a standard shear wall. BUILDING GAP Pounding is damage caused due to adjacent structure hitting one another, and is a result of an inadequate space or gap between separate structures. In the February earthquake several of the old buildings did not have enough space, which then caused severe damage. The current code requires the maximum seismic drift to equal 2.5% x the height of a building (NZS 1170.5 2004).


Soil Map Good Soil Reasonable Soil Moderate Liquefaction High Liquefaction Severe Liquefaction 0km

1.5km

Duy Khang Phuong

73


Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Building Envelope Building Area CBD

74

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Structural Strategy


Extrusion of Possible Built Area Relative to the Suggested Maximum Structural Height and Soil Type 6+ Level - living inner city, living central city, medium density, business district centre, 3 - 5 Level - general industrial, school, special purpose,hospital, living inner suburban 3 - 5 Level - inner city industrial, business local centre 1 - 2 Level - school, hospital, sub urban industrial, general industrial 1 - 2 Level - business local centre, school, hospital, living inner city 1 Level - Living inner city, living suburban, business local centre, business district centre Single storey - school, hospital, general industrial Single storey - school, hospital, business local centre, living inner city, living inner suburban, general industrial

CBD: Extrusion of Possible Built Area Relative to the Suggested Maximum Structural Height and Soil Type Duy Khang Phuong

75


1. Foundation 2. Structure 3. Cladding 4. Building Gap

1. Raft 1. Raft 1. Raft 1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF

1. Raft 1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Piles 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1. Raft

1. Raft

1. Raft

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Raft

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Raft

2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1.Cellular raft

2F. Timber shearwall

1.Cellular raft

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap 1. Raft

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1. Piles

1.Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1. Piles

1.Cellular raft

4. 88 mm Gap

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Structural Strategy

L1-Living Suburban

B5-General Industrial

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

B4-Sub urban Industrial

B3-Inner City Industrial

B2- Business District Centre

B1-Business Local Centre

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

1.Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

shearwall

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

Cu1- Cultural City Heritage

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings 4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF Strengthening 2F. Timber

2F. Timber shearwall

LH-Hills

2F. Timber shearwall

1.Cellular raft

L4-Central City

2F. Timber shearwall

L3-Inner City, Medium Density

2F. Timber shearwall

L2-Inner Suburban

2F. Timber shearwall

1.Cellular raft

4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 88 mm Gap

Ru1, Ru3

2F. Timber shearwall

1.Cellular raft

SP-Special Purpose( Hosp)

2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap

Cu3, Cu4 School

2F. Timber shearwall

1.Cellular raft

2F. Timber shearwall

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1.Cellular raft

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings

4. 88 mm Gap

2F. Timber shearwall

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

4. 88 mm Gap 1. Raft

4. 88 mm Gap

1. Raft

1.Cellular raft

2F. Timber shearwall

1.Cellular raft

4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

2F. Timber shearwall

Soil Types

1. Raft 1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

76

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

4. 88 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings 4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings 4. 88 mm Gap 4. 88 mm Gap

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF

Ru5, Ru6

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

Ru4 - Waimakariri

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF

Ru2-Templeton - Halswell

SINGLE STOREY


1. Foundation 2. Structure 3. Cladding 4. Building Gap 1. Raft

1. Raft

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber 2F. Timber 2F. Timber shearwall shearwall shearwall Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Raft

1. Raft

Piles

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing

Piles

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Raft

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2E. Steel - CBF

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

Strengthening 2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

Ru1, Ru3

SP-Special Purpose( Hosp)

Cu3, Cu4 School

Cu1- Cultural City Heritage

LH-Hills

L4-Central City

L3-Inner City, Medium Density

L2-Inner Suburban

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

L1-Living Suburban

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

B5-General Industrial

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

B4-Sub urban Industrial

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

B3-Inner City Industrial

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

B2- Business District Centre

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

B1-Business Local Centre

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

2F. Timber shearwall

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

1. Cellular raft

2F. Timber shearwall

1. Cellular raft

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF

1. Cellular raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF

Piles

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap

4. 176 mm Gap

4. 176 mm Gap

2E. Steel - CBF

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

Soil Types

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

1. Raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber 2F. Timber 2F. Timber 2F. Timber shearwall shearwall shearwall shearwall Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

2E. Steel - CBF

4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap 4. 176 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

1. Cellular raft

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF 2E. Steel - CBF Strengthening 2F. Timber 2F. Timber shearwall shearwall Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

Ru5, Ru6

1. Raft

2E. Steel - CBF 2F. Timber shearwall Steel reinforcing

Ru4 - Waimakariri

1. Raft

1. Raft

Ru2-Templeton - Halswell

1 LEVEL

Duy Khang Phuong

77


1. Foundation 2. Structure 3. Cladding 4. Building Gap

2 LEVEL 1. Piles

1. Piles

1. Piles

1. Piles

1. Piles

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2E. Steel - CBF 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper Strengthening 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL 2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

2H. PRESSS 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

2H. PRESSS 3.Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 264 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 2E. Steel - CBF 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper Strengthening 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2E. Steel - CBF 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL Strengthening 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2E. Steel - CBF 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

Strengthening 2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

4. 264 mm Gap

2G. Hybrid LVL

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Structural Strategy

L1-Living Suburban

4. 264 mm Gap

B5-General Industrial

4. 264 mm Gap

B4-Sub urban Industrial

4. 264 mm Gap

B3-Inner City Industrial

4. 264 mm Gap

B2- Business District Centre

B1-Business Local Centre

4. 264 mm Gap

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

Strengthening 2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

4. 264 mm Gap

SP-Special Purpose( Hosp)

2H. PRESSS

Cu3, Cu4 School

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

Cu1- Cultural City Heritage

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

L4-Central City

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

1. Cellular raft

L3-Inner City, Medium Density

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

4. 264 mm Gap

1. Cellular raft

L2-Inner Suburban

2G. Hybrid LVL

4. 264 mm Gap

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2E. Steel - CBF 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

Soil Types

2G. Hybrid LVL

3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

78

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS 2H. PRESSS 2H. PRESSS 2H. PRESSS 2H. PRESSS 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing 3.Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings


1. Foundation 2. Structure 3. Cladding 4. Building Gap

3 - 5 LEVEL

6 - 10 LEVEL 1. Piles

1. Piles 1. Piles 1. Piles 1. Piles 1. Piles 1. Piles 1. Piles 1. Piles 1. Piles 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL 2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

Steel reinforcing

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal/ Precast Metal/ Precast conc claddings conc claddings 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

1. Cellular raft

2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing

1. Cellular raft

2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation2C. Base Isolation 2H. PRESSS

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ piles piles

1. Cellular raft + piles

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ piles piles

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2G. Hybrid LVL

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings

1. Cellular raft + piles

1. Cellular raft + piles

2H. PRESSS

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 1. Cellular raft + piles

1. Cellular raft + piles

1. Cellular raft + piles

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

2C. Base Isolation 2H. PRESSS

2C. Base Isolation2C. Base Isolation

2H. PRESSS

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft + piles

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ piles piles

1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + piles piles piles piles piles 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ piles piles

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2C. Base Isolation

2G. Hybrid LVL

2C. Base Isolation2C. Base Isolation

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ 1. Cellular raft+ piles piles piles piles piles piles piles piles piles

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + 1. Cellular raft + piles piles piles piles piles piles

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2G. Hybrid LVL

2C. Base Isolation

2G. Hybrid LVL

2C. Base Isolation2C. Base Isolation

SP-Special Purpose( Hosp)

Cu3, Cu4 School

L4-Central City

L3-Inner City, Medium Density

B2- Business District Centre

B1-Business Local Centre

Soil Types

SP-Special Purpose( Hosp)

Cu3, Cu4 School

L4-Central City

L3-Inner City, Medium Density

B5-General Industrial

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

B4-Sub urban Industria

4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height 4. 2.5% x Height

B3-Inner City Industrial

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

B2- Business District Centre

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

B1-Business Local Centre

Soil Types

2H. PRESSS

3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing 3. Timber/Glazing Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings Metal claddings

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Cellular raft 1. Cellular raft 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

2G. Hybrid LVL

1. Cellular raft+ piles

1. Piles

Steel reinforcing

2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

1. Piles

2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS 2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing Steel reinforcing

2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing

1. Piles

Steel reinforcing

2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing

2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing

1. Piles

2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation 2C. Base Isolation2C. Base Isolation 2H. PRESSS

2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing

2H. PRESSS Steel reinforcing

1. Piles

2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper 2B. CBF+Damper

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STRENGTH vs DUCTILITY

Seismic Force

Permanent deformation, need repair Elastic range, no damage occur

1 Lateral deflection

Lateral force vs defelction for elastic structures

Small cracks

2

Steel reinforcement is still in the elastic range

3 Cracks even wider

Cracks widen Steel reinforcement is in inelastic range

High cost, not economical

Steel reinforcement fail Damage occur at the plastic hinge

F_elastic is the maximum force the building could resist without strength lost 1.0

Future Christchurch’ seismic coefficient needs to change, therefore increase building’s strength

=1 0.8

Seismic Force

Seismic Force

1.25

Seismic Force

Current Christchurch building’s strength

2

3

Ductility range Fail safe,demolished High cost to repair if possible

1

Seismic Coefficient (%g)

Permanent deformation, need repair Collapse point Future Christchuch, required more strength and less ductility

2

0.6

4 5 0.2

6 Plastic hinge region 8

Elastic range, no damage occur Lateral deflection

0

2.0

1.0

3.0

The current structural requirement for Christchurch allows for building design to fail safe

Foundation

4.0

Period (seconds)

Lateral force vs defelction for ductile structures (Charleson, 2008)

(Bull and Brunsdon, 2011)

Current code (may be lower), building failed safe and demolished at post - quake 3

0.4

Elastic displacement

Foundation

Inelastic displacement

Deformation at the plastic hinge region

Current ductility allows for Christchurch construction

Uniform distribution over the height of the structure

Ductility (

Comparison between elastic and inelastic displacemement (Charleson, 2008)

) : Sesismic Coefficient (%g)

EARTHQUAKES EFFECT F6

F6

F6F5

F6F5

Horizontal Seismic Shear

2

Distributed of Seismic Force in Floors & Walls

3

2

Distributed of Seismic Force in Floors & Walls

3

V_base = F1 + F2 + F3 “V_base” is the force at the base of the building V_base = F1 + F2 + F3 Force (F) = Mass (m) x Acceleration (A)

The shorter andforce lighter the less of the V_base forces. “V_base” is the atthe thebuilding base of is the building Force (F) = Mass (m) x Acceleration (A) The shorter and lighter the building is the less of the V_base forces.

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Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Structural Strategy

Forces Act at Centre of Mass (COM) at Each Level Forces Act at Centre of Mass (COM) at Each Level

F3F4

F3F2

F3F2

Horizontal Seismic Shear

F4F5

F4F3

F4F3

1

F5F6

F5F4

F5F4

1

F6

F2 F3

F2F1

F2F1

F1

F1

F3

F3

F3F2

F3F2

F1 F2

F1

F3

F2 F3

F2F1

F2F1

F1

F1

F1 F2

F1

4

Simplification of Forces Act at Each Level

5

Mode of Displacement I

6

Mode of Displacement II

4

Simplification of Forces Act at Each Level

5

Mode of Displacement I

6

Mode of Displacement II


1. FOUNDATION TYPES AND EARTHQUAKE FORCES Shear wall

Shear wall

Gravity Force

Gravity Force Shear wall Gravity Force Tension Force

Compression Force

Compression Force

Raft foundation Soil’s friction & cohesion stop the foundation slide

Soil bearing capacity stops the shear wall turn over

Shear Force at Base

Cellular raft foundation

Horizontal soil pressure Compression force transmits to the raft foundation

Compression Force Tension Force

Tension Force

Shear Force at Base

Large soil’s friction & cohesion area stops the foundation lift up or settle down

Horizontal soil pressure

Large soil’s friction & cohesion area stops the foundation lift up or settle down

Compression force transmits to the cellular raft

Soil’s friction & cohesion stop the foundation slide

Void space to reduce soil’s overburden pressure Large soil’s bearing capacity area stops the shear wall turn over

Soil’s friction & cohesion stop the foundation slide

Raft foundation Earthquake forces transmit from the shear wall to the raft foundation

Shear Force at Base

Cellular raft foundation

Soil’s weight, friction & cohesion stop the pile uplift

Horizontal soil pressure Void space to reduce soil’s overburden pressure Horizontal soil pressure Compression force transmits to pile Soil bearing capacity stop the shear wall turn over

Cellular raft

Raft + Piles

Seismic forces transmit from the shear wall to the cellular raft

Seismic forces transmit from the shear wall to the cellular raft + Piles

Seismic Force Shear wall Shear wall

Gravity Force

Gravity Force

Tension Force

Compression Force

Compression Force

Tension Force Shear Force at Base

Foundation

Foundation

Soil’s weight, friction & cohesion stop the pile uplift

Earthquake forces on shear wall

F6

F5

F3

F1 F2

F1 F2

F1

F1

F1

F2

F3

F1 F2

F1 F2

F4

F2

F2 F3

F3

F3

F4

F4

F2

F4 F5

F3

F3

F3

F5 F6

F4 F5

F4

F4

F6

F5 F6

F5 F6

F4 F5

Soil bearing capacity stop the shear wall turn over

Seismic forces transmit from the shear wall to piles

F6

F5 F6

Horizontal soil pressure Compression force transmits to pile

Piles

2A. STRUCTURAL OPTION TO MITIGATE EARTHQUAKE FORCES F6

Shear Force at Base

F1

Moment frame

Shear wall

Frame + Shear wall

Moment frame

Damper

Moment frame + Damper

Moment frame

Shear wall

Frame + Shear wall

Moment frame

Damper

Moment frame + Damper

F6

F6

F5 F6

F6

F5

F4 F5

F4 F5

F3

F3

F4

F4

F2

F2

F3

F3

F1 F2

F1 F2

F1

F1

Frame

Base isolation systems

Steel - Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF)

Moment frame + CBF Base isolation systems

Frame

Base isolation systems

Steel - Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF)

Moment frame + CBF Base isolation systems

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2B. BASE ISOLATION BENEFITS F6

F5

F4

Acceleration response

Normal damping

F3 Increased damping from isolation

Gravity Force 25% Reduction response from increased damping

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

F2

Piston

2.5 F1

Natural period of vibration T (secs)

Compression Force

Cylinder

Shear Force at Base

Benefit of using the seismic isolation system (Charleson, 2008) Horizontal soil pressure

Lead

Compression force transmits to pile Cantilevered pile placed in oversized casing to allow for movement Soil bearing capacity stop the shear wall turn over Fixed base building

Acceleration response

A

Lead extrusion damper - Wellington central police station ( Robinson seismic, 2011)

F6

F5 Seismic isolation F4

B 0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

F3

Natural period of vibration T (secs)

Gravity Force F2

Period shift

Introduce base isolation reduces the acceleration and increases the period of vibration, which changes the impact of the forces by the spread it over time

Fluid

F1

Compression Force

Chamber

Shear Force at Base

Piston head containing orifices

Horizontal soil pressure

Cylinder

Void space to reduce soil’s overburden pressure Horizontal soil pressure

2C. BASE ISOLATION TYPES

Viscous damper (Damptek, 2011)

Soil bearing capacity stop the shear wall turn over

F6 Vertical force

Piston rod

Cross section - Viscous damper (Charleson, 2008)

Compression force transmits to pile

Horizontal Force

Cross section - Lead extrusion damper (Charleson, 2008)

F6 F5

Vertical force F5 F4

Steel Horizontal Force Lead Steel Steel Rubber Lead

F4 F3 Gravity Force

InternalRubber Steel Rubber

F3 F2

Gravity Force

InternalRubber Vertical force Horizontal Force Vertical force

F2 F1 F1

Cut away - Lead rubber bearing Horizontal Force (Robinson seismic, 2011) Cut away - Lead rubber bearing (Robinson seismic, 2011)

Compression Force Compression Shear Force atForce Base Horizontal pressure Shear Force soil at Base Void space to reduce soil’s Horizontal pressure overburdensoil pressure Void spacesoil to reduce soil’s Horizontal pressure overburden pressure Compression force Horizontal transmits to soil pilepressure Compression force Soil bearing capacity stop the transmits to pile shear wall turn over Soil bearing capacity stop the shear wall turn over

Isolation bearing undergoing a shear displacement (Robinson seismic, 2011) Isolation bearing undergoing a shear displacement (Robinson seismic, 2011)

Isolation bearing of the Christchurch’s Women Hospital (Pampanin, 2011) Isolation bearing of the Christchurch’s Women Hospital (Pampanin, 2011)

F4 F4 F3 Gravity Force F3 F2 F2 F1

Slider Highly polished staninless Slider steel surface Highly polished staninless steel surface

F1

Gravity Force Compression Force Compression Shear Force atForce Base Horizontal soil pressure Shear Force at Base

Cross section - Friction pendulum bearing at centre position (Charleson, 2008) Cross section - Friction pendulum bearing at centre position (Charleson, 2008)

Void space to reduce soil’s Horizontal pressure overburdensoil pressure Void spacesoil to reduce soil’s Horizontal pressure overburden pressure Compression force Horizontal transmits to soil pilepressure Compression force Soil bearing capacity stop the transmits to pile shear wall turn over Soil bearing capacity stop the shear wall turn over

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Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Structural Strategy

Displaced position Displaced position

Friction of pendulum of the San Francisco international airport Friction of pendulum of the San Francisco international airport

Christchurch’s Women Hospital (OPUS, 2011) Christchurch’s Women Hospital (OPUS, 2011)


2D. SEISMIC GAP F6

F5 Beam F4

Column Infill panel

F3

Separated panel

Diagonal Crack

Beam and column region likely to be damaged

Compression strut

X Crack Compression strut

Beam and column region likely to be damaged

F2

F1

Moment frame with out infill panel

Beam - column joint failure (Kam, 2011)

Moment frame deflection

Seismic drift reverses and forms X crack

A

Column

Beam

Sealant

20 mm Min Recess form in beam 200 mm @ 2m spacing

50 mm Min

Separated infill panel

Backing rod Infill panel

Steel dowell or flat plate cast into wall B

Seismic gap

Separated infill panel

Seismic gap

Moment frame

Structural detail that resist out of plane force, while allow for the movement between infill panel and moment resisting frame (Charleson, 2008)

Section A - A

Section B - B Compression failure of reinforced wall (Kam, 2011)

2E. STEEL BRACING TYPES F6

F6

F6

F5

Tension

F5

F5

e

e

Compression F4

F3

F2 Compression

F2

F2

F1

Compression F1

Structural fuse region

Tension

F3

F3

F2

F3

F4

F4

F1

F1

Tension

Moment frame + V CFB + Base isolation systems

Moment frame + X CFB + Base isolation systems

Moment frame + Z CFB + Base isolation systems

Truss action forces

V Eccentrically Braced Frame

Kinematics of deformation

Typical eccentrically braced frame (Dowrick, 2009)

e F3

Structural fuse region

F2

F1

K Eccentrically Braced Frame

Kinematics of deformation

Evidence of EBF link yielding (Bruneau, 2011)

Evidence of inelastic deformation (Bruneau, 2011)

Cracking of partition (Bruneau, 2011)

Solution to inelastic deformation: Viscous damper within a stiff bracing (Caravasilis, 2011)

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2F. TIMBER SHEAR WALL

Cross section of typical standard shear wall and Midply wall (Varoglu and karacabeyli et al, 2006)

Contrast between nails working in single shear and double shear (Varoglu and karacabeyli et al, 2006)

Comparison of performance of Midply and standard shearwalls ( Ni, Popovski, and Karacabeyli et al, 2010)

The nail length penetrates through a sandwich of studs, which plywood sheathing in the center. This prevents the nail pull through the plywood sheathing. It changes the forces each nail work in single shear in the standard shear wall to double shear

The Midply walls have the average lateral load capacity three times stronger than the standard shear wall

Components of typical timber shear wall (Aghayere and Vigil, 2007)

2G. HYBRID LVL SYSTEM

U-shape plate Connection Wall

Shear distortion Building under construction (ACA, 2011)

Installation of LVL post-tensioned wall (NZWOOD, 2011)

Installation of LVL post-tensioned and coupled shear panels (Pampanin et al., 2005)

U-shape plates (Pampanin et al., 2005)

Flexual distortion

Effects of seismic force on U-shape plate (Newcombe, 2011)

Internal dissipation devices

Unbonded post tensioned tendon

Controlled rocking system (Pampanin et al., 2005)

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Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Structural Strategy

Construction details

Deformed bar with 50mm unbonded length

Hybrid LVL frame


2H. PRECAST SEISMIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEM (PRESSS) Tension force in mild steel

Unbonded post-tensioned tendon Tension force in prestressing steel

Grouted mild steel

Partially unbonded mild steel

External mild steel dissipaters

Imposed Rotation

Compression force in concrete and mild steel

Imposed Rotation

Diagonal strut and bond tress transfer joint shear

Controlled rocking mechamism (CCANZ, 2011) The Southern Cross hospital uses PRESSS technology and passed the test of the recent earthquakes in Christchurch with cosmetic damage

Construction of multi-storey PRESS building (Pampanin et al., 2004)

Frame joint with unbonded post-tensioned cables through concrete members (CCANZ, 2011)

Post - tension coupled walls (CCANZ, 2011)

U-shape steel plate

Internal vs external replaceable mild steel dissipaters at the base connections (CCANZ, 2011)

Post-tensioned tendons

U-shape steel plate

Wall systems (CCANZ, 2011)

External replaceable mild steel dissipaters at the base connections (Pampanin, 2011)

3. CLADDING TYPES Soil Types

Cladding meterials Light weight cladding material suggests to use in poor ground condition. The lighter cladding material is the better

Metal

Metal

Glazing

Timber

Light weight precast concrete panel

4. BUILDING GAP 4.3 kg/ m2

4.3 kg/ m2

Current code Maximum seismic drift =2.5% * Height (NZS 1170.5 2004)

6.6 kg/ m2

31.2 kg/ m2

1250 kg/ m3

height Property boundary

Seismic gap

Required gap in elevation to avoid pounding

Building at maximum seismic drift Old buildings haven’t got enough sufficient gap, which are why Buildings were damaged

Pounding damage between insufficiently separated buildings (Chouw, 2011)

Separated building’s lateral deflection

Add shear walls or Conncentrically braced frames

L shape building’s lateral

Hotel Grand Chancellor building (Kam, 2011)

Beam - column damaged at the level where the tower and the structure are connected (Kam, 2011)

Solutions to L shaped building (Naeim, 2001)

Comparison between complex structure’s shape and simple shapes

Duy Khang Phuong

85


Open Space Open Space

B5 B5

Transport Transport

Low density Medium pipes Low density Smaller Medium branches pipes

Near to rail

Smaller branches

Smaller branches

Low density roading Near to mainroading roads Low density Near Near to to rail main roads

Low density Medium - large pipes Low density Smaller Medium branches - large pipes

Low density Medium pipes Low density Smaller Medium branches pipes

Near to rail

Smaller branches

Smaller branches

Medium density roading Main roads run through Medium density roadingzone Cycle ways run run through through zone zone Main roads

Medium density Medium large pipes Medium -density Smaller Medium branches - large pipes

Medium density Medium Medium pipes density Smaller Medium branches pipes

Cycle ways run through zone

Smaller branches

Smaller branches

Sparse open space nearby

Near main roads

Sparse open space nearby

Near main roads

Near large pipes Smaller branches Near large pipes

Low density Near medium pipes Low density Smaller branches Near medium pipes

Open space as buffer

Open space as buffer Open space as buffer

B2 B2

Telecommunications Telecommunications

Very low density Medium large pipes Very low -density Smaller Medium branches - large pipes

Open space as buffer

B3 B3

Waste Water Waste Water

Low density roading Near to mainroading roads Low density Near Near to to rail main roads

Open space as buffer Open space as buffer

B4 B4

Water Supply Water Supply

Smaller branches

Power Power

Low density

Contains substations or nearby

Low density

Contains substations or nearby

Medium density

Contains substations or nearby

Medium density

Contains substations or nearby

Medium density

Contains substations or nearby

Medium density

Contains substations or nearby

Low density Near main lines Low density

No relationship to zone No relationship to zone

Near main lines

Smaller branches

B1 B1

Sparse open space nearby Sparse open space nearby

Near main roads Scattered Near mainelsewhere roads

Near large pipes Smaller branches Near large pipes

Scattered elsewhere

Smaller branches

Low density Near medium - large pipes Low density Smaller branches Near medium - large pipes

Near main lines

No relationship to zone

Near main lines

No relationship to zone

Near main lines

Substations in the centre of living quarters the city Substations in within the centre of

Smaller branches

L5 L5

L4 L4

L3 L3

L2 L2

Near open space

Near main roads

Near open space

Near main roads

LH LH

Low density Near medium - large pipes Low density Smaller branches Near medium - large pipes

Smaller branches

Smaller branches

Low density Smalldensity size Low Scattered Small sizeopen space

High density roading Main roads, smaller High density roadingbranches Cycle ways run through zone Main roads, smaller branches

Medium density Medium large pipes Medium -density Smaller Medium branches - large pipes

Medium density Medium Medium pipes density Medium Medium branches pipes

Scattered open space

Cycle ways run through zone

Smaller branches

Medium branches

Low density Small size Low density Scattered Small sizeopen space

Medium density roading Medium Medium roads, densitysmaller roadingbranches Cycle ways run smaller throughbranches zone Medium roads,

Medium density Large pipes Medium density Smaller branches Large pipes

Medium density Medium Medium pipes density Small branches Medium pipes

Scattered open space

Cycle ways run through zone

Smaller branches

Small branches

Low density Medium size Low density Scatteredsize open space Medium

Medium density roading Main roads, smaller branches Medium density roading Cycle ways run through zone Main roads, smaller branches

Medium density Medium Medium pipes density Smaller Medium branches pipes

High density Large pipes High density Medium and small branches Large pipes

Scattered open space

Cycle ways run through zone

Smaller branches

Medium and small branches

Medium density Small and medium size Medium density Scattered space Small and open medium size

Medium density roading

Medium density

High density Large pipes High density Medium and small branches Large pipes

Scattered Medium size

Roading followssmaller terrain branches Medium roads,

Medium branches Large pipes

Is open space

Near main roads

Is open space

Near main roads

Pipes for specific buildings Other avoidbuildings the zone Pipes pipes for specific

Matrix of Infrastructure Relative to Land Zones L1 L1

Low density Medium pipes Low density Smaller Medium branches pipes

roads, smaller branches Medium large pipes Medium density roading INFRASTRUCTURAL Main SPINE Medium -density Cycle ways run through zone Smaller Main roads, smaller branches Medium branches - large pipes Cycle ways run through zone Smaller branches Scattered open space Christchurch currently relies on a large amount of infrastructure that has little to no redundancy in place. After the recent density roading Low density Medium density earthquakes parts ofMedium Christchurch were left without the essentials Medium Large pipes Medium size Medium roads, densitysmaller roadingbranches Low density Medium density

Near larger open space follows terrain Scattered that we take for granted every day, services such as: power,Roading water, sewerage, transportationMedium and branches Near larger open space communications.

O3 O3

Other pipes avoid the zone Currently the major infrastructural nodes in Christchurch can be found in the low density urban sprawl that surrounds the city centre and are positioned around major landscape features such as the Port Hills O2 to the thespace Avon River running throughNear it. main However, it is important to note roads Pipesthat for specific functions O2 south of the city andIs open Cycle waysroads run through zone Other avoidfunctions the zone Near main Pipes pipes for specific Is open space Cycle ways runhave through zone pipes which avoid the zone some of the infrastructural systems, such as power and broadband, significantly fewer Other nodes means that there is a much higher risk should they fail. With an Infrastructural Spine system Christchurch

86

O1 O1

Is open space Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Infrastructural SpineEvenly scattered around roads Is open space

Evenly scattered around roads

living quarters within the city

Medium density Medium density

Substations in the centre of living quarters the city Substations in within the centre of living quarters within the city

Low density Low density

Substations in the centre of living quarters the city Substations in within the centre of living quarters within the city

Low density Low density

Substations in the centre of living quarters the city Substations in within the centre of living quarters within the city

Very low density Very low density

Substations in the centre of living quarters the city Substations in within the centre of living quarters within the city

and small branches would be able toMedium recover much quicker after a disaster as all major functions of the city would still be operating. This is done by creating a network of infrastructure rather then the current linear branching Substations in the centre of Very low density High density system. living quarters the city Large pipes Substations in within the centre of Very low density High density Medium and small branches Large pipes Medium and small branches

living quarters within the city

As is natural in human settlement, there are areas of greater density which demand a greater amount No relationship zone avoid the zone specific functions of infrastructure.Pipes Inforthese areas, where there is a Lines high amount of infrastructure and where tothere is a Other avoidfunctions the zone No relationship to zone Lines avoid the zone Pipes pipes for specific pipes avoid the zone greater overlap, Other an Infrastructural Spine can be created. This proposal suggests running one on either side of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CBD. In the event of another earthquake, should one of the Spines be damaged, then the infrastructure can to pipes the other Spine through the networks in place. This approach reduce No relationship tocould zone Lines avoid the zone Few transfer medium and large pass through and large pipes No relationship to zone Lines avoid the zone Few medium Other pipes avoid the zone pass through and perhaps eliminate downtime because of affected infrastructures.

Few small pipes pass through Other pipespipes avoidpass the zone Few small through Other pipes avoid the zone

Near main lines

Other pipes avoid the zone

Pipes avoid the zone

Lines avoid the zone

No relationship to zone

Pipes avoid the zone

Lines avoid the zone

No relationship to zone


L2 Open Space

L1 B5

LH B4

O3 B3

O2 B2

Low density Medium size Scattered open space

Transport

Medium density roading Main roads, smaller branches Cycle ways run through zone

Water Supply

Medium density Medium pipes Smaller branches

Waste Water

High density Large pipes Medium and small branches

Medium density roading Main roads, smaller Low density roading branches Cycle ways through zone Near to mainrun roads

Medium density Medium large pipes Very low -density Smaller Medium branches - large pipes

High density Large pipes Low density Medium Medium and pipessmall branches

Near to rail

Smaller branches

Smaller branches

Medium density Medium size as buffer Open space Scattered Near larger open space

Medium density roading Medium roads, smaller branches Low density roading Roading follows terrain Near to main roads

Low density Large pipes Low density Medium Medium branches - large pipes

High density Large pipes Low density Medium Medium and pipessmall branches

Near to rail

Smaller branches

Smaller branches

Is open space

Near main roads

Open space as buffer

Medium density roading Main roads run through zone Cycle ways run through zone

Pipes for specific buildings Other pipes avoid the zone Medium density

Pipes for specific functions Other pipes avoid the zone Medium density

Medium - large pipes Smaller branches

Medium pipes Smaller branches

Pipes for specific functions Other pipespipes avoid the zone Near large

Few medium and large pipes pass through Low density Other pipes avoid the zone Near medium pipes

Medium density Small space and medium size Open as buffer Scattered open space

Is open space Sparse open space nearby

Near main roads Cycle waysroads run through zone Near main

Smaller branches

Low density

Telecommunications

Power

Very low density Low density

Substations in the centre of living quarters within the city

Substations in the centre of living quarters within the city Contains substations or nearby

Medium density

Substations in the centre of living quarters within the city Contains substations or nearby

Lines avoid the zone

No relationship to zone

Medium density

Contains substations or nearby

Lines avoid the zone

No relationship to zone

Low density Near main lines

No relationship to zone

Very low density

Smaller branches

O1 B1

Cu3 L5

Is open space

Evenly scattered around roads

Sparse open space nearby

Near main roads Scattered elsewhere

Near open space Near open space

Cu4 L4

Near open space Low density Small size Scattered open space

CC L3

Very low density Small size Low density Scattered Small sizeopen space

Lines avoid the zone

No relationship to zone

Low density Near medium - large pipes Smaller branches

Near main lines

No relationship to zone

Pipes for specific buildings Branching on site Low density

Pipes for specific buildings Branching on site Low density

Near main lines

No relationship to zone

Near main lines

Medium pipes Smaller branches

Near medium - large pipes Smaller branches

Substations in the centre of living quarters within the city

Near main roads Cycle ways run through zone High density roading

Pipes for specific buildings Branching on site Medium density

Pipes for specific buildings Branching on site Medium density

Near main lines

No relationship to zone

Medium density

Main roads, smaller branches Cycle ways run through zone

Medium - large pipes Smaller branches

Medium pipes Medium branches

Substations in the centre of living quarters within the city

High density roading Main roads, smaller branches Medium density roading

High density Large pipes Medium density Medium and small branching Large pipes

High density Medium and branching Medium pipes density

High density

No relationship to zone

Low density

Substations in the centre of living quarters within the city

Weak node based network

Substations based in Industrial zones or in the middle of living Substations in the centrequarters of

Near main roads Cycle waysroads run through zone Near main

Medium roads, smaller branches Cycle ways run through zone

Smaller branches

Medium pipes Small branches

City Centre with ring road Radial joinroading nodes Mediumroads density

Pumping stations primarily located living zones Mediumindensity

Pumping stations located in living and B5 zones High density

Main roads, smaller branches Cycle ways run through zone

Medium pipes Smaller branches

Large pipes Medium and small branches

Medium density Small and medium size

Medium density roading Main roads, smaller branches

Medium density Medium - large pipes

Is open space

Near main roads

Pipes for specific buildings Other pipes avoid the zone

Scattered open space

Nodes L2

Pipes avoid the zone

Smaller branches

Few small pipes pass through Other pipespipes avoid the zone Near large

No nodal pattern Low density Medium size Scattered open space

Low density

living quarters within the city

L1 Cycle ways run through zone branches open space This same principle works Scattered throughout the network and across different scales of demand. ForSmaller example in the distribution of power, should one link fail either there will be no effect, or at the very worst one blockLHwill lose power. Because the power network has manyMedium inputs, such as the possibility forLowcitizens density roading density Medium density Medium roads, smaller branches Large pipes Medium size Roadinglinks follows terrain Medium Scatteredto the grid. The power network to return solar and wind power all properties in a block to abranches minor Near larger open space node that is in turn connected to other nodes, and / or passed onto the Spine. It is this layering of O3 networks and nodes that allows for the redundant network to fail and yet the system can still operate.

High density Large pipes

Very low density

Substations in the centre of living quarters within the city

Medium and small branches area. The open space would be an enjoyable area of public retreat similar to Central Park in New York. The major park space to the north east of the city centre along the Avon River is located and planned in accordance to theHighground conditions by allocatingVerythe regions that sit below a 2m Substations topographic contour in the centre of low density density living quarters within the city Large pipes Mediumarea and small branchesalso connect into the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wastewater treatment network, serving both to be wetlands. This could the needs of water retention, conservation and water treatment. Other areas that have been bought back by the government but have no major issues with the soil could become conservation or used for No relationship to zone Lines avoid the zone Pipes for specific functions Other pipes avoid the zone recreational or sports purposes.

Amenities along the Infrastructural Spine will, over time, lead to higher property prices along its length, which The Infrastructural Spine links Christchurch through an improved series of networks so that in the O2 in turn will lead to higher densities in the areas along the Spine. In these areas of transformed Near main roads No relationship to zone Lines avoid the zone Few medium and large pipes Pipes for specific functions Is open space Cycle ways run zone through the zone event of anotherpass suburbia there is a greater concentration of open space bordering thethrough Infrastructural Spine. Other Thispipes notavoidonly earthquake the city would recover almost instantly. In addition, the attraction of the Other pipes avoid the zone serves to screen the infrastructure from the periphery but also provides yet again more amenities for the infrastructure and surrounding open space would encourage density to move away from the city centre. Johnathan James Guest

O1 Is open space

Evenly scattered around roads

Few small pipes pass through Other pipes avoid the zone

Pipes avoid the zone

Lines avoid the zone

No relationship to zone

87


0km

6km

EXISTING OPEN SPACES Christchurch contains a wide range of various open spaces. Uses of open space include sports clubs, golf courses, race ways, reserves, conservation land or storm water and wastewater mitigation and remediation.

Open space Wetlands Open Water Areas Rivers

0km

6km

PROPOSED OPEN SPACES Open space has been added either side of the Infrastructural Spine and in the north east quarter of the city. Its use and location are determined by the ground conditions, simply because some land is more suitable for wetlands, while other land is more suitable for recreational use.

Open space Conservation areas Wetlands Open water areas Rivers Infrastructural Spine

High Liquefaction + 2m Sea Level Rise Zone + Government Buy Back

Wetlands

Medium Liquefaction + 2m Sea Level Rise Zone + Government Buy Back High Liquefaction + 2m Sea Level Rise Zone

Major Works Possible Wetlands

Medium Liquefaction + 2m Sea Level Rise Zone 2m Sea Level Rise Zone Government Buy Back

Parklands Major Works Park/Infrastructur

Government Buy Back Possible

L1

High Liquefaction Infrastructure Low Soil Capacity Current Greenspaces

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Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Infrastructural Spine

Minor Works Park/Infrastructur


0km

6km

EXISTING ZONING B5 - General Industrial

Light and heavy industry, processing and warehousing

B4 - Suburban Industrial

Light industry neighbouring residential areas

B3 - Inner City Industrial

Light industry, services, warehousing, higher density than B4

B2 - District Centre Large scale commercial

B1 - Local Centre

Small scale retail, of ten strip shops, near residential areas

L5 - Tourism Accommodation Density scales with neighbouring areas

L4 - Inner City Living

Medium to high density residential

L3 - Outer City Living Medium density residential

L2 - Inner Suburban Living Medium to low density residential

L1 - Outer Suburban Living Low density permanent living

LH - Port Hills Living

Low density residential, high amount of open space

Cu3 - Schools

Cu4 - Tertiary Education O3 - Metropolitan Open Space Community open space or centre

O2 - District Open Space

Medium areas of recreation and open space

O1 - Neighbourhood Open Space Small areas of recreation and open space

CC - City Centre

0km

6km

PROPOSED ZONING B5 - General Industrial

Open space

B4 - Suburban Industrial

Conservation Areas

B3 - Inner City Industrial

Wetlands

Light and heavy industry, processing and warehousing Light industry neighbouring residential areas Light industry, services, warehousing, higher density than B4

B2 - District Centre Large scale commercial

B1 - Local Centre

Small scale retail, of ten strip shops, near residential areas

L5 - Tourism Accommodation Density scales with neighbouring areas

L4 - Inner City Living

Medium to high density residential

L3 - Outer City Living Medium density residential

L2 - Inner Suburban Living Medium to low density residential

L1 - Outer Suburban Living Low density permanent living

LH - Port Hills Living

Low density residential, high amount of open space

Cu3 - Schools

Cu4 - Tertiary Education O3 - Metropolitan Open Space Community open space or centre

O2 - District Open Space

Medium areas of recreation and open space

O1 - Neighbourhood Open Space Small areas of recreation and open space

CC - City Centre

Johnathan James Guest

89


0km

6km

Railway Lines State Highways Arterial Routes Roads Cycle Lanes Cycleways

EXISTING TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE Christchurch is a centralised city with a road system that consists of four main avenues surrounding its core and arterial roads radiating away. Because of this centralised system the main direction of travel is either to or away from the centre causing an overloading of these arterial routes.

City Centre

0km

6km

Railway Lines State Highways Arterial Routes Roads Cycle Lanes Cycleways

PROPOSED TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE With the Infrastructural Spine the city is connected from one side to another so that citizens can avoid the city centre if it is not their destination. The Spine incorporates both motor vehicle and cycling in its transportation routes as well as walking tracks in suburban and park areas.

City Centre

90

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Infrastructural Spine


0km

6km

Pipes Diameter: > 99mm 100 - 199mm 200 - 299mm

EXISTING WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE The water supply system in Christchurch revolves around a series of artesian bore wells and pumping stations that distribute the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water through a series of diminishing pipe branches

300 - 399mm < 400mm

Water Supply Pumping Station

0km

6km

Infrastructural Spine Main Water Supply Pipelines Pump Connectivity Water Supply Pumping Station

PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE Water supply in Christchurch flows through a nodal based system whereby if one route from a pumping station to either the next station or the spine is damaged the system has an alternative route.

Johnathan James Guest

91


0km

6km

EXISTING WASTE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Waste water in Christchurch is fed into a one way pumping network that leads to a single waste water treatment plant on the lower east side of the city where it is processed and eventually the water is pumped out 3km into the ocean.

Wastewater Treatment Facilities Wastewater Pumping Station

Pipes Diameter: > 199mm 200 - 399mm 400 - 599mm < 600mm

0km

6km

Wastewater Pumping Stations + Screening Digester And Methane Power Generators Trickling Tanks And Clarifier Infrastructural Spine Main Wastewater Pipelines Wastewater Pump + Screening -> Digester Wastewater Pump + Screening -> Trickling Tanks Pump Connectivity

Wastewater Pumping Station Screening Trickling Tanks Oxidation Ponds

Wastewater Treatment 92

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Infrastructural Spine

Digester Power Generator

Parks

PROPOSED WASTE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Waste water treatment in Christchurch is broken down into its main parts and distributed throughout the city. This means that there is a much shorter route from a building to water treatment. The waste water pumping stations are linked together in a similar nodal system as the water supply except the pumping stations also contain screening and sedimentation equipment to separate the solids and liquids. The liquids are then pumped to the nearest trickling tank which borders wetlands and oxidations ponds. Bio-solids are taken to the nearest digester which is located on the edge of the nearest park where the end product of the process, fertilizer, is used.


0km

6km

Cellular Network: 1800-2100 Mhz Cellular Network: 900 Mhz Fibre Optic Broadband Routes

0km

6km

Cellular Network: 1800-2100 Mhz Cellular Network: 900 Mhz Fiber Optic Hubs Infrastructural Spine Fibre Optic Broadband Routes Hub Connectivity

EXISTING TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE Telecommunications in Christchurch consist of both high speed fibre optic broadband and cellular networks. Both broadband and cellular networks are highly populated in areas that have not been or have recently been built up.

PROPOSED TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE The telecommunications networks in Christchurch have been reinforced by adding a fibre optic backbone of connective nodes and links between them. Along the Spine a network of cell towers operate expanding the coverage of 3G data networks and providing a long range emergency voice and data network that is able to span any interruptions and draw power from the nodal network if needed. Should an interruption occur than the cell towers are able to re-prioritise traffic to bridge the gap with the cell towers relaying information, albeit at a reduced rate.

Johnathan James Guest

93


0km

6km

Power Substation Power Input High Voltage Power Lines

0km

6km

Power Substation Major Power Input Infrastructural Spine High Voltage Power Lines Internodal Connectivity Residential Solar Power Input Residential Wind Power Input Wastewater Treatment Digester Power Input Substation Connectivity

94

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Infrastructural Spine

EXISTING POWER INFRASTRUCTURE Power in Christchurch is fed to the city through one main substation to the west of the city then fed through a series of smaller substations. Power is also generated at the wastewater treatment plant to the east of the city, and then fed into the grid at the main substation.

PROPOSED POWER INFRASTRUCTURE Power in Christchurch is linked into a major nodal system connecting substations (new and existing) to each other and integrated into a new renewable energy system. Energy can be collected in the form of solar power from houses on the Canterbury planes and wind power from houses on the Port Hills. Additional power is also provided from the digesters in the wastewater network.


Park

Suburban

Urban

More Dense

Suburban

Park

Urban

By increasing amenities and infrastructure beyond the periphery of the CBD it is possible to shift the population away from the centralised Christchurch. Amenities such as park land, shops, and other activities encourage people to live and work in an area, hopefully making it more desirable. By Increasing the desirability of

the area around the Spine, it is possible to increase the population density in the same area. This draws people away from the city centre and closer to the main source of infrastructure. This has the added benefit of reducing the travel distance of infrastructure.

Less Dense

Water Supply pumping Stations

Infrastructure Spine

Infrastructure Spine

Wastewater Pumping Stations + Screening

Open Space

Open Space

Wastewater: Digester And Methane Power Generators

Transport

Transport

Waste Water: Trickling Tanks And Clarifier

Water Supply

Water Supply

Fiber Optic Broadband

Wastewater

Wastewater

Power

Telecommunications

Telecommunications

Cellular Backup

Power

Power

Open Space Conservation Wetlands

NODES Major infrastructural nodes are clustered in lower density zones of the city. These nodes are also aligned and run alongside natural features in the landscape such as the Avon River and the base of the Port Hills. Infrastructure such as power and broadband have significantly fewer nodes in the current infrastructural system. This means that each node services a large portion of Christchurch, and when it fails it has greater consequences. The Infrastructural Spine creates a more resilient network through a distributed system.

INFRASTRUCTURAL OVERLAP Major corridors occur in each type of infrastructure. Like the nodes, these loosely follow natural landmarks and seem to skirt the city centre. There is an overlap between these infrastructures and once overlaid with a road network, the location for the Infrastructural Spine becomes self evident.

INFRASTRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY Infrastructure between the two Spines are connected in order to reinforce the networks created. If, in the event of another earthquake or disaster, a Spine is damaged then the infrastructure can be rerouted to the other Spine and restore services. While there is a certain amount of redundancy, it is more reliable. The Spines serve as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;highwayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for infrastructure make travelling from A to B as simple and efficient as possible. This results in a network that can handle a greater capacity. Johnathan James Guest

95


+

URBAN INTERVENTIONS Christchurch operates as a hub for the South Island. It has its own inputs, which it takes from its environment (social, energy, geological, etc). These inputs are processed or consumed by the city to form exports and waste. My project involves the insertion of a series of catalysts into this system to capture latent opportunities within the system, and utilise them in order to reduce the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waste, increase the outputs of the city, or provide additional internal benefits. These catalysts are implemented with aim of a specific set of desired outcomes. Each catalyst has relationships to its inputs and outputs, which often relate or overlap with other catalysts, making for a complex system of intimate relationships. This diagram illustrate the relationships between catalysts with three groups emerging: the Digestion based, Industrial based, and Garden or Environmental based systems. Within these individual systems, the catalysts themselves can be separated further into distinct stages of implementation. Each catalyst and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effects have the potential to grow and change as the system is gradually implemented. There are two different types of catalysts which define the stages of implementation of the system: a dependent catalyst which relies on other catalysts for its benefit to be realized, or an independent catalyst which operates between inputs and outputs without relying on other catalysts. Stage one consists of only the independent catalysts, stage two involves the insertion of dependent catalysts if required to form a more optimal system, and stage three involves populating the system with secondary effects, which further increase the efficiency of the systems.

98

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Interventions


I = INPUTS

C = CATALYSTS

$

I1 CROP WASTE

C1 ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

I28 FUNDING

H

H

C2 METHANE

C29 GROYNE

C3 DIGESTATE

C30 PORT

O C

C4 CARBON DIOXIDE

C31 ACOUSTIC BARRIER

HEAT CAPTURE SYSTEM

O

DIGESTION SYSTEM

I31 GROUND PERMEABILITY

C

SEA FACTORS

I30 EROSION

GROUND FACTORS

I4 OFFICE WASTE

I29 DEPOSITION

NUTRIENT SOURCES: WASTES

I3 ORGANIC RUBBISH

C28 INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT

B1 CHRISTCHURCH AS A HUB

B28 WIND REDUCTION

B2 ENVIRONMENTALLY INTEGRATED

B29 TECHNOLOGY ORIENTATED COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

B3 CREATIVE CAPITOL

B30 VIBRANT AND WORLD CLASS CITY

H H

I2 WEEDS AND OVERGROWTH

B = BENEFITS OR DESIRED QUALITIES

B4 UTILIZE RESOURCES TO THE MAXIMUM

I33 DISPLACED PEOPLE

C6 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

C33 ARTISTS RESIDENCE

I7 BONE

I34 SOCIAL COMPLEXITY

C7 ALGAL PONDS

C34 PRIVATE SPACE 1

B7 ELDERLY

I8 BLOOD

I35 TRAFFIC

C8 MASS HEATING WALL

C35 GROUP OUTDOOR SPACE

B8 SHARE RESOURCES

I9 GROUNDWATER

I36 RETAIL AND SHOPS

C9 CARBON CYCLE

C36 LIVING SPACE

C10 HOUSING

C37 PRIVATE/PUBLIC INTERFACE

I10 SOLAR ENERGY

I11 RIVER SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

I37 DEMOGRAPHICS

I12 AQUIFER PRESSURE

I39 ARTISTS

I13 MINERALS

I40 HOT INDUSTRY

I42 TIDAL DRIFT

I43 SEAWATER

I17 RIVER WATER

I44 WIND

I18 RIVER ECOLOGIES

C13 SEASONAL DIFFERENCES

C40 STUDENT ACCOMMODATION

B13 STUDENT LIFE

C14 FLOODING

C41 TECHNOLOGY

B14 REVEAL THE EXISTING COMPLEXITY IN CHRISTCHURCH

C42 OVERLAPPING SYSTEMS

B15 CULTURAL BENEFITS

C16 REPLENISHMENT OF SOIL

C43 GRAVEL/PEBBLES

B16 SPORT

C17 EARTHQUAKE DRAINS

C44 RETAINING WALL

C18 SHADE

C45 FILL AREAS

C15 NUTRIENT DISTRIBUTION

C47 LANDSCAPE ORCHESTRATION

I21 WEATHER CONDITIONS

C21 URBAN PARK GRID

C48 PLANTING SYSTEM INTERACTION

C22 STREET VENDOR

C49 PARKS

C23 FARMERS MARKET

C24 EXHIBITIONS

I25 GEOLOGY

C25 FESTIVALS

I27 LIQUEFACTION

GEOLOGICAL SYSTEM

I24 WINTERS DAY

C26 PUBLIC ART

PUBLIC SPACE ELEMENTS

METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS

C20 GREEN CREEPER WALL

C46 LIQUEFACTION GATHERED

C50 GARDENS

C51 LOCAL PRODUCE

C52 CARBON CAPTURE

C53 INTEGRATED GARDEN COMMUNITY

The Garden System is based on the use of existing environmental factors, such as earthquake liquefaction captured by earthquake drains, to change the landscape over time. This system incorporates the natural resources and geological opportunities inherent in Christchurch. The Industrial System relies on the use of waste products captured directly from industrial districts such as wasted heat, which can be used to support or feed the infrastructure of a mixed-use development, ideally located nearby to create a symbiotic relationship. This system optimizes the energy use in Christchurch.

B17 COMMUNITY

B18 INTEGRATED INDUSTRIES

GARDEN SYSTEM

GARDEN SYSTEM

RIVERS

I20 RIVER WATER ENERGY

I26 EARTHQUAKE ENERGY

B10 GARDEN CITY

B12 SMALL BUSINESSES

C19 MOSS WALL

I23 SUMMERS DAY

B9 DENSIFY VEGETATION

C39 PRIVATE OUTDOOR SPACE

I19 RIVER FLOODING

I22 TEMPERATURE

B6 KIDS

B11 GEOTECHNICAL BENEFITS

FLOODING SYSTEM

I16 GRAVEL

I41 PORT SILTING

B5 SYMBIOTIC PROPOSITION

C38 PRIVATE SPACE 2

C12 STUDENT LIFE

SEA FACTORS

I15 LARGE ROCKS

GROUND RESOURCES

I14 SAND

C11 FAMILY ACCOMMODATION

I38 BUSINESS PEOPLE

DOMESTIC ELEMENTS

I6 OFFAL

DOMESTIC ELEMENTS

C32 HEAT CAPTURE

HUMAN FACTORS

C5 HEATING

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

I32 GROUND FERTILITY

I5 ANIMAL PRODUCTS

EMERGING SYSTEMS The Digestion System is based on the use of an anaerobic reactor as a catalyst, which triggers a system with many benefits. The reactor and the resources transported to and from the site is the first stage. The second stage involves inserting the heating walls, as well as elements of the garden system, which interrelate to dynamically change the landscape and ground conditions passively over time. The third stage involves the building of houses and the use of garden composts to feed the reactor, which reduces the need for input of resources via transportation.

B19 GREEN CORRIDOORS

B20 VIBRANT PUBLIC SPACE

B21 NATIVE BIODIVERSITY

B22 CIRCULATION AROUND BUILDINGS

B23 FUN INTERACTIVE PLACES FOR ALL AGES

B24 SELF ORCHESTRATING SYSTEM

B25 TOURISM BENEFITS

B26 GREEN INTEGRATED INTO BUILT ENVIRONMENT

C27 PUBLIC SPACE B27 DUST REDUCTION

Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

99


DIGESTION BASED SYSTEM

Major Roads

Liquefaction

Aquifer Water Pressure

Water Table Height

Urban Map of Potential Digestion System Locations

Darker Brown Indicates Greater Overlap of Necessary Ecologies

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION RELATIONSHIPS: wastes, methane burning plant, gardens, transport COMPONENTS: digester RULES: Should be local and related to the community and housing which it supports; Placed in terms of present and future conditions of urban space, as well as for access EFFECTS: Acts as a starter element for the entire digestive system

MASS HEATING WALL RELATIONSHIPS: methane plant, living space, algal ponds COMPONENTS: concrete wall with hot carbon dioxide pumped through it to heat it RULES: Connect to living space; Shear wall; Should discharge cold co2 into algal ponds above; Must store a large proportion of energy released by methane burning; Must gradually release heat into space for late night heating; Should be an interior element in a building: and not generally exposed to air EFFECTS: Heats living spaces, provides carbon dioxide to algal ponds

ALGAL PONDS RELATIONSHIPS: methane burning plant, anaerobic digester, residences COMPONENTS: pool at height containing algae RULES: Must be above mass heating wall; Must have water levels regulated by summer and winter levels of aquifer sources; Summer pool must act as a heat sink; Winter pool should act as a temperature buffer; Ponds should be easily cleanable EFFECTS: Ponds provide nutrients for gardens or parks nearby; Ponds reduce carbon emission from methane burning plant by fixing carbon dioxide

LIVING SPACE RELATIONSHIPS: family accommodation, student accommodation, business/tourist accommodation COMPONENTS: living room, kitchen RULES: Must be connected to a heating wall; Must have a 30 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 70% glazing with at least 2sqm oriented to the north; Contains lounge and kitchen spaces programmatically; In most districts this space should be connected to an outdoor space; Area ratio should be governed by social conditions EFFECTS: housing

GROUP OUTDOOR SPACES RELATIONSHIPS: earthquake components, social dynamics, planting COMPONENTS: Should include barbecues, algal ponds, social spaces, and planting; Usually separate from private outdoor space; Consists of both parks and gardens for family accommodation RULES: Should be organized to maximize social benefits for various districts; Should vary significantly for different target markets; For business district: consists of parks. EFFECTS: gardens, parks

INDOOR PRIVATE SPACE 1 RELATIONSHIPS: COMPONENTS: bedrooms, studies RULES: Must be higher than corresponding living space in order for heat to circulate; Must have less then 45% glazing; Does not need to connect to public space or private outdoor space; Area ratio defined by typology conditions: family, student, business, or tourist EFFECTS: housing

INDOOR PRIVATE SPACE 2 RELATIONSHIPS: COMPONENTS: bathrooms, laundries RULES: Does not need to be heated and therefore not necessarily connected to living space; Should have 0 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10% external glazing; Can be used as a bridging or transient space; Area ratio defined by typology conditions: family, student, business, or tourist EFFECTS: housing

OUTDOOR PRIVATE SPACE RELATIONSHIPS: defined by living space COMPONENTS: lawn, swings, fruit trees, sand pit, pansies, roses RULES: A lawn is only private if there is a significant physical connection to the living space; Should be in most cases separated clearly from the group outdoor space; Various sizes for districts; Gardens are part of lawn space, or part of local communities space; Must make the most of natural resources or minimal inputs to generate large results from natural processes EFFECTS: sense of privacy

FAMILY ACCOMMODATION DIRECTIVES RELATIONSHIPS: COMPONENTS: RULES: Large living spaces; Larger residences for large families must be provided for; Should have private outdoor space with highly defined boundaries; Is a necessary element for family life EFFECTS: living space, private space I, private space 2, private outdoor space

DIGESTATE RELATIONSHIPS: anaerobic digestion, gardens, parks COMPONENTS: Digested, nutrient rich soil fertilizer RULES: Must be placed in order that it interacts with water, and landscaping to create gardens or parks Effects: gardens, parks, landforms, fertility

100

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Interventions


H

H

C H

$

Stage 1

H H

H

C H

$ H H

H

C H

Stage 2

$ H H

H

C H

$ H H

H

C H

$

Stage 3

H H

H

C H

H H H

H

C H

As the system developments it creates more benefits for less input.

This map shows a possible layout of the transport system that feeds into the three nodes.

H H H

H

C H

H

1. Simply Digester and Transport

2. Organic Growth of the Digestion System

3. Conduit Takes Digestate into the Secondary Nodes

4. Communities Emerge Around Nodes

5. Secondary Communities Can Occur

6. Communities Consist Of Nodes, Buildings, Gardens

7. Integrated Community and Garden Spaces

8. Optimised System Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

101


GARDEN BASED SYSTEM

Red Zone

Liquefaction

Aquifer Water Pressure

Water Table Height

Urban Map of Potential Garden System Locations

Darker Green Indicates Greater Overlap of Necessary Ecologies

EARTHQUAKE DRAINS RELATIONSHIPS: Starter element: must be placed before any other orchestration occurs at a site; Requires a monetary input COMPONENTS: Pipes in the ground which take water from a liquefaction event and concentrate it in a designated place RULES: Placed under built or potentially built areas; Outflow must be placed strategically: see liquefaction; Filled over the top, fill is orchestrated by other elements EFFECTS: gravels, rocks, liquefaction, retaining walls, landforms, housing

LIQUEFACTION RELATIONSHIPS: earthquake drains, digestate COMPONENTS: water, directors; Outlet is one source of water which actions the other elements of the system RULES: Rare or sporadic in nature, but potentially powerful and strong when it does happen; Should be emphasized and widely distributed for maximum effect; Needs to be controlled and flow to a specific and isolated zone, where it cannot harm the built areas, such as a park EFFECTS: gardens, parks, landforms

ALGAL POND WATER RELATIONSHIPS: anaerobic digester, housing, parks, ground fertility, gravels, retaining walls, large rocks COMPONENTS Provides a stable and continuous flow of water, therefore the relationships which it forms as an end result need to be stable and resistant until another element disrupts them (such as liquefaction adding lots of sand) RULES: Should be distributed to a location which enhances the goal of the parkland or garden EFFECTS: Acts to increase fertility of ground, as well as action the various elements of the urban park

SEDIMENT TRANSPORT RELATIONSHIPS: Acts as an input in its most simple form COMPONENTS: Has two main sources, which should be treated differently and interact with different environmental factors: large amounts from sewerage disposal are placed occasionally, while there is a more regular output from various single digesters acting on other waste products; RULES: Should be placed strategically so that the environmental factors act to distribute the soil around EFFECTS: Provides fertile digestate to the garden and parkland

LARGE ROCKS RELATIONSHIPS: algal pond water, liquefaction water, parks, gardens, digestate COMPONENTS: rocks RULES: Should be used to create engaging and fun spaces within parks; Should be used in significant slopes to create terraces; Should be used to isolate or bridge different flows within urban parks EFFECTS: Can provide interesting spaces; Can be used to raise the ground level, or can be used to hold lower channels; Can be used to set out different zones: as privacy or gardens

RETAINING WALLS RELATIONSHIPS: Element ordered by water; Can be used to both direct flows and stop them COMPONENTS: walls RULES: When used to stop flows, terraces form; Should be used to set different levels within built zones EFFECTS: Necessary element of urban parks; Can create channels at different levels; Isolates an area from deposition, effectively lowering it relative to other areas

URBAN PARK GRID RELATIONSHIPS: environmental and social systems COMPONENTS: Concrete mass walls, corten steel reinforcing cages RULES: Urban grid is gradually colonized by housing as revenue from the system increases. As such, the urban park serves as a grid which gradually becomes a community space EFFECTS: Public spaces become the gardens or parks; Smaller spaces become the living spaces for houses, or remain as gardens or private zones of the parkland.

PLANTING ON GROUND RELATIONSHIPS: gravel, algal pond water, digestate, earthquake drains COMPONENTS: plants RULES: Should be placed so that it interacts with erosion and deposition systems from liquefaction and water discharge; Planting should emphasize the social or environmental complexity; Plants in parks should create private and public spaces. EFFECTS: Defines the garden or park

GRAVEL RELATIONSHIPS: water from algal ponds, earthquake drains, digestate, planting on ground COMPONENTS: gravel RULES: Should be utilized to emphasize its characteristics: large flows will displace gravels themselves, while small flows will simply be absorbed, effectively depositing suspended sediments on the surface EFFECTS: Helps to form the landforms of the gardens; Smaller gravels used as erodible materials, larger gravels can be built upon

PARKS & GARDENS RELATIONSHIPS: The end result of all the processes in this section COMPONENTS: producing plants, cultivation space, separated landscapes RULES: Parks should engage with social dynamics of what exists within them; Parks should act as green corridors through a site; Gardens placed adjacent to those who would benefit; Utilize digestate EFFECTS: social dynamics, green corridors; food production

102

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Interventions


Stage 1

Stage 2

+

=

+

=

+

=

=

The Garden system acts as a response to many ecologies, each of which operates on a different timescale. One goal of this system is to integrate these different time scales and inputs into a new dynamic system.

}} }

Stage 3

The garden system pairs the diverse properties of different local factors with external environmental inputs to create an engaging landscape.

Park

Urban Grid, Garden

Park

Urban Grid, Garden

Park

Development and the system grows from a process of nodes, as well as the inputs which are generated from a node, thus the catalysts which organise those inputs must also be correspondingly located.

The combination of digester and transport forms a generative node.

Road with Pedestrian Bridge

This section through a garden and digestion system shows nodal points as gardens with park landscape in between. Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

103


HOT INDUSTRY BASED SYSTEM

Hot Industry

Demolished Commercial Sites

Liquefaction

Major Roads

HOT INDUSTRY RELATIONSHIPS: COMPONENTS: Preexisting industry forms the basis for the urban district RULES: EFFECTS: Provides the source for the systems which operate uniquely within the urban district; Produces noise which needs to be mitigated; Produces heat which needs to be captured; Provides for workers, which need lunch and transport; Provides exports, which required transport

RETAIL SPACES RELATIONSHIPS: economics, vibrancy COMPONENTS: shops RULES: Should be positioned around likely public spaces; Should be positioned for maximum exposure and openness for communities; Must be serviced by transport or roads for supplies EFFECTS: Provides the basis for emerging, as well as sets out zones for residences and the relationships they have to both public and private spaces

104

Urban Map of Potential Industrial System Locations

HEAT CAPTURE RELATIONSHIPS: industry, accommodation, restaurants, public space as conduit COMPONENTS: Leech bed for discharge of chemicals or pollutants; Heat capture technology integrated with hot industry RULES: Must be attached to hot industry, and supply a vibrant community of students and business people EFFECTS: public space, accommodation, comfort

BUSINESS ACCOMMODATION RELATIONSHIPS: Formed from social complexity; Greater quality of materials and construction, for greater cost COMPONENTS: Consists of smaller units than family accommodation, with the same proportions RULES: Must be accessible to work spaces; Must provide spaces for leisure time and activities; Must be linked to transport; Can be above other buildings or units and therefore vertically segregated EFFECTS: social complexity, vibrancy of district

Infra-Structure & Geology | Design | Urban Interventions

Darker Red Indicates Greater Overlap of Necessary Ecologies

ACOUSTIC INSULATION RELATIONSHIPS: hot industry, public space, business district; starter element: begins the urban district COMPONENTS: Sound prevention walls incorporating greenery and allowing for heat capture industries to be attached RULES: Should attach directly to industry and mitigate significant or all noise EFFECTS: Provides a more amenable area around industry

ARTISTS RESIDENCES RELATIONSHIPS: Artists initiate the cultural change; Residences are placed as starters to the systems, along with bars and restaurants COMPONENTS: Live-work units with large studio spaces for artists RULES: Inspiring and productive environment; Should be placed at an interface between public and private EFFECTS: Influence the creative capital, culture, and vibrancy of a district

PUBLIC ART RELATIONSHIPS: Serves as a focal point, which defines where public or communal space exists; Is the culmination of artists, artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s residences, and often a creative response to surroundings COMPONENTS: Well selected and appropriately located public art RULES: Artists are free to decide where within the urban park their artwork goes EFFECTS: Art work effects what occurs around it

URBAN DISTRICT RELATIONSHIPS: Artist and art defines public space locations; urban park defines housing and built component COMPONENTS: Business, student, and tourist accommodation with parklands and public spaces; Exists as a separate entity parasitically attached to industries; RULES: Transport defines layout and nodal points; Should form a hub or community; Should provide varied public spaces; Should integrate into the existing transport networks EFFECTS: This is an end point or goal to the system

STUDENT ACCOMMODATION RELATIONSHIPS: bars, restaurants, vibrancy, education COMPONENTS: see Family Accommodation RULES: Should have a large amount of Private space 1 compared to a minimal amount of living space; Should have large areas of space for social interaction (group outdoor spaces); Student accommodation incorporates a minimal amount of private outdoor space, and gardens. Almost all space outside dwellings is considered to be group space EFFECTS: public space, retail space, bars, education

PUBLIC SPACE RELATIONSHIPS: Either is influenced by, or influences the construction of cafes, bars, retail shops, and restaurants around it COMPONENTS: Consists of open communal space with permanent flooring RULES: Placement and size of space is defined by public art works implemented as part of a creative capital initiative; The placement of art work solidifies the space in which it is placed EFFECTS: Becomes part of the urban grid


}

} Stage 1

Stage 2

+

+

+

} }}

Stage 4

}

Stage 3

artist cafe

}

+

+

+

artist cafe

The introduction of grassy conduit or suspended landscape. cafe + of residences toartist This links one cluster another, as well as serving to generate public space.

The pink shows empty sites, which become focussed residential developments at ground level.

}}

Acoustic Barriers Stage 1

artist cafe

}}

artist cafe

+

Existing Condition

artist cafe

+

} }}

+

The Hot Industry Based System contains four stages with the aim to create a vibrant public space. The creation of public space requires more inputs and more catalysts because of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s complex nature.

artist cafe

}

+

artist cafe

+

The suspended landscape grows, increasing connectivity.

Existing Residential

Road

Network Emerges

Parasitic Development Hot industry: ex. steelworks

Heat Exchange Paths Suspended landscape. Contains holes for light to lower levels (truck yards, etc.) and acts as a heat conduit through the space.

The distribution of resources from the train as a nodal generator. Train station Resources input

Ground Level Development Work

Non-capturable industry acts as a prop for the suspended landscape.

Section Through Fully Realized Hot Industry System Scott Alexander Riley Thorp

105


The cultural heritage in the built environment of Christchurch has played a strong role throughout the history of the city. Neo-Gothic structures have been standing since the late 19th century establishing ties with English traditions. These structures are typically clad with local Bluestone Basalt and Omaru Stone. Since the 2011 earthquakes, many iconic historical buildings have been destroyed, causing a loss of the architectural identity in Christchurch. To establish an understanding of the architectural history of Christchurch and to be better informed for the rebuilding of the city, we have studied patterns of urban growth, cataloged the Category 1 historical buildings, noted trends in architectural style, and developed a correlation between the architectural styles, building materials, and technologies available at the time of construction. From our analysis we have developed a better understanding of the historical events and context that led to the architectural identity of Christchurch which will aid us in sensitively designing in a city of such rich architectural history.

106

Heritage | Introduction

Category 1 Heritage Buildings in Christchurch


HERITAGE Gang Feng (Henry), Logan Suhrer, Gong Wang (Rickey)


Non-Gothic / Non British Architecture

35

Gothic / British Architecture Modern Contemporary Maori Sculpture

30

Progressive Modern Vernacular

25

Modern Contextualism

International

High-Rise Modern

Neoclassical

Modern

20

Vernacular Modernism Art Deco

Structural Expressionist

Renaissance/Baroque

15

Brutalist

Renaissance

Futurist

French Renaissance

Vernacular

10

Maori

Neoclassic Industrial

5

Commercial Renaissance Roman Renaissance

2006

2001

1996

1991

1986

1981

1976

1971

1966

1961

1956

1951

1946

1941

1936

1931

1926

1921

1916

1911

1906

1901

1896

1891

1886

1881

1876

1871

1866

1861

1856

0

Total Heritage Buildings by Year and Style Post Modern 2 buildings

Art Deco 1 building

Modern 15 buildings

Maori

British Architecture

2 buildings

Vernacular 2 buildings

Industrial 2 buildings

Commercial 2 buildings

Renaissance 3 buildings

Neoclassic 3 buildings

Other British 7 buildings

Gothic

Date Heritage Buildings Built by Style 108

Heritage | Analysis

2001

1996

1991

1986

1981

1976

1971

1966

1961

1956

1951

1946

1941

1936

1931

1926

1921

1916

1911

1906

1901

1896

1891

1886

1881

1876

1871

1866

1861

1856

19 buildings


Heritage Building Time Line: Category 1 Heritage Buildings in Christchurch

Gang Feng (Henry), Logan Suhrer, Gong Wang (Rickey)

109


Little River Forest

Forested Area

Forested 1923

Clay Deposits Bluestone Basalt Mine Omaru Stone Mine

Otira Rail Tunnel completed 1923

Springfield Forest

Oxford Forest

Forested in 1880

Forested 1872

11 1

64 km Train Springfield to Christchurch

400 km Ferry Christchurch to Wellington

25 km Train Oxford Forest to Christchurch

Christchurch Clay Quarries Opened 1864

Port Hills Forest Forested 1850

Kokonga Quarry 1863

165 km Rail Timaruto Christchurch Completed 1873

Timaru Quarry

Lyttelton Quarry 1860

1858

Weston Quarry 1860

359 km Rail Dunedin to Christchurch Completed 1878

CHRISTCHURCH HERITAGE BUILDINGâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S MATERIAL RESOURCES Timber construction was used as the primary construction technique in colonial Christchurch, where settlers forested Riccarton Bush and the local Port Hills. By 1870 it was common for timber structures in the town centre to have false Italianate facades fashioning the wood to mimic stone. With the development of the railroad, brick from the nearby Port Hillâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s clay quarry and stone from the Bluestone Basalt and Oamaru Stone quarries to the south were imported. In making the transition over several 110

Heritage | Analysis

decades from timber to masonry construction, Christchurch developed a strong Gothic architectural style. With the economic boom from the Otago Gold Rush in the 1860s, timber businesses and civic buildings were replaced with brick and stone as it was viewed as more permanent and established.


Residential and Low Rise Commercial Timber Construction

St Andrews Church 1857

1856 Timber Construction CBD

ChCh Girls High 1877

Gothic - Non-Gothic Timber Construction Building

1875 Masonry Construction CBD

Timber Construction Zone Brick Masonry Construction Building Brick Masonry Construction Zone Basalt and Oamaru Masonry Construction Building Basalt and Oamaru Masonry Construction Zone

Lancaster Park 1881

St Michael's Church- 1872

1860 1856 1857

1861 Otago Gold Rush

1862

1863

1864

1865

1867 Southern Railroad reaches Selwyn

1872 1873 Northern Railroad reaches Rangiora

BUILDING COLONIAL CHRISTCHURCH: 1856-1900 It was common for shops and commercial buildings in the inner city to be of timber construction, consequently Papanui and Riccarton Bush were clear cut for their fine timber. As well, the first settlers relied on firewood for cooking and home heating, which further led to deforestation. The first substantial stone buildings which began to rise in the wooden town in the 1860s were all public buildings and made of Basalt and Oamaru Stone. The railroad system facilitated material transport,

1874

1875

1877 1878 1879 1881 Western Railroad Southern Railroad reaches Dunedin

1884

1887

1897

1900

which started a trend as new masonry structures replaced the timber structures. The Gothic style was brought in from England and dominated as the style of choice for churches of all denominations. The Otago Gold Rush fueled an economic boom which funded the elaborate building projects and established Christchurch as the cultural and economic hub of Canterbury.

Gang Feng (Henry), Logan Suhrer, Gong Wang (Rickey)

111


d Conc

Gothic - Non-Gothic on-Goth Timber rConstruction Construc ctio ctio Building on Bui ui

me en en

1

New Development of Reinforced Concrete Alongside Gothic Masonry Buildings

g

ctt Zone nZ Timber Construction Brick Masonry Construction on u Building Brick Masonry Construction C n cZone Basalt Oamaru Construction Building B asaltand and O Masonry Oama u C u o Basalt and Oamaru Masonry d u aConstruction Co Zone uc ction n Zone RienforcedeConcrete Construction te e Constr C n Building u ui i

c c Concrete Construction e C nsstructio Rienforced Zone

Preservation of Gothic CBD

e

Expansion pa o of Insdustrial Quarter

1914 1900 1902

1903

1904

1905

1908

1909

1912 World War I

1920

Western Railroad Otira Tunnel Opened

1929 1930 1928 Great Depression

REINFORCED CONCRETE AND THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT: 1900 - 1950 Public buildings of grey stone in a Gothic style continued to be built into the 20th Century. They became the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;signatureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; buildings of the city. Masonry commercial buildings were typically built not of stone but of brick, often surfaced with a cement render. Remaining older wooden buildings were replaced by large, masonry buildings, both commercial and public. The seven storeyed New Zealand Express Company Building, designed by Luttrells and built in 1906, was influential for introducing modern American 112

Heritage | Analysis

1935 1932 Rise of Labour Party

1939 1940 World War II

1944

1950

commercial building trends to Christchurch where architecture had previously been based almost entirely on English traditions. Steel reinforced concrete construction came into more general between WWI and WWII. However, the identity of Christchurch remained largely unchanged between 1914 and 1960 due to years of depression, war, and post-war recovery.


hi - Non-Gothic N n- oth Gothic Timberr Construction Building C ns u on B Bu

Residential and Low Rise Commercial Timber Construction

be Construction r on Zone Timber Zone

Modern CBD

Brick Building c Masonry on yConstruction Cons Co

g

Brick Masonry Zone ne r s nry ry yConstruction Co t ction tion

sa and and a dOamaru O ma aru a u M Construction s Building i Basalt Masonry

g

Basalt and Oamaru Masonry O M Construction yC t Zone

Post Modern

Historic Gothic CBD

Chateau Commodore Hotel 1972

Rienforced Building orc rcedConcrete Co c Construction C e Rienforced Concrete Construction Zone fo C e

Industrial District Christchurch Station 1960

1960

1961

1964

1966

1967

1968

1972 British Commonwealth Games

2011

1987

1974 1953

1980

1982

1988 Stock Market Crash

1994

2003

2004

Christchurch Earthquake

THE RISE OF MODERNISM: 1951 - PRESENT Steel and reinforced concrete became more common place after WWII. Beginning in the 1960s modern high-rise office blocks and hotels were built, usually on sites that had been occupied by a number of older commercial buildings. Brutalist Modernism became the new signature style of Christchurch civic buildings, replacing the outdated Gothic masonry architecture with contemporary designs utilizing modern materials and technologies. Gang Feng (Henry), Logan Suhrer, Gong Wang (Rickey)

113


HERITAGE BUILDINGS: PROGRAM T YPE Most public, institutional and religious buildings in Christchurch were built before 1932. The development of commercial buildings began to emerge towards the mid-20th Century.

HERITAGE BUILDINGS: PERIOD OF CONSTRUCTION The majority of Christchurch Gothic Revival architecture was built in the late 19th century. Modern architecture emerged in the 1960s, becoming the leading style of choice in new construction within the CBD.

114

Heritage | Analysis


18(36%) 17(34%) 15(30%)

Saved To be assessed Destroyed

Brutalist 1(2%) Industrial 1(2%) Structural Expressionist 1(2%) Neo-Classical 2(4%) Renaissance 4(8%)

Gothic Revival 18(36%)

Modern 12(24%)

Commercial 11(22%)

Public 20(40%)

Art Deco 1(2%) Futurist 1(2%) Baroque 1(2%) Maori 1(2%)

Colonial 7(14%)

PERIOD OF CONSTRUCTION : DURABILIT Y : PROGRAM T YPE The Gothic Style has been used to construct many of the public buildings, while the modern style was used to construct many of the commercial buildings.

Institutional 11(22%)

Religious 4(8%) Villas 2(4%) Cultural 1(2%) Government 1(2%)

18(36%) 17(34%) 15(30%)

HERITAGE BUILDINGS: EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE The majority of the heritage buildings built before 1930 around the CBD were either demolished or have yet to be assessed.

Saved To be assessed Destroyed

St Andrews Presbyterian Church

Holly Lea

CBD BOUNDARY

CHCH. Boys High School CHCH. Girls High School The Normal School

Blackheath Place

Chateau Commodore Hotel

Riccarton Racecourse

Wesleyan Methodist Church Victoria bridge Price Waterhouse Builing Market square

Canterbury collage

Canterbury Provincial Council building

CHCH. Hospital

Theatre Royal Isaac Theatre Royal New Central Public Library Centre of Contemporar Art First& second town hall CHCH. Cathedral New Music Hall Building CHCH. Art Gallery City Council offices Press Co.Civic Theatre Royal Exchange Building Manchester Unity Building Club Tower CHCH. Club Building Canterbury Museum Government Life Building New library buildingCHCH. Chief Post Office Library Chambers Queen's Theatre Civic Offices YMCA building CHCH. Press Robert mcdougall Art Gallery King Edward Barracks

Canterbury Terminating Building Society CHCH. Town Hall Majestic Theatre

St. Michael's Church New Civic Offices

CHCH. Railway station

Show Place Lot 9

Lancaster Park

Gang Feng (Henry), Logan Suhrer, Gong Wang (Rickey)

115


S Gothic Architecture

M

L

Arch Sizes

Modular Study Arch Organization

Natural Arches

Section A

Interior Perspective

Section B

NATURE + GOTHIC Heritage can be described as the identity of a city. Part of the identity of a city comes from the values of the people that live there, which is reflected in their way of life and the choices they make. Our previous research shows that heritage buildings are a reflection of the technology and materials of their time, as well as a cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s values. Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s present and future values are to create pedestrian friendly areas combined with green space. My aim is to develop an architectural language which promotes these values. 116

Heritage | Design | Nature + Gothic

This architecture language aims to make a statement about these values through its form, programme, ornamentation and materials. I want to design a building that reminds people when they look at it that walking and enjoying nature is the Christchurch way of life. A central city transportation centre is unique as it is a presents an opportunity for a very large number of people to gather in one place. The idea is to use this opportunity of concentrated population, to visually display pedestrian values. This bus station is


Exterior Perspective

Interior Perspective

A Lichfield St

N to Cathedral

Level 1 Arch Plan

Arch & Canopy Plan

Columbo St

B

Level 2 Arch Plan

Arch Span Study

Tuam St

Ground Level Plan

a concentrated gateway where hundreds of people enter the CBD and continue onward walking to their destination. The idea is visually to promote walking and public transport; and by doing so it will become a desirable means by which to move through the city, and therefore encourage more and more people to do the same.

Gang Feng (Henry)

117


Seismic Study: Three Wave Patters, One Per Major Earthquake

Inhabitation Study

MEMORIAL Architecture evolves with technology, in 19th century the style moved from Gothic to Modern. History tells us the architecture in Christchurch correlates with the available materials and latest technologies. The recent earthquakes have left several historic buildings in ruin. By rebuilding Christchurch with the latest technology, my proposed heritage building will follow the natural historic trends. 118

Heritage | Design | Memorial

Based on our research 40% of the heritage buildings are public facilities. More than half of the public buildings were either demolished or are yet to be assessed. Hence, I have chosen to propose a public building to re-establish the cultural identity of Christchurch. As of the 20th of September 2011, there were 106 out of 163 heritage buildings confirmed to be demolished. As a response to the buildings and


Site Section

Elevation

lives lost in the earthquake, I am proposing a memorial museum. By introducing the concept of seismic waves into the architecture language, essentially freezing the destructive movement, and translating it into a spatial experience, I am metaphorically reinforcing the commemorative significance. Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the earth. Recently, there were three major earthquakes in Christchurch. Through studying the seismic waves and simulating them in 3D programmes, I have investigated the patterns both individually and interactively. The architecture embodies these waves to create an exterior visual experience, interior spatial experience and functional structure derived from the study of the seismic waves.

Interior View

WC Storage Room

The site is located on the northeast corner of South Hagley Park at the intersection of Hagley and Riccarton Avenue, setback from the street sidewalk by 40 meters. The oak forest surrounding the park is on average 12 meters in height, which makes for both a visual and sound barrier to traffic. As well, the large opening space is convenient for having ceremonies and activities.

Exhibition Hall

Riccarton Avenue on the north side of the site is the only five-lane driveway within the CBD area. There are many bus stops around the site which will encourage people to take the bus instead of driving to the site. People can pass through the trees and access the memorial from different directions. The principle for locating the museum is to avoid the passing vehicle traffic and allow the visitor to enjoy the park setting. Thus, the northwest side has become an ideal place for locating the museum. WC

Plan

The idea behind arranging the interior space for the museum is to enhance the exhibition experience. The office, storage room and lavatories are in semi-closed spaces along both sides of the exhibition space. Furthermore the display panels have been set along the contour line of the seismic waves. Gong Wang (Rickey)

119


Concept Sketches: Site Access, Sun Light, Fold Landscape & Building

Site Plan

Fold Concept

Program: Level 1, 2, 3

Amphitheater

Exterior Perspectives: Night and Day

Lobby / Circulation Cafe Administration Conference Rooms

CHRISTCHURCH TOWN HALL AND PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE From our analysis we learned the heritage architecture of Christchurch is defined by the use of local or readily accessible materials in combination with innovative technologies. As times change, the built environment of Christchurch has evolved to reflect the current needs of the city. Christchurch prides itself in being a garden city boasting open green space connected by the Avon River. It is the current ambition to create an inhabitable CBD where people can live, work, and play. 120

Heritage | Design | Christchurch Town Hall and Performing Arts Centre

Many of the historical buildings in Christchurch were reduced to rubble in the 2011 earthquakes, including the current Town Hall, which has been closed due to severe liquefaction. Public programs have been displaced and the CBD has been left uninhabitable. The successful execution of new public programs in the city centre would complement the planned environment for work and leisure, while revitalising the CBD and preserving the cultural and historical values. The new Christchurch Town Hall folds the


Section

Section

Plans: Level 1, 2, 3

Folding Furnishings

garden landscape into a building to create a performance arts centre that reflects the culture of the city. The folding of planes frames views to adjacent Victoria Park and further away to the central CBD.

Christchurch Town Hall is designed to become a future heritage building by creating a performance centre that reflects the culture of Christchurch and preserves the material language while embodying the modern technologies and building materials.

The New Town Hall uses reclaimed Omaru Stone and Bluestone Basalt Stone from historical buildings demolished by the 2011 Earthquakes as well as uses rubble for the aggregate in concrete. The new Logan Suhrer

121


Transportation is not only the veins, but an organ of every healthy city. Christchurch, like any city, depends on the circulation and transportation networks to keep it alive and functional. In our investigation we looked at the different transportation networks inn Christchurch, including walking, cycling, public transportation (buses), and personal vehicles. Our aim is to analyze the circulation networks and identify rational proposals to optimize the connectivity. While the recent earthquakes have caused road closures and generally disrupted peoplesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; daily lives, it also creates opportunities to improve the transportation networks in the future reconstruction.

christchurch

road network

intensive d6 research Yvonne Mak 122

Transportation | Introduction

Eric Nakijima

Justin Baatjes


TRANSPORTATION Justin Baatjes, Yvonne Mak, Eiki Nakijima


HOUSEHOLDS

131,587

EMPLOYEE 80.9% POP

348,435

CONTENT PUBLIC TRANSPORT REGION BUS SYSTEM BUS ROUTE / TIME TABLE MAP

WORKING POP

178,092

EMPLOYER 6.1%

143,997

METHOD OF TRANSPORT TO AND FROM WORK

SELF EMPLOYED 9.7%

10,785

154782

OTHER 3.4%

17,220

6,180

87% OF WORK TRANSPORT METHOD IS ASSUMED TO BE TRAVELING AT PEAK TRAFFIC HOURS ( 7 - 9AM / 4 - 6PM )

AVALIABLE TRANPORTATION SYSTEM IN CHRISTCHURCH

60% OF WORKING POP USE MOTOR VEHICLES AS A METHOD OF TRANSPORT 106,855 VEHICLES

REGERSTERED VEHICLES 427,144

BUS ROUTE PROXIMITY MAP BUS ROUTE DENSITY MAP

39% OF HOUSE HOLDS OWN 1 VEHICLE

CENTRAL BUS SYSTEM BUS ROUTE MAP BUS ROUTE DENSITY MAP

MOTOR TRANSPORT

6% OF WORKING POP WALKED AS A METHOD OF TRANSPORT 10,685 PEOPLE

ELDERLY POP 65+ YEARS 14% = POP 48,780 ABLE BODY 5 - 65 YEARS POP 299,655

REGION MOTOR VEHICLE FLEET BREAKDOWN PULSATING NETWORK NETWORK OF FILTERATIONS JUNCTION DIVICES CASE STUDIES POST EARTHQUAKE CHANGES

7% OF WORKING POP USE BICYCLES AS A METHOD OF TRANSPORT 12,466 BICYCLES

CBD PARKING

45+ YEARS 37% = POP 128,920 0 - 9 YEARS 12% = POP 41,812 DISABLE BODY POP 170,732 ABLE BODY 10 - 45 YEARS POP 177,703

PEDESTRIAN CYCLING REGION MOTOR VEHICLE PEDESTRIAN COUNT CYCLE TRACKS

5% OF WORKING POP USE BUSES AS A METHOD OF TRANSPORT 8,904 PEOPLE

CYCLE NETWORK ANALYSIS CYCLISTS ANALYSIS

CHRISTCHURCH TRANSPORTATION The region is predominantly flat topography, therefore the dominant method of transportation could ideally be walking or cycling with public transportation used to assist for long distance travels. However, Christchurch is a motor vehicle dominant city with more then one vehicle registered per person.

124

Transportation | Analysis

15.5 MILLION TRIPS PER YEAR 44 TRIPS PER CAPITA

51,379 HOUSEHOLDS 51,379 VEHICLES 37% OF HOUSE HOLDS OWN 2 VEHICLES 48,687 HOUSEHOLDS 97,374 VEHICLES 15% OF HOUSE HOLDS OWN 3+ VEHICLES 19,738 HOUSEHOLDS 278,361 VEHICLES 9% OF HOUSE HOLDS DO NOT OWN VEHICLES 11,842 HOUSEHOLDS 0 VEHICLES


Motor Cars All Others Trucks

Number of Motor Vehicles Licensed

# of Motor Vehicles Licensed

350,000

Motorcycles/Mopeds Buses/Coaches

300,000 250,000 200,000

MOTOR VEHICLES Between 1996 and 2010, the number of licensed motor vehicles in the Christchurch postal district increased by 39%, from 306,493 registrations to 427,144 registrations. The majority of motor vehicle licences in the Christchurch postal district are for motor cars (70%), with licences for trucks being the second most common (11%). In June 2010, there were 297,197 motor car licences in the Christchurch postal district. This was an increase of 0.4% from the previous year, which was the second lowest annual increase in the above time series. The highest was 5.9% between 1999 and 2000. In June 2010, there Motor were Cars46,136 truck licences in the Christchurch postal district. This was a decrease of 0.2% from the All Others previous year, and the second consecutive annual decrease in registered trucks since 2000-2001. Trucks

96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ’00 ’01150,000 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10

Motorcycles/Mopeds

The adjacent graph (above) shows total licensed vehicles, by vehicle type, from 1996 to 2010. Higher levels of car ownership are associated with lower levels of public transportation use and low vehicle price. The increasing number of vehicles has significant consequences on efficient transportation networks, and has detrimental environmental and health effects. The category ‘motor cars’ includes cars, rental cars and taxis. The category ‘all others’ includes tractors, trailers and caravans, miscellaneous, and exempt vehicles.

Buses/Coaches

100,000 50,000 0 ’96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10

The adjacent graph (below) shows the proportion of households that have access to a motor vehicle, as recorded by the Census of Population and Dwellings from 1991 to 2006. Although the percentage increase in households with access to motor vehicles has not changed dramatically since 1991, the actual number of households has increased by 27,552. With more households having access to more than one car, the data reflects the increase in the number of cars that are on the road.

Total Licensed Vehicles From 1996 - 2010

40

The effects of having more cars on the road are numerous, including; increased congestion, which reduces mobility around the city and can lead to increases in stress levels with associated health problems; and increased levels of pollution which can lead to detrimental health results, as well as contributing more carbon dioxide in the air (currently acknowledged to be one of the main contributors to global warming).

35

25 20 15 10 5 0

one

Percentage of Households

30 Percentage of Households

Percentage of Households

45

45

‘91

40

‘96

35

‘01

30

‘06

‘91

25

‘96

20

‘01

15

‘06

10 5

two

three or more

none

0 Motor Vehicles per Household one Motor Vehicles Per Household

two

three or more

In 2006, 118,428 (89%) households had access to one or more motor vehicles, compared to 90,876 (85%) in 1991; an increase of 30% or 27,552 households with access to a motor vehicle. The percentage of households with access to one motor vehicle only has decreased from 44% in 1991 to 38% in 2006. However, the actual number of households has increased from 46,695 to 50,541 during this period. The percentage of households with access to two or more motor vehicles has increased from 41% in 1991 to 51% in 2006. The percentage of households with no access to a motor vehicle has decreased from 13% in 1991 to 9% in 2006.

none

Motor Vehicles per Household

Justin Baatjes, Yvonne Mak, Eiki Nakijima

125


ALTHOUGH A PARTICULAR BUS ROUTE MAY ONLY BE AS FREQUENT AS ONE EVERY 30MIN, OVERLAPPING BUS ROUTES MEAN THAT BUSES WITH SIMILAR DESTINATIONS CAN BE USED. THE HIGHER THE DENSITY, THE MORE FREQUENT BUSES PASS THROUGH, AND BUS STOPS THAT ARE SHARED CAN BE TRANSFER STATIONS.

PAPANUI RD MERIVALE BISHOPDALE AIRPORT STYX MILL

1

2 3 4 5 6+

REDWOOD QUEENSPARK

PAPANUI RD

CASEBROOK

BISHOPDALE AIRPORT STYX MILL

RICCARTON RD RICCARTON

REDWOOD

HYDE PARK

QUEENSPARK

ILAM FERRYMEAD

CASEBROOK

HORNBY/SOUTHSHORE WESTMORLAND ORBIT

RICCARTON RD

HEI HEI

HYDE PARK ILAM FERRYMEAD HORNBY/SOUTHSHORE WESTMORLAND

COLOMBO ST LYTTELTON BECKENHAM RUSSLEY CASHMERE DYERS PASS

126

Transportation | Analysis

RUSSLEY DYERS PASS

HEI HEI

BUS ROUTE DENSITY Although a particular bus route may only be as frequent as one every 30min, overlapping bus routes means that buses going in the same direction can be used. Certain roads have a greater overlap hen others, as can be seen in the above graph. This is produce of routing and not reflective of density or demand in these areas.

BECKENHAM CASHMERE

ORBIT

Map of Bus Frequency

COLOMBO ST SYDENHAM LYTTELTON

NUMBER OF OVERLAPPING

NUMBER OF OVERLAPPING BUS ROUTES

BUS ROUTES DENSITY

3 4 5 6+


HEAVY PUBLIC TRANSPORT HEAVY NOT PUBLIC ONLYTRANSPORT MAKE THE PASSING NOT ONLY ROUTES MAKE UNPLEASURABLE, THE PASSING ROUTES BUT THE UNPLEASURABLE, INTERSECTINGBUT ROADS THE INTERSECTING AS WELL. ROADS AS WELL.

500 - 1000 BUSES PER DAY

MIN

OVERLAPPING BUS ROUTES

100 - 500 BUSES PER DAY

BUS ROUTE DENSITY CBD This map shows the density of bus routes prior to the earthquakes in 2011. It is apparent that the bus density is concentrated in the inner CBD especially where the main exchange terminal is located on Colombo Street. Although transportation into the CBD is convenient, heavily used public transportation routes are unfriendly towards pedestrians and cyclists. Heavy traffic along these routes not only make these streets unpleasant, but the intersections as well become congested and difficult to pass through.

100 - 500 BUSES PER DAY

MAX

COLOMBO ST COLOMBO ST 30+ BUSES PASS THIS ROAD30+ WITHIN BUSES 30 PASS MIN (AVERAGE THIS ROAD1 WITHIN PER MIN) 30 MIN (AVERAGE 1 PER MIN) 2 SHUTTLES ON THIS ROAD 2ATSHUTTLES ALL DAY TIMES. ON THIS ROAD AT ALL DAY TIMES. 1000 - 2000 BUSES PER DAY 1000 - 2000 BUSES PER DAY

CBD PARKING

PARKING MAP INNER CBD

CBD PARKING

CBD PARKING

500 - 1000 BUSES PER DAY 500 - 1000 BUSES PER DAY

KILMORE ST 145 spaces

150 KILMORE ST

KILMORE ST 145 spaces

KILMORE ST 145 spaces

150 KILMORE ST

150 KILMORE ST

MIN

OVERLAPPING BUS ROUTES

Map of Bus Frequency in the CBD

MIN

PARKING MAP INNER CBD

OVERLAPPING BUS ROUTES

PARKING MAP INNER CBD

CBD PARKING Parking is abundant in the CBD, which in a sense promotes the use of cars not only because it is easy park, but also because it is more efficient time wise, and not prohibitively expensive to drive.

MAX

MAX

FARMERS CARPARK 438 spaces

FARMERS CARPARK 438 spaces

ART GALLERY 123 spaces OXFORD TCE

ART GALLERY 327 spaces 123 spaces

ART GALLERY MANCHESTER ST 123 spaces 359 spaces OXFORD TCE 327 spaces

33 LICHFIELD ST 878 spaces

CHRISTCHURCH TERRITORIAL AREA: 1,426 km2

THE CROSSING CARPARK 203 spaces MID CITY (LICHFIELD ST)

SAMPLE INNER CITY AREA: BEDFORD ROW 336 spaces

THE CROSSING CARPARK 203 spaces

33 LICHFIELD ST 878 spaces BEDFORD ROW 336 spaces

MID CITY (LICHFIELD ST)

100 ST ASAPH ST 200 356 spaces

300

400

500 m

100

MULTI-STOREY CARPARKING (NUMBERS GIVEN)0 300 400 500 m

200

AREA: 1,426 km2

THE CROSSING CARPARK 203 spaces

SAMPLE INNER CITY AREA: PARKING SPACES IN STRUCTURES: 3,700

PARKING SPACES ON-STREET: TUAM ST 123 spaces 100

Parking Map Inner City exception: CBD Tuam St Carpark (single storey), used as indication of carpark area : number ratio

200

TUAM ST 123 spaces

TOTAL CAR PARKING SPACES:

300

400

CHRISTCHURCH TERRITORIAL AREA: 1,426 SAMPLE INNER CITY AREA:

OPEN SPACE/SINGLE STOREY CARPARKING

PUBLIC ON-STREET PARKING SPACES

MULTI-STOREY CARPARKING (NUMBERS GIVEN)

1-2k

[as bordered by Kilmore St (north), Rolleston Ave (west), St Asaph St (south) & Madras St (west)]

3,700

PARKING SPACES IN STRUCTURES:

3,7

9,480

PARKING SPACES ON-STREET:

9,4

13,180

TOTAL CAR PARKING SPACES:

13

500 m

MULTI-STOREY CARPARKING (NUMBERS UNKNOWN) OPEN SPACE/SINGLE STOREY CARPARKING

MULTI-STOREY CARPARKING (NUMBERS GIVEN)

1 - 2 km2

[as bordered by Kilmore St (north), Rolleston Ave (west), MID CITY ROW St Asaph St (south) BEDFORD St (west)] (LICHFIELD ST) PARKING SPACES ON-STREET:& Madras 9,480 336 spaces

TOTAL CAR PARKING SPACES: PARKING SPACES IN13,180 STRUCTURES:

ST ASAPH ST 356 spaces

OPEN SPACE/SINGLE STOREY CARPARKING

0

1 - 2 km2

[as bordered by Kilmore St (north), Rolleston Ave (west), CASHEL ST CARPARK CHRISTCHURCH TERRITORIAL St Asaph St (south) & Madras St (west)]

CASHEL ST CARPARK

TUAM ST 123 spaces 0

MANCHESTER ST 359 spaces

OXFORD TCE 327 spaces

CASHEL ST CARPARK

33 LICHFIELD ST 878 spaces

ST ASAPH ST 356 spaces

FARMERS CARPARK 438 spaces

MANCHESTER ST 359 spaces

Justin Baatjes, Yvonne Mak, Eiki Nakijima


TRAVELING DISTANCE TO/FROM BUS STOPS

400m

800m

63%

19%

18%

2 Kilo m e tre s

BY ASSUMING ELDERLY POPULATION ARE NOT CAPABLE OF WALKING AS FAR AS YOUNGER POPULATION, THE BOTTOM DIAGRAM SHOWS THE DENSITYOF ELDERLY THAT WOULD POTENTIALLY BE UNABLE TO ACCESS THE BUS NETWORK BY FOOT.

65+ YEARS DENSITY MAP People Per Hectare 15 to 70 10 to 15 5 to 10 1 to 5 0 to 1

BRYNDWR

OAKLANDS

65+ YEARS 14% OF POPULATION

URBAN RED ZONE 7%

DALLINGTON

BURWOOD

1

0m

SYDENHAM

0

FAR

PAPANUI

% RESIDENCE WITHIN PROXIMITY

REASONABLE

UPPER RICCARTON

WALKING DISTANCE

CLOSE

THE PROXIMITY MAP SHOWS THE TRAVELING DISTANCE REQUIRED TO REACH NEARBY BUS ROUTES. THE COVERAGE OF BUS ROUTES ARE ALSO INDICATED ON THE DIAGRAM, AS WELL AS THE EASE OF ACCESSIBILITY.

REDCLIFFS

Bus Proximity

TRAVEL DISTANCE FROM BUS STOPS The map above shows the travel distance required to reach nearby bus routes, as well as the relative ease of access to a bus route. If we assume the elderly population are less likely to walk further then the younger population, then the diagrams to the right show the areas where the elderly could potentially be unable to access the bus network by foot. 128

Transportation | Analysis

ELDERLY POPULATION X WALKING PROXIMITY MAP GREEN : BUS ACCESSIBLE BY MINORITY YELLOW - RED : BUS UNACCESSIBLE BY MAJORITY


CHRISTCHURCH BUS ROUTES CHRISTCHURCH LOCAL BUSES ARE OPERATED BY A MAJOR PROVIDER ‘METRO’ THAT COVERS THE REGION BY RADIATING OUT FROM THE CENTRAL SQUARE. BUS ROUTS ARE MAINLY FOCUSED ON URBAN AREAS AND COVER THE WHOLE REGION.

6am

10am

2pm

6pm

10pm

WAIRAKEI MARSHLANDS NORTHWOOD PARKLANDS QUEENSPARK NORTHSHORE REDWOOD AIRPORT ST ALBANS BISHOPDALE HAREWOOD STYX MILL CASEBROOK TERMINAL 1 (Bealey ave) TERMINAL CENTRAL ORBIT TERMINAL 2 (Parkside)

EVERY 10 MIN

EVERY 15MIN

EVERY 30MIN

AP VIA FENDALTON HEI HEI AP TO SUMNER HYDE PARK HORNBY/SOUTHSHORE ILAM FERRYMEAD HOON HAY BARRINGTON WESTMORLAND DYERS PASS MURRAY AYNSLEY CASHMERE ST MARTINS LYTTELTON WAINONI SPREYDON 0

1

2 Kilometres

BECKENHAM RUSSLEY

Bus Route and Time Table

CHRISTCHURCH BUS ROUTES Christchurch local busses are operated by a major provider called Metro. They cover the region by radiating out from the centre. There are a greater number of buses in inner urban regions, but there is generally good coverage for the whole of the area.

Justin Baatjes, Yvonne Mak, Eiki Nakijima

129


CENTRAL PEDESTRIAN DENSITY There are similar weekday and weekend pedestrian concentrations with focused areas in retail zones, especially Colombo Street. There is one exception, on the weekends there is an increase concentration of pedestrians along Worcester Boulevard during the daytime weekend hours, which is due to the local weekly outdoor market. Most areas within the city center decrease dramatically in pedestrian 130

Transportation | Analysis

populations after 18:00hrs, which coincides with the closing of offices and retail spaces. There are a few places that show increased pedestrian movement on weekend evenings, which is likely due to local bars, for example Sol Square, where it is used more during the weekend evenings then during the weekday evenings.


1 KILMORE ST

2 ARMAGH ST

3

WORCESTER BOULEVARD 5

10

RIDGE

LICHFIELD ST

12

100

DURHAM ST 200

PUBLIC PEDESTRIAN SPACES (CBD) HAGLEY PARK / BOTANIC GARDENS CRANMER SQUARE ART GALLERY SQUARE

COLOMBO ST

TCE

TUAM ST

0

TCE

9

300

4 5 6 7

400

13

0800-1800hrs

[weekday]

1800-0000hrs

[weekday]

0800-1800hrs

[weekend]

1800-0000hrs

[weekend]

-

SIMILAR WEEKDAY & WEEKEND PEDESTRIAN CONCENTRATIONS WITH FOCUSED AREAS IN RETAIL ZONES (ESPECIALLY COLOMBO ST) AND PRIMARY PEDESTRIAN ROUTES

-

MOST AREAS WITHIN THE CITY CENTRE DECREASE DRAMATICALLY IN PEDESTRIAN POPULATIONS AFTER 1800HRS AT THE CLOSING OF OFFICE AND RETAIL SPACES

-

INCREASED CONCENTRATION ALONG WORCESTER BOULEVARD DURING DAYTIME WEEKEND HOURS

-

INCREASED PEDESTRIAN POPULATIONS WITHIN THE CITY CENTRE ON WEEKEND EVENINGS OVER SIMILAR TIMES DURING THE WEEKDAY

-

SOL SQUARE MORE LIKELY TO BE USED DURING WEEKEND EVENINGS THAN DURING WEEKDAY EVENINGS

11

MADRAS ST

ROLLESTON AVE

14

CASHEL ST CAMB

WORCESTER ST

7

HEREFORD ST

OXFO RD

1 2 3

8

MANCHESTER ST

4

6

LATIMER SQ

GLOUCESTER ST

CRANMER SQ

CHESTER ST

CONCENTRATION OF PEDESTRIAN AREAS

HI

GH

ST

PRIMARY PEDESTRIAN ROUTES SECONDARY PEDESTRIAN ROUTES

500 m

VICTORIA SQUARE

8 NEW REGENT STREET 9 CITY MALL (CASHEL ST) 10 CITY MALL (HIGH ST)

CATHEDRAL SQUARE

11 THE STRIP (OXFORD TCE)

WORCESTER BOULEVARD THE AVON RIVER BANK

12 13 14

SOL SQUARE LICHFIELD LANES LATIMER SQUARE

Justin Baatjes, Yvonne Mak, Eiki Nakijima

131


CHRISTCHURCH CYCLE NETWORK According to the Christchurch 2006 census: walking is used for 9.3% of all daily trips in the greater Christchurch area; the cycle is used for 2.4% of all daily trips; and bus transport comprises of 2.2% of TRANSPORTATION MODE SHARE all daily trips.

Cycleways as a Proportion of the Roading Network

Cycleways make up a small proportion of the total road length in Christchurch. However,ofover - Walking is used for 9.3% all the same daily trips in the Greater Christchurch period, the total length of cycleways in the city has area. more than doubled, with an increase of 165% from 58km of cycleways in 1996 to 154km in 2006. - The cycle is used for 2.4% of all Indaily 1996,trips. cycleways made up 3.8% of the total road length in Christchurch. This proportion has more than double to 9.5% of the total roadoflength in - Bus transport comprises 2.2% of all daily trips. 2006. The majority of cycleways are made up of off-road Cycleways make built up a small of thefrom total the road length in paths (purposecycleproportion paths separate Christchurch. However, over the same period, the total length of road network) which in 1996 totalled 43km, a figure cycleways in the city has more than doubled, with an increase of 165% increased from 58kmto of86km cycleways in 1996 to 154km in 2006. which in 2006. A slightly smaller proportion of cycleways are made up of cycle lanes In 1996, cycleways made up 3.8% of the total road length in Christchurch. This proportion has more thantotalled double to 9.5% of on-road (part of the road network) which the total road length in 2006. 15km in 1996 and 68km in 2006. The majority of cycleways are made up of off-road paths (purposebuilt cycle paths separate from the roading network) which in

CHRISTCHURCH ROAD USAGE ANDincreased PERCEPTION 1996 totalled 43km, a figure which to 86km in 2006. A slightly smaller proportion of cycleways are made up of cycle Perception towards road usage in the Christchurch lanes on-road (part of the roading network) which totalled 15km region a much higher level of safety in 1996suggest and 68km in 2006. where cycle paths or lanes are provided or where intersections are fully controlled by traffic lights. Cycleways separate from roads are perceived to be especially safe. The much higher proportions of motor vehicle usage as compared to cyclists might therefore be attributed to road design (including the provision of car parking facilities) where the needs of motor vehicles are catered for in preference to cycle- or pedestrian-ways, even in consideration of the increase in provision of cycleways over the past few years.

132

Transportation | Analysis

Cycle lanes on-road

Cycle paths off-road

Cycleways (Cycle lanes on-road + Paths off-road

Cycleways as a Proportion of Total Road Length

Cycleways as a Proportion of the Road Networks


Designated Cycle Routes (2010)

Of f Road or Quiet Street - Low Traf fic Volume On Road With Cycle Lanes - Medium to High Traf fic Volume

CYCLE ROUTES There are 29 designated cycle routes in Christchurch 1 Sumner to City 2 Linwood to City 3 Pages Rd to City 4 Wainoni to City 5 Marshlands to City 6 Cashmere to City

7 8 9 10a 10b 11 12 13

Avon River link : New Brighton to City Papanui to City Russley to City UC to City UC to City Halswell to City Heathcote River Bishopdale to Brynder

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

North Railway to City Mariehau to Fendalton QEII Drive Rawhiti to Spencer Park Ferrymead to City via Worcester St Summit Rd Rapaki Track (Mountain Bike) Sumner to Lyttleton

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Somerfield to City via Simeon St Westmoreland to Halswell Hillmorton to UC Middleton to City Bryndwr to City Dallington to City via Gloucester St Waltham to Moorhouse Ave Cashmere to Summit Rd Justin Baatjes, Yvonne Mak, Eiki Nakijima

133


DE-CENTRALIZATION AND FILTRATION Through our research into the transportation system, it is apparent that Christchurch operates on a centralized transportation system, this means that all modes of transport are densified in the inner CBD. However, since Christchurch is a 2-dimensional city, all of modes of transportation share one circulation plane which becomes chaotic and conflicting, ie. buses, cars and pedestrians disrupt one another. Like many dense areas, the centre of Christchurch aspires to be pedestrian friendly, therefore, we propose a de-centralization of the existing public transportation hub and the filtration of modes of transportation as one enters the CBD. The ‘filtration’ concept aims to breakdown transportation systems into areas so the systems do not conflict through shared circulation routes. The proposal is for three hubs on the perimeter of the CBD connected via a pedestrian friendly street system and a direct public transit link. With more than one vehicle registered per capita, Christchurch, although marketing itself as a “Garden City”, is primarily motor-vehicle dominated. Within the central CBD area, over 10,000 parking spaces are available both on-street and within covered buildings, which promotes the use of commuting by car. While cycle lanes are on the increase, the level of pedestrian malls and pedestrian friendly networks are relatively scarce - existing more as pockets than as a safe, linked network. Within the CBD’s 2sqkm area, this system of transit could create an easily walkable city serviced by a local public transportation link. Surveys done by the Christchurch City Council following the 2010-2011 earthquakes revealed a general perception of dissatisfaction, and the desire for an increase in the amount of green, public spaces, and safety within the city for pedestrians. Because of the earthquakes in 2011, an opportunity arose to City Centre

Filteration point

Outer Suburbs

City Centre

Filteration point

Outer Suburbs

Filteration Hubs Transport mode filteration system Filteration Hubs Transport mode filteration system

Outer Framework Centralizing external frameworks Outer Framework Centralizing external frameworks

Ecological Centre High density ecological hub Ecological Centre High density ecological hub

Filteration parametric model Parametric system relative to centric area and regional density Filteration parametric model Parametric system relative to centric area and regional density

Unfiltered Christchurch public transport system Centeralized hub within the inner CBD creates conflict between transport modes Unfiltered Christchurch public transport system Centeralized hub within the inner CBD creates conflict between transport modes

0

1

2

0

1

2

Filteration theory At different proximities from the city center have ideal modes of transport. These modes of transport will exchange smoothly at filteration points. Filteration theory At different proximities from the city center have ideal modes of transport. These modes of transport will exchange smoothly at filteration points.

Local filteration hub strategy models and systems to rationalize the theoreticle system Local filteration hub strategy models and systems to rationalize the theoreticle system

0

1

2

0

1

2

Site implementation of filteration hubs Site specified strategic locations of hubs to implement theory Site implementation of filteration hubs Site specified strategic locations of hubs to implement theory

A A

C B

C

B

Filteration hub sites A_Northern Hub B_Western Hub C_Eastern Hub Filteration hub sites A_Northern Hub B_Western Hub C_Eastern Hub

134

Transportation | Design | Introduction

Binding bus routes Converging routes towards near f.hubs Binding bus routes Converging routes towards near f.hubs Decentralization of transport hub to free up public transport vehiclesof(bus) away hub fromtothe city Decentralization transport free upcentre. public External networks are divided and converged into transport vehicles (bus) away from the city centre. nearby filteration reducing load of into External networkshubs, are divided andthe converged incoming transport. nearby filteration hubs, reducing the load of incoming transport.

Hub circulation All bus routes loop around hubs before returnShort trip range shuttle service Shuttles loop in and out from centre Pedestian routes Pedestrian friendly streets towards the centreIconic Hubs linking additional program featured with hubs Hub circulation All bus routes loop around hubs before returnShort trip range shuttle service Shuttles loop in and out from centre Pedestian routes Pedestrian friendly streets towards the centreIconic Hubs linking additional program featured with hubs All bus routes include a loop around the hubs Light weight Shuttle services from centre to hub As filteration hubs are implemented to transfer the Giving each filteration hub an iconic identity to before back toaits original route pasloop constantly to provide efficient and convemode of transport intoimplemented inner city friendly options, raise profile the network system addingto a All bus turning routes include loop around theso hubs Light weight Shuttle services from centre to hub As filteration hubs are to transfer the Giving each of filteration hub an iconicbyidentity sangersturning can access of original the threeroute hubssowith nientconstantly access around the area. pedestrian and cyclists able access the program to the hubs. before backany to its pas-a loop to provide efficient and convemode of transport into are inner citytofriendly options, raise profile of the network system by adding a single trip. centre withand ease. the additional density program initially sangers can access any of the three hubs with a nient access around the area. pedestrian cyclists are able to access the program to thehigh hubs. This not only reduces the amount of transfers In addition the paths are amenity rich routes requires a high capacity terminal, therefore single trip. centre with ease. the additional high density program initially needed, but increase of access amenities which encourage people to walk, reducing the complements intent. terminal, therefore This not only reduces ease the amount ofto transfers In addition the paths are amenity rich routes requires a highhe capacity locaed around each filteration hubs to amenities demend for shuttle services. A_Stadium he intent. needed, but increase ease of access which encourage people to walk, reducing the complements B_Health service complex locaed around each filteration hubs demend for shuttle services. A_Stadium C_Shopping centre B_Health service complex C_Shopping centre


STADIUM

Existing Transportation Patterns

MARKET HOSPITAL

Distributed Transportation Hubs - Site Plan

Proposed Transportation Patterns

address these issues. We researched the existing public bus network to see whether the system could be reorganised and optimised for efficiency, while simultaneously allowing for improved pedestrian circulation in order to bring life into the city. We found the bus network pre-earthquake covered the CBD generally quite well, but the main linkages between other satellite hubs required entering the CBD and transferring to reach their destination. This meant peripheral network linkages were scarce. Our proposal is to decentralise the central bus hub and split it into three new, separate but connected locations within a circuit roughly half a kilometre out from Cathedral Square. One site is at the corner of Hagley Road and St. Asaph Street, another is at the corner of Durham Avenue and Bealey Avenue, and the last is on the corner of Tuam Street and Barbadoes Street. These hubs are each coupled with different programs respectively: an extension to Christchurch Hospital, a new stadium, and a retail-open market. The mixed-use function aims to promote the use of the public transportation system as well as improve the perception. This in turn would open up key sites for a more widely spread pedestrian network throughout Christchurch, in effect providing for the transportation needs of the city without compromising pedestrian priority. With the increase in the number of central city bus hubs, a reorganisation of the bus routes is also necessary. The original bus routes will be curbed by a ring-road connecting the three new hubs. Only three shuttle lines would run from each hub into the city centre, thus filtering the amount of traffic congestion and minimising heavy traffic within pedestrian areas. This creates a more pleasing environment, with lower noise levels, lower vehicular emissions, and improves the public perception of a pedestrian friendly city by filtering out high traffic.

The fundamental considerations in the design of our three proposals includes: - The of bus-route connectivity between the CBD and the urban-suburban fabrics; - The filtration of traffic loads as one moves from the outskirts of the city towards the CBD; and - The creation of a transportation hierarchy within the site, and permeating out to the city grid through different mode of separation, thus creating a more pedestrian friendly centre. At the urban scale, the transportation network works as a series of radiating nodal points which provides peripheral inter-connections that, in conjunction with more available routes, would be more frequently used.

Justin Baatjes, Yvonne Mak, Eiki Nakijima

135


Facade Cladding

Detailed Section

Steel Guard Rails

Green Roof

ETFE membrane

Metal clamp frame Pre-cast concrete

The design emerged from existing site conditions, it recognizes the potential of the context and refines it in its architectural form. Although a product of Christchurch, this principal can be applied in any situations, as the system parametrically morphs to adapt to local conditions. While parametric design can provide a framework, further design opportunities are developed for each unique site.

136

Transportation | Design | Christchurch Circulation Hub Stadium

ETFE Membrane


A

N

Staduim Lights

A

Ground Level

Level 4_Office space

ETFE / GRC Facade Upper Grand Stands Structural Steel Frame

Cantilever Truss

Corporate Boxes / Private Functions

Level 1

Lower Grand Stands Public Green Roof Level 3 / Public Park

Level 2 / Retail / Residential

Steel Bore Piles

Level 2

Lower Stands

Ground Level / Stadium Services

Publi

e tranc rt En

nspo

c Tra

Level 2 / Retail / Public

Car Pa

rk En tranc e

Car Park

e tranc rt En

te Priva

po Trans

Stadium Pitch

Bus Station Dropoff Area

Main Shutt

le En tranc e

Exit

it

tle Ex

Shut

Level 4

Axonometric: Program & Circulation

Plans

N

CHRISTCHURCH CIRCULATION HUB STADIUM Our strategy of integrating an iconic program with the transportation terminal also considers the current needs of the Christchurch community. With the current AMI stadium being listed for demolition, a venue supporting the Christchurch sporting culture for rugby is needed. By combining a high density sporting stadium with the transport terminal, one mutually complements the other. From our research into the Christchurch transport system, my aim is to generate a circulation principal that optimizes movement and the organization of the specified programs.

Site Plan

Eiki Nakijima

137


System 1

Low capacity horizontal High capacity vertical

Circulation (low capacity) Main entrance

Main exit

This system organizes on a single plane, however circulation operates on varying channels which can be separated by 3-dimensional separation. Although separation is desired programmatically, the system is constrained between the channels which reduces efficiency when operating vertically.

Tangential merge

By acknowledging the limiting nature of the circulation network, a vertical circulation system is introduced.

Multi-directional output Directional flow Circulatory program (high capacity)

System Exploration: Exploring the Roundabout System with Variable Code

System 2

Mid level circulation

Top level circulation Programmatic cavity

Programmatic Core Ground plane passage

Second System Exploration

Level 4 Level 4 Level 3 Level 3

Level 2 Level 2 Level 1 Level 1 Ground Level Ground Level

Programmatic Area Programmatic Area

Inter-level Connection Inter-level Connection

Level 4 Level 4 Level 3 Level 3

Level 2 Level 2 Level 1 Level 1 Ground Level Ground Level Stadium Stand Access Stadium Stand Access

Stadium Service Spaces Stadium Service Spaces

Undulating Floor Undulating Floor

System SystemImplementation Implementation System Implementation

138

Transportation | Design | Christchurch Circulation Hub Stadium

Retail Spaces Retail Spaces

Public Spaces Public Spaces

Commercial Use Commercial Use

Residential Apartments Residential Apartments

Office Spaces Office Spaces


Bus route Bealey Ave (4 lane)

C B

Colombo St (2 lane) Connects to Cathedral Square Durham St (2 laned) One-way Orient to Cathedral Square

Site and Circulation Analysis

Motorized Transportation Circulation

Programmatic Core

Stadium Circulation

Programmatic Core

Public Access Circulation

Programmatic Core

Private Use Circulation

Programmatic Core

Site Deployment: Based on Circulation Layering the circulation system over the common programmatic core and deploying secondary system vertically

Level 4 - 35m

Level 3 - 22m Level 2 - 13m Level 1 - 4m

Detailed Section

Eiki Nakijima

139


West Elevation

North Elevation

East Elevation

South Elevation 140

Transportation | Design | Christchurch Circulation Hub Stadium


Transport Hub

Grand Stands

Programmatic Cavity

Stadium Infastructure

Green Roof Park

Car Park

Section A

Events Space & Box Seats Interior Perspective Eiki Nakijima

141


TUAM STREET TRANSIT STATION Pedestrian concentration zones around the site were highlighted in earlier studies and used to determine various combinations of circulation paths through the area. The dominant direction was based on existing pedestrian malls and a tailing-off of pedestrian numbers towards the end of High Street heading towards Tuam Street. The aim is to create a continuous pedestrian route uninterrupted by the otherwise dense vehicular network, this would increase the potential for propagating a wider pedestrian network.

Continuous Flow

prevailing flow direction

STREET STREET

1

Access Control

3 4

MADRAS

7

6 5

xx

xx

8 9

E

STREET

D C B A

10

BARBADOES

TUAM

xx

STREET

2

xx

LICHFIELD

primary circulation pathways

Program / Use

Along with the pedestrian network, a vehicular route was designed to optimise the bus routing. The prevailing direction for both pedestrian and vehicular lines act diagonally across the site, which achieves the goal for both efficient, uninterrupted pathways for bus and shuttle links as well as provides for a pedestrian circulation route that could expand out into the surrounding landscape which could be turned into green space or an open market area.

Site Plan

FLOW INTENSITY

Pedestrian Level

Access control points direct traffic flow away from corner intersections which have the highest levels of through-traffic and would therefore heighten congestion. The circulation pathways created by these then informed the shape of the building as they split into respective program functions. The concept was in keeping with the creation of transportation hierarchies, and thus allowed for a mixed-use building.

Low Speed / Static / Personal Interaction 2285

Pedestrian & Vehicle Level

Low Speed / Static / Personal Interaction 4570

Vehicle Level

Programs were split with both a horizontal and a vertical shift where: the main ground level areas are dedicated to higher traffic zones to create more efficiently operating systems, and the upper levels are zoned horizontally and oriented to the pedestrian areas which are completely traffic free. This in turn links vertically to incorporate covered walkways and retail strips with cafes. However, vertical shifts were minimal due to the length of the building across the site, and the three story height limit. With the relatively large size of the building, keeping the elevation low creates a harmonious terrain with the rest of the urban landscape and creates a perceived quality of building stability.

High Speed / Continuous Flow / Urban Interaction 9140

BUS

Geometry Study 142

Minimum Bus Turning Radius When Travelling < 10kph

Transportation | Design | Tuam Street Transit Station

Geometry Study


Vehicular Circulation Pedestrian Circulation

Building Aerial Perspective

Plan View : Main Circulation Diagram Vehicular Circulation Pedestrian Circulation

Plan View : Cross-Circulation Diagram

Horizontal Flow-responsive Shifts Vertical Flow-responsive Shifts

Triangulated System: Pedestrian Seating Area Fully Transitional from Transit Zone

Sectional Height Variations: - Ventilation - Daylighting - Physical / Visual Connections Between Program Fabrics

Perspective : Creation Of Building Fabric Responsive To Circulation Flow Paths

Retail CafĂŠ

Retail

Triangulated System: Transit Level within Pedestrian Zone

Market / Plaza

Transit-way

Perspective : Program Separation Responsive to Horizontal / Vertical Shifts

Section Yvonne Mak

143


1

2

8

9

1

10

2

5

3

3

6

4

4

7

5 6

7

11

8

12

9

10

13

E D C

Ground Level

N

B A

A A’

1

14

2

15

16 17

3 4

18

5 6

7

8

9

10

E D

Level 1

C

N

B

A

A

A’

1

2

19

20

3 4 5 6

7

8

9

10

E

Axonometric of Building Geometry

Level 2

D C

N

B

144

Transportation | Design | Tuam Street Transit Station

A

A A’


Christchurch

includes a green space available for potential use

Retail / Cafe / Pedestrian

Pedestrian Access to Open Space

FORMAL GEOMETRY With the abundance of land within the site itself, the most prominent form-directing factor came from the requirements for adequate bus-lane functionality. The minimum turning radius for buses travelling at less than 10km/hr is 9.14m. This then dictated the minimum amount of space needed within the vehicular flow route. The turning radius is simplified into a network of triangulated geometries which unfolded from the ground in a vertical shift as space and function require, with the size of the grid

N dictating the manipulation of form across the site. The geometry was broken down further into more malleable triangular meshes which kept the same ratio of sizes as the original 9.14m-sided template, allowing for more fluid structures at an increasingly human scale. This then created a triangulated terrain which folded and unfolded to create the building form, the structural network of diagonal trusses, and the individual building elements such as seating and landscaping. Yvonne Mak

145


TRANSMORPHOLOGY This proposal was derived through the exploration of the Christchurch road networks and the simple geometry of a typical intersection. This simple geometry was the bases for a complex network of fluid movement. The proposal is for a framework for the re-development of the Christchurch Health Services Centre opposite the existing Christchurch Hospital. The system is applied at a macro urban scale and also resonates into the micro building scale. The dynamic circulation system becomes a conceptual framework and paradigm shift for the design investigation into how we interrogate notions about motion and circulatory paths on a site. This project looks at how this conceptual framework can be applied architecturally in response to site specific conditions and resonates into the building fabric at various scales and address multiple architectonic site specific conditions.

Material Composition

Site Plan

Section A 146

Transportation | Design | Transmorphology


Christchurch Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital Clinical Skills Unit & Day Surgery

PDU

Carpark Oncology Food Services Riverside Clincical Services

Emergency Entrance & Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Acute Admitting

Hagley Hostel health

Rolleston Ave

Ric carto

n Av en

education / research labs

ue

commercial

Cashel St

industrial

Main Entrance Christchurch Hospital

Cambridge

ICU

Tce

existing organisation relationships of typologies

School of Medicine Maori Health Hagley Avenue

Oxford

Tce

Oral Health

Diabetes Centre & Home Dialysis

Tuam St

St Asap

h St

Blood Test Centre

Eye Dept.

Sexual Health

St Asap

h St

Existing Motorized Circulation

Existing Site

Existing Circulation

Existing Motorized Circulation

Proposed Circulation

Proposed Bus Circulation Scheme Proposed Bu

existing distribution of amount of mass

[Offices]

270m3

Oral Health

396m3

[Offices]

540m3

[Offices]

3037.5m2

Existing Program

Factory

Diabetes Centre & Home Dialysis

Factory

3753m3

8290m3

9000m3

Eye Dept. Canterbury Health Laboratories

24043.5m3

Factory

10732.5m3

Christchurch Hopsital Carpark

34125m3

Sexual Health

76080m3

Additional Program

Justin Baatjes

147


ing sysmtem possibilities and limits Module Gemoetries

Geometry Derivations Intensification results in smaller openings. Relaxation results in larger openings as the distance from the intensification increases.

Curve

Paths

Surfaces

Two Interwoven Surfaces Openings vary according to typologies within the fabric ranging from highly private (industrial) to highly public (bus terminal).

In Between Space Forces - Number of force intensities: 0 - Direction of force intensities: -

Pipe Resulting Layout

Forces - Number of force intensities: 0 - Direction of force intensities: -

The size of control corresponds to the programmatic input capacities (amount of people).

Paths

Relaxtion Intensification

In Between Space

intense relaxed

Building Geometry

148

Transportation | Design | Transmorphology


N

Two Grids Primary System Secondary System

Sub System Structure

Primary System Main Progam Network Typologies

Solid Fill = Location of Morphology Fusion The morphology fuses itself with the existing hospital and creates additional spaces. bus terminal

health

commercial

education / research labs

industrial

Health Sector Education Sector Bus Terminal Commercial Sector Industrial Sector

Program

Twin Skin Facade System

Primary System

Circulatory Network GRC Formwork

Sub System

Steel Reinforced Formwork

Existing Christchurch Hospital

Bus Terminal + Access Core

Foundation

Site Morphology

Building Components

Justin Baatjes

149


identified by variables such as area, angle and orientation.

pattern / pat·tern /’patәrn / As part of a larger urban analysis of Christchurch, our intent was to identify and categorise discernible patterns within the city centre, sub-urban area and peripheral farmland. Raw patterns are derived from aerial imagery and GIS data to form the groundwork for a generative strategy based on the city as an assembly of its various spatial typologies. The resulting pattern-based syntax serves to illustrate the inter-relationships between built forms, road networks

3

and landscape. We took three approaches to observing patterns: 1

Patterns through isolation - point and spatial pattern - colour selection - prominent transportation networks

2There The an articulator of patterns are meshblock inherent aspects ofas structure that can be applied to a particular road

3andTransportation land parcel networks. These be andcansettlement patterns broken down into constitution, configuration and composition.

- identifying typologies - representing the city

constitution: This is the heirarchy of roading and land division; specifically how these two interelate with one another(ie which takes precedence) and then the adjacent roads and land parcels.

1

configuration: This is the frequency of indepent land and road types, and indicates a more general understanding of the relationships of connectivity between these. composition: Deals with data sets as opposed to relationships. For example the geometry of the land parcels or the vector of a road. The sets of information are highly quantifable and can be identified by variables such as area, angle and orientation.

3 There are inherent aspects that can be applied to a particular road and land parcel networks. These can be broken down into their constitution, configuration and composition. 2

Constitution: This is the hierarchy of road and land division; specifically how these two interrelate with one another and which takes precedence. Configuration: This is the frequency of independent land and road types; it indicates 3 a more general understanding of the relationships of connectivity between them. Composition: This deals with data sets as opposed to relationships, for example the geometry of the land parcels or the vector of a road. The sets of information are highly quantifiable and can be identified by variables such as area, angle and orientation.

150

Patterns | Introduction

3


PATTERNS Alexander Milojevic, Seth Munn, Mikhail Rodricks


1 Mapping the rectilinear forms derived from grid patterns in the road network was another study done to understand how far the following of the original CBD grid was taken in further developments. What we found was an amazing lack of NorthSouth-East-West development in the suburbs. Small plots of grid forms do appear, however the placement of these is largely radial to the centre of the city, rather than as one may have predicted informed by the grid itself.

The rectilinear forms derived from grid patterns in the road network was another study done to understand how far the following of the original CBD grid was taken in further developments. What was found was an amazing lack of North-South-East-West development in the suburbs. Small plots of grid forms do appear as is clear, however the placement of these is largely radial to the centre of the city, rather than as one may have predicted informed by the grid itself.

The traffic lights and road signs diagram was another early study done on whether or not there was adequate material for visual mapping to be informative. This showed us the density of roads, and at general levels the flow rates of these roads shown by traffic lights at important intersections. Also what became available was a new way to view the city. By isolating one piece or type of information, its relevance and informative qualities became infinitely clearer. This provided a template for us to deal with images that we pared back later on in the project, and ensured that we came back to the same principle of judging each element for its relevance on the page and to our project.

The rectilinear forms derived from grid patterns in the road network was another study done to understand how far the following of the original CBD grid was taken in further developments. What was found was an amazing lack of North-South-East-West development in the suburbs. Small plots of grid forms do appear as is clear, however the placement of these is largely radial to the centre of the city, rather than as one may have predicted informed by the grid itself.

1 This traffic lights and road signs diagram shows the density of roads, and at general levels the flow rates of these roads are shown by traffic lights at important intersections. What emerged was a new way to view the city. By isolatingThe rectilinear forms derived from grid patterns in the road network was another study done to one piece or type of information, its relevance and understand how far the following of the original informative qualities became infinitely clearer. This provided CBD grid was taken in further developments. What was found was an amazing lack of a template for us to deal with images that we pared back later North-South-East-West development in the in the project, and ensured that we came back to the same suburbs. Small plots of grid forms do appear as principle of judging each element for its inherent relevance.is clear, however the placement of these is

largely radial to the centre of the city, rather than as one may have predicted informed by the grid itself.

152

Patterns | Analysis


Colour isolation studies by way of extracting the dominant colours from satellite imagery indicate the nature of the surface of greater Christchurch.

The resulting layers were regularised by a representative colour within each layer dependent on its surface cover or land use.

1 Colour isolation studies by way of extracting the dominant colours from satellite imagery indicate the nature of the surface of greater Christchurch. The resulting layers were regularised by a representative colour within each layer dependent on its surface cover or land use: Grey - concrete and sand White - white water and surf Blues - shallow and deep ocean Greens - crops, parks and forestry Browns - crops and hills Alexander Milojevic, Seth Munn, Mikhail Rodricks

153


1 Angle isolation within the CBD is used to generate Angle isolation within a bodythe of diagrams that begin to rapidly identify CBD is utilised to generate a the formation body of diagrams that begin of land parcels as defined by the road networks. These first diagrams are of the road network to rapidly identify the formation of land inparcelisathe CBD, and largely indicate the crossroads. tion as defined by the road networks. These first diagrams are of the 1. Allroad roads network in the CBD, and 2. North South East West roads largely indicate the 3. Roads within 15 degrees of NSEW crossroads within.

1

2

154

Patterns | Analysis

1 All roads 2 North South East West roads 3 roads within 15 degrees of NSEW

3


1 Angle isolation studies of Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s road network shows the predominant directions of transportation. What becomes quickly apparent is the relationship between the nature and location of road typologies and other similar and dissimilar systems.

Alexander Milojevic, Seth Munn, Mikhail Rodricks

155


156

Patterns | Analysis


1

1

1

1

ng s

f tors

This study of the areas and number of property boundaries within meshblocks through a cross-section of Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political area shows the increase in size of meshblocks in rural Area sectors and sectors incorporating large parklands. There is also a marked shift in the density of 4000 property boundaries within sectors where subdivison has and is continuing to take place.

ng

f tors

0

75 250 25 100 50 125

500

1000

2000

m2

Area m2

0

75 250 25 100 50 125

500

1000

4000

2000

1

1

Property Boundaries 0

5

10

20

30

40

50

65

80

95

110+

Property Boundaries 0

5

10

20

2 The adjacent illustration involves the use of mesh blocks (council defined areas of residential and urban land parcels). We isolated the mesh blocks that directly touch one another along vectors leading north, south, east, and west of Cathedral Square. We could identify general densities of areas and thresholds of urban, suburban and rural settlement.

30

40

50

65

80

95

110+

2 This is a study of the areas and number of property boundaries within meshblocks through a cross-section of Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political boundary. It shows the increase in size of meshblocks in rural sectors and sectors incorporating large parklands. There is also a marked shift in the density of property boundaries within sectors where subdivision has and is continuing to take place. Alexander Milojevic, Seth Munn, Mikhail Rodricks

157


Highways 1, 73, 73A, 74, 75 Main Arterial Roads Subsidiary Roads

158

Patterns | Analysis


3 Being able to categorise settlements required a system of isolation, such that certain elements would flow from one diagram to another diagram. A series of cartographic diagrams were created by generating a visual hierarchy of roads.

Suburban fields are itemised on the basis of their visible geometry. A numerical hierarchy is then generated, ranging from areas with high rectangular composition to those with relatively little. As can be expected, suburbs with a more prominent grid configuration possess higher connectivity in comparison to those that are topographically limited to a more tree like arrangement. 1. Sydenham 2. Riccarton 3. St Albans 4. Richmond 5. Mairehau 6. Phillipstown 7. Linwood 8. Papanui 9. Merivale 10. Avondale 11. Hoon Hay 12. Hei Hei 13. Halswell 14. Sumner 15. Hornby 16. Beckenham 17. Bishopdale 18. Aranui 19. Redwood 20. Bryndwr 21. Woolston 22. Avonhead 23. Burwood 24. Mount Pleasant 25. Westmorland

Alexander Milojevic, Seth Munn, Mikhail Rodricks

159


160

Halswell

Wainoni

Sock & Upper Riccarton

Westmorland

Templeton

South New Brighton

Patterns | Analysis


Northwood & Belfast

Mount Pleasant

Avonside

CBD

Lyttelton

Cashmere

Alexander Milojevic, Seth Munn, Mikhail Rodricks

161


/035)4065)&"458&45  EFHSFTT

0''4&5/4&8    EFHSFFT

1. Cartesian Grid Existing in Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CBD Simplified Pattern

Observed Pattern /8/&4&48  EFHSFFT

All Roads in Spreydon-Heathcote 3&."*/*/(30"%4    EFHSFFT "-EFHSFFT

0''4&5/8/&4&48  EFHSFFT

2. Radial Grid Created by Attracting the Grid to the Main Intersection

Most Dominant Orientation of Roads [30-60 degrees] .045130.*/&/5 EFHSFFT

0''4&5/4&8 RADIAL URBANISM    EFHSFFT As a starting point, I looked at radial patterns in rural Christchurch, and translated this into an urban development where the intersection can become a catalyst for commercial centres.

3. Radial Pattern Generated from the Intersections of the Radial Grid

SITE Spreydon-Heathcote is the most socioeconomically deprived area in Christchurch. It is a continuous suburb, with no developed centre. Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CBD is only a few kilometres north of SpreydonHeathcote, with many of the main roads orientated towards there. 0''4&5/8/&4&48  EFHSFFT

4. Ideal Urban Pattern Result of Overlaying the Radial Grid and Radial Pattern

PROCESS 162

Patterns | Design | Radial Urbanism

100 m


Commercial Buildings Residential Buildings Main Roads

EXISTING ROADS: SPREYDON-HEATHCOTE The main roads in Spreydon-Heathcote are orientated towards the CBD, making it highly connected to the centre, however there is a low level of connectivity between the local centres in the area.

100 m

BARRINGTON Commercial buildings are scattered while residential buildings create a consistent blanket throughout the area. Barrington is located centrally within the Spreydon-Heathcote area at a main intersection. The intersection of these main roads at Barrington creates the most central intersection in SpreydonHeathcote. Located here is the Barrington mall, which is the only mall in the area and is the main commercial shopping destination for this otherwise predominantly suburban area. The intersection of Barrington, Frankleigh and Milton Street provides the best opportunity for urban development because of the converging streets. Urban development is achieved by applying a radial pattern to the organisation of roads, pedestrian lanes and building circulation.

PHASE 1: ADJUSTED By straightening existing main roads and creating additional new main roads, connectivity between the local centres in Spreydon-Heathcote is increased, consequently the incentive for these centres to develop is increased.

PHASE 2: IDEALISED As these centres develop and become more dense, ring roads divert the main roads around the centres to 1:50,000 balance out the negative implications of traffic. Urban Scale

1 km

Neighbourhood

100 m

Alexander Milojevic

163


Cross-Section: South-East

Level 3: Shared Residential

Cross-Section: North-East

Level 2: Offices

Site Plan

164

Patterns | Design | Radial Urbanism

5m

Level 1: Commercial Retail

4m


Footprints Left as Voids

5: Roof Reflects Building’s Radial Division

Level 3: Shared Residential

Demolished Existing Buildings 4: Voids of Existing Buildings form Courtyards

Radial Subdivision of Sections into Units

Level 2: Offices

3: Building’s Massing

Radial Subdivision into Building Sites

L

AL

M

2: Radial Block

Level 1: Commercial

Blocks Generate from Radial Grid

PROGRAM The urban centre’s program includes commercial, office space for small businesses, residential and public spaces. Based on the model of Christchurch’s CBD, residences are located above the ground level commercial and mid-level offices in low-rise buildings.

SCALAR SHIFTS Applied at four different scales; urban, neighbourhood, block and building. Radial patterning creates connectivity between different centres, as well as promotes a mixed-use density within these centres. 1: Existing Buildings Alexander Milojevic

165


Red Zone Orange Zone

THE BEXLEY CANALS The suburb of Bexley is located to the east of the Christchurch CBD, placed directly between a bend in the Avon River and the neighbouring suburb Aranui. Following the recent seismic activity in the Canterbury region almost all of Bexley has been classified in the red zone with severe damage to both land and buildings. Bexley is also considered to be a high risk flood zone with the Avon River in immediate proximity and the subsequent possible combination of high tides and flooding. Approximately 100 houses are to be cleared with no plans for redevelopment in the near future. This suburban tabula rasa presents the opportunity to reconsider suburban planning, with a new emphasis on the ground plane itself and the role of transport infrastructure as a generator of both built form and pedestrian activity. The new Bexley suburb is a proposition for a system of man-made canals that traverse the redesigned suburban layout, collecting both freshwater from the Avon River as well as brackish water from the wetlands, redistributing it systematically to mitigate flooding while generating potential for new programmatic activity. The original housing plan is reorganized into a section of open plot housing and two clusters of medium density housing. I chose to develop the larger housing project as a model for potential future urban configurations combining built form, a transportation network, and fields of work and activity.

site

The Suburb of Bexley Bordered by the Avon River and the Wetlands

Bexley in its Context: A Horizontal Map of the Road Systems and Plot Arrangements 166

Patterns | Design | The Bexley Canals


GRAFTING Shifting down in scale, I chose to isolate the sedimentary concentrations within the Avon-Heathcote estuary. These concentrations then became the basis for a generative exercise in mapping densities back into the Bexley suburban plan, as well as act initial as architectonic drivers for a new arrangement of built form.

Superimposed Sedimentary Densities from the Avon-Heathcote Estuary into Bexley

Mikhail Rodricks

167


EROSION Erosion is defined as the transportation and subsequent relocation of material via natural processes. The consequence of erosion in matter is generally resultant in a negative - in architectural convention we can interpret this operation as a means of developing circulation space through a building mass by way of vehicular or pedestrian movement. Aerial imagery of erosion in the Avon-Heathcote estuary is used to generate a topographical model which is then assigned a colour map. Lighter areas represent the most gradual incline, mid tone areas represent an increased incline and darker tones represent those areas with the steepest local incline. These three variables are potential organizational tools in architectonic terms such that areas of gradual incline become fields of public activity and those with a steep nature are translated into vertical building mass.

Erosion Diagram

3D Extrusion

GIS Image of Erosion at the Avon-Heathcote Estuary

Longitudinal Sections Through Mesh Surface: Original Mesh Surface Mirrored to Create an Internal Envelope 168

Patterns | Design | The Bexley Canals

3D Topographic Mesh Surface Generated from GIS Imagery of Erosion


SEDIMENTATION Sedimentation in nature results in the formation of depositional landforms, with infinite variation in both shape and scale. This aggregation of matter is interpreted as the concentration of material in an architectural sense - forms of sedimentation derived from the estuary imagery are translated into generative structural system to create a building type.

Sedimentation Diagram

Sediment manifests in a topological model as a series of crests and troughs, this variance in the z-axis is the basis for a structural geometry of girders that vary in size and scale dependent on programmatic demand as well as material concentration within the building. Variations on the topological model offer a generative process of developing a structural geometry for an architectural application. 3D Extrusion

GIS Image of Sedimentation at the Avon-

3D Topographic Mesh Surface Generated from GIS Imagery of Sedimentation

Heathcote Estuary

Longitudinal Sections through Mesh Surface: Original Mesh Surface Mirrored to Create an Internal Envelope Mikhail Rodricks

169


SLUMP Slump is defined as mass displacement occurring over a short distance with a measurable gradient in topology. Slump works as an architectonic form to generate building volume, where a higher assigned â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;slumpâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; value translates into a larger generation of built form.

Slump Diagram

Slump lines are isolated from a 3D topological model are manipulated in the x and y axis to generate new variances of material concentration in an architectural body. These concentrations can also operate in the states of either volumetric openness or closedness in spatial relationships with the rest of the built form.

3D Extrusion

GIS Image of Slumping at the Avon-Heathcote Estuary

Longitudinal Sections through Mesh Surface: Original Mesh Surface Mirrored to Create an Internal Envelope 170

Patterns | Design | The Bexley Canals

3D Topographic Mesh Surface Generated from GIS Imagery of Slumping


ACCRETE / SUBDUCT Accretion and Subduction are the material exchange of tectonic forms by means of either addition or subtraction. These operations offer interesting material relationships as a result of layering and the vertical exchange of mass. The relevant topological model for these two operations suggests a strong nature of accumulation, with particular bodies of matter occupying larger areas as well as protruding from the topography at varied intervals. An architectonic correlation occurs when this trait is applied as a generative tool for cladding/facade systems as well as articulation of artificial surface and landscaping. Variations occur when a particular wall element of the building overlaps another, or when an exterior wall recedes into the building skin to form an interior wall.

Accrete/Subduct Diagram

3D Extrusion

GIS Image of Accretion/Subduction at the Avon-

3D Topographic Mesh Surface Generated from GIS Imagery of Accretion/Subduction

Heathcote Estuary

Assigned Height Values Based on Concentration of Colour

Longitudinal Sections through Mesh Surface: Original Mesh Surface Mirrored to Create an Internal Envelope Mikhail Rodricks

171


Saltwater Farming

Cherry Blossom Park

BUILDING GENERATION The naturally occurring patterns that are isolated from the Avon Heathcote Estuary are used to generate an organizational plan for Bexley. A similar set of traits when applied to building typology affords new potential for form, structure and ornamentation. The system of codification for the suburban plan constitutes four variables - built form, circulation network, waterway and urban space. To negotiate a similar logic in architecture a new set of variables are derived from four tectonic operations; these are Erosion, Sediment, Slump and Accrete/Subduct. Each are naturally occurring processes of material exchange that are translated into architectonic processes of Circulation, Structure, Mass and Surface treatment. The superposition of the four operations applied onto the topology of Bexley develops a series of formal relationships with architecture which are in turn used to generate the final building form through value judgements.

Saltwater Cooling Plant

Oyster and Mussel Farming

1 Uneven Villa Field Design 2 Medium Density Housing Complex 1 & 2 3 Medium Density City Complex

The main medium density complex in the new plan for Bexley is designed as a product of this generative model. The complex sits in between two large artificially built landforms and is structurally designed as a bridge. The main building is comprised of large retail spaces on the first floor, commercial space on the second floor and a variety of housing options on the third floor. Most residences open onto the larger mound, as such the building sits very much as part of the landscape itself rather than appearing as a autonomous object.

4 Bexley New School 5 Botanical Gardens & Cherry Blossom Park 6 Campsite Facility 7 Saltwater Farms and Fruit Orchard 8 Saltwater Cooling Plant 9 Mussel and Oyster Farm Rills 10 Storehouse 11 Main Canalway 12 Saltwater Pools for Treatment

New Bexley Plan

Building Section A 172

Patterns | Design | The Bexley Canals


Building Roof Plan

Building Section B Mikhail Rodricks

173


Christchurch is a city that is expanding outwards rather than up, and a product of this growth (or maybe a catalyst of it) is the wider suburbs reliance on malls and shopping centres. With these strategically placed economic hubs providing the majority of goods and services required by the larger population, the need to travel longer distances to the CBD becomes less and less - a fact reflected in the recent financial growth figures of the suburbs versus the CBD. While this transfer of revenue may cause some concern for those businesses operating in the CBD, there is also the potential for some positive gain, such as encouraging a healthy competition for customers leading to an increase in the quality of services. While

Merivale Mall

The Palms

Avonhead Mall

Barringtons

Eastgate

Northlands

Central Business District (CBD)

Westfield Riccarton

the recent earthquakes have had a huge impact on this sector it is slowly getting back up on its feet, and now is a great opportunity to consider what is the unique, familiar, and functional aspect of the city, in order to look into creative methods of expanding it. For this project our aim was to investigate both the CBD and the economic hubs to generate a basic understanding of their urban footprint, what services exist and where, and what effect they have had on their respective local built environments. To achieve this we have divided the city into two separate zones based on their social and economic requirements: 1. The CBD contained within the five avenues 2. The wider suburban areas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; with a focus on the eight largest economic hubs The city and the various suburbs operate fairly independent of one another with each having a distinguishable urban plan. We have chosen to map the CBD along with eight suburban locations which were chosen based on them having a large shopping mall or centre as an economical focal point. The CBD is defined by the five avenues (Bealy Avenue, Fitzegerald Avenue, Moorehouse Avenue, Deans Avenue, and Harper Avenue) while for each of the eight suburban locations we have chosen to map a 1 kilometer radius around the local hub. This investigation into the economic hubs of Christchurch, including the CBD but not limited to it, will help us to identify a number of issues and trends, which is crucial for the future Christchurch master plan.

174

Economic Hubs | Introduction

The Hub Hornby


ECONOMIC HUBS Sam O’Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo


Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Mining Manufacturing Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services Construction Wholesale Trade Retail Trade Accommodation and Food Services Transport, Postal and Warehousing Information Media and Telecommunications Financial and Insurance Services Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services Professional, Scientific and Technical Services Administrative and Support Services Public Administration and Safety Education and Training Health Care and Social Assistance Arts and Recreation Services Other Services 0

Number of Businesses Total Number Employed

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

Facts and information sourced from Christchurch City Council ‘Fact Pack 2010’ Facts and information sourced from Christchurch City Council ‘Fact Pack 2010’ http://www.ccc.govt.nz/cityleisure/statsfacts/factpack.aspx http://www.ccc.govt.nz/cityleisure/statsfacts/factpack.aspx

25,000

30,000

Number of Businesses Total Number Employed

Sectors of Employment in Christchurch

CHRISTCHURCH ECONOMY The Gross Regional Product (GRP) for the year ending June 2009 was estimated to be $10.9 billion (at 1995/96 prices). The number of retail shops in the central city is less than that in the main suburban centres. In 2009, there were 499 retail businesses in the central city (employing 3,600 people) and a total of 629 in the 12 main suburban centres (employing 7,060 people). In 2009, 38,013 Christchurch businesses employed 188,980 people. The rental, hiring and real estate services sector had the greatest number of businesses, and the manufacturing sector employed the largest number of people. 176

Economic Hubs | Analysis

In the June 2010 quarter, retail sales totalled $1,295 million in the Christchurch Urban Area and $1,271 million in Christchurch City. This was an increase of 0.8% and 1.1% respectively since the June 2009 quarter. The total retail sales in Christchurch City increased from $1,203 million in 2002 to $1,271 in 2010. During this period, sales have fluctuated. The total retail sales in the Christchurch Urban Area increased from $904 million in 1996 to $1,295 million in 2010. Sales have generally increased annually.


N 03. 05. 04. 06.

07.

CBD

03

08.

01.

07 02. 500m

01. The Hub Hornby

1km

01

02. Westfield Riccarton 03. Northlands

2km

04. Merivale Mall 3km

05. The Palms

02

06. Eastgate 07. Avonhead Mall

500m

08. Barringtons

CHRISTCHURCH SHOPPING MALL LOCATIONS Initially we took a 1km radius around each mall as a boundary marker, because it was seen as a comfortable walking distance. We then quantified the programmatic area in the immediate surroundings to develop an understanding of the uniqueness and identity of each of the economic hubs. We were also able to establish the primary commercial street corridors that existed in connection with the malls. These two ideas led us to the proposal for a new design strategy for the future rebuild of Christchurch.

1km

2km

3km

Urban Areas Not Outside a 3km Distance to

One of the major shopping malls is accessible

One of the Eight Largest Shopping Malls

within 3km or less to most residences.

Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

177


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Leisure Vacant Health Services Industrial Historical Government Education

CBD Summary 178

Economic Hubs | Analysis

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Industrial

Historical

Business

Services

Retail

Government

Dining

Health Services

Residential

Education

Restaurants

Vacant

Accommodation

Office

Leisure

Arts & Culture

Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

179


THE EIGHT LARGEST MALLS IN CHRISTCHURCH

180

Economic Hubs | Analysis


Residential

Vacant

Education

Business

Industrial

Leisure

Health Services

Heritage

Government

Shopping Mall

Other (roads, Streams, etc)

Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

181


PRIMARY URBAN CORRIDORS

182

Avonhead Mall

Merivale Mall

Northlands

Riccarton Mall

Central Business District

The Palms

The Hub Hornby

Barrington

East Gate

Economic Hubs | Analysis


REVEALING THE STREET HIERARCHY THROUGH MAPPING ADDRESSES

Avonhead Mall

Merivale Mall

Northlands

Riccarton Mall

Central Business District

The Palms

The Hub Hornby

Barrington

East Gate

Residential

Vacant

Education

Business

Industrial

Leisure

Health Services

Heritage

Government

Shopping Mall

Other (roads, Streams, etc)

Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

183


01. The Hub Hornby 02. Westfield Riccarton 03. Northlands 04. Merivale Mall 05. The Palms 06. Eastgate 07. Avonhead Mall 08. Barringtons

Percentage of Program Type in the Surrounding 1sqkm Radius 184

Economic Hubs | Analysis

lowest values

highest values


BUILDING TYPOLOGY PERCENTAGES FOR 1KM RADIUS AROUND SUBURBAN MALLS

68.4%

BARRINGTON 61.9%

AVONHEAD 54.2%

THE PALMS

59.8%

EAST GATE

64.6%

MERIVALE 43.3%

NORTHLANDS

47.6%

RICCARTON HORNBY CBD Residential

38.7% 17.1% Vacant

24.89% Education

Business

Industrial

Leisure

Health Services

Heritage

Government

Shopping Mall

Other (roads, Streams, etc)

Building Program Percentages: 1km Radius Around Suburban Malls; Complete CBD Defined by Major Avenues

TOTAL PROGRAM COMPARISON An analysis of the building program both around each mall and in the CBD shows the proportion building type by use. The residential footprint dominates the total area surrounding the major malls, while business dominates in the CBD. This is followed by vacant lots, which includes parking lots and parks.

Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

185


MAIN URBAN CORRIDORS

N

GREEN CORRIDORS 1KM RADIUS

Poly-centric City: Identity, High Streets and Economic Hubs

POLY-CENTRIC CITY We believe Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CBD cannot be rebuilt as it once was, based on the economic statistics that its former designation as the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic centre was challenged by the economic pull of the suburban malls. Therefore, we believe there is an opportunity, once the economic nature of the city is understood as a whole, to propose bold new ideas of how the city can operate in the future. We have chosen to focus on the development of a poly-centric city, that is a city wide network of context-sensitive hubs with an aim to enhance the current shopping mall areas and turn them into self-sufficient, uniquely identifiable 186

Economic Hubs | Design

suburban centres. While the CBD no longer has the capacity to function as it once did, it still forms an important part of the network. This strategy encourages each area, including the CBD, to act as its own micro economic hub by accommodating the needs of the local residents. What sets the CBD apart is that it is a collection of identities and activities distributed along its strong grid street pattern, while each of the suburban hubs may have a singular identity and develop a corridor where a mall acts as an economic anchor.


IDENTITIES WITHIN THE CBD

MAIN URBAN CORRIDORS

N

GREEN CORRIDORS 1KM RADIUS

Sam O’Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

187


188

Economic Hubs | Design


IDENTITIES RELATIVE TO EACH OF THE ECONOMIC HUBS Each of the eight economic hubs can be defined by a unique identity which lends to shape its urban development and character. We chose a small, medium, and large mall to illustrate our proposed urban strategy: Riccarton, Merivale, and The Palms.

Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

189


STREE DESIGN STRATEGY STEPS: SUBURB / MALL PARAMETERS

SUBURB PARAMETERS - local demographics - age - household incomes - home sizes - number of cars - projected populations and densities - densification patterns - road systems - accessibility to transportation networks - areas of public green spaces

MICRO / MACRO CONNECTIONS To increase public attraction to the new suburban centres, and to further imbed their programmatic values into the city’s urban fabric, connections need to be established with existing places of interest at both the micro and macro scale. Allowing for connections to these important locations from the early stages of planning will ensure that the suburban centres grow in an efficient and considerate manner, taking advantage of existing opportunities.

MACRO SCALE

LOCATION OF MAIN STREET CORRIDORS The location of the main street corridors is critical in the planning of the new suburban centres as they create a direct pathway for public access into the heart of the centre. The new corridors promote high-density, mixed-use developments along its length; encouraging new developments in an attempt to become a self-sustainable hub. All of them also run adjacent to the existing shopping malls, imbedding the mall as a new high-street shopping typology, rather than an isolated complex. These corridors have all been reconfigured to allow for maximum use by any form of transportation, whether it’s by car, bus, bicycle or walking.

EXISTING

The existin areas con individual the defunc of private

PROPOS

PARKS & RESERVES

MALL PARAMETERS - floor plan area - number of stores - store types - areas of car parking - street facades - pedestrian access options - vehicle access options

INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS

Economic Hubs | Design

This desig to be built that encou integrated residential

PROPOS

HERITAGE BUILDINGS

COMMUNITY PARKS

190

SHO

MICRO SCALE

PPIN G

MAL

L

PUBLIC AMENITIES

To further and public identity in developme for maxim and more


DORS

itical in they o the ote its n attempt m also run edding ogy, dors have use by r, bus,

STREETCORRIDORS BUILDING PROGRAM

EXISTING PROGRAM

BUILDING DENSITY

EXISTING REGULATIONS 4,000m2

10,000m2 100m

The existing program for the majority of the suburban areas consists of single stand-alone buildings on individual properties. This has been the catalyst for the defunct urban sprawl, and has led to large areas of private space that are used inefficiently.

100m

Medium density developments close to the city centre or suburban centres require site coverage of 40% - 45%. To allow for maximum public space around buildings 40% site coverage has been chosen as the focus. A 0.8 floor area ratio (FAR) then only allows for a maximum 2 storey building.

PROPOSED PROGRAM PART 01 PROPOSED CONCEPT

100m

This design strategy proposes that new buildings are to be built more densely, with a mixed-use program that encourages both residential and retail / services integrated more closely together - generally with the residential from the second floor upwards.

100m

To increase the density of the new mixed-use development, the floor area ratio increases gradually as it nears the new suburban centres. 2 storey max site coverage = 0.8 FAR 3 storey max site coverage = 1.2 FAR 4 storey max site coverage = 1.6 FAR 5 storey max site coverage = 2.0 FAR

PROPOSED PROGRAM PART 02

The gradient bar below, shown along the main street corridors, is used to display the range of proposed floor area ratio values for the various suburban centres, as the gradient becomes more opaque, the densities of the buildings increase.

RANGE

To further enhance the new urban plan, key buildings and public spaces are introduced to create a local identity in the new suburban centres. Dense building development using the minimum site coverage allows for maximum public spaces, generating an improved, and more lively, public-friendly environment.

0

MIN

MAX

n

Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

191


1km Radius

Canterbury University

500m Radius

North Hagley Park

Riccarton Bush

Riccarton Road Before

South Hagley Park

Proposed Suburban Centre Plan for Riccarton Road and Riccarton Mall

Riccarton Road After 192

Economic Hubs | Design

RICCARTON MALL The Westfield mall in the central suburb of Riccarton is by far the largest (55,160m2 and 199 shops) and the most financially successful of all the malls with an annual revenue in 2010 of $353.1 million. The surrounding suburbs have the lowest vacancy, and the highest value for near by businesses. Due to its close proximity to Blenheim Road, it is also bordering on the southern industrial areas (5%).


Public Circulation

Ground Floor Program

Street Hierarchy

Public & Green Spaces

Main Streets

Residential

Green Spaces

Cycle Routes

Secondary Streets

Business

Public Spaces

Bus Routes

Tertiary Streets

Leisure

Car Parks

Pedestrian Streets

Health Services

Green Corridors

Pedestrian Routes

Government Existing

0.8

0

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.8

RICCARTON

1.6

0.56

0

1.6

2

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

0

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

P

Proposed THE PALMS 0

MERIVALE 0 0.8

0

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.8

RICCARTON

0.56

0

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

0.26

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

P

P

1.6

1.6

2

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

0

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

0.22

0.56

0.8

2

1

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

Street Sections THE PALMS 0

MERIVALE 0

Main High Street

Secondary Streets

0.22

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

0.26

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

Tertiary Streets

0.8

1.6

1

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.8

1

1.2

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

2

2

Pedestrian Streets Sam O’Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

193


Marshland Road Before

Proposed Suburban Centre Plan for Marshland Road and The Palms Mall

Marshland Road After 194

Economic Hubs | Design

THE PALMS The Palms shopping mall is located in the north-eastern suburb of Shirley. More than 50% of the area is residential, followed by leisure â&#x20AC;&#x201C; largely due to the Shirley golf course which sits very close to the mall. It also has the second lowest number of businesses within close proximity compared to the other malls, but it has the second highest percentage of education.


Public Circulation

Ground Floor Program

Street Hierarchy

Public & Green Spaces

Main Streets

Residential

Green Spaces

Cycle Routes

Secondary Streets

Business

Public Spaces

Bus Routes

Tertiary Streets

Leisure

Car Parks

Pedestrian Streets

Health Services

Green Corridors

Pedestrian Routes

Government Existing

0.8

0

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.8

RICCARTON

THE PALMS 0

2

1.6

0.56

0

1.6

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

0

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

0.22

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

PR

PR

Proposed MERIVALE 0 0.8

0

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.8

RICCARTON

0.56

0

THE PALMS 0

0.22

PR

2

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

0

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

1.6

1.6

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

0.26

0.8

2

1

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.22

0.8

1.6

1

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

2

Street Sections MERIVALE 0

Main High Street

Secondary Streets

0.26

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

Tertiary Streets

0.8

1

1.2

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

2

Pedestrian Streets Sam O’Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

195


Papanui Road Before

Papanui Road After

Proposed Suburban Centre Plan for Papanui Road and The Merivale Mall

MERIVALE MALL Located in the suburb of Merivale â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wealthiest suburb, the Merivale mall is relatively small compared to the other larger shopping areas with the second smallest floor area at approximately 10,000 square metres. This area has the second highest percentage of residential at 64.6%. It also has the second highest percentage of building area designated as heritage, and one of lowest industrial value of 0%. 196

Economic Hubs | Design


Public Circulation

Ground Floor Program

Street Hierarchy

Public & Green Spaces

Main Streets

Residential

Green Spaces

Cycle Routes

Secondary Streets

Business

Public Spaces

Bus Routes

Tertiary Streets

Leisure

Car Parks

Pedestrian Streets

Health Services

Green Corridors

Pedestrian Routes

Government 0.8

Existing 0

0.8

RICCARTON

0.56

0

THE PALMS 0

MERIVALE 0

Proposed 0.8

0

0.8

RICCARTON

0.56

0

THE PALMS 0

MERIVALE 0

Street Sections

Main High Street

Secondary Streets

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.22

0.26

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

0

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

Tertiary Streets

1.6

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

0

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

0.22

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

0.26

2

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

PR

PR

PR

2

1

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

1.6

1.6

1.6

EXISTING FLOOR AREA RATIO

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.8

2

1

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.8

1.6

1

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

0.26

0.8

1

1.2

PROPOSED FLOOR AREA RATIO RANGE

2

2

Pedestrian Streets Sam O’Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

197


Main Street Perspective | Victoria Street | Before

Proposed Suburban Plan for the CBD

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (CBD) The main aim of this proposal is to revitalise the CBD by producing an environment that is efficient and attractive but at the same time practical and economically viable to implement. This strategy builds on the micro-identities embedded in the pre-earthquake CBD, further relating these identities not only to the surrounding typologies but also in relation to street hierarchy’s. The strategy was achieved in two parts: first in the creation of street hierarchy’s, this being main, secondary and tertiary corridors that would be assigned a specific street typology accordingly and further determine the building density surrounding it in terms of height and spread; second, the identification and analysis of embedded identities throughout the city which would determine the composition of typologies within these precincts, for example a cultural precinct would mean that typologies within those areas would either be an attractor or supporter, such as an art gallery as attractor and surrounding it would be other typologies acting as supporters such as café’s, art supplies shops, public art installations etc. Thereby asserting a certain identity. The street was viewed in this case not as mere structure for aid of circulation but as a catalyst to create a more vibrant CBD, this is done by allowing for a range of density, higher around main streets and less along secondary and tertiary streets. This diversity also creates identity through different street typologies. Such a strategy would be an economically strategic approach, as it is not trying to densify the whole CBD but more tries to amplify and let the CBD itself determine its organisation according to street usage. This leads to a more responsive, purposeful, inclusive and pedestrian friendly CBD, along with providing the support for economic growth and viability. Main Street Perspective | Victoria Street | After 198

Economic Hubs | Design


Public Circulation

Ground Floor Program

Street Hierarchy

Public & Green Spaces

Main Streets

Residential

Green Spaces

Cycle Routes

Secondary Streets

Business

Public Spaces

Bus Routes

Tertiary Streets

Leisure

Car Parks

Pedestrian Streets

Health Services

Green Corridors

Pedestrian Routes

Government Existing

Proposed

Street Sections

Main High Street

Secondary Streets

Tertiary Streets

Pedestrian Streets Sam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Thomas Ward, Jeremy Yoo

199


Urbanism has been strongly dictated by top down master planning strategies. The urban network has been misrepresented when viewed from above; the aerial map has suppressed social relations, and burdened cities with rules based on poor site logic and lack of ecological understanding. A new strategy of data reading calls for a new method for data making. When examining the effects of the earthquake in Christchurch, the conventional organisational strategies impose a process of urban infill where the processed solution becomes a band aid over a larger urban issue. In top down planning the architect does not direct the building process but rather participates in it.

The system is based on self-regulatory patterns already found in natural ecosystems, through the introduction of agents and their ability to self-organize urban matter and secondly encoding intelligence into urban elements and topologies, natural ecologies can be understood and integrated into the development of an urban strategy. Agents have the ability to react to data given a performative connection which can be traced and simulated. The urban fabric is then generated through individual transactions, and thus acknowledges the constant nature of change. This ability to be an accumulation of individual actions is the foundation of the bottom up approach.

The implementation of the internet and digitalization of information has meant the collection of vast amounts of data, which is stored and distrusted faster and more effectively than ever before. This shift in media has allowed us to amalgamate data sets and shape them into an accessible whole. Access to information encourages novel methods of observation, interpretation and implementation. However, simply overlaying data will not produce new understanding greater than the obvious conclusions. Emergence cannot be seen by the eye alone, the observer’s perceptions dramatize the results to an illusionary extent. Unapparent alignments between data are still submerged behind a veil, which might only be uncovered through rigorous examination of data relationships. With such access to information, designer (planners) are able to engage and shape the built and wider ecological environments, encouraging shifts in the conventional strategies that govern architecture and urbanism alike.

Emergent behavioural systems operate based on a collection of inclinations, this challenges the established notions of urban master planning. When one increases the material resolution and manages different sets of information through a coding of material, structural, and organisational behaviours, then one increases the ability for designed systems to respond, feedback, and learn to adapt to a ‘host’ condition. Such an approach is narrowing the gap between the power of abstraction (computation) and materialization. Increased resolution allows for the programming of molecular transactions rather than conventional deterministic (totalitarian) design and planning approaches. Design decisions are broken into small packages that are locally implemented, allowing a finer grain of change without a disproportionate amount of time spent. Segmenting the decision making process frees the static outputs, and allows a greater involvement of conditions to assist change. The decentralized multi- agent, system changes the nature of hierarchy in urbanism.

We have used data sets to establish explicit connections between built fabrics and external inputs, in order to reveal the increasing complexity of the constructed environment and its capacity for adaptation. Data exhibits a state of consciousness fuelled by the tiny decisions and considerations which influence its condition. Whether these considerations are material or electronic, physical or virtual, the inherent ability to observe collected data sets allows us to visualize connections and explore their potential. Emergent phenomena are changing the quality and nature of designs. Different kinds of design sensibilities are emerging with many possible applications. The study of emergence, where individual agents are assigned attributes related to their ‘host’ environment and work in collaboration with other simple agents towards higher order complexity, is leading new kinds of structural, organisational, spatial and aesthetic architecture. Discreet agents are interlinked by micro-transactions taking place over a vast territory while dealing with the emergent fields within ecological patterns and sub- programming. 200

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Agents are programmed from the bottom-up through simple interactions of alignment, cohesion and separation. Self-organizing populations of agents are interlaced through different relationships and their interactions are run through a simulation to observe and understand tendencies within the system. Each agent can be programmed to meet requirements of a city and interact as informed modules which negotiate through multiple ecological fields to generate an urban argument. Such fields may include site condition relationships such as the balance between wind flows and airborne pollution levels, or between soil acidity levels and plant aggregation. An application of self-organizing logic to urbanism enables a shift from notions of master-planning to that of master-algorithm as an urban design tool. Rather than designing an urban plan that meets a set of criteria, urban imperatives are programmed into a set of agents which are able to self-organize. Consequently this conception of urbanism generates systems that are flexible and respond to the constantly changing political, economic and social pressures of urban development.


MICRO-URBANISM Jordon Saunders, Yun Kong, Adrian Kumar


Isolate

Mapping Compositional Data

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1.0 COMPOSITION Composition refers to built and static matter with structural rigidity and chemical properties. The main categories are built area, vegetative area, impermeable surfaces and permeable surfaces. These are further broken down into sub-categories. All categories are measured in square meters and can be directly compared .

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1.1 BUILT ENVIRONMENT The built environment refers to human made surroundings which range from personal shelter and buildings to neighbourhoods and cities. The built environment is a material, spatial and cultural product of humans that combines physical elements and energy in forms necessary for living, working and playing. These artificial surroundings are extensive organisms that consume resources, dispose waste, and facilitate the production of enterprise. For the purpose of this analysis we developed ecological data sets for: supermarkets, industrial zones, residential zones, and cemeteries.

1.2 IMPERVIOUS SURFACE Impervious surfaces are identified as artificial surface conditions; it includes pavements for roads, sidewalks, carparks, and driveways, which are covered by impenetrable materials such as asphalt, concrete, brick and stone. Soils compacted by urban development are also highly impervious. The sealed surfaces eliminate ground water infiltration and natural ground water recharge. The darker toned surfaces collect solar heat, which then raises the air temperature when the heat is released. This produces what is called the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;urban heat island effectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which results in increased energy consumption in buildings due to cooling. The warm runoff from impervious surfaces reduces oxygenation in stream water, and consequently reduces the habitability for aquatic ecosystems. Impervious pavements deprive tree roots of aeration, eliminating the conditions that would otherwise moderate urban climate. The displacement of living vegetation reduces ecological productivity, and impacts the vital atmospheric carbon cycles.

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1.11 SUPERMARKET The supermarket provides fresh produce, meat, dairy, baked goods, and other household items. The supermarket occupies a large amount of space, and is usually situated at nodal points.

1.12 INDUSTRIAL ZONES Industrial zones refer to areas for the production of goods or services. There are four sectors: raw material extraction, material refining and manufacturing, service and distribution, and technological. Industry is important for the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy and for providing jobs. Industrial plants are located along major transportation routes for the ease of distributing materials and goods.

1.21 FOOTPATH A footpath is a path along the side of a road or pathway intended for pedestrians. It may accommodate moderate changes in grade (height) and may be separated from the vehicular section by a curb. There may be vegetation, trees, grass, bush between the pedestrian section and vehicular section.

1.22 ROADS Road surfaces are made with durable surface materials intended to sustain vehicular traffic. Roadway surfacing affects the intensity and spectrum of sound emanating from tire/surface interaction. Road pavements have limited lifespan and age due to surface abrasion. Centre lines are a form of road surface, providing separation between two flows of traffic. Roads vary in width, speed and use, often the wider the road the greater the use and or speed.

1.13 RESIDENTIAL ZONES A residential zone is where land use is predominantly housing. Zoning regulations determine land use, which often restrict businesses and industry from occupying a residential zone.

1.14 CEMETERIES A place where either dead bodies or cremated remains are buried; this may be a large public park. The sacred monuments and associated feelings for loved ones who have passed away means cemeteries are rather fixed and immune to major city planning changes.

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1.3 PERMEABLE SURFACE Permeable surfaces allow fluid to pass through. The porosity and composition, along with water mass affects the permeability of a surface. Permeability is related to Darcyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s law which relates flow rate and viscosity to a pressure gradient. The porosity of a soilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface decreases as particle sizes increase. The aggregation of soil results in higher resistance to compaction, which allows less water through. In nonurban landscapes, rainwater falls onto permeable surfaces and slowly makes its way into groundwater reservoirs and aquifers which hold the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drinking water. In urban conditions, the impermeable surfaces create large quantities of runoff which can overwhelm natural drainages, over-saturate the areas where water collects, and divert water away from groundwater reservoirs. For this analysis, permeable surfaces include: agricultural land, water basins, sand and grass.

1.4 PLANTED/ VEGETATION Vegetation refers to natural and artificial ground covering plants, for the sake of this analysis we selected four categories to map: shelterbelts, exotic forests, orchards, and shrubs. This is not a comprehensive selection, but rather an example of the possible vegetation data sets. Vegetation dynamism is defined as a change in a species composition and vegetation structure. Abrupt changes can be caused by wildfires,high winds, landslides, floods and avalanches. Temporal changes comprise the field of ecological succession. Vegetation self modifies over time based on availability of light, water, nutrient levels, and soil pH levels. Plant development stages are different across large regions due to different local histories, in particular the last major disturbance. Transpiration is the vaporization of water contained in plant tissue and the vapour removal to the air. Vegetation influences slope stability by removing water through transpiration, however the rate of stabilization is contingent on a greater mass of vegetation, such as trees.

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1.31 AGRICULTURAL LAND Agricultural land is land suitable for farming for either livestock and crops. Agricultural land is divided into irrigated and non-irrigated land. Agricultural land includes orchards, vineyards, meadows, pastures, and arable land.

1.32 WATER BASINS A water basin is any body of water, and it includes rivers, lakes, seas, oceans and canals. Waterways are classed as permeable areas because water can penetrate into bodies of water. For example, the Avon River is a water way that flows through the centre of Christchurch and out to an estuary.

1.33 SAND A naturally occurring grain composed of rock and mineral particles. Sand is transported by wind and water, and is then deposited in the forms of beaches and dunes. Sandy soils are ideal for growing watermelons, peaches, peanuts. Their intensive draining properties make them suitable for intensive dairy farming. Sand is a principle material in concrete construction, and improves traction on icy roads.

1.34 GRASS Grasses are herbaceous plants with narrow leaves growing from the base. Cattle, sheep, horses, rabbits, and invertebrates eat grass as their main source of food.

1.41 SHELTERBELTS A shelterbelt is identified as a row of planting strategically located to provide shelter from wind and protect soil from erosion. They may also function to: keep snow from drifting onto roadways, provide screens from traffic; mitigate noise from traffic; provide a safe barrier between farm animals and roads; and can also be harvested for wood. Shelterbelts properly planted around a home could provide energy savings by reducing the need of artificial heating and cooling.

1.42 EXOTIC FORESTS An exotic forest is an area with a high density of non-native tree species. These forests have been transplanted and are living outside of their native ecologies. Some introduced species can damage ecosystems while others have beneficial effects to humans. For example, the timber industry introduced the Pinus Radiata from California to New Zealand as a commercial crop, which is widely used in timber construction.

1.43 ORCHARDS Orchards are either trees or shrubs planted and maintained for food production. These can include both nut-producing trees and fruit trees which are both grown for commercial production. Orchards are often concentrated near bodies of water to reduce extreme climatic conditions on a plantation.

1.44 SHRUBS Shrubs are distinguished from a tree by shorter height and multiple stems, and often grow in a line or create a border. They may occur naturally or be the result of human introduction. Shrub land species have a wide range of adaptations to fire such as heavy seeding production from fire-induced germination.

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Data Set

Site - Christchurch

Mapping Field Data

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Result - Field


2.0 FIELDS A field is a three-dimensional map of data sets that affect spatial conditions. For the sake of our research we have selected to map wind intensity, pollution, road use, road noise, water table, watersheds, water absorption, erosion, potential rooting depth, soil pH, and sun shadow. Fields can be either products of artificial or natural processes, therefore they are closely related to urban and natural compositions. Their relationships are mathematically defined, therefore fields and compositions are malleable to causality. An event in the urban composition will have a consequence on one or more fields, which in turn has other rippling effects. The fields represented have a scalar function equivalence of a given dynamic force (t = f(x, y, z)). Therefore they are coordinate dependent, and can occupy an Euclidean space. Fields are often natural phenomena at the scales beyond immediate human perception, such as pollution, erosion, and soil pH. Each point in a field has a unit of measure associated with it, either energy in the instance of wind intensity or quantity in the instance of pollution particulates. A field is a collection of points, but for the purpose of spatial legibility it appears continuous.

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2.1 WIND INTENSITY Wind is caused by pressure differences to equalize the pressure differential and the rotation of the planet. This differential is created by unequal heating of the planetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. When a difference in pressure exists, the air is accelerated from the higher to lower pressure. Wind pressure can be approximated by: pressure = ½ x (density of air) x (wind speed) 2 x (shape factor). Shape factor is the drag coefficient and it depends on the shape of the wind pressure. Winds are classified by their spatial scale, their speed, how long they last, and their effect. In Christchurch, the main northwesterly wind is a foehn type wind, hot and dry, it comes from the Southern Alps and can raise the temperature by 10 to 15 degrees within an 210

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hour. When wind is combined with cold temperatures, they have a negative impact on livestock by affecting their food stores, as well as natural hunting capabilities. Wind contributes to the spreading of wildfires. Wind disperses seeds from plants, which enables survival through propagation, as well as feeding flying insect species. Wind is one of the causes of soil erosion through deflation, which is the lifting and moving of small particles to another region. These suspended particles cause erosion by abrasion when they impact on other solid objects. Wind erosion occurs in regions with little vegetation, often associated with low rainfall.

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Total Pollution

Total Pollution - Sections

Wood, Coal and Open Fire Pollution Daily

Wood, Coal and Open Fire Pollution 10-4pm

Wood, Coal and Open Fire Pollution 4-10pm

Industrial Pollution Daily

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2.2 POLLUTION Air pollutants are substances in the air that are harmful or discomforting to humans, and in extreme cases or prolonged exposure, pollution can damage the natural and built environment. Pollutants can be in the form of heavy particles, liquid droplets, or gaseous toxins. They can be naturally occurring or artificial. Eighty percent of Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s air pollution comes from wood or coal burners and open fires. Ten percent comes from vehicle emissions and ten percent from the industrial sector. The burning of wood and coal produces fine particulates known as soot, the levels in Christchurch exceeds the Ministry of Environment guidelines. Pollutants are identified as responsible for respiratory problems,

cardiac illness, premature death, and damages the public image of the city. High exposure to air pollutants increase the possibility of children developing asthma, pneumonia, and a low initial birth rate. The Port Hills nearby create a warm layer of air that descends across Christchurch and traps the pollutants at street level. This is known as a temperature inversion. The trapped pollutants are most noticeable during twilight hours, either at sunset or sunrise, when smog is clearly visible and can create the effect of a colourful sky. The pollutants are reactive to natural atmospheric gas, and when pollutants are blown to higher altitudes this can lead to a depletion of the stratospheric ozone. Stratospheric ozone is essential in protecting humans from damaging radiation from the sun.

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Domestic Pollution Morning

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2.3 ROAD USE Vehicle traffic on roads is either for the transportation of goods or the transportation of people; licensing requirements and safety regulations ensure a separation between the two. The transportation of goods depends on the degree of development of the local infrastructure, the distance the goods are transported, the weight, the volume and the type of goods transported. Traffic is formally organized with marked lanes, junctions, intersections, interchanges, traffic signals, or signs. Traffic is classified by type: heavy motor vehicles, other vehicles, and pedestrians. Different classes may share speed limits and easements, or may be segregated. Traffic monitoring information is fundamental to the management of road networks. Different hierarchies of roads are important in overall efficiency and safety on the road. The traffic volume count for this study was sourced from City Council Traffic System Unit and NZ Transport Agency. Traffic counts were taken from multiple points on each road, the values are a seven day average over a range of different times in a year. Traffic monitoring equipment includes weigh-in-motion, telemetry and simple portable tube traffic counters.

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Road Use - Sections


2.4 ROAD NOISE Roadway noise is the collective sound emanating from motor vehicles and their surroundings. The basic noise level could be generated from the flow of traffic, the speed of the traffic, composition of the traffic, gradient of the road and the road surface. Sound approximately doubles for each increment of ten miles per hour, except at low speeds when the sound of breaking and accelerating dominates over aerodynamic noise. The road surface texture determines the generation and reflection of noise; whether it is composed of randomly distributed chipping or horizontally aligned surfaces. Road geometry and surrounding terrain is interrelated, they effect the propagation, diffraction, reflection, ground wave attenuation, spreading loss and refraction of sound. The presence of buildings or walls can block sound or can reflect it to augment sound at other locations.

Road Noise - Sections

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Noise has a detrimental effect on animals, they change the balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and they interfere with the use of sound in communication especially in relation to reproduction and navigation. A noisy area harms and reduces the effective habitat of animals. Elevated noise can have negative health effects on humans, causing hypertension annoyance and sleep disturbance. A variety of strategies are available to mitigate roadway noise: use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of traffic controls for smoothing traffic flow and tire design.

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2.5 WATER TABLE The water table is the upper surface of a saturated layer of an unconfined aquifer. The water table separates the subsurface region of rocks where pores are normally filled with air, to a zone where rockâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pores are saturated with water. These regions are affected by porosity and permeability of the soil substrate. The water table does not exactly resemble the topography due to geological variations in the subterranean structure. The water table is closely related to groundwater, which is naturally replenished by surface water from precipitation, streams, and rivers.

Water table levels are important for vegetation growth and animal habitation. When the water table collects below the ground surface, this is termed an aquifer. An aquifer allows water to flow directly between the porous saturated ground and the ground surface. The water table has less pressure than deeper in the saturated ground, because gravity causes water to flow downwards. The amount of water it takes to produce 1 ton of grain is 1000 tons of water. 70% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water is used for irrigation, 20% is used for industry, and 10% is used for residential. (Source: Outgrowing the Earth: the food security Challenge in an age of Falling Water â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Lester Russel Brown)

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2.6 WATERSHED A watershed refers to an area of land defined by a drainage basin. Watersheds are affected by wind intensity and land composition. On hilly topography, the divide lies along peaks and ridges. On flatter topography, the divide is more subtle, it is determined by the direction a raindrop will fall when it is on the ground surface. Drainage divides are either: a continental divide in which water flows to different oceans; a major drainage divide in which water never meets again but flows into the same ocean; or minor drainage divide in which water separates but eventually joins again at a river confluence. The drainage basin is where 216

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surface water and melting snow or ice converge before it exits to another body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, or ocean. The catchment depends on the topography, soil type and land use (paved or roofed areas). The topography determines the speed at which water flows while the catchment size and porosity determine the amount of water that reaches the basin. Land use contributes to the volume of water reaching a basin.


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ground material will absorb moisture to some extent resulting in a swelling, dissolving, leaching, or plasticizing of the ground, which results in a deformation in the form of discolouration, embrittlement, change in mechanical and electrical properties, and heating capacities. When soil is unsaturated with water, plant transpiration drops because water is increasingly bound to the soil particles through suction. When the plants are no longer able to extract water, they wilt and cease to transpire; this is termed the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wilting pointâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Ground water absorbed will flow 2.7 WATER ABSORPTION Water absorption is the ability for surface water to into natural reservoirs and remain there for either days or millennia. Substrate with low porosity be absorbed into the ground; it is affected by the top soil composition and permeability. It includes will permit less movement of groundwater, while both natural and built environments and is further substrates with high porosity will contain more groundwater. Groundwater moving through the effected by the subterranean composition. The substrate will have insulating effects on soil and water absorption coefficient is the ratio of the rock, and will be able to maintain a relatively steady weight of water absorbed by a material relative temperature due to the high heat capacity of water. to the weight of the material when it is dry. All

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wind height wind The geological factors are the sediment or rock type, its porosity and permeability, the slope of the land, and the physical positions of the rocks. Biological factors are type of ground cover, the types of organisms living in that area and land use. High levels of precipitation and more wind are expected 2.8 EROSION Soil erosion is the process in which sediment, soil, to have more erosion. Sediments with loose porosity rock and other particles are relocated from an area like sand and silt and areas with steep slopes erode due to weathering and deposited elsewhere. It can more easily. Porosity and permeability determines how easily water can percolate into the ground. The occur due to transportation by wind, or ice, the downward slope creep of soil due to gravity, or by water could move underground, which generates less living organisms (bio erosion), such as burrowing runoff, and reduces the amount of surface erosion. Sediments with high clay contents tend to erode animals. The rate of erosion depends on the less. Roads increase the rate of erosion due to the amount and intensity of precipitation, average temperature, temperature range, seasonality, wind reduction of natural ground cover and increasing drainage runoff. speed and storm frequency.

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2.9 POTENTIAL ROOTING DEPTH The potential rooting depth refers to the potential for a plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roots to distribute into the ground; it depends on the plant form, the spatial availability of water and nutrients, and physical properties of the soil.

The functions of the plant roots are to absorb water and nutrients, anchor the plant body to the ground, store food and nutrients, and prevent soil erosion. The majority of a plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roots are relatively close to the surface where nutrient availability and aeration are more favourable for growth. Rooting depth will be physically restricted by impermeable substrate or compacted soil, or by anaerobic soil conditions. The pattern of development of a root system is termed rooting architecture. The rooting architecture varies between fine and coarse roots, depending on the topology and distribution of biomass within and between the roots. A plant with fine roots can extract nutrients from soil efficiently; while coarse roots and evenly distributed roots provide support. Roots on one side of the tree normally provide nutrients for the foliage on the same side of the tree.


2.10 SOIL pH Soil pH is the measure of the acidity or basicity of the soil, where pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. It ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is acidic whereas a pH above 7 is basic. Pure water at 25 degrees Celsius has a pH of near 7.

amounts of other nutrients. Trace nutrients are not major components of plant tissue, but are essential for growth. These are mostly metals and include iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt, molybdenum and boron. Both macro and trace nutrient availability is controlled by soil pH.

Soil pH is a master variable in soil as it controls chemical processes in biology. It specifically affects the plant nutrient availability by controlling the chemical forms of nutrients. The optimum pH ranges for plants is between 6 and 7.5, however plants can adapt to pH outside this range. Plants grown in nutrient deficient soil will experience symptoms including Al, H, and/or Mn toxicity. Nutrients most essential to plants are referred to as macro-nutrients and include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. In addition to macro-nutrients, plants need trace

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2.11 SUN SHADOW Sun shadow is an area where direct sunlight cannot reach due to obstruction by an object. Therefore the absence of shadow is sunlight. A daily shadow calculation represents the accumulated shadow path for 24 hours at summer solstice. The above diagram shows that the accumulative shadow length changes throughout the year; the length of the shadow is proportional to the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s angle to the horizon. The actual brightness of the sunlight at the surface is dependent on the atmospheric composition. The rotation and tilt of the earth determines the time of day and seasonal variation. The sun in Christchurch has a latitude of 43.5

degrees, with altitude of 70 degrees in the summer solstice and 23 degrees in the winter solstice. Green plants absorb sunlight to produce sugars through photosynthesis, and transpire, producing a cooling effect. Different plant species require varying amounts of sunlight exposure to survive, they range from 6 hours to less than 2 hours of sun light a day.

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URBAN STRATEGY feedback loop data sets, we developed an experimental approach to creating an urban strategy, Using environmental one with an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;architecture-lessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; response to trends, fashions, and politics. Instead we developed a system governed by the environment, where the aim of the design is to optimize relationships inherent in the surrounding ecosystem. The system has three stages of development: the first stage was an analysis of existing environmental conditions, the second we introduced organizational agents, and lastly we created a feedback loop. Each of these stages can be applied across different scales of design, from the large urban, to the regional and the suburban. In the first stage, the analysis, we took the existing composition of the built environment 220

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and the surrounding ecological field to generate maps of the current makeup of the site. This quickly allowed us to see relationships between the built environment and that of the surrounding ecology. In the second stage, the design, we introduced agents, which in essence are actions on the existing built environment. The agents are assigned an inherent logic that provokes them to move given a significant ecologic benefit. This new organization is one of an emergent relationship between the built environment and the natural ecology of the site. Lastly, we created a feedback loop to allow for an informed adjustment of the system. The feedback loop also provides evidence to make a justified decision, not based on the irrational trends of aesthetics and personal preference, but on the basis of a fine tuned and balanced ecology.


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AGENTS Agents refer to artificial life simulations, their complexity arises from the interaction of individual agents reacting to behaviors that allows them to shift and reorganize not only in relation to one another but also to the wider environment. Agent behavior can perhaps be best illustrated by the example of iron fillings and the way in which they organize when placed under a magnetic field.

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Agent systems are not new to architecture, but where we see our system differing to others is in the ability to organize in relation to ecological or field conditions that are geographically informed. Our system also operates on the exchange between both static and dynamic relationships in the built and natural environment. repulsion type

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Regional Logic

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wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

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domestic wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

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public amenities wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

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wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

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wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

major public transport

wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

major cycleways

wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

commercial

wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

wind intensity pollution road use road noise water table water absorption water shed erosion minimum soil pH potential rooting depth daily shadowing soil stability

Suburban Logic

LOGIC The relationship between agent types (program) and the ecological fields consists of a simple behavioral trait of either attraction or deflection- each agent is given a positive or negative magnitude towards each type of ecological field. These positive and negative magnitudes can be tweaked depending on what type of field conditions are being tested.

h

h

estimated total floor area in Christchurch

53,849,512sqm

number of building agents

85,000

area per building agent

633.52sqm

domestic agent = 25 @ 25sqm per agent

commercial agent = 18 @ 36sqm per agent

industrial agent = 12 @ 49sqm per agent neutral

repulsion

Agent Relationships 222

Micro-Urbanism | Design Introduction

attraction

Agent Area Calculation

The introduction of the third dimension happens in the scalar shift from the regional to the suburban strategy. Each agent type is assigned a floor area: the residential agent equals 25sqm, the commercial agent equals 36sqm, and the industrial agent equals 49sqm. To arrive at this calculation we took the total floor area of Christchurch before the earthquake and the total proportion of different programs and divided it among the agents, therefore the examples of rationalized cities represent the same floor area and proportionally the same program as preearthquake Christchurch. Given a floor area, the next task is to 3dimensionalize the organizational diagrams. We developed a logic where the agents assemble to create a massing envelope based on relationships such as access to sunlight. The system sets up a suggested envelop inside of which buildings can be designed.


right to light

separation

positive taper to road noise

clustering

cohesion

maximum cantilever

unobstructed residential view

negative taper to greenery

repel from road

stacking

gravity

unobstructed commercial view

thickness of road in relation to adjacent program

ground limit

ground coverage ratios

minimum volume

maximum volume

green network offset

green network attraction

road offset

Massing Logic

EDUCATION

ALLOTMENTS

PLAYGROUNDS

domestic > 500

1 per domestic unit

high density green network

distance > 2km

sunlight exposure

proximity

TRANSIT BUILDING

CARPARK

GREEN NETWORK TRANSIT HUBS

distance between bus stops

road collision avoidance

one carpark per

two carpark per

two domestic unit

commercial unit

one carpark per domestic unit

distance between < 5km

Emergent Agents Jordon Saunders, Yun Kong, Adrian Kumar

223


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SUBURBAN ORGANIZATION - LOW DENSITY These are a series of images taken from an interactive model, depicting the assembly of building volumes relative to program at the suburb scale. The low density suburb has the least building blocks so building formations do not exceed two stories once the system is stabilized. The collection of buildings have a low floor area ratio; compared to the other densities, residential and industrial buildings are far apart, and mixed programmatic spaces are rare.

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SUBURBAN ORGANIZATION - MEDIUM DENSITY The medium density suburb has a moderate amount of building blocks, buildings do not exceed four stories. Larger amounts of commercial and retail blocks are deployed, some of which are part of mixed use buildings. There is evidence of taller buildings deviating away from green space to allow access to sunlight at the ground level, and small open spaces in between residential blocks for recreational functions.

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SUBURBAN ORGANIZATION - HIGH DENSITY The high density suburb is fully saturated with blocks, buildings naturally stack to a maximum of eight stories in some areas. Curvilinear forms emerge in residential buildings that result from sunlight penetration, wind reduction, and separation from industrial areas. Deep light wells emerge in large residential blocks to allow sunlight to each unit. As well, there are several roof gardens that connect to pathways at the ground level. 224

Micro-Urbanism | Design


Industrial

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Residential

Road Network (Physically Linked)

Green Network (Visually Linked) Jordon Saunders, Yun Kong, Adrian Kumar

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RATIONALIZED CITY TO MANAGE SURFACE WATER These are a series of images taken from an urban scale simulation where surface water is managed by using information such as surface flooding levels and water basin gradients to organize building locations. It is evident that a higher density of vegetation emerges along major flood plains and buildings avoid water basins. Conventional circulation networks diminish and green pathways become the primary circulation.

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RATIONALIZED CITY TO MITIGATE WIND These are a series of images taken from an urban scale simulation where high wind zones repel large clustering of buildings. An uneven building distribution emerges and greenery forms perpendicular rows to defend buildings from wind similar to shelter belts. Circulation is curvilinear to avoid straight pathways which further deters uncomfortably high wind speeds. The large void in the center of Christchurch suggests a strong wind pattern is present, thus it has repelled buildings.

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RATIONALIZED CITY TO MANAGE AIR POLLUTION These are a series of images taken from an urban scale simulation where pollution is reduced to a minimum given the scale of the city. Building areas are densified to allow a shorter distance of travel, thus reducing pollution caused by vehicular emissions. Circulation paths are more direct and wider to allow a faster flow and reduce travel time. Wind becomes a component to manage the inversion effect which traps smog at the street level. Buildings are attracted to medium wind zones as this has a rate of air exchange that naturally allows street level smog to be blown away. Vegetation is attracted to the buildings which are still in higher polluted areas, as a compromise to offset pollution levels. 226

Micro-Urbanism | Design


Building

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Circulation

Vegetation Jordon Saunders, Yun Kong, Adrian Kumar

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water table

potential rooting depths

water absorption

soil acidity

pollution

Urban Scale

wind intensity

acoustic noise

Buildings

Circulation

RATIONALIZED CITY TO MANAGE SURFACE WATER - URBAN SCALE Buildings are organized to repel from flood plains zones; the result is a stratification of the built environment. The circulation is also programmed to repel from floodplain zones, but because the floodplain is so prevalent, the main road circumnavigates Christchurch, with only secondary roads negotiating in between. The green network tends to populate the floodplain zones which has the 228

Micro-Urbanism | Design

Open Space

Feedback Loop - Ecological Fields

effect of reducing soil erosion and creating soil stability. The result of this is a tendency for the water absorption ecological field to increase in green areas.


vegetation

building

circulation

wind intensity

wind intensity

wind intensity

pollution

pollution

pollution

road use

road use

road use

road noise

road noise

road noise

water table

water table

water table

water absorption

water absorption

water absorption

water shed

water shed

water shed

erosion

erosion

erosion

minimum soil pH

minimum soil pH

minimum soil pH

potential rooting depth

potential rooting depth

potential rooting depth

daily shadowing

daily shadowing

daily shadowing

soil stability

soil stability

soil stability

Magnitude of Field Relationships - Urban Scale

Low Density

Medium Density

RATIONALIZED CITY TO MANAGE SURFACE WATER - REGIONAL SCALE Flooding is a natural occurrence with ecological benefits, such as supporting the growth of certain plant species. In this scenario we saw flooding as a necessary natural phenomenon, and instead of preventing it we allowed for it to occur naturally. To create an integrated built environment the vegetation clustered along major waterways and flood prone plains. This also prevented soil erosion and water absorption. Buildings were repelled from water basins to avoid water pooling; this created a stratified pattern of vegetation and building organization. As a design decision, circulation routes are proposed as green pathways made with semi-permeable surfaces to increase water absorption. High Density Jordon Saunders, Yun Kong, Adrian Kumar

229


water table

potential rooting depths

water absorption

soil acidity

pollution

Urban Scale

wind intensity

acoustic noise

Buildings

Circulation

RATIONALIZED CITY ACCORDING TO WIND PATTERNS- URBAN SCALE The buildings are organized to populate areas with low wind currents, while the other agents create ‘pockets’ of green networks to reduce wind. The circulation is programmed to minimize effects of wind tunneling by methods such as reducing the length of linear routes. The simulated effect is a winding and dispersed road system with three main nodal intersections. The green network agents are programmed 230

Micro-Urbanism | Design

Open Space

Feedback Loop - Ecological Fields

with high attraction to high wind zones, this creates a strong geometry of defined spaces or ‘pockets’ similar to shelter belts which also mitigate harsh wind. Ecological feedback from the system shows a downward trend for wind around buildings.


vegetation

building

circulation

wind intensity

wind intensity

wind intensity

pollution

pollution

pollution

road use

road use

road use

road noise

road noise

road noise

water table

water table

water table

water absorption

water absorption

water absorption

water shed

water shed

water shed

erosion

erosion

erosion

minimum soil pH

minimum soil pH

minimum soil pH

potential rooting depth

potential rooting depth

potential rooting depth

daily shadowing

daily shadowing

daily shadowing

soil stability

soil stability

soil stability

Magnitude of Field Relationships - Urban Scale

Low Density

Medium Density

RATIONALIZED CITY ACCORDING TO WIND PATTERNS - REGIONAL SCALE Pockets of residential, commercial, and industrial agents organize in clusters sheltered from wind, creating courtyard type spaces. For low density areas this open space may become a park, whereas in high density areas these spaces may become a square.

High Density

In the high density suburbs, dwellings tend toward perimeters of green networks. Circulation agents rationalize themselves as diffusing, creating a spaghetti of pedestrian paths, public transport, and cycleway systems. In low density areas, routes curve and wind to avoid wind tunneling, whereas in higher density areas there are straighter more efficient routes assisted by shelter belts. Jordon Saunders, Yun Kong, Adrian Kumar

231


water table

potential rooting depths

water absorption

soil acidity

pollution

Urban Scale

wind intensity

acoustic noise

Buildings

Circulation

RATIONALIZED CITY TO MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION - URBAN SCALE The buildings are organized primarily to repel away from the pollution ecological field. Building agents are also given a high cohesion or â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;densificationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, thus reducing reliance on vehicle transportation and fossil fuel emissions and promoting walking and cycling. The circulation along main roads repels away from high pollution zones to avoid densification of pollution in one area. High pollution zones and 232

Micro-Urbanism | Design

Open Space

Feedback Loop - Ecological Fields

main circulation routes are also attracted to high wind zones to allow for natural wind currents to move pollution away from the city. Dense green networks occur around areas which have high pollution in order to improve the air condition through plant matter pollution absorption.


vegetation

building

circulation

wind intensity

wind intensity

wind intensity

pollution

pollution

pollution

road use

road use

road use

road noise

road noise

road noise

water table

water table

water table

water absorption

water absorption

water absorption

water shed

water shed

water shed

erosion

erosion

erosion

minimum soil pH

minimum soil pH

minimum soil pH

potential rooting depth

potential rooting depth

potential rooting depth

daily shadowing

daily shadowing

daily shadowing

soil stability

soil stability

soil stability

Magnitude of Field Relationships - Urban Scale

Low Density

Medium Density

RATIONALIZED CITY TO MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION - REGIONAL SCALE In order to minimize pollution, densification as the planning strategy was inherent in the building organization. The high density region shows the juxtaposition of dense urban dwellings and the dense green network. The relationship between building and green become more integrated as a result of the mutual balance between C02 producers and consumers. Integrating vegetation with the built environment creates a balanced ecology between the organic and inorganic.

High Density Jordon Saunders, Yun Kong, Adrian Kumar

233


Christchurch, like so many modern cities, has become a collection of sprawling suburbs. According to our research, the Central Business District (CBD) instead of growing is stagnant, while the suburbs have actually increased in density and population. We studied the levels of density of the city both past, present and also calculated possible future trends. We have defined density as how many people are living in one hectare, the dwelling density for each mesh block and the percentage of built area in comparison to open land. We have calculated the amount in time spent and dollars for petrol consumption relative to the distance one lives from their job (assuming that one works in CBD); logically the further one lives, the greater the costs both in time and money. According to our research, the vast amount of people living at such a distance from the CBD makes for a very inefficient way of living. We have determined potential “hot spots” of population growth in Christchurch; which could be used to inform a future urban plan. Because these “hot spots” have a relatively high population density, and are projected to grow, it is important to develop a future masterplan taking the whole of Christchurch into consideration.

“ Restore human legs as a means of travel. Pedestrians rely on food for fuel and need no special parking facilities. ” Lewis Mumford

234

Den-City | Introduction


DEN-CITY Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe


DOES CHRISTCHURCH SUFFER FROM URBAN SPRAWL? Since the early 1990’s the prevailing trend for recent development within greater Christchurch has been towards dispersed urban growth beyond the fringe of the city. Since the mid 80’s, there has been a surge of growth in settlements outside the urban boundary of the city. These growths occurred particularly in the rural areas surrounding the city (including parts of the Selwyn and Waimakariri districts). At the same time, there has been a strong shift of retail activity and employment from the concentration in the city to a dispersed pattern with more activity occurring in suburban centres1. In order to understand this growth trend it is important to understand how it came to be. In the past, planning legislation in Christchurch (from the 1950’s up till 1991) had a succession of greenbelt type policies. These regulations were introduced to restrict outward urban sprawl at the fringes of the city and consolidate development to the existing built area. This was done in order to protect agricultural, natural and physical resources of the city. This trend in policy continued up until the introduction of the RMA (Resource Management Act) in 1991. The RMA shifted focus of the planning to mitigation of negative environmental effects and allowed a more free hand development within Christchurch (and throughout the whole of New Zealand). Most significant to the new policies is how focus shifted from the protection of farmland and the green belt to the mitigation of negative effects. This resulted in the shift of population and building density toward the periphery of the city.

2km

4km

6km

236

Den-City | Analysis

n el

W es tM

tte l

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Ta iT

Be lfa

st

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TRAVEL COST CALCULATIONS We used the website http://www.spotakiwi.co.nz/ to calculate an approximation for fuel consumption: • Distance from CBD (to and from) X 1800cc car X 91 unleaded petrol X petrol price at today’s rate = cost for one trip • Cost for one trip X 230 days (amount of NZ “working” days) = travel cost per person per year. The approximate cost of petrol for the working population to commute to work for Christchurch: Total population of suburbs taken into account: • 93,099/350,000 = 27% of the total population • Proportion of male: female = 48:52 1 • 63% male employed full time / 34% female employed full time • 30 + 17 = 47% of people employed full time. 2

REASONING FOR TRAVEL COST FEASIBILITY Admittedly, this assumption is an over estimation of the actual travel cost to the CBD, yet this calculation does not take into consideration the everyday travel needs like going to the grocery store, taking the kids to school or recreation and leisure activities. The custom in Christchurch is for one to travel by car, as is evident when less then 10% of the people in Christchurch rely on the public transportation service.1 Because of this, we do not think it is a gross over-estimation for travel cost for the entire Christchurch population and we would not be surprised if the actual figure for car travel cost is higher than the estimated of $120,000,000. When we compared the annual travel distances per person that we used (4,488km) to that of New Zealand’s national survey (5,284km), we conclude that our assumption is not an over estimation.

Assumptions made : If everyone employed full time travelled to the CBD and back for every working day, than: A comparison between the calculated travel cost: • 47% X 64,507,197 = 30,318,382 NZ survey2 : 5,284km = $872 pp pa. • Therefore, in the worst case it costs approximately Our calculations: 4,488km = $741 pp pa. $30,000,000 per year for (25% of the total population) for petrol • And if this cost were applied to the total working population, it would cost approximately $120,000,000 per year for petrol.

1 Ibid. 222. 2 Ibid.

TRAVEL COST IN RELATION TO POPULATION This diagram illustrates the relationship between travel cost and population relative to an area. Travel cost is the estimated petrol cost for a person to travel to and from work per year (for the sake of comparison we assumed work is in the CBD). The logic of this diagram is the number value is the travel cost and the size of the number is in proportion to the population relative to that area, for example it would cost approximately $1,700 per year for a person living in West Melton to drive to the CBD for work. This diagram shows that even though travel costs are greater when one lives further from the city centre, there are still large populations that choose to live in the suburbs.

1 AC Nielsen, Quality of Life Survey 2010 – Christchurch, The Quality of Life Project, http://www.bigcities.govt.nz/, (accessed 20 July 2011). 13. 2 Ibid. 256.

Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

237


Christchurch Density Map

COMMUTING PATTERNS IN CHRISTCHURCH From a study conducted by Statistics New Zealand we learned the following: 1. 34% of morning peak time travel is education related, with over half the children at primary school being driven by car; with similar numbers being driven or driving to secondary school. 2. 96% of cars travelling to work have a single occupant. 3. 60% of Christchurch residents drive to work compared to 40% in Wellington. 4. Car travel is growing by 2.5% annually; at this rate traffic volumes are expected to increase by 27% by 2026. 5. 39% of people in Canterbury reported that they could replace car trips by walking and cycling on at least two days most weeks.

238

Den-City | Analysis

The information presented indicates that a large proportions of people from many suburbs commute long distance to work (Rolleston up to 75%). The statistics suggest that not every rural dweller would like to work on a farm and so, as the study indicates, they prefer to travel to more urban areas in order to work. However, given the choice, we believe people in general would prefer not to commute these distances (due to time, and travel cost), and they would likely choose to live near to where they work given good quality housing and nearby amenities. Which brings to light an interesting suggestion. Could areas of high residential density be near places of high employment? If so, these living + work oriented areas could prove to be crucial nodal points and thriving communities.

EMPLOYMENT DENSITY IN CHRISTCHURCH The study conducted by Statistics New Zealand identified crucial information regarding employment densities in Christchurch; in particular it reveals the pulling power of Christchurch for workers living in neighbouring regions. The study outlined the following: 1. Christchurch has the largest and most extensive labour market in the South Island and it is projected to continue to grow. 2. The major commuting hub in Christchurch is Cathedral Square. 3. Christchurch has very close employment links with Waimakariri and Selwyn districts, with almost half of the employed population in these districts working in Christchurch. 4. Between 1996 and 2006, the number of people in Selwyn district who gave a workplace address

in Christchurch almost doubled (from 4,800 to 7,800). 5. Smaller urban areas close to Christchurch had some of the highest growth rates in New Zealand. The study indicates that within Christchurch, employment is concentrated in or close to the city centre, with the area around Cathedral Square as the main commuting hub for much of the city and surrounding countryside. In the 2006 Census, almost 26,000 people listed a workplace address in Cathedral Square, with other smaller commuting hubs located in Hagley Park, Sydenham, Middleton, Avon Loop, Wigram, Riccarton, and Hornby North. According to the study, commuters to Christchurch appear to have similar travel patterns with commuters to the Auckland metropolis.


Zonal Density Comparisons by Year

POPULATION GROWTH IN CHRISTCHURCH Population growth in areas close to large urban centres yet on the periphery of cities experienced some of the highest growth rates in New Zealand between 1996 and 2006. This does not mean they grew denser but rather indicated a rise in population. Recent trends show people are more likely to move further from the centre rather then closer to it, for example, people to the west of Christchurch moved to new subdivisions in the towns of Rolleston, Lincoln, and surrounding areas, while people living to the north of Christchurch moved to the northern edges of the city.

Growth rates tend to be particularly high in small towns and rural areas close to cities, particularly in the Auckland and Canterbury regions. Statistics NZ has developed an experimental urban/rural classification that is based on commuting patterns in these areas. The information in this classification shows that minor and secondary urban areas and rural areas with strong links to main urban areas have experienced some of the highest growth rates. For example, between the 1996 and 2006 censuses, satellite urban areas and rural areas with high urban influence in the Auckland region have

experienced a population increase of approximately 28 percent. In Canterbury, growth rates were even higher in satellite urban areas (35 percent) and rural areas with high urban influence (46 percent). In contrast, however, growth rates for satellite urban areas in the Wellington region declined slightly during this period but rural areas with high urban influence increased in population by 29 percent.

DENSITY COMPARISONS The Christchurch graphs draw attention to significant detrimental characteristics regarding the growth patterns of the city. The zones that show the most growth are the ones that are least dense (living zone 1 - outermost suburbs). On the contrary, the zones showing the least growth are ones that are most dense (zone 4 and 3 - CBD and inner most living zones). This data illustrates that the periphery of Christchurch is growing faster than the centre: if this trend continues it could mean that the suburbs continue to expand, demanding greater energy costs while leaving the city centre vacant.

Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

239


POPULATION DENSITY: PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS This diagram illustrates the relationship between population density and the population within an area. The logic of this diagram is that the number value describes the population density of that area (people per hectare), and the size of the number is in proportion with its population. The population of West Melton is large compared to its tiny population density of 0.27. Rolleston has one of the highest population densities and is quite far from the CBD (23 km), which begs the question on why does this town have a similar population density compared to the CBD? The reason for West Melton highly populated low density farm land is that it is a district known for its density of farms and lifestyle blocks. West Melton has long been associated with horse racing, productive agricultural land, and livestock farming. However, due to a lack of nucleation and a dense rural population, the actual population of the town itself is much lower. This pattern of a lack of nucleation can be seen throughout the urban fabric; as endemic of urban sprawl. PROJECTED POPULATION GROWTH RATE SIMULATION We did a projected calculated on how the urban population form might look if it continued to increase at the rate and intensity at which it was being estimated given current projections. From this series of diagrams we can see that the individual nodal zones of dense areas in the future would be predicted to merge together and slowly move towards the south-west in the direction of Rolleston and Halswell.

Population Density in Relation to Population

Projected Population Given Current Trends 240

Den-City | Analysis


LOW

HIGH

BUILDING DENSITY Samples of a â&#x20AC;&#x153;typicalâ&#x20AC;? block with about 16 dwellings were taken at key suburban areas to approximate a percentage of the building footprint at each location. The ratio of the building footprint to land area generally decreases slightly as one gets further from the centre of the city, except for in some unique cases. For example in Halswell, a suburb to the south-west, the ratio of building footprint to land area is nearly the same as in the CBD. There are a few other cases which have a relative high density. Our research shows that these emerging areas around the city centre indicate a tendency towards the development of satellite centres. A linear trend line was used to illustrate this slight decrease in percentage as you move further away from the CBD. With the exception of Halswell, most of the closer suburbs around the CBD have a density of around 27%. This appears to be the percentage that once attained leads to further sprawl. (Refer to Density Catalogue)

Built Density

Percentage of Built Land 30

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Blue - Population Density at 2010

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Red - Estimated Population Density at 2030

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Yellow - Growth Rate from 2010 to 2030

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Population Density by Region

Relationship Between Suburbs to Distance from the CBD

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Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

241


30

20 20 15 15 10 10

0 0

Lincoln Lincoln

Rolleston Rolleston

Kaiapoi Kaiapoi

West West Melton Melton

Tai Tapu Tai Tapu

Templeton Templeton

Sumner Sumner

Prebbleton Prebbleton

Lyttelton Lyttelton

Governors Governors BayBay

Belfast Belfast

Harewood Harewood

Hornby Hornby

Halswell Halswell

Burwood Burwood

Bishopdale Bishopdale

NewNew Brighton Brighton

Burnside Burnside

Sockburn Sockburn

Middleton Middleton

Papanui Papanui

Mairehau Mairehau

Cashmere Cashmere

Waltham Waltham

Woolston Woolston

Merivale Merivale

Richmond Richmond

Avon Avon Loop Loop

Hagley Hagley Park Park

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6000 6000

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Relationship between Population Density and Distance from CBD 10 90

5 5

Lincoln Lincoln

Rolleston Rolleston

Kaiapoi Kaiapoi

West West Melton Melton

Tai Tapu Tai Tapu

Templeton Templeton

Sumner Sumner

Prebbleton Prebbleton

Lyttelton Lyttelton

Governors Governors BayBay

Belfast Belfast

Harewood Harewood

Halswell Halswell

Hornby Hornby

Burwood Burwood

Bishopdale Bishopdale

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NewNew Brighton Brighton

Sockburn Sockburn

Burnside Burnside

Middleton Middleton

Mairehau Mairehau

Papanui Papanui

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Cashmere Cashmere

50

Waltham Waltham

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Woolston Woolston

Merivale Merivale

POPULATION DENSITY (PPL/HEC)

Hagley Hagley Park Park

Avon Avon Loop Loop

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Rolleston

West Melton

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Sumner

Governors Bay

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Harewood

Hornby

Halswell

Burwood

New Brighton

Sockburn

Bishopdale

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Middleton

Papanui

Mairehau

Woolston

Cashmere

Waltham

Merivale

Richmond

Avon Loop

Hagley Park

Relationship Between Population and Distance from CBD 0 Cathedral Square

Den-City | Analysis

Distance to CBD (KM) Poly (2010 Population Density) Poly (2010 Population Density) estimateddensity 2030 Population canPoly see(Pre thatuake population peakedDensity) at Poly (Post (Pre uake Poly uakeestimated estimated2030 2030Population PopulationDensity) Density)

We the suburbs just outside the fringe of the CBD Poly (Post uake estimated 2030 Population Density) Equations fortrend Polynomial Trendlines (around 5km). The line initially declines Equations Polynomial Trendlines y 0 0109 3for 0 4981 2 5 5593 9 2802 as it moves away from the CBD, but then it rises y 0 0109 3 0 4981 2 5 5593 9 2802 y 0 0116 3 0 5126 2 5 3156 15 66 9 againyas0it0116 starts3 0to5126 move2to5 3156 the neighboring 15 66 9 y 0 0162 3 0 7504 2 9 0736 0 255 townships (around 15-20km). The earthquake y 0 0162 3 0 7504 2 9 0736 0 255 further emphasized the population trends, and the predicted shift in density of the population to move further west. From the trend line we can see that the population does not follow the typical trend for urban city predicted urban sprawl situation sprawl.Typical Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population seems to be Typical predicted urban sprawl situation 2010 Population ( ) spread out quite evenly but with a tendency to grow 2010 Population ( ) uake estimated Population ( ) because of as youPre move away from2030 the CBD. Again Pre uake estimated 2030 Population ( ) Post u ake estimated 2030 Population ( ) trend will the earthquake; it is predicted that this Post uake estimated 2030 Population ( ) Distance to CBD (KM) be emphasized further; and that the population will Distance to CBD (KM) shift further away from the Poly (2010 Population ( )) CBD and more towards Poly Population ( ))2030 Population ( )) Poly (2010 (Pre uake estimated the suburbs. Poly Poly (Pre (Post uake uakeestimated estimated2030 2030Population Population( ( )))) Poly (Post uake estimated 2030 Population ( ))

Equations for Polynomial Trendlines

yEquations 0 5103 3for 24 Polynomial 071 2 336 Trendlines 62 1799 4 y 0 5103 3 24 071 2 336 62 1799 4 predicted urban sprawl2situation yTypical 0 7647 3 31 642 376 87 2562 8 y 0 7647 3 31 642 2 376 87 2562 8 Population y2010 1 4507 3 Density 68 308(PPL/HEC) 2 964 51 0 3806 y 1 4507 3 68 308 2 964 51 0 3806 Pre uake estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC) Post

uake estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to CBD (KM) Poly (2010 Population Density) Poly (Pre uake estimated 2030 Population Density) Poly (Post

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ROM CBD (KM)

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Cathedral Cathedral Square Square

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DISTANCE

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DISTANCE DISTANCEROM ROM CBDCBD (KM) (KM)

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Richmond Richmond

POPULATION POPULATION

Relationship between Population and Distance from CBD Relationship between Population and Distance from CBD

2000 2000

Post-Quake 2030 Estimate

DISTANCE DISTANCEROM ROM CBDCBD (KM)(KM)

25 25

Relationship Between Population Density and Distance from CBD 12000 12000

Population Overlay

Relationship between Population Density and Distance from CBD Relationship between Population Density and Distance from CBD 30

Cathedral Cathedral Square Square

Post-Quake 2030 Estimate Population Density

POPULATION POPULATION DENSITY DENSITY (PPL/HEC) (PPL/HEC)

Population Density Overlay

100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0

POPULATION DENSITY AND DISTANCE TO THE CBD These diagrams illustrate the overall urban sprawl pattern for Christchurch, as well as the underlying population trends in relation to the distance from the CBD. Comparisons of population trends and Typical predicted urban sprawl situation distance to the CBD were made to understand the Typical predicted urban sprawl situation 2010 Population nature of the urban Density fabric (PPL/HEC) of Christchurch. This was 2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC) done toPretestuake if there was2030 an underlying population estimated Population Density (PPL/HEC) Pre uake Density (PPL/HEC) trend that couldestimated explain2030 the Population sprawl pattern of Post uake estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC) Christchurch in more depth. using aDensity polynomial Post uake estimated 2030By Population (PPL/HEC) Distance to CBD (KM) equation we could identify emerging trends.

uake estimated 2030 Population Density)

Equations for Polynomial Trendlines y 0 0109 3 0 4981 2 5 5593

9 2802

y 0 0116 3 0 5126 2 5 3156

15 66 9

y 0 0162 3 0 7504 2 9 0736

0 255

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Population Density for 2006

Population Density Estimate for 2010

Pre-Quake Population Density Estimate for 2030

Post-Quake Population Density Estimate for 2030

Population for 2006

Population Estimate for 2010

Pre-Quake Population Estimate for 2030

Post-Quake Population Estimate for 2030

POTENTIAL NODAL POINTS AND AREAS OF GROWTH INTEREST Simulations of the various population and population density graphs highlight the flow of people and the difference between pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. Because of the earthquake we can clearly see that the people of Christchurch will likely move towards Rolleston in the west and that the CBD and eastern area will decrease in intensity. The simulation shows that both data sets even when combined together have a coherent direction of estimated population movement which is clearing expanding towards the west from the CBD.

LOW

HIGH

The diagram to the right illustrates the potential ‘hot spots’ of further intensification, should the city continue along its current trajectory of growth. These ‘hot spots’ illustrates the various densities regarding Christchurch’s urban fabric, which includes the population in the area; the population density, the building footprint and the projected population growths. The area starting from Merivale through Sockburn and Middleton and finally down to Halswell and Rolleston, should be considered as potential key nodal points. As these areas already have the significant potential to reinvigorate a new urban plan for Christchurch.

Area with Significant Potential in Regards to Density Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

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A V O N

A T H E D R A S Q U A R E

O O

40.85%

Cathedral Square, locally known simply as the Square, is the geographical centre and heart of Christchurch. It is where the city’s Anglican cathedral, ‘Christchurch Cathedral’ is located.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

DENSITY CATALOGUE The following is a catalogue of all suburbs taken into account within our analysis. A sample building block was chosen to estimate a built area density percentage. Density information is comparable through this catalogue in the graphs below each suburb.

244

Den-City | Catalogue

0

30.37% Avon Loop is one of the residential areas in the central city. The other residential areas include Inner City East, Inner City West, Moa neighbourhood, and Victoria.


B E

H A R E W O O D

F A S T

B I S H O

A A N U I

D A E

25.3% Belfast is a suburb of Christchurch to the north of the city centre, close to the banks of the Waimakariri River. It is well known for the freezing works.

3.5% Harewood is a suburb of Christchurch to the north-west of the city centre. It had a population of 3,234 people in the 2006 census, an increase of 477 people since 2001.

24.5% Bishopdale is overall a middle class suburb with a wide range of people living in the area. Most of the houses were built in the 1960â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, and are either brick or wood, single story designs. The area boasts many parks and recreational areas, and a small shopping mall. The main schools in the area are Bishopdale Primary, Isleworth Primary, Harewood Primary, Cotswold Primary, and Breens Intermediate- all have generous areas of landscaped park ground.

27.7% Papanui is a major suburb of Christchurch located five kilometres to the northwest of the city centre. Papanui is a middle socioeconomic area with a population of 3,543 people.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Percentage of Built Land (%)

2006 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to and from CBD (km)

2006 Population (# x 100)

2010 Population (# x 100)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

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M A I R E H U

B U R W O O D

N E W

B U R N S I D E

B R I H T O N

25.9% Mairehau is located four kilometres north of the city centre, close to the edge of the urbanised central city area. Many new developments are being carried out on the northern edge of Mairehau.

23.7% Burwood is a north-eastern suburb of Christchurch. The suburb is mostly a residential area and is centred around Burwood Hospital, Travis Wetland Nature Heritage Park and Bottle Lake Forest

18.7% New Brighton is a coastal suburb of Christchurch to the east of the city centre.

28.2% Burnside is a suburb located southeast of Christchurch International Airport.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

246

Percentage of Built Land (%)

2006 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to and from CBD (km)

2006 Population (# x 100)

2010 Population (# x 100)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Den-City | Catalogue


M E R I V A E

R I

S O

H M O N D

K B U R N

30.5% Merivale is a suburb of Christchurch north of the city centre. Its boundaries are defined by Heaton Street to the north, Papanui Road to the east, Harper Avenue to the south and Rossall Sreet to the west. Merivale has been voted the best suburb in Christchurch in which to live.

27.5% Situated to the inner northeast of the city centre, the suburb is bound by Shirley Road to the north, Hills Road to the west, Gloucester Street to the south and the Avon River to the east.

M I D D E T O N

27.2% Sockburn sits on the west side of the CBD in Christchurch.

26.5% Middleton sits on the southwest side of the city in Christchurch. One of the fringe suburbs around the CBD.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Percentage of Built Land (%)

2006 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to and from CBD (km)

2006 Population (# x 100)

2010 Population (# x 100)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

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H O R N B Y

T E M E T O N

24.6% Hornby is a major residential and retail suburb on the western edge of Christchurch. Hornby contains a large retail mall named â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Hub Hornbyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which is the western most within the Christchurch urban area.

H A

R E B B

S W E

E T O N

25.2% Templeton is a small town on the outskirts of Christchurch but part of the Selwyn District. It lies on State Highway 1. It has been the centre of harness racing in Canterbury with many famous names such as Devine, Nyan, Butt, Jones and Carmichael among its people.

23.7% Prebbleton is a small town in the Canterbury region. It is 11km southwest of the centre of Christchurch and about 2 km south of the outlying industrial suburb of Hornby.

33.4% Halswell is an outer suburb of Christchurch located in the open country nine kilometres southwest of the city centre on State Highway 75. A residential suburb, it has little in the way of its own industry and acts as an outer dormitory suburb.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

248

Percentage of Built Land (%)

2006 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to and from CBD (km)

2006 Population (# x 100)

2010 Population (# x 100)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Den-City | Catalogue


W A

A S H M E R E

W O O

T H A M

16.1% Cashmere is situated on the north side of the Port Hills, immediately above the southern terminus of Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main street, Colombo Street. Five kilometres south of the city centre, a commanding view of the city can be had from Victoria Park, at the upper end of the suburb.

S U M N E R

S T O N

21.4% Waltham is an inner suburb of Christchurch located two kilometres southeast of the city centre. State Highway 73, part of Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ring road system, runs through the suburb, as does the Heathcote River and the Christchurch Lyttelton rail corridor. The Christchurch gasworks was located at the inner boundary of Waltham until its closure ca. 1980.

19.4% Woolston is a light industrial and residential suburb of Christchurch situated three kilometres southeast of the city centre.

21.3% Sumner is a coastal seaside village-like suburb of Christchurch. Sumner is nestled in a coastal valley separated from the adjacent city suburbs by rugged volcanic hill ridges and cliffs.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Percentage of Built Land (%)

2006 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to and from CBD (km)

2006 Population (# x 100)

2010 Population (# x 100)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

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Y T T E

K A I A

W E S T

O I

M E

I N O

T O N

N

T O N

15.9% Lyttelton (MÄ ori: Ĺ&#x152;hinehou) is a port town on the north shore of Lyttelton Harbour close to Banks Peninsula, a suburb of Christchurch on the eastern coast.

16.5% Kaiapoi is a town in the Canterbury region located close to the mouth of the Waimakariri River, and approximately 17 kilometres north of Christchurch.

8.8%

18.6%

West Melton has the largest population in the Selwyn District of Canterbury, due to a high density of farms and lifestyle blocks. It has long been associated with horse racing (trotting), arable land, and sheep farming. Recently, it has become associated with wine growing and deer farming.

Lincoln is a town in the Selwyn District of Canterbury. The town has a population of 2,727 people.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

250

Percentage of Built Land (%)

2006 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to and from CBD (km)

2006 Population (# x 100)

2010 Population (# x 100)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Den-City | Catalogue


R O

T A I T A

E S T O N

U

23.5% Rolleston is a town in the Selwyn District of Canterbury. The current expansion began in the 1990s. Rolleston had a population of 1,974 people as of the 2001 census, and 3,822 people in the 2006 census. The projected population for Rolleston within the next 10 years is 14,000 people.

H A

O V E R N E R S

12.7% Taitapu sits on the east side of Rolleston, a small village that has a school for locals.

B A Y

E Y A R K

8.8%

10.1%

Governors Bay is a small settlement in Canterbury. Governors Bay School in Jetty Road caters for students from year 0 to year 8. From year 9 onwards, students attend one of the high schools in Christchurch. Cholmondeley Children´s Home in Cholmondeley Lane is a childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home providing quality short-term or emergency residential care for children and support for their families.

Hagley Park is the largest urban open space (164.637 hectares) in Christchurch, New Zealand,

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Percentage of Built Land (%)

2006 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

2010 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population Density (PPL/HEC)

Distance to and from CBD (km)

2006 Population (# x 100)

2010 Population (# x 100)

Pre-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

Post-Earthquake Estimated 2030 Population (# x 100)

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Goal

Driving Forces of Reality Moderate Outcome

Uncertainty

Us

Scenario Planning

High Best Case Scenario

Optimal Control

Low

Low

Worst Case Scenario

High Uncontrollability

Traditional Goal Based Planning

Diagram of Simple Scenario Plan

WHY SCENARIO PLANNING? We feel that because of the unpredictability and uncontrollable nature of a city, scenario planning would fit perfectly as a tool to design for the future. We chose to use scenario planning as a tool so that we could test different outcomes as they would play out over time. We wanted to design for the future thinking about the future; as many city plans only design for the future using the present. Because of this flawed mentality, plans often become outdated and ineffective by the time they are realized. WHAT IS SCENARIO PLANNING? Scenario planning was first created by the military for testing various strategies, but it is now used on vast and varied disciplines world-wide; ranging from business models to environmental issues. Scenario planning is not to be confused with goals or visions, nor is scenario planning a means to do predictions or foresee what will happen in the future, rather it is a tool for strategic thinking. Each scenario tells a story of how various elements might interact under certain conditions. When relationships between elements can be formalized we can start to develop quantitative models for comparison.

Method Method Define the Scope 1

Define the Scope

1a. b.

10

2

Time frame Establish strategies to test a. Time frame b. Establish strategies to test

2 a.

b. c.

Evolve Towards Decision Scenario Evolve Towards Decision Scenario and Conclude and Conclude 10 Finally, in an iterative process, you must converge toward

Identify the Major Events foreseen to Happen Identify the Major Events foreseen to Happen

3

Key innovations Policies predicted to happen a. Key innovations Identify 10 components affecting the city over b. Policies predicted to happen 40 years c. Identify 10 components affecting the city over 40 years

a. b. c. d. e.

9

9

4

Identify Key Uncertainties Identify Key Uncertainties

4

8

Solar energy forms of sustainable energy a.Other Solar energy forms of transportation (private/public) b.Future Other forms of sustainable energy c. Future forms of transportation (private/public)

a. b. c.

Natural disasters Identify relationships behind these Natural disasters uncertainties Identify relationships behind these Its effect on each strategy and methods of uncertainties prevention, recovery and preparedness Its effect on each strategy and methods of prevention, recovery and preparedness

5 5

Construct Initial Scenario Themes Construct Initial Scenario Themes a. a. b. b. c. c. d. d.

7 a. b. c.

a. b. c.

Identify Research Needs Identify Research Needs

8 Choose 3-4 scenarios to formalize via parametric definition to show a quantitative model/spatial model Choose 3-4 in scenarios to formalize via parametric definition to show in a quantitative model/spatial model

In summary, we treated our project as a science experiment and tested four different strategies to create four different scenarios. These four scenarios are not what will happen but rather four different possible futures that Christchurch could take if they adopt that particular strategy. We chose these four strategies because they are the strategies that we feel have the highest chance of being implemented.

Population trends Economy trends a. Population trends Technology trends b. Economy trends Lifestyle trends c. Technology trends How these influence the strategies and the d. Lifestyle trends impact they have (positive or negative e. How these influence the strategies and the effects) impact they have (positive or negative effects)

Develop uantitative models Develop uantitative models

scenarios that eventually test your and toward Finally, in will an iterative process, youstrategies must converge generate newstrategies ideas scenarios that will eventually test your and generate new ideas

The reason why we find the future so hard to think about is because we are inclined to try to predict, instead, of trying to suppose. Confident predictions are impossible because, although it is often easy to see what will be technologically feasible in the future, what will actually develop - and how soon – is dependent on economic trade-offs of social and cultural exchanges. This is why the scenario planning approach is so valuable. When contemplating about the future, knowledge can be classed into three different categories: 1. things we know we know; 2. things we know we don’t know; and 3. things we don’t know we don’t know.

Identify Basic Trends Identify Basic Trends

3

Applicability of Scenario Planning

Develop Learning Scenarios Develop Learning Scenarios

7

Fine tuning the scenarios based on the strategies implemented andscenarios factors that areon planned to happen Fine tuning the based the strategies implemented and factors that are planned to happen

6 6

Sprawling City (pre-earthquake scheme) Declining resident population in CBD Sprawling City (pre-earthquake scheme) An Intensified City Core (current scheme) Declining resident population in CBD Intensified CBD with mixed CBD zoning An Intensified City Core (current scheme) Autonomous network of Towns and greenbelts Intensified CBD with mixed CBD zoning Densified satellite towns Autonomous network of Towns and greenbelts Christchurch City as a tree of life Densified satellite towns Developed Christchurch City asurban a treecorridors of life -

Developed urban corridors

Check for Consistency Check forPlausibility Consistency and and Plausibility a. b. a. b.

Compatibility of trends with chosen time frame Checking forofthe desirability of combining Compatibility trends with chosen time frame outcomes uncertainties together Checking forofthe desirability of combining outcomes of uncertainties together

Method

Breakdown of the Different Strategies Breakdown of the Different Strategies Legend for comparable themes Legend for comparable themes

1. A Sprawling City 1. A Sprawling City

2. An Intensified City Core 2. An Intensified City Core

3. An Autonomous Network of Towns and Green Belts 3. An Autonomous Network of Towns and Green Belts

4. Christchurch City as a Tree of Life 4. Christchurch City as a Tree of Life

Summary of outcomes Summary of outcomes i. Residential Model i. / Population Residential Trends Model ii. Location Location //Population Trends iii. Urbanii.Phenomenon Overall Picture iii. Urban Phenomenon / Overall Picture iv. Demographics iv. Demographics v. Commercial Model v. Commercial Model vi. Open space model vi. Open space model vii. Economics of Real Estate vii. Economics of Real Estate viii. Transportation Model viii. Transportation Model ix. Energy Model ix. Energy Model x. Economic Infrastructure x. Economic Infrastructure

Declining CBD / Suburban Sprawl (Previously Implememted Scheme) Declining CBD / Suburban Sprawl (Previously Implememted Scheme) i. Uncontrolled sprawl / decrease in CBD i. Uncontrolled sprawl / decrease in CBD ii. Accelerated Population Growth in the West ii. Effect Accelerated Population Growth in the West iii. Donut iii. Donut Effectof the young creative working class iv. Reduced proportion iv. as the Reduced proportion young creative working class v. CBD only financial hubofofthe city v. CBD as the only financial hub of city vi. Green space declining due to need for space vi. Green space declining due to need for space vii. Increase of real estate closer to the CBD vii. Increase of real estate closer to the CBD viii. Dependence on Car viii. Dependence on Car ix. Standard with potential of retro-fitting ix. Standard with potential of retro-fitting x. Standard business in CBD x. Standard business in CBD

Intensified CBD with increase in mixed CBD zone (Currently implimented Scheme) Intensified CBD withsprawl increase in mixed CBD zone (Currently implimented Scheme) i. Limiting suburban / intensifying in CBD i.Growth Limiting suburban sprawl / intensifying in CBD ii. in the CBD ii. Growth in therevitalizing CBD iii. Densification and the CBD iii. Densification and revitalizing CBD iv. Attraction of the younger business the class iv. Attraction the younger business v. CBD as the onlyof financial hub of city class v. as the only financial hub of city vi. GreenCBD space declining due to need for space vi. Green space declining due to need for space vii. Increase of real estate value closer to the CBD/ denser developments vii. Increase of real estate value closer to the CBD/ denser developments viii. Dependence on Car and stress on public transport (bus) viii. Dependence on Car and stress on public transport (bus) ix. Standard with potential of retro-fitting ix. Standard with potential of retro-fitting x. Mixed Business in CBD x. Mixed Business in CBD

Densification of Satellite Towns connected with urban lift share concept i. Densification Mixed Useof Satellite Towns connected with urban lift share concept Mixed Use throughout the City ii. i. Dense Pockets Dense Pockets the communities City iii. ii. Individually uniquethroughout autonomous Individually unique iv. iii. Attraction for all ages,autonomous attraction ofcommunities creative classes Attraction all ages, attraction of creative classes v. iv. Satellite townforcenters spread throughout Satellite town centers spread throughout vi. v. Large Green Belts vi. Large Green Belts vii. Increase of real estate value closer to nodal points vii. Increase of real estate value closer to nodal points viii. Increase on Cycling and Walking viii. Increase on Cycling and Walking ix. Integrated within the plan of each community ix. Integrated within the plan of each community x. Unique individual business models for each community x. Unique individual business models for each community

Urban Corridor Scheme that feeds into an intensified CBD Urban Corridor Scheme thattofeeds into an intensified CBD i. Mixed use adjacent transport corridors i.ii. Mixed use to transport corridors Growth in adjacent the CBD whilst spilling into the corridors to relieve stress within CBD ii. in the CBD the corridors iii. Growth An importance onwhilst how tospilling feed ainto revitalized city to relieve stress within CBD iii. importance onages how to feed a revitalized city iv. An Attraction for all iv. Attraction for all hub agesin CBD with mixed used within corridors v. Main financial v. Main financial hub in CBD with mixed used within corridors vi. Green Corridors and larger pockets throughout the city (leaves on a tree) vi. Green Corridors and larger pockets throughout the city (leaves on a tree) vii. Increase of real estate closer to the CBD and corridors vii. Increase of real estate closer to the CBD and corridors viii. Public Transport system (Light-Rail / Dedicated Bus Lanes) viii. Public Transport system (Light-Rail / Dedicated Bus Lanes) ix. Integrated within the plan of each corridor ix. Integrated within the plan of each corridor x. Main business hub in the CBD with mixed opportunities in the corridors x. Main business hub in the CBD with mixed opportunities in the corridors

Breakdown of the Different Strategies 252

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios


KEY

Y

Y - A DAY IN THE LIFE 1. A SPRAWLING CITY Y drives through heavy traffic to the CBD to work and returns home again A person living in suburbia Y driving through heavy traffic, if time provides they may drive to some leisure activity.

Y

CBD Y EY Y EY

EE EE

EYEY

B

EEEE

2. AN INTENSIFIED CORE - A DAY IN THE LIFE T.O.D A A person living in suburbia would face similar daily routines as in the ‘sprawling city’ scenario, but with C slightly less traffic. The difference is that there is the choice to live in the intensified CBD nearer to work EY EE and surrounded by diverse amenities. Y EY

EK EK

EE

EY

B A A

B C

T.O.D

A

EE

T.O.DB

A

EK

EK

B

T.O.DC

T.O.D

C

CB

B EY

Y

EE

A

T.O.D

A

T.O.D

KEY

A

T.O.D

C

B C

E

EK EK

CBD 3. A NETWORK OF TOWNS - A DAY IN THE LIFE B C EY EE A person living in one of the autonomous towns either works near to home or travels via efficient public T.O.D neighbors, has a unique identity creating a sense of place where one lives. Because of the short distance A EE E EKwork. On their way homeEE and transportation to they can pass through E the transportation hub and pick C efficient transport, people have more time to enjoy their time away from work and thus more leisure B activities abound in this scenario then either the ‘sprawling city’ or the ‘intensified core’ scenarios. up their dinner and if they EK like they can even stop at the gym or cinema. Their town, like that of their

EE

E

A

T.O.D

C

EK

EE

E

EE

EE EE EE

E

E

E

EE

E

E

4. CHRISTCHURCH AS A TREE OF LIFE - A DAY IN THE LIFE In this scenario a person lives within walking distance of work or a public transportation link. Getting to work is easy and efficient via bicycle or on foot, as well as picking up necessities or accessing leisure activities. The public transport runs along main arterial roads branching out from the intensified CBD. These same corridors are lined with mixed use developments where all amenities can be found. Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

253


POPULATION TRANSPORTATION HEALTH CARE QUALITY OF LIFE ENERGY

COST OF LIVING

TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION

ECONOMY

EDUCATION SUSTAINABILITY GREEN SPACES INFRASTRUCTURE PUBLIC AMENITIES The Factors Affecting Scenarios and Their Relationships

APPROACH TO SCENARIO PLANNING Each scenario is ranked according to 15 comparable factors and their projected outcome in years 2020 and 2050. The ranking ranges from -10 to 10; with -10 being the worst possible outcome and 10 being the best possible outcome. All 15 factors use this ranking scale with the exception of the economic factor which has a range from -20 to 10. This is because of the nature of this factor, which can result in financial debt to fund the different strategies. The conclusions are an assessment of what could happen depending on the strategy Christchurch chooses to implement. FACTORS AND THEIR RANKING GROWTH RATES AND TOTAL POPULATION Best: The population growth rate increases due to efficient planning and attracting the creative classes critical to the vibrancy of a city. Middle: The population growth rate normalizes due to planning and a slight overall increase. Worst: Population growth rate decreases due to the lack of investments, facilities and low quality of life. Christchurch becomes a city for the lower class relying on social benefits. 254

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios

TOURISM IDENTITY

METHOD AND SUSTAINABILITY OF ENERGY PRODUCTION Best: Christchurch is a fully self-sustaining city relying on renewable resources due to policy incentives and technology advances. Energy efficient buildings and lifestyles are already implemented to create a more efficient city. Middle: There is a decrease in the use of fossil fuels with a growth in more sustainable solutions using renewable resources. Energy efficient buildings and associated lifestyles are slowly being integrated into the city plans. Worst: People are still relying on fossil fuels and when the energy crisis hits due to the lack of oil, Christchurch’s economy and people are not prepared. Multiple blackouts and power-cuts are common in peak energy load periods. TRANSPORTATION MODEL FOR THE CITY Best: The city relies on an efficient public transportation system that utilizes renewable energy resources and has a zero carbon footprint. Due to advances in technology, the use of inefficient internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are almost extinct; everyone can cycle and walk when the distances are not too great. Middle: A public transportation system is used to deliver peak loads

of people with only a few people still driving cars. The interest in electric vehicles is starting to outweigh the ICE mode of transport. Cycling and walking is an increasing means of travel when the distances are not too great. Worst: The public transportation system is unreliable and inefficient; people are frustrated which in turn leads to continued reliance on ICE vehicles and congested roads. Few people cycle and walk when the distances are not too great. CHRISTCHURCH’S FINANCIAL SITUATION AND ECONOMY Best: Christchurch has a stable and growing economy due to attracting creative and innovative talent to the city. Advances in key technologies make Christchurch an incubator for innovations worldwide, and it becomes the R&D capital of New Zealand. Agriculture and renewable energy research are the focus of these developments and in turn attracts investment into the city. Middle: Christchurch’s economy is growing due to the efforts to revitalise the city and to attract talent. Agriculture exports and trade has become the sole contributor to the city; which can be fragile due to unpredictable climate changes. Worst: Christchurch’s economy is declining due to the increased rate


of unemployment and the lack of population growth and quality talent. Christchurch becomes a mere stopover city in the South Island with no real influence in New Zealand. COST OF LIVING INCLUDING ESSENTIAL GOODS AND SERVICES Best: The cost of living in Christchurch is a quarter of one’s income, which when compared globally is very affordable. This is largely due to the lack of reliance on fossil fuels and imports from other countries. Food production is grown locally in urban community farms, and travel cost is minimal due to an efficient transportation system. Middle: The cost of living in Christchurch is affordable when compared globally and is a third of one’s income. Worst: The cost of living is high, people struggle to make ends meet, and it is becoming unaffordable for the middle class which is the main demographic in the city. Crime rates go up as a result. QUALITY OF LIFE Best: Everyone is happy with their lifestyle as travel time and cost is minimal; consequently people have more time to spend with their families and friends. Employment security is high and the job market caters to a diverse field of interests and expertise. A sense of community is thriving which leads to a safer and a more caring environment for all ages. Christchurch rises in the ranks of being one of the most liveable cities globally. Middle: People are content with their lifestyle as travel time and cost is acceptable. Both employment security and the cost of living are average, which means people are generally satisfied. Money and time can only be saved by some; due to inefficiencies within the system. Worst: An overall sense of fear and uncertainty looms over Christchurch as the city is unsure of its future. People are generally unhappy with their lives as they struggle to make ends meet, and with the declining economy, job losses can be expected. Public services are unaffordable which worsens conditions and leads to a greater crime rate and a sense of fear within the city. HEALTH CARE INCLUDING MEDICAL SERVICES AND LIVING CONDITIONS Best: Christchurch is able to provide for a comprehensive health care system due a thriving economy and well employed population. The growing population and wealth leads to building a new hospital with the latest technology and becomes a medical hub in the region. Middle: The Christchurch health care system meets minimum standards, everyone has access to an average quality health care. Worst: Christchurch is unable to cope with its demand for health care. This leads to stressful lifestyles and because of the lack of funding, Christchurch is unable to increase its service. Christchurch depends on national funding. The quality of health care drops and many who can seek services elsewhere.

TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION Best: Christchurch is able to develop and nurture innovative leading companies; which leads to further investments. Christchurch is recognized as a global leader in terms of agriculture and sustainable energy technologies and becomes a city for creative individuals. Middle: Christchurch is starting to attract some leading companies and has a slight delay on implementing the latest technologies. Worst: Christchurch lacks the latest technological advancements due to a lack of interest and influence. EDUCATION AND CREATIVE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL Best: Christchurch is able to nurture top quality educational facilities as the intellectual capital remains in Christchurch; due to internships and scholarships fostered by leading companies that have set up their headquarters within the city. Christchurch is able to attract leading creative minds because of its world renowned facilities and high quality lifestyle. Middle: Christchurch has a reasonably good education system but their top quality students and intellectuals are poached by larger and more influential companies and institutions globally. Worst: A lack of funding leads to a poor education system. Due to a lack of facilities people who wants to further their education must leave Christchurch if they can afford to do so. GREEN SPACES AND PUBLIC NATURAL LANDSCAPES Best: Christchurch has vibrant green public spaces, which adds to the pleasant environment and quality of the city. Christchurch is able to maintain its green spaces due to efficient planning and policies. These green spaces are not only natural parks but also urban community farms, where people are able to grow and eat their own produce through an efficient closed loop ecosystem, such as hydroponic systems. Middle: Christchurch has pockets of green spaces, which are slowly being eaten away from developing infrastructures due to population growth. Worst: Christchurch has numerous green spaces but because of a lack of funding these spaces become unsafe and vandalized. SUSTAINABILITY AND THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Best: Christchurch has a very small carbon footprint for a city of its size and completely relies on renewable energy sources. Efficient buildings and city planning makes Christchurch a leader in sustainable design and a place for globally renowned experts to practise . Middle: Christchurch relies on some renewable energy sources and has the standard ecological footprint for a city of its size. Worst: Christchurch has a very large carbon footprint for a city of its size, which leads to high pollution trends and poor air quality.

PUBLIC AMENITIES AND COMMUNITY FACILITIES Best: Christchurch has numerous public facilities that are well funded and conveniently distributed for easy access by the majority. Middle: Christchurch has public facilities in key areas only which are convenient to access for only half of the population. Worst: Lack of funding results in low quality public amenities which are only accessible to a small percentage of the population. DISASTER MITIGATION AND QUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE Best: Christchurch plans and builds for the future, as well as invests in a little more to future proof their buildings from possible disasters. Christchurch has a few iconic public infrastructure projects that are globally renowned for their preparedness and foresight for possible natural disasters. If a disaster was to happen, there would be minimal effects on the infrastructure. Middle: Christchurch’s infrastructure is mediocre and will result in a large portion of the services and buildings to be damaged in the event of another major earthquake or equivalent natural disaster. However, few lives will be lost as the design standard is to ‘fail safe.’ Worst: Christchurch’s infrastructure is in a poor state and is already failing, services and buildings would fail and many structures could collapse in the event of a natural disaster. IDENTITY AND GLOBAL RECOGNITION Best: Christchurch is known globally for its unique characteristic of being a liveable Garden City, and because of this attracts people from around the world. The city sets a new trend for urban living and becomes a model for other cities. Middle: Christchurch is known nationally as the Garden City and is a popular place for tourists to visit while visiting New Zealand. Worst: Christchurch is regarded as the city that was destroyed by the earthquakes in 2010 - 2011 and the subsequent poor planning. TOURISM AND ATTRACTION POWER Best: Christchurch becomes the tourism capital of the Southern hemisphere, due to its largely untouched green scenic landscapes in the South Island and a vibrant community. Middle: Christchurch becomes a major stopover destination for tourists in New Zealand, whom they tend to stay a few days to enjoy the city. Worst: Christchurch becomes a stopover city while touring the South Island.

Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

255


1. A SPRAWLING CITY

2. AN INTENSIFIED CITY CORE

15

15

5

5

-5

-5

-15

-15

Timeline Graph

Timeline Graph

1. A SPRAWLING CITY

2. AN INTENSIFIED CITY CORE 2010

2012

2018

2020

2024

2026

2028

2034

2036

2038

2040

2042

2044

2046

2048

2050

Factors

PRE

POST

1

Population

-4.0

-9.0

-8.0

-7.0

-6.5

-6.3

-6.1

-5.9

-5.7

-5.5

-5.7

-5.9

-6.1

-6.3

-6.5

-6.7

-6.9

-7.1

-7.3

-7.4

-7.5

2

Energy

-6.0

-8.0

-8.2

-8.4

-8.8

-9.0

-9.2

-9.4

-9.6

-9.8

-10.0

-10.0

-9.9

-9.8

-9.8

-9.5

-9.3

-9.1

-9.2

-9.1

-9.0

3

Transportation

-8.0

-8.5

-9.0

-9.0

-8.8

-8.7

-8.6

-8.5

-8.6

-8.7

-8.8

-8.9

-9.0

-9.1

-9.2

-9.3

-9.4

-9.5

-9.6

-9.7

-10.0

4

Economy

-5.0

-8.0

-12.0

-14.0

-14.5

-14.0

-13.5

-13.0

-12.5

-12.3

-12.0

-11.8

-11.6

-11.4

-11.2

-11.0

-10.8

-10.6

-10.4

-10.2

-10.0

5

Cost of Living

-2.0

-4.0

-3.8

-3.6

-3.2

-3.0

-3.3

-3.6

-3.9

-4.5

-5.0

-5.3

-5.5

-5.8

-6.0

-6.3

-6.5

-6.8

-7.0

-7.2

-7.0

6

Quality Of Life

0.0

-3.0

-3.2

-3.4

-3.8

-4.0

-4.1

-3.9

-4.1

-4.0

-4.3

-4.5

-4.8

-5.0

-4.8

-4.8

-5.0

-4.8

-5.0

-4.8

-5.0

7

Health Care

-2.0

-4.0

-3.9

-4.0

-4.1

-3.7

-3.9

-4.0

-3.5

-3.7

-4.5

-4.4

-4.3

-4.2

-4.1

-4.0

-4.0

-4.0

-4.0

-4.0

-4.0

8

Technology / Innovation

-4.0

-6.0

-5.9

-6.0

-6.0

-5.8

-5.5

-5.3

-5.0

-5.5

-6.0

-6.5

-6.6

-6.4

-6.1

-6.0

-6.0

-6.2

-6.0

-6.0

-6.0

9

Education

-2.0

-3.0

-2.9

-3.1

-2.9

-3.1

-3.0

-2.9

-3.1

-3.0

-3.5

-3.2

-3.3

-3.4

-3.8

-4.0

-4.2

-4.4

-4.6

-4.8

-5.0

10

Green Space

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.5

1.0

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.3

1.0

0.8

0.5

0.0

-0.2

-0.6

-1.0

-1.4

-1.8

-2.2

-2.6

-3.0

11

Sustainability

-5.0

-6.0

-5.9

-6.1

-6.0

-5.8

-6.0

-6.2

-6.5

-7.0

-7.5

-8.0

-7.9

-7.8

-7.7

-7.6

-7.5

-7.4

-7.3

-7.2

-7.0

12

Public Amenities

2.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-2.0

-1.0

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

-0.5

-0.8

-0.3

-0.6

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

-2.5

-3.0

13

Time Line

2014

2016

RECOVERY EXECUTION

2022 IMPROVEMENTS

2030

2032

Infrastructure

-2.0

-6.0

-7.0

-6.0

-4.5

-4.0

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

0.3

-0.3

0.0

0.5

0.0

0.3

-0.3

0.0

0.5

0.0

14

Identity

0.0

-2.0

-3.0

-2.9

-2.7

-2.5

-2.6

-2.6

-2.7

-2.7

-2.8

-2.8

-2.9

-2.9

-3.0

-3.0

-3.1

-3.1

-3.2

-3.2

-3.0

15

Tourism

2.0

-2.0

-2.2

-2.4

-2.8

-3.0

-2.8

-2.5

-2.8

-2.8

-3.0

-2.8

-2.5

-2.8

-2.8

-3.0

-2.8

-2.5

-2.8

-2.8

-3.0

Average

-2.4

-5.0

-5.3

-5.3

-5.0

-4.9

-4.7

-4.6

-4.6

-4.6

-4.8

-4.9

-5.0

-5.0

-5.0

-5.1

-5.2

-5.3

-5.4

-5.4

-5.5

Scenario Ranking Projected to 2050 Table

PARAMETERS (metres) Year: 2020 Phase 1 Inner CBD CBD Denser Suburbs Suburbs Industrial Rural

Distance apart 25 25 30 35 100 200

Width min 6 6 8 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 6 6 8 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 20 100 30

Plot Area Upper Limit = 23 Distance from CL Year: 2050 Phase 2 Inner CBD 35 CBD 35 Denser Suburbs 40 Suburbs 45 Industrial 60 Rural 70

Distance apart 25 25 30 35 100 100

Width min 6 6 8 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 6 6 8 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 20 100 30

2010-2020 0.50%

2020-2030 1.00%

2030-2040 0.50%

2040-2050 0.25%

Average 1.252

Plot Area Upper Limit = 25 TIMELINE 0.56% Growth Rate 125% Total Increase Estimated Population at 2020 Estimated Population at 2050

350,000 437,972

Average Floor Area per Unit S1 P1 S1 P2 187 196

2010

2012

2018

2020

2024

2026

2028

2034

2036

2038

2040

2042

2044

2046

2048

Factors

PRE

POST

-4.0

-9.0

-8.5

-6.0

-4.0

-2.0

-1.3

-0.8

-0.3

0.4

1.0

1.4

1.8

2.1

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.1

3.1

-6.0

-8.0

-7.3

-5.8

-5.0

-4.3

-3.5

-2.5

-1.5

0.0

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

Transportation

-8.0

-8.5

-9.0

-8.0

-7.5

-7.0

-6.5

-6.0

-5.5

-5.0

-4.0

-3.8

-3.6

-3.4

-3.2

-3.0

-2.9

-3.1

-3.0

-2.9

-3.0

Economy

-5.0

-8.0

-12.0

-14.0

-14.5

-14.0

-12.0

-10.0

-7.5

-5.0

-3.0

-1.0

0.0

0.8

1.3

1.8

2.0

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.0

5

Cost of Living

-2.0

-4.0

-3.0

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

1.8

2.0

1.7

1.4

1.1

0.8

0.5

0.2

0.0

0.5

0.2

0.0

6

Quality Of Life

0.0

-3.0

-2.8

-2.4

-2.2

-2.0

-1.8

-1.6

-1.4

-1.2

-1.0

-0.9

-0.8

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.0

7

Health Care

-2.0

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.1

0.0

-0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

-0.1

8

Technology / Innovation

-4.0

-6.0

-5.5

-5.0

-4.5

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.0

-0.9

-0.8

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

9

Education

-2.0

-3.0

-2.9

-2.7

-2.5

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.1

-0.1

0.0

0.0

0.1

-0.1

0.0

0.1

-0.1

0.0

0.0

10

Green Space

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.1

1.7

1.3

0.9

0.8

0.5

0.3

0.0

-0.3

-0.5

-0.8

-1.0

-1.5

-1.2

-1.0

11

Sustainability

-5.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.1

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

-2.5

-3.0

-3.5

-4.0

-3.7

-3.5

-3.0

12

Public Amenities

2.0

-6.0

-5.0

-3.0

-1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

1.8

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.2

2.0

13

1 2

Energy

3 4

2014

2016

RECOVERY EXECUTION

2022 IMPROVEMENTS

2030

2032

2050

FUTURE OF CHRISTCHUCH 3.0

0.0 0.0

Infrastructure

-2.0

-6.0

-7.0

-5.0

-2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

1.8

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

14

Identity

0.0

-2.0

-1.8

-1.5

-1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

1.8

2.0

2.1

1.9

1.8

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.0

2.1

1.9

15

Tourism

2.0

-2.0

-1.8

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

2.9

2.8

3.0

2.9

2.8

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.9

3.0

Average

-2.4

-5.0

-5.0

-4.1

-3.3

-2.5

-1.9

-1.3

-0.7

-0.2

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.7

3.0 2.0

Scenario Ranking Projected to 2050 Table

STRATEGY 1 SPRAWL

Distance from CL 35 35 40 45 60 70

Time Line

Population

FUTURE OF CHRISTCHUCH

Height min 3 3 6 6 10 6

Height max 80 60 15 12 20 20

Floors (Residential) 1 2 1 1 1 1 NET Total Residential Total Height min Height max Floors (Residential) 3 80 1 3 60 2 6 15 1 6 12 1 10 20 1 6 20 1 NET Total Residential Total Difference of Growth Needed and Realised Percentage of new population met Total Floor Area at 2020 Relationship of FA and Population Total Floor Area Needed at 2050 Total Floor Area increase

Total FA (m2) 43,584 282,816 1,330,964 5,949,000 18,450,000 2,198,400 28,254,764 9,804,764 Total FA (m2) 43,584 282,816 1,239,050 8,103,000 17,460,000 3,178,800 30,307,250 12,847,250 578,059 105% 9,804,764 47 12,269,191 2,464,427

Total Buildings 681 4,419 10,064 31,728 3,280 5,496 55,668 52,388 Total Buildings 681 4,419 9,369 43,216 3,104 7,947 68,736 65,632 76 100% Population Supported Population at 2050 Unit Total Unit Increase

PARAMETERS (metres)

Supported Population 2,724 17,676 40,256 126,912 na 21,984 209,552 Supported Population 2,724 17,676 37,476 172,864 na 31,788

Year: 2020 Phase 1 Inner CBD CBD Denser Suburbs Suburbs Industrial Rural

ZOOM IN OF AN AREA AROUND CBD SHOWING THE ACTUAL FIGURES

262,528

Scripting Calculations Table

Distance apart 30 20 20 25 100 250

Width min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 20 100 30

Plot Area Upper Limit = 72 Distance from CL Year: 2050 Phase 2 Inner CBD 35 CBD 35 Denser Suburbs 40 Suburbs 45 Industrial 60 Rural 70

Distance apart 30 20 20 25 100 250

Width min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 15 100 30

2010-2020 0.50%

2020-2030 1.00%

2030-2040 2.00%

2040-2050 0.50%

Average 1.489

Estimated Population at 2020 Estimated Population at 2050

15.0

Height min 15 10 8 8 10 8

Height max 60 40 15 12 20 20

Floors (Residential) 5 4 1 1 1 1 NET Total Residential Total Height min Height max Floors (Residential) 15 60 6 10 40 5 8 15 2 8 12 1 10 20 1 8 20 1 NET Total Residential Total Difference of Growth Needed and Realised Percentage of new population met Total Floor Area at 2020 Relationship of FA and Population Total Floor Area Needed at 2050 Total Floor Area increase

Total FA (m2) 208,413 823,365 2,476,406 7,979,438 16,065,000 1,737,200 29,289,822 13,224,822 Total FA (m2) 276,048 1,144,773 3,620,469 9,316,406 15,795,000 1,409,200 31,561,896 15,766,896 -3,908,638 80% 13,224,822 44 19,675,534 6,450,712

Total Buildings 2,573 10,165 15,849 42,557 2,856 4,343 78,343 75,487 Total Buildings 3,408 14,133 23,171 59,625 2,808 3,523 106,668 103,860 -8,448 92% Population Supported Population at 2050 Unit Total Unit Increase

Supported Population 10,292 40,660 63,396 170,228 na 17,372 301,948 Supported Population 13,632 56,532 92,684 238,500 na 14,092

COMPARISON OF THE SCENARIO AVERAGES A COMPARISON AOF THE SCENARIO AVERAGES

Plot Area Upper Limit = 86 TIMELINE 1.00% 149%

Growth Rate Total Increase

209,552 262,223 65,556 13,168

STRATEGY 2 INTENSE CORE

Distance from CL 35 35 40 45 60 70

375,000 557,915

Average Floor Area per Unit S1 P1 S1 P2 175 152

15.0

ZOOM IN OF AN AREA AROUND CBD SHOWING THE ACTUAL FIGURES

415,440

301,948 449,230 112,308 36,821

Scripting Calculations Table 10.0

10.0

5.0

RANKING SCALE

5.0

RANKING SCALE

SCENARIO ASSESSMENT We generated a scenario timeline and graded each scenario relative to the previously outlined 15 factors. From this timeline we extracted certain parameters to quantify and view each scenario spatially. We generated a script that assigned massing relative to each scenario and its specific ranking and characteristics. From these we generated pixel diagrams to illustrate dwelling density where each grid represents a hectare. For each scenario we created architectural drawings indicating program and a generic example of an urban block for each scenario. As well we created visual perspectives of what life could be like at different phases for each scenario. Phase one is in the year is 2020, which is approximately when the rebuilding and recovery process finishes. Phase two is in the year is 2050. For each scenario we have shown the urban scale, building scale and human scale.

0.0

2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030 2032 2034 2036 2038 2040 2042 2044 2046 2048 2050 TIMELINE

-5.0

0.0

2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030 2032 2034 2036 2038 2040 2042 2044 2046 2048 2050 TIMELINE -10.0

-5.0 -15.0

-10.0

Scenarioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ranking Comparison Graph

-20.0

1. A SPRAWLING CITY 2. AN INTENSIFIED CITY CORE 3. AN AUTONOMOUS NETWORK OF TOWNS SURROUNDED BY GREEN BELTS

-15.0

256

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios -20.0

4. CHRISTCHURCH CITY AS A TREE OF LIFE


3. AN AUTONOMOUS NETWORK OF TOWNS 3. AN AUTONOMOUS NETWORK OF TOWNS

4. CHRISTCHURCH AS A TREE OF LIFE

15

15

5

5

-5

-5

-15

-15

Timeline Graph

Timeline Graph

4. CHRISTCHURCH CITY AS A TREE OF LIFE

3. AN AUTONOMOUS NETWORK OF TOWNS SURROUNDED BY GREEN BELTS 2016

2010

2012

2018

2020

2024

2026

2028

2034

2036

2038

2040

2042

2044

2046

2048

2050

PRE

POST

-4.0

-9.0

-8.0

-7.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.3

2.5

3.8

5.0

6.3

7.5

8.8

9.3

9.8

10.0

-6.0

-8.0

-7.5

-7.0

-6.5

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.5

2.0

3.5

5.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

Transportation

-8.0

-8.5

-8.0

-7.5

-7.0

-6.5

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-1.0

1.0

3.0

5.0

6.5

7.5

8.0

8.5

8.8

8.8

9.0

Economy

-5.0

-8.0

-11.0

-15.0

-17.0

-19.0

-17.0

-15.0

-13.0

-11.0

-9.0

-7.0

-5.0

-3.0

-1.0

1.0

3.0

5.0

7.0

8.5

10.0

5

Cost of Living

-2.0

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

6

Quality Of Life

0.0

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

0.8

1.5

2.3

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.4

6.8

7.1

7.6

8.0

6.0

6.5

7

Health Care

-2.0

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

6.8

7.2

7.5

7.8

8.0

6.3

7.0

8

Technology / Innovation

-4.0

-6.0

-5.5

-5.0

-4.5

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

7.5

8.0

6.0

6.5

7.0

9

Education

-2.0

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.2

2.9

3.6

4.3

5.0

5.7

6.4

7.1

7.8

8.0

9.0

9.3

9.5

10.0

10

Green Space

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

4.8

5.0

5.3

5.5

5.8

6.0

6.3

6.5

6.8

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

11

Sustainability

-5.0

-6.0

-5.5

-5.0

-4.5

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

1.7

2.4

3.1

3.8

4.5

5.2

5.9

6.6

7.3

5.5

6.0

6.8

7.3

8.0

9.0

12

Public Amenities

2.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

5.6

6.0

6.4

6.8

7.2

7.6

8.0

13

Infrastructure

-2.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

0.0

1.5

3.0

4.5

6.0

6.8

7.5

8.0

8.3

8.5

8.8

9.0

9.3

9.7

10.0

5.8

6.4

7.0

7.6

8.2

8.8

9.4

10.0

14

Identity

0.0

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

9.8

10.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.3

8.6

9.0

15

Tourism

2.0

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.6

1.2

1.8

2.4

3.0

3.6

4.2

4.8

5.4

6.0

6.6

7.2

7.8

8.4

9.0

4.5

5.3

5.8

6.3

6.9

7.4

7.8

8.3

8.9

Average

-2.4

-5.0

-4.7

-4.4

-3.8

-3.3

-2.4

-1.5

-0.5

0.4

1.4

2.4

3.3

4.2

5.1

5.9

6.6

7.2

7.8

8.3

8.8

2018

2020

2024

2026

2028

2034

2036

2038

2040

2042

2044

2046

2048

2050

POST

-4.0

-9.0

-8.0

-6.0

-4.0

-3.0

0.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

3.7

4.2

5.2

6.2

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

8.8

9.0

1

Energy

-6.0

-8.0

-7.0

-6.5

-6.0

-5.0

-3.0

-1.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.7

8.2

8.7

9.3

10.0

2

Energy

3

Transportation

-8.0

-8.5

-7.5

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-2.0

0.0

1.5

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.4

8.8

9.2

9.6

10.0

3

4

Economy

-5.0

-8.0

-11.0

-17.5

-16.5

-15.0

-12.5

-10.0

-7.5

-5.0

-2.5

0.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

7.3

7.8

8.0

4

5

Cost of Living

-2.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

3.8

4.5

5.3

5.8

6.0

6.8

7.5

8.3

9.2

10.0

6

Quality Of Life

0.0

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

3.8

4.5

5.3

5.8

6.0

6.8

7.5

8.3

9.2

7

Health Care

-2.0

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.5

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.8

3.5

4.3

4.8

5.0

5.3

5.5

5.8

8

Technology / Innovation

-4.0

-6.0

-5.5

-5.0

-4.5

-4.0

-3.5

-3.0

-2.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.3

5.5

5.8

9

Education

-2.0

-3.0

-2.7

-2.5

-2.0

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

10

Green Space

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

8.8

11

Sustainability

-5.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

3.0

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

12

Public Amenities

2.0

-6.0

-5.0

-4.0

-2.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

13

Infrastructure

-2.0

-6.0

-5.5

-4.0

-3.0

-1.0

1.0

2.0

2.5

3.4

4.0

4.4

4.8

5.2

14

Identity

0.0

-2.0

-2.0

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.6

5.2

15

Tourism

2.0

-2.0

-1.5

-1.0

0.0

1.0

1.8

2.5

3.3

4.0

4.5

5.0

Average

-2.4

-5.0

-4.6

-4.2

-3.2

-2.2

-1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

3.8

IMPROVEMENTS

2032

Factors

2012

PRE

RECOVERY EXECUTION

2022

Time Line

2010

Factors 2

2014

Population

Time Line

Population

1

2030

FUTURE OF CHRISTCHUCH

Scenario Ranking Projected to 2050 Table

PARAMETERS (metres) Year: 2020 Phase 1 Hubs Outer Hubs Denser Suburbs Suburbs Industrial Rural

PARAMETERS (metres)

Distance apart 25 20 25 30 100 300

Width min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 20 100 30

Plot Area Upper Limit = 60 Distance from CL Year: 2050 Phase 2 Hubs 35 Outer Hubs 35 Denser Suburbs 40 Suburbs 40 Industrial 60 Rural 70

Distance apart 20 20 20 25 100 300

Width min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 20 100 30

2010-2020 0.75%

2020-2030 1.50%

2030-2040 2.50%

2040-2050 2.50%

Average 2.051

Plot Area Upper Limit = 77 TIMELINE 1.81% 205%

Growth Rate Total Increase

Estimated Population at 2020 Estimated Population at 2050

375,000 768,457

Average Floor Area per Unit S1 P1 S1 P2 155 132

2016

2022 IMPROVEMENTS

2030

2032

FUTURE OF CHRISTCHUCH 9.0

7.0 8.0

Scenario Ranking Projected to 2050 Table

STRATEGY 3 NETWORKS

Distance from CL 35 35 40 45 60 70

2014

RECOVERY EXECUTION

Height min 15 10 8 8 10 8

Height max 60 40 15 12 20 20

Floors (Residential) 4 3 2 1 1 1 NET Total Residential Total Height min Height max Floors (Residential) 15 60 5 10 40 4 8 15 2 8 12 1 10 20 1 8 20 1 NET Total Residential Total Difference of Growth Needed and Realised Percentage of new population met Total Floor Area at 2020 Relationship of FA and Population Total Floor Area Needed at 2050 Total Floor Area increase

Total FA (m2) 891,648 1,499,796 3,776,875 6,360,938 12,780,000 1,740,400 27,049,657 14,269,657 Total FA (m2) 3,106,350 3,734,181 9,207,656 5,827,875 12,886,875 1,687,600 36,450,537 23,563,662 -5,677,983 81% 14,269,657 39 29,241,645 14,971,988

Total Buildings 11,008 18,516 24,172 33,925 2,272 4,351 94,244 91,972 Total Buildings 38,350 46,101 58,929 31,082 2,291 4,219 180,972 178,681 -9,790 95% Population Supported Population at 2050 Unit Total Unit Increase

STRATEGY 4 CORRIDORS

Supported Population 44,032 74,064 96,688 135,700 na 17,404

Year: 2020 Phase 1 CBD Main Corridors Corridors Suburbs Industrial Rural

Distance from CL 35 75 60 45 60 70

Distance apart 20 20 25 30 100 250

Width min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 20 100 30

Height min 15 10 8 8 10 8

Height max 60 40 15 12 20 20

367,888 Supported Population 153,400 184,404 235,716 124,328 na 16,876

Plot Area Upper Limit = 130 Distance from CL Year: 2050 Phase 2 CBD 35 Main Corridors 75 Corridors 60 Suburbs 40 Industrial 60 Rural 70

Distance apart 20 20 25 25 100 200

Width min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Width max 10 10 15 15 100 30

Length min 8 8 10 10 50 10

Length max 10 10 15 20 100 30

Height min 15 10 8 8 10 8

Height max 60 40 15 12 20 20

2010-2020 0.50%

2020-2030 1.00%

2030-2040 2.00%

2040-2050 3.00%

Average 1.906

ZOOM IN OF AN AREA AROUND CBD SHOWING THE ACTUAL FIGURES

714,724

Plot Area Upper Limit = 147 TIMELINE 1.63% Growth Rate 190% Total Increase

367,888 753,883 188,471 96,499

Estimated Population at 2020 Estimated Population at 2050

Scripting Calculations Table

375,000 713,312

Average Floor Area per Unit S1 P1 S1 P2 156 142

Floors (Residential) 7 4 3 1 1 NET Total Residential Total Floors (Residential) 8 6 4 1

1 NET Total Residential Total Difference of Growth Needed and Realised Percentage of new population met Total Floor Area at 2020 Relationship of FA and Population Total Floor Area Needed at 2050 Total Floor Area increase

Total FA (m2) 1,514,295 843,939 3,004,688 8,065,500 14,703,750 1,409,200 29,541,372 14,837,622 Total FA (m2) 1,378,053 3,936,600 6,347,969 10,798,125 16,216,875 1,346,800 40,024,422 23,807,547 -4,416,066 84% 14,837,622 39 28,223,613 13,385,991

Total Buildings 18,695 10,419 19,230 43,016 2,614 3,523 97,497 94,883 Total Buildings 17,013 48,600 40,627 57,590 2,883 3,367 170,080 167,197 -13,286 93% Population Supported Population at 2050 Unit Total Unit Increase

Supported Population 74,780 41,676 76,920 172,064 na 14,092 379,532 Supported Population 68,052 194,400 162,508 230,360 na 13,468

ZOOM IN OF AN AREA AROUND CBD SHOWING THE ACTUAL FIGURES

668,788

379,532 721,933 180,483 85,600

Scripting Calculations Table

A COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS IN REGARDS TO TOTAL DWELLINGS OF EACH ZONING AREAS 70,000

TOTAL DWELLINGS

60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

CORE

MAIN AREAS

S1 P1

DENSER SUBURBS

S1 P2

S2 P1

S2 P2

SUBURBS

S3 P1

S3 P2

S4 P1

INDUSTRIAL

RURAL

S4 P2

A COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS IN REGARDS TO AVERAGE FLOOR AREA

A COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS IN REGARDS TO TOTAL FLOOR AREA OF EACH ZONING AREAS AVERAGE FLOOR AREA PER DWELLING

20,000,000 18,000,000

TOTAL VOLUME

16,000,000 14,000,000 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0

CORE

MAIN AREAS

S1 P1

DENSER SUBURBS

S1 P2

S2 P1

S2 P2

SUBURBS

S3 P1

S3 P2

S4 P1

INDUSTRIAL

S4 P2

RURAL

250 200 150 100 50 0 S1 P1

S1 P2

S2 P1

S2 P2

S3 P1

S3 P2

S4 P1

S4 P2

Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

257


1. A SPRAWLING CITY DECLINING CBD/ SUBURBAN SPRAWL (PRE-EARTHQUAKE SITUATION)

Dwelling Density

Similar to the preexisting urban trends prior to the earthquakes, this strategy will promote further suburban development. As a result, populations residing in the CBD will dwindle whereas growth in the South Western suburbs will increase as shown in our demographic trends. This will result in what urban theorists refer to as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the donutâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effect where the urban core of the city will thin-out whilst the periphery ring of suburbs will increase in population.

1 cell = 1 hectare

This scheme favours middle class families with Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2020) children living at home who buy into the suburban dream. Such peripheral growth will discourage the vital creative classes from residing in the city, because the creative class (entrepreneurs, film directors, architects and engineers) generally seek dense communities found almost exclusively in cities. With expanding suburbs and no development of the city, these creative classes, which are pivotal for growth within a city, will not be attracted. The CBD will continue to decrease in activity and function more like an office park rather then the financial hub it aims to become.

Visualization for a Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 1 (2020)

The increase in new subdivisions, due to the growing demand for suburban living, will reduce green spaces which will then be detrimental to the character of neighbourhoods. Especially the green open spaces, but also parks and reserves, will be consumed by the growing suburban carpet. This demand for the suburban lifestyle will encourage car dependency which is a growing problem for cities worldwide. The reason why this scheme has thrived for generations is the fact that it requires the least amount of planning and low initial capital investment, while developers make large returns. The success of this model is also solely dependent on the existence of cheap oil which has fuelled the industrial age. Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 1 (2020) 258

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios

Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 1 (2020)

Visualization for a Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 1 (2020)


Dwelling Density

1 cell = 1 hectare

Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 2 (2050)

Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2050)

Visualization for A Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 2 (2050)

Visualization for a Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 2 (2050)

CONCLUSIONS Implementing this scenario can be seen as the worst strategy out of the four. It is simply an inefficient city plan to meet population growth by allowing for continued suburban sprawl and reliance on automobile commuting. The result is likely stagnating growth in all areas and with a slight decline around 2030 when a major energy crisis is predicted to happen globally where it becomes economically unsustainable to use oil as the main source of energy. The devastated economy and already declining CBD growth rate is accentuated even further by this strategy. The spiralling lack of interest could push Christchurch to become a suburban town in a state of decline. Compounded by the earthquake; this strategy could result in a worse conditions, lower quality of life and general discontent. This is emphasized when we compare the overall score prior to the earthquake (2.4) to the end of the timeline ranking (-5.5).

Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 2 (2050) Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

259


d

oa

2. AN INTENSIFIED CITY CORE INTENSIFYING THE CBD WITH INCREASED MIXED USE 00 80 (CURRENT DRAFT PLAN FOR THE CITY)

X-ray Sectional Cut-Away

Dwelling Density

s Bu

p sto

Living spaces s Living space spaces Office ity gym Commun spaces Office retail High end shed bike

Section cut plane

Similar to Christchurch’s proposed draft plan, this strategy involves intensifying the CBD in order to discourage suburban sprawl. The revitalization will be done by increasing the CBD’s density with the 00 40 aim to create a vibrant central city for residents. a re a The denser and more diverse the city becomes, the g pin top ss Bu greater it will be as an attractor for all ages. Most importantly, this strategy will attract the younger class of creative individuals needed for regional growth and economic development.

Shared

Cafe

1 cell = 1 hectare s Office space

Living spaces

s Office space Living

spaces 3000

ces

il spa

High

end reta

ent Pavem es

High end

retail spac

8000 eet

e str

lan Two

2000

ing

Divid

strip

Program colour key Residential spaces

Commercial spaces ne

o la Tw

Section box

Retail spaces

00

80

op

st Community spaces Bus

road

Pedestrian circulation

Outline of building mass

The development in the CBD will lead to the growth Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2020) in demand for suburbs immediately adjacent to the city centre. This could lead to further subdivisions within these area, thus a greater density and potentially a compromise to the identity for these neighbourhoods and their ability to provide green spaces, parks, reserves or even gardens for houses. This will not necessarily reduce dependence on cars as the majority of the population will still commute from the suburbs to the CBD. The provision for public transportation, particularly buses, would need to increase in order to manage traffic and congestion.

Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 1 (2020)

00

40

ea

ping

Bus

ar

stop

Visualization for a Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 1 (2020)

CONCLUSIONS This scenario, similar to the current draft plan, places a large effort on rejuvenating the CBD. However, one key issue that is ignored is the trend towards suburban sprawl which was already prevalent prior to the earthquakes. In this scenario, the benefit of the doubt is given to the city council, that they realise this issue and have placed a limit on suburban development. A possible reason for this scenario being chosen as the current draft plan maybe the potentially fast return on initial investments as this strategy has the highest economic ranking up to 2030. However, what is of critical importance is after 2030 when growth is likely to stagnate. Reminiscent of the ‘Sprawling City’ scenario, this is a result of the global energy Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 1 (2020) 260

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios

Program colour key Residential spaces Section box

Commercial spaces Outline of building mass

Retail spaces

Community spaces

Pedestrian circulation

Visualization for a Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 1 (2020)


Dwelling Density

1 cell = 1 hectare

Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 2 (2050)

Visualization for A Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 2 (2050)

Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 2 (2050)

Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2050)

Visualization for a Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 2 (2050)

crisis, which would affect all aspects within the city. In this scenario people remain dependent on internal combustion engine vehicles as a mode of transportation as well they dependence on their food supply being imported from various other countries. The cost of everyday essentials will increase and will slowly become unaffordable. Green spaces within the city will be replaced with suburban housing due to the growth of the CBD; which is inevitable due to the periphery being limited at its boundaries, or in the worst case suburban sprawl would continue to occur beyond the defined borders. This scenario relies on the infinite abundance of oil; but as oil is a finite resource and will inevitably run out, this scenario has a limited potential for success. Which means this scenario stagnates and then slowly declines when the inevitable shift in energy consumption occurs. This is particularly untimely, as 2030 is approximately when the city is expected to finish rebuilding and it is when the potential period of real growth is possible. The reason for this scenario not turning into a more drastic decline is the overall sustainable nature of New Zealand; as the country as a whole has a relatively low reliance on oil when compared globally. This scenario has an overall ranking score of 0.67. Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

261


3. A NETWORK OF TOWNS DENSIFICATION OF SATELLITE TOWNS CONNECTED VIA A PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AND SURROUNDED BY GREEN BELTS This strategy stresses the importance of dense, mixed-use developments located in strategic nodal points throughout Christchurch. The overall picture would be, as the title suggests, a network of green spaces oriented around urban clusters, of which the CBD acts as one of the unique satellite towns. This kind of Transit Oriented Developments (TOD) encourages public transportation usage as it allows people to live near to their work. Or in the case one works in another satellite hub, it is easy to commute, Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 1 (2020) as major public transportation systems are within walking distances from ones residence. This scheme favours a community identity as each satellite will have unique characteristics reflecting the neighbourhoods they house as well as the type of work available. As a result, these towns will be attractions for all ages; as each TOD will cater to their local demographic. As a result the property value of land near the centre of these satellites will increase. Large green belts wrap the satellite centres providing natural open space areas for Visualization for a Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 1 (2020) outdoor activities as well as creating buffers from the spread of built area. The biggest motivator for this scenario will be human scale communities where everything is within walking or cycling distances and thus will relieve reliance on cars. This coupled with a more desirable public transportation network, such as urban lift share systems, will dramatically reduce Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dependence on cars. Another strategy that would be effective in this scenario is to introduce the concept of localized food production and urban farming to feed the individual community. This scenario allows for each satellite town to be unique yet have shared traits, such as a defined border and a shared greenbelt. There will need to be a coordinated plan to manage issues that transcend each satellite, such as transportation and green belts, while allowing for the individual identities. Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 1 (2020) 262

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios

Dwelling Density

1 cell = 1 hectare

Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2020)

Visualization for a Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 1 (2020)


Dwelling Density

1 cell = 1 hectare

Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2050)

Visualization for A Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 2 (2050)

Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 2 (2050)

Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 2 (2050)

Visualization for a Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 2 (2050)

CONCLUSIONS This scenario envisions creating dense, mixed-use developments located in strategic nodal points throughout Christchurch. The success of this strategy depends on the effectiveness of nurturing areas that have shown potential for growth. This idea of investing in resources that already show potential for rejuvenation makes economic sense. Every dollar is used as effectively as possible to create a catalyst for further investment. In this scenario; the council starts to fund the core developments for these mixed-use hubs, which stimulates growth. Because of this Christchurch is able to recover fairly quickly, with available revenue used to fund further developments such as an efficient light-rail system to connect the hubs. Green space is maintained by creating a natural belt around each hub. The fostering of dense, innovative communities would attract the creative classes and nurture a more pioneering society. This sense of individual identity for each community hub is the perfect starting point for suburban farms to be developed; which would localize food production and in return lower the cost of living and create more sustainable and autonomous communities. This self-reliance and moving away from globalization, would encourage the use of renewable energy sources and alternative forms of transportation such as the electric vehicle. As a result, Christchurch is well prepared and avoids a crisis when oil inevitably runs out. The CBD would be a central nodal hub connecting all the other hubs. Towards 2050 the different factors start to plateau slightly, as this concept of localization would only be effective up to a point, that is when the critical mass and density reaches beyond sustainable levels. However, with the current area of the city of Christchurch and its starting population and capital, this limit would not be an issue until the population reaches over 1.2 million, which is approximately three times its current population. This scenario has the highest overall ranking score of 8.87.

Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

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4. A TREE OF LIFE URBAN CORRIDOR SCHEME THAT FEEDS INTO AN INTENSIFIED CBD

Dwelling Density

This strategy relies on intensified mixed-use developments along main roadways. The CBD will remain as the financial hub in the centre of the city. However in order to relieve the pressures of a booming CBD and growth of the population, the increases will be absorbed along green urban corridors. In a plan view, this scheme is similar to the idea of a rooting system in a tree.

1 cell = 1 hectare

The city’s circulation will have attributes such as car-free promenades and designated public transport Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2020) lanes. These initiatives combined with a light rail system will significantly reduce the dependency on cars as residences are in close proximity to public transportation networks and greenways for cycling and walking. To increase the capacity and density of the city plan; the zoning would allow for buildings with a greater floor area and height along designated urban corridors. This increased density of developments would be a subtle shift in people’s perception as the buildings along these corridors would only be a few stories higher than the existing buildings are today.

Visualization for a Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 1 (2020)

This method is inspired by Melbourne’s city plan and the work done by Rob Adams; which has proven to be an effective, practical method for tackling the problem of suburban sprawl and population growth. CONCLUSIONS This scenario encapsulates the metaphor of the city being a living organism which utilizes the idea of a tree’s rooting system where the main core of the city is fed by arterial networks. This strategy would first identify key arterial routes radiating from the CBD, which are essentially existing streets and turn them into dense mixed-use spines. These urban corridors help to mitigate the adverse effects of suburban sprawl by creating an efficient dedicated public route for transportation, while bringing the Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 1 (2020) 264

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios

Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 1 (2020)

Visualization for a Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 1 (2020)


Dwelling Density

1 cell = 1 hectare

Dwelling Density Diagram - Phase 2 (2050)

Generic Urban Block - Building Scale (2050)

vibrancy of the city closer to the suburbs. The main financial hub of the city would still be in the heart of the city, fostering a dense and therefore more vibrant centre.

Visualization for a Typical Day in the Suburbs - Phase 2 (2050)

Visualization for A Typical Day in the CBD - Phase 2 (2050)

From the scenario timeline we see that it would take a substantial economic investment to upgrade the existing infrastructure to create these urban corridors. Taking this into account would mean it could take longer for the initial capital investments to start being an effective catalyst for the city to grow. However, the growth of the city would be steady and less susceptible to plateauing. As well, this type of urban planning would encourage public transportation and would have only a slight reliance on fossil fuels. Furthermore in this scenario, we can see that the likelihood of the city investing into sustainable technologies is highly probable as these urban corridors could become sustainable corridors, which would influence the surrounding suburbs. This scenario has an overall score of 8.8, with a trend towards further projected growth later rather than sooner.

Urban Perspective of Christchurch - Phase 2 (2050) Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

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ONE

TWO

THREE

FOUR

-5.5

+0.7

+8.9

+8.8

OUR VIEWS FOR THE FUTURE OF CHRISTCHURCH From our findings we have concluded that the best strategy for Christchurch to implement would be the strategy of creating a network of unique hubs surrounded by greenways. Not only is it one of the highest ranked, but we feel that it would suit the city of Christchurch better compared to the strategy of a tree network; even though the tree network scenario has a higher projected ranking in the longer term view. The requirement of a larger initial capital investment would be more suited for a mega-city like Auckland or Melbourne. The city of Christchurch may not have the sufficient funds to make the ‘Tree of Life’ scenario effective plus it does not suit the spirit of Christchurch, where a sense of community and local attitude is dominant. Hence we feel the strategy of implementing dense community centres throughout Christchurch would thrive in such an environment and would be more suited to the current economic state. This idea of localized development fuelling interest in key nodal areas would also help to add to the growing fear of capital flight; which plays a pivotal role for the 266

Den-City | Design | Four Urban Scenarios

recovery of Christchurch. By investing in areas that have already shown potential for growth, it would help boost private investor confidence and make effective use of Christchurch’s limited resources. This strategy, as shown in the scenario timelines, also has the added benefit of a faster recovery, this is due to the nature of localization. By investing in key infrastructure at the economic hubs, the community can grow and start to take its own form and shape. The initial capital investment becomes a catalyst to accelerate the recovery process and gives communities the ability to start to generate their own income faster. Furthermore by encouraging sustainable initiatives, such as urban farming and localized food production, a greater sense of community would be created. This way of living would make implementing and shifting to sustainable renewable technologies, such as solar energy, more plausible in the future. This is critical to the success for a future plan for Christchurch as the dependency on oil will inevitably have to come to an end; and when it does the city of Christchurch could be well positioned, but it must take this opportunity of rebuilding its city as a chance to prepare itself.


LO ALI E ARMING INITIATI

E

A WALKING

O A

A

FA E S ET

FOOD WASTE

L

A

LO AL ARMING ASSO IATION

Localized Farming Initiative

AUTONOMOUS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY HOUSING UNIT >PV PANEL POWER >GRID POWER 5

1 4

2

1.

PV PANEL GENERATES POWER FROM THE SUN

2.

EV IS USED AS A PORTABLE BATTERY PACK, CHARGED BY PV PANELS

3.

CAR BATTERY CAN BE USED TO RUN HOME APPLIANCES

4.

WHEN CAR IS BEING USED FOR COMMUTE, HOME APPLIANCES WILL RUN ON GRID POWER

5.

IN THE EVENT OF A POWER CUT, THE HOUSING UNIT CAN STILL RUN IMPORTANT APPLIANCES FROM THE BATTERY IN THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE

3

NIGHT

DAY

LO ALI E ARMING INITIATI

E

1. PERSONAL VEHICLES ARE LEFT AT HOME

2. COMMUTE TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT VIA WALKING

3. COMMUTE TO WORK VIA PUBLIC TRANSPORT FOOD WASTE

PERMACULTURE ARCHITECTURE This idea for a localized farming initiative takes the unused suburban backyard and turns the unexploited resource into a way of developing small individual urban farms. This concept takes a twist on the urban farm idea which is already popular among new sustainable initiatives. The difference between this concept and the community urban farm idea is the change in scale to a more personal size. The idea would be that urban farmers would be allocated various communities and individual backyard. This utilizes the otherwise unused space of the backyard which contributes to large percentage of a cityscape and turns it into something beneficial for the communities. This concept has incentives for the entire community and everyone involved in the process. The owner O A FA E S of the land leases his backyard in return for fresh produce. A ET While the land owner would have a gardener with the added bonus of fresh produce, the urban farmers in return would gain access to numerousL plots of land and they could harvest crops to sell at the local food market. This could be quite economical if supported by tax-free incentives. The efficiencies of such a system, as shown globally in places like Cuba, Vancouver and Chicago, proves it is possible and viable. This concept could: create jobs and lower the unemployment rate; instil a more sustainable lifestyle and higher quality of life; and reduce waste and increase food security for the community. As well a local sense of communal spirit could develop, which would contribute to the vibrancy of a city.

L

O

4. COMMUTE BACK HOME VIA PUBLIC TRANSPORT

5. PERSONAL EV ARE USED FOR NIGHT TIME LEISURE WHEN HOME APPLIANCES WILL USE GRID POWER

Autonomous Energy Housing & Transport Unit

NIGHT

A

AL ARMING ASSO

IATION

Zhi Jian David Wong, Che Wei Jacky Lee, Praveen Karunasinghe

267


TEAM MEETINGS 268

Studio Life

STUDIO

PINUPS


FEEDBACK

PRESENTATIONS

CELEBRATIONS Studio Life

269


WHERE WE ARE FROM 270

Special Thanks!


We are 27 students and 2 tutors from around the world. We came together at the University of Auckland to focused our attention and design efforts on developing proposals for the reconstruction of Christchurch. We would like to thank those that supported the studio, first our visiting critics: Martin Axe, Mike Austin, Patrick Loo, Jeremy Purcell and especially thanks to the critics who contributed the book: Pip Cheshire, and Bernd Gunderman. As well this course was made possible by the support of the faculty to whom we are sincerely grateful, thank you Sarah Treadwell, Uwe Rieger and Michael Davis for making this course possible!

Special Thanks!

271


ISBN 978-0-473-20317-7

9 780473 203177

Future Christchurch V1.0  

Future Christchurch V1 is a collection of 27 architecture students' design proposals developed in the 2nd term of 201 at the University of A...

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