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STUDIO

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SINE & SOUND performative NOISE BARRIER

PART A - CONCEPTUALISATION PART B - CRITERIA DESIGN PART C - DETAILED DESIGN

s t u d e n t

j o u r n a l / / r i z a l

a m b o t a n g

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A

PART A CONCEPTUALISATION

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content

Page Introduction 4-5 PART A A 1.0 Design futuring 6-7 A 1.1 Case Study 1 : Pabell贸n de la Sed 8-9 A 1.2 Case Study 2 : Qatar Education City Convention Centre 10-11 A2.0 Design Computation 11-12 A 2.1

Case Study 1 : Migrating Formations

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A 2.2 Case Study 2 : PS_Canopy 14 A 3.0 Generation versus composition 15 A 3.1

Case Study 1 : La Familia Segrada

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A 3.2

Case Study 2 : The FabPod - RMIT Design Hub

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A 3.3

Case Study 3 : P_Wall

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A 4.0 Conclusion 20 A 5.0 Learning Outcomes 21 A 6.0 References 132 A 7.0

Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

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INTRODUCTION

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I seek creative freedom, explore new possibilities and innovation in my second coming.

rt & Architecture has always been my passion. After working in engineering and computing for a while I decided to pursue my passion knowing that this would be my last opportunity to do so at my age.

I brought with me my maturity, established work ethics, experience in engineering and computing to this endeavour. Strong discipline and time management with razor sharp focus in my intention had helped me to explore architecture with vigour and enthusiasm. My philosophy in architecture are to be critical and observant to the surrounding that gives us our inspiration, material and wisdom. Simplicity is paramount. Ornamentation is excess. Structural clarity is the holy grail.

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In view of this balance, I have taken the initiative to self-learn major design tools such as Adobe Creative Suite (Photoshop, Illustrator and InDesign) as well as digital painting tools and software i.e. Corel Painter and Wacom digital tablet. As I also enjoys photography in my free time, I am able to include this as part of my overall creative offerings. In addition, I am improving progressively in major 3D modeling and rendering tools such as Rhino 5, Autodesk Revit, 3DS Max, Maya and Vray/Keyshot/Maxwell for rendering. I am also exploring visual programming knowledge through Grasshopper, Processing 2 and Dynamo(+Vasari) however it’s a new frontier to me ,I look forward to finding opportunities to use some of these tools not just for form finding, performance analysis and generative art.

Coming from the computing field, I understand the potential and possibilities of digital and generative design. I see design software as tool to enable exploration. Equally important for architecture students, manual drawing skills allows more expressive work to rather sterile computer generated images. A good balance of computer work couple with expressive drawings , in my opinion, will be able to explain the technical aspects of my design but also the emotive component which can relate better at the human level.

Digital and parametric design in architecture provides new and exciting area which I have vested interest in. In my opinion it’s the new style or ‘ism’ in architecture which is becoming more and more prevalent style post post-modernism. Computation work in architecture further extend the capability of contemporary design to be more responsive to its context and environment thus contribute toward the overall sustainability of the planet.

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2014, Studio Water - Alvaro Siza inspired proposal of Studley Park Boathouse, Kew.

2014, Studio Earth Architectonic study for Herring Island Pavilion

2013 , Designing Environment Proposal for South Lawn

Autodesk Revit & Rhino 5 for massing

Rhino 5 & Sketchup

Rhino 5 & Sketchup

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2014, Studio Water - Alvaro Siza inspired proposal of Studley Park Boathouse, Kew.

Digital sculpture - “My heart is frozen” , Grasshopper scripting with Vray rendering

Digital sculpture - “Glass toffee” , Grasshopper scripting with Vray rendering

BACKGROUND Author’s own work. Digital sculpture - “Affection” , Grasshopper scripting with Vray rendering


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design futuring

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BACKGROUND ps canopy ferda KOLATAN+erich SCHOENENBERGER, partners [20]

Design Futuring : A manifesto towards a sustainable future.

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ur contemporary culture and how we design for our living is heading us towards destruction. Tony Fry in his book “Design Futuring : Sustainability, ethics and new practice” pose us, the design community, with a challenge; to change our mindset and our design values to support sustainable future [21]. As part of the larger design community, Fry proposed the following broad ideas for our ‘design futuring’ : 1. Design is an agent of change and the community must be empowered to lead the transformation towards sustainability. [22] 2. Design must not hide behind the triviality of appearance and ‘style’ [23] 3. Sustainable design must depend on combination of nature and man-made ecology and not each in isolation.

5. We must support, participate and influence creation of design intelligence through design research and critical designs [25]. In view of the above, 2 case studies attached are precedents that display the capability and techniques gained through design intelligence. In Patrik Schumacher’s concept of architecture as an autopoietic system of communication[26], these examples form cycle of new ideas which becomes the basis of critiques and provide further improvements to the existing or generate new ideas which is necessary for architecture discourse. The vitality of architecture as a field depends on its community to continuously produce critical designs [27] as ‘artefacts’ [28] and means of us to communicate to the wider public (outside of the autopoietic system of architecture) while enriching internally the architectural discourse.

4. We must foster design intelligence that have the ability to analyze forms and its context and make important decisions as part of the design process to improve futuring potential. [24]

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case study 1 PabellĂłn de la Sed The Thirst Pavilion, the International Water Expo Zaragoza 2008, Zaragoza, Spain

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his pavilion was built for 2008 Expo Zaragoza in Spain to promote water conservation and sustainability. It was conceptualised from the molecular structure of salt and strongly represented by the form as well as its conceptual implementation of the salt mountain. The architects, Cloud9 and Enric Ruiz Geli were inspired by the water droplets on top of the salt mountain represented by the transparent bubbles on the structure [29]. The thematic approach of sustainable design not only reflected in the form but also its functions, construction material, process and technology. The structure was realized using prefabricated steel components and assembled using common construction techniques and technology [29]. This was intended to be easily assembled and disassembled after completion of the expo. The sustainability theme is further extended to its use of material. The external geotextile skin, pneumatic ETFE panels are recyclable. Additionally ETFE has various advantages in comparison to other common building material such as glass. Its super lightweight, controllable light transmission qualities and has good insulation properties. [30]

the Beijing National Aquatic Centre at a larger and permanent scale. [31] I have chosen this example to illustrate few observable trends in contemporary modern architecture. The field of architecture has progressed alongside computer technology as means of form finding and no longer isolated as tools for drafting and modelling. Computation works in architecture allows for performance analysis and optimised form finding. New research and leading edge technology allows design to response to its surrounding context. The outcome of such research and new technology brings about a new ‘ism’ in post-modern architecture ; Performalism = Form + Performance. [32]

The convergences of engineering, architectural sciences , mathematics and art have generated new building style that are dynamic as well as environmentally responsive.

The Thirst Pavilion, is one of many new breed of architecture testing and Figure 1 : Salt watering system [3] challenging the status quo by offering unique design that is responsive to its environment, implementing a The ETFE panels coupled with brine total sustainable solution through building material, watering system and a cooling system for the airconstruction method and reduction of energy usage. filled pneumatic panels allows the structure to offset Innovative design like this provide critical design the heat gains from visitors and equipment [10]. example for the broader architecture discourse that This improved the cost of operating the building and continues to improve itself moving forward. more sustainable than the traditional air conditioning system. This is the same approach implemented for 8


Design Cloud 9 : Enric Ruiz Gelli, Edouard Cabay, Patricio Levy, Miguel Carreiro, Andre Macedo, Rosa Duque Casas Structural Engineers Boma S.L. Augusti Obiol, Guillem Baraut, Antoni Orti

Figure 2: Pabell贸n De La Sed in the evening. [9]

PERFORMALISM Pritzker Architecture Prize winner Thom Mayne introduced the idea of performalism as separating the exterior skin of a building to response to the climate (form follow environment) [33] while the interior focuses on program/function. However, Neuman and Grobman [34] proposes the idea of computer based architecture that changes the idea of function to performance. Through computation, form in performative architecture is an outcome of performance analysis.

BACKGROUND Figure 3 : Pabell贸n De La Sed [11] 9


case study 2 qatar education cit y convention centre Arata Isozaki Doha, Qatar

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idra tree, native to Qatar, a holy symbol to Islam and represent knowledge of the divine was the concept behind this entrance structure to the convention centre. The architect, Arata Isozaki, uses the structural optimisation approach in arriving to the optimal form desired, mimicking the tree for the form desired. Optimisation method known as extended evolutionary structural optimimization (EESO) [35] allows for sets of criteria i.e. material, loading profile and sites to compute the best and most optimal performing shape with least amount of material use. The optimization algorithm using the finite-element analysis to progressively remove unnecessary material and add material to support loading at load bearing points in repetitive computation cycle. Similar automated form finding and optimization algorithms are now being used in larger architecture firms such as SOM

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Figure 4 : Qatar Educational City Convention Center , in the evening .[13]

(Skidmore, Owings & Merill),Figure 8, as well as Foster + Partners. It’s no longer a novelty approach in form finding nor it’s reserved for structural analysis alone. Through its origin from the engineering field, architects and structural engineers are now collaboratively workimng together in form finding. Collaboration between these groups is critical to jointly define parametric constraints and performative goals of the projects. I have chosen this example to highlight new collaborative workflow in the quest for new design and form in architecture. In this example, architecture and engineering had to come together to come up with a nature inspired design out of an engineering based analysis tools. Similar collaborations in the fields of mathematics and arts for examples had came out with interesting solutions to design problems .


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01 Figure 5 : Sprawling steel columns mimicking the Sidra tree [6]

02 Figure 6 : Atrium [7]

03 Figure 7 : The evolution of form in the EESO application [8]

04 Figure 8 : SOM, Commercial development project in Shanghai using gradient based optimisation algorithm[9]

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DESIGN COMMUNICATION

T ANALYSIS SYNTHESIS

EVALUATION

Figure 18   Major phases in architectural deisgn process [21]

he pervasiveness and availability of computing system and computing power has begun making significant inroad in all aspect of human civilization including design as many feared or anticipated. Design process consists of 4 interrelated phases [36] , see Fig. 18 by which all have been completely automated or highly dependent on computing. The question is, if what Kalay [37] is saying that design is the symbol of human intelligence, has computers taken over our unique characteristic as intelligent being and we are succumb to the power of computation work in all of our design process and form finding in architecture? Computerisation to Computation From its early appearance, the increase of computing power had lead to gradual shifting our traditional design process particularly in the communcation phase. 2D drawings and drafting are now completely “computerised”. However computation is beginning to play a significant role in problem solving phase with advancement in knowledge system (BIM) and scripting tools for environmental and performance analysis. To our advantage, computation work had taken over the processing of vast amount of data and converting them into meaningful analysis that can influence architectural design process. This analysis allows for further explorative study for new ideas and provide the basis in the next stage of the design cycle i.e. the solution synthesis[37]. As solution synthesis is an intuitive process of human intrinsic ability, computation work is now able to assist in expanding designer’s capability to solve even more complex problems by giving a wider spectrum of perspective for more informed decision making and creative insights [38].

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Form finding tools in computation work can greatly assist us in exploring new forms and design similar to the traditional approach of form finding such as plasticine , paper cuts etc. This point is where we can decide whether we will succumb to machine to decide our design or use the “suggestive” forms as informed creative “insights” that we can develop along with our creative expression. Performance Oriented Design As part of the strive for “Design Futuring” where we must consider our built environment in sustainable fashion, this is where the role of computation becomes clearer. Computation work had led to new area in architecture called performalism (Performance and form design) or performative architecture. Performance-oriented design uses the vast computation power and scripting tools to create customise analysis for optimal solution that is climate responsive and while offering aesthetic innovation. New collaborative workflow Computation works have also redefine how architects works. New breed of architects with programming and scripting skills not only generate 3D models but also provide existing archtectural practice new approach in design exploration, performance simulation as well as fabrication. Schumarcher’s vision of autopoietic system of architecture [39] described the building of architecture’s design intelligence through external inputs and internal knowledge accumulation. These external inputs are multidiciplinary participations in research and design from different field of studies such as engineering, biology, arts and mathematics offering new collaborative culture in computation work. For example,


COMPUTATION tools such as traditional FEM (Finite element method) finding its way into architectural design process. Originating from the structural engineering field it had cross-over as an architectural form-finding tool aswell. This cross-over introduces new collaborative approach between architecture and other fields to fully utilised innovations offert by the counterparts. New geometries, new opportunites Generative processes and techniques from topological, non-Euclidean geometric spaces, parametric design and morphogenesis [40] had introduced new shapes and forms never before achievable through traditional design process. The introduction of free-form nonEuclidean geometries through NURBS (non-uniform B-spline) method supersede the traditional forms of point ,lines and planes.The expanded geometric vocabulary gave architects more flexibility to express their design. Consequently, these new shapes had also stimulated new material culture[41] and introduced the integrated digital fabrication technique which is now redefining the architectural design and material production simultaneously. Digital Fabrication, New efficiency

offers efficiency and reduction of material wastage. The impact of this offering pose an interesting social and economic dilemmas which is ongoing debate on the future of architecture and building industry. Digital shift in architecture Computation work in architectural design process marked a new shift in Architectural expression similar to the preceding shift to Modernism from classical architecture. Introduction of new building material and technology during the Industrial revolution introduced the Art Nouveau style with its organic and free forms from the ideas of Viollet Le-duc, Victor Guimar and Antoni Gaudi. Similar shift from modernism to post-modenism was observed from 1920s onwards [45]. These precedents suggest parallel indicators to the profound and transformative shift that we are experiencing at the moment. It’s to suggest that it’s an inevitable change for architecture with the digital design process, the new material culture coupled with the confronting question of sustainability of our built environment. These factors have accelerated the push towards design computation. As a result, design computation can now claims its rightful role in the architectural design process.

With the whole workflow from designing to “making” (fabrication) is now completely within the digital realm, it is also making significant impact on the production/ construction process[42]. This convergence, representation and production, will significantly change the building industry in the very near future once the current technology can be scaled up to practical industrial use.In line with the idea of sustainable build environment, digital fabrication

BACKGROUND Metropol Parasol Redevelopment of Plaza de la Encarnación, Seville Jürgen Mayer H, J Mayer H Architekten, Berlin[20] 13


case study 1 :

D I G I TA L FA B R I C AT I O N

MIGRATING FORMATIONS 01 & 02

New York, 2008 Ali Rahim and Hina Jamelle

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igrating Formations illustrates the convergence of the designing process with the “making” process where the computation work fed directly into the robotic manufacturing techniques [46]. It provides an insight of what is possible in future for architectural constructions. The convergence of design and the making process through the robotic manufacturing technique removes the traditional construction technique i.e. formwork etc. while integrating the structure and the skin into a single form. This is groundbreaking as digital fabrication reduces material and labor waste by eliminating the construction material and labour required for constructing the formwork. This idea ties back to the whole concept of design futuring and sustainable future. The design also challenges the traditional concept of a wall by introducing the elements of “formal, spatial and opacity”[46] into a single form of a wall. Computation work allows for the designers to control the variations (formal, spatial and opacity) of each sides of the wall to achieve their design goals. Although the design, in my opinion, focuses only on aesthetic and sensory affects, it’s however offers possibilities in real world applications with the manufacturing techniques and integrated wall system.

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Figure 9 Formal variation responding to light, shade, opacity and structure [11]


case study 2 :

Morphogenesis

PS_Canopy pluripotent

design strategies

Design

New York, 2009 su11 architecture+design

Richard Baxley, Hart Marlow Partners in charge : Erich Schoenenberger and Ferda Kolatan

The evolution of forms occurs through changes in development Sean B. Caroll

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S_Canopy is a speculative design meant to instigate critique and explore new method of form finding. Exploring the morphogenetic concept from the Biologist Sean B. Caroll’s “Body Part” where he argues that in a cell development, a “gene toolkit” generate an algorithm for the cell to create different body parts from the same “instructions” [47]. Variations in the design outcomes are driven by this parametric dependencies set through the specifications of the local condition and materiality. The different forms generated are meant to challenge the conventional definition of architectural elements such as columns,

shade/roof and seating/counters. Through the “genetoolkit” idea, different forms can be explored using the core algorithm. Parametric modeling also allowed exploration of the performative potentials of the design. Varying the local conditions will result in an optimised shading qualities of the roof.

01 Figure 10 Gene toolkit script varying parameters to local environment and materiality[12]

This precedent illustrate the role of computation work, which allows for experimental exploration of new expressions in architectural forms through morphogenetic parallel. Intrinsic to the exploration is the analysis of performative potentialities as part of form finding. Together they display great potential of computation work in architectural disgn process. 15


generation

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omposition versus generation in an ongoing debate with the advent of parametric architecture which introduces the concept of iterative generation. Composition according to Jacques Lucan refers to the formative architectural ideas[48] during the process of designing prior to the emergence of the final work. Lucan further elaborated, ‘composition is antecedent to “styles”, or, to put it another way … a given composition can be dressed in several different “styles”.’ [48]

In essence, composition is the inputs while the style is the outcome. Generative (and generation as the outcome) in contrast is purely a digital process specifically the process in parametric modeling. Lee, Gu and Williams refer generative as the exploratory process in parametric design where variations (generation) are ‘generated’ by changing design parameters, ‘topological’ relationship and algorithmic rules sets in the design script. They further claimed that this process is a creative process [49] thus putting it at the same analogy to composition. Generation in digital design process 16

allows for designers/architects to explore architectural spaces by varying parameters that relate to placement of architectural elements, configuration and their relationships [50]. These variations are coded through algorithms into scripts and computer programs. With increasing processing power of computers, architects can solve more complex design problems using parametric modelling. The most apparent benefit of use of generative approach in architectural design process is tied to the word “parameter” itself. The ability to set parameters that are changeable greatly assist designers to change design on the fly and view the outcome on the screen. In turn, decision-making can be more precise and prompt from analysis generated from computation work. Efficiency is the by product of this approach. The biggest shortcoming of generative design is the programming skills required to code the script and algorithm in visual programming software such as Grasshopper (in Revit), Dynamo (in Vasari) or Processing, to name a few. Peters refers these group as new breed of designers that he classify as

computational designers [50] . They have skills to understand design requirements and translate them into script/program for design exploration. The computational designers would be well verse in algorithmic thinking to solve design problems as they will take on the “interpretive role to understand the result of the generating code” [50] . The contention here is that does the algorithmic thinking to ‘generate’ design is as ‘creative’ as composition in the traditional design process? Can architects be both designers and programmers? Terzidis argues that the role of architect has now change from ‘architecture programming’ i.e. creating and planning of space to ‘programming architecture’ which reflect the shift from composition to generation.

BACKGROUND Tensengrity Structure [13]


case study 1 continuity

and

parametric modelling

s A g r a d a fa m i l i a 01 Figure 11: Collaborative “parametric model sharing” , Smartgeometry 2010 [13]

02 Figure 12: Digital fabrication robotic cutting machine use for the project[14]

Barcelona, Spain Antoni Gaudi

03 Figure 13 : The vaults of the central and lateral nave.

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a Familia Segrada is an architectural artefact as well as an ongoing development and could be finished some time in the first third of the 21st century. Antoni Gaudi’s innovative form finding method has been the basis of form fining study. With the advent of parametric design it has been precedent of choice in the field. Inspired by rock formations of the Spanish mountains [52], Gaudi was able to workout the complex three dimensional forms of his design through mathematics some 133 years before design computation even exist. To continue Gaudi’s legacy, Mark Burry, the executive architect used parametric modeling technique to intrepret Gaudi’s design intentions and “reverse engineer” his original model to complete the design development and construction of the church [53]. To generate the unique hyperboloid surfaces, parametric modelling was also used in production of the building material (stones)through an off site pre fabrication using computer driven milling machinery [54].

As the construction is funded through donation, the design development is part of a joint multi-diciplinary research and design collaboration involving “parametric model sharing” [55]. It is a collaboration of dispersed design and research teams worked on the same parametric model to come up with an optimised design. This highlights the new collaborative workflow as an outcome from computation work that promote efficiency and working culture. What I found interesting with this project is that the apparent example between composition in traditional architectural design process versus the contemporary digital design counterpart, generation. Antoni Gaudi’s composition of Segrada Familia was in response to the wave of Art Nouveau style in Spain called Mordenisme. His composition uses many geometrical chosen for their formal, structural, acoustical and constructibility. This is prior to any form of computation technology. In constrast the current work inspired by Gaudi’s composition are done through generation from the computation work. BACKGROUND Computer generated model of the nave of Familia Sagrada [11] 17


case study 1 :

performative design

T h e Fa b P o d - R M I T D e si g n Hub RMIT University , Melbourne RMIT Research Team: Mark Burry, Jane Burry, Nick Williams, John Cherrey, Daniel Davis, Alex Pena de Leon

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he FabPod project was a response to the challenge of designing an enclosed meeting area within the working environment on level 9 in the new Design Hub at RMIT.

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Inspired from the anecdotal observations of the interior space of Gaudi’s Familia Segrada Church in Barcelona, Spain, a multi-disciplinary team researched the sound diffusing properties of hyperbolic surfaces [56] to come up with an interesting design that resolved the problem of creating a small enclosed area in an open planned setting. This case study highlights the opportunity of computation work specifically in the area of scripting culture that allows generation of performative surfaces to resolve design problem from environmental influence. While the area of acoustic reverberation and sound absorption is well studied and implemented in concert halls and quiet rooms, sound/noise diffusion is a new area of research [57]. Scripting allows for versatility in the generative design while the team search for optimal design in the area of material performance, prototyping and production of the final structure. Each area of studies will fed their results into the overall core algorithm producing a sample design then further optimised in the next iterative generative cycle until all design specifications are met [58]. As the “making” process is also integrated, each cycle will produce a physical prototype. This prototype will undergo testing and the results are fed back into the script for further optimisation. This approach opens up real world application where design can really be tested for real world scenario. Such opportunity not only revolutionise the architectural design process but also impact the material culture and building industry. Sustainable building material that can be pre-fabricated off site while accurate material cost will reduce wastage. These are some of the many benefits propagated through the workflow induced from the scripting approach. 18

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01 Figure 14 Fab Pod at RMIT Design Hub[16]

02 Figure 15 Responsive acoustic surface[17]

03 Figure 16 The frame was cut on a five axis router[18]


case study 2 :

performative skin

P_ W a l l

BACKGROUND Matsys P_Wall installation at Banvard Gallery, Knowlton School of Architecture, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio[19]

Gallery, Knowlton School of Architecture, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 2006 MATSYS

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_Wall is an outcome of the performative analysis of material and geometry to produce a unique wall design and tiling system. The design itself refers to the characteristics of human skin; the bulges, crevices, folds and cleavages. This project illustrate the self-organization properties of an elastic material under force i.e. the constraint system [59]. Combination of material analysis through physical material experimentations and scripting of the constraint system were used to produce such dramatic effect.

Figure 17 : Transformation of image into constraint points through the use of custom rhinoscript[20]

An approximation of the surface was done through scripting of a sine waveform and the constraint points. The actual self-organization property of the liquid plaster before it sets and material property of the elastic nylon form work as the constraint system were studied through physical experimentation.

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This is an interesting examples that highlights gap between what the digital modeling can represent, from the result of the physical experimentation actually produced. It also offers an interesting challenge to me to find novel ways in mimicking nature in my quest to solve problem in the site, Merri Creek.

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conclusion

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rchitecture is in a verge of transformation. It’s at a point where the role of architecture is in question. Our built environment and the path we take as an architect at the present trajectory will lead us to unsustainable future. A new attitude needs to be adopted that require us as the builder of the future built environment to be sustainable in our design. The design futuring aims to build new design intelligence and empower us to become the agent of change. This mind-set will instill the idea of using our design as a means to push sustainability. In doing so, our design must take advantage of computing not just for automation (computerisation) in our design workflow. We have in our disposal the computation work that can augment our creative intelligence to design our built environment to be sustainable and climate responsive while providing efficient use of space and function. Architecture is also in the verge of transformation of style. A style that is driven by new geometries and computational techniques. Parallel to the shift from classical to modernism, digital design is transforming the way we express our “modernity”. We must not however become complacent and let computation work to express itself though our design. We must instead embrace computation

work as means to find an expressive form that will perform to function and its environment. Algorithmic thinking, parametric modelling, parametricism and generative design are among many developing approaches that we can use to express our design. Architecture as an autopoietic system as suggested by Schumacher will thrives with the new shift to digital design. Our speculative and built architectural works will instigate critiques and become ‘architectural artefacts’ . In turn they will build upon overall architectural design intelligence. The case studies in this documents are examples of the accumulation of architectural design intelligence. To contribute as part of the design futuring and propose a design for critique, I would like to introduce the approach of performative and parametric modeling to resolve one of the Merri Creek environmental problem caused by manmade infrastructure. Using performative design approach, I intend to balance the design aesthetics to the environmental response. The existing built environment has already affected the natural habitat for wild life as well as its human counterpart. The design intention is to lessen the impact of man made infrastructure on its natural environment while offering a biomimicry driven design that’s pleasing to the site users.

COMPUTATION 20


learning outcomes

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he readings introduces a critical concept of Design Futuring which I found very relevant in building my architectural philosophy and influence my design expression. The readings also have given me the distinction between the various terms such as algorithmic thinking, parametric modelling and generative design. I have developed my own perspective on the argument of the role of digital design and computation work in architecture through the selection of case studies .

It’s also a confronting experience with the idea of developing forms using scripting without knowing the final form. This is different to traditional design process which I would start by sketching ideas and improving my ideas with full view of what I wanted to design. With clearer view of the tasks ahead, I am quite keen to explore this new way of design thinking.

The class discussions so far was also instrumental in forming my own opinion about the subject matter. I was able to see through other people’s eyes what is their stand on this matter . As a result I can formulate my arguments better while be inclusive of others ideas and opinion . This initial experience through the readings and algorithmic sketching solidify my interest in design computation and gave me the enthusiasm, confidence ands clarity on what I needed to do to move on to the next phase. It by gave me the “why” and “how” behind the project. Furthermore, it’s quite invigorating be able to explore ideas and forms though the generation instead of the traditional compositional technique I encountered in my other studios.

augments the intellect of the designer and increases capability to solve complex problems. - Brady Peters and Xavier De Kestelier 21


A

PART B Criteria design

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content Page PART B B 1.0

Design Direction - Biomimicry

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B 1.1

Tectonic system - Digital Morphogenesis

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B 1.2

Problem Statement - Merri Creek

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B 1.3 Selection Criteria 30 B 2.0 B 2.2

Case Study 1 : Seroussi Pavilion

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Case Study 1 : Permutation matrix

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B 2.3

Case Study 1 : Analysis

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B 3.0

Case Study 2 : Voronoi Morphologies

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B 3.1

Reverse Engineering - moments

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B 3.2 Process Speculated 46 B 3.3 Process Outcome 48 B 3.4 Drawings 50 B 4.0

Technique - Development

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B 4.1 Permutation Catalogue 54 B 4.2 Analysis 62 B 5.0 Technique - Prototype 72 B 5.1 Rapid prototyping 74 B 5.2 2D cutting 76 B 5.3 Manual fabrication 78 B 6.0 Technique - Proposal 80 B 6.1

Performative Noise Barrier

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B 6.2

Design Feedback

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B 7.0 Learning Outcomes 86 References 134

Appendix 1 - Rating sample calculation

138

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B1.0 design direction_

b i o m i m i c r y “Biomimicry is learning from and then emulating natural forms, processes, and ecosystems to create more sustainable designs” Janine M. Benyus [10]

N

ature has been an ongoing

“tested” forms which are responsive to

source of inspiration in

its context/environment. Structural forms

the quest for design in our

from nature are equally efficient, strong

built environment.

due to its redundancy and differentiation

The

“model of nature” [1] provide rich source

while offering different functions [2].

of references through its forms, structure and its organizing values.

Historically, natural sciences provide references for artistic as well as

In view of finding sustainable design,

architectural form finding. Work such as

biomimicry

of

Ernst Hackel’s Kunstformen der Natur

advantages that include efficient and

influence architecture through natural

offers

wide

range

Fig. 1 : Organic onamentation of Louis Sullivan’s Prudential (Guaranty) Building , 1896

pattern in plant and living being for ornamentation and later discovery of organic forms [3]. Works of John Ruskin and and Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-leDuc referenced the natural form in 19th century neo-gothic architecture while the geometric form of crystal is the basis of utopian work of Bruno Taut and Franz Hoffman’s Glashaus at the exhibition of

engineering

innovation of steel frame

structure of the new typology of the 19th century office building. Natural themes and inspiration persist in architectural style of Art Nouveau, German Expressionism (the works of Binet) to Metabolist in 1960s. Moving forward to the 21st century, we

the Deutscher Werkbund, Cologne 1914.

continue to look at nature as our source

Natural motifs was again used as

expanding knowledge in natural sciences.

ornaments to formative period of modern architecture. Louis Sullivan from Adler & Sullivan regularly integrate natural motifs not just as add-on ornaments to building but integral to the rationalized structure of the new building typology of skyscraper in 24

Biomimicry offers wide range of advantages that include efficient and “tested” forms which are responsive to its context/environment

America.

Sullivan’s

ornamental

natural motifs “harmonized” [3] the cold

of design inspiration inline with our With the pressing issue of sustainability of our future, we seek new insipration through biomimicry to help us solve some of our design problems.


Fig. 3: Bruno Taut and Franz Hoffman’s Glashaus

Fig. 2: Ernst Hackel’s Kunstformen der Natur

Fig. 5 : Art Nouveau’s Maison Huot, Nancy

Fig. 4: Ernst Hackel’s Kunstformen der Natur 25


BACKGROUND

B1.1

Fig 6. Bone Chair by Boris Laarman

Tectonic system_

CELLULAR STRUCTURE

“Recent discourse on digital morphogenesis in architecture links it to a number of concepts including emergence, self-organization and form-finding” [4]

T

he drive towards sustainable

morphogenesis is a process that causes

design have again put nature

an organism to develop its shape. The

to the forefront of form finding

process controls the organized spatial

in architectural abstraction.

distribution of cells during the embryonic

Biomimicry as a form finding approach

development of an organism.

provide wide range of techniques that brings in multidisciplinary contributions

Morphogenesis found its parallel in

of mathematics, biology, chemistry and

architectural

earth sciences to name a few. These

computational morphogenesis. Ongoing

areas provides substance and truth

research in this area explore ideas of

behind the natural phenomenon while

emergence, self-organization and form

architecture applies these knowledge for

finding which are contributory works

its space making and urbanism qualities.

from various disciplines of science and

design

approach

as

mathematics. According to Dunn[6], key

26

A particular interest derived from

to this morphogenesis is the concept

Biomimicry

of

of ‘emergence’ which refers the larger

morphogenesis as architectural form

entities or pattern (that form the overall

finding

Morphogenesis

complex system) are outcomes of the

is evolutionary process [5] of form

interactions of the sub-entities but do not

formation in various disciplines including

share the same properties. This idea of

biology, geology and crystallography. The

‘emergence’ is applicable in architecture

process has since used to describe form

since the self-organization properties

formation in other branches of knowledge

will drive the overall form making this

including engineering, urban studies, art

technique an explorative form finding

and architecture. From its root in biology,

approach. While other areas looks at

is

the

approach.

technique


digital morphogenesis Parametric modelling approach

Fig. 7 : The Parasite Project, Prague 2005 the mechanism of growth or dynamic

[Roudavski]. This would stimulates further

adaptation of cells, digital morphogenesis

studies and opens up opportunities to

in architecture looks at the space

solidify digital morphogenesis as a viable

making and structural qualities. Existing

form finding technique in architecture.

computation work in biology and in particular botany there are computational

Inspired by the abundance of trees and

solutions for cellular structure that offers

diversity of plant life in Merri Creek, I would

practical application to architectural

like to apply digital morphogenesis as

problems [7].

the form finding technique in my project.

Fig. 8 : The Water Cube , Beijing 2008

The cellular structure of trees and plant Digital morphogenesis recent examples

life provide the basis of my investigation

includes “The Water Cube” 2008 Beijing

using this technique. I hope to find

Olympic National swimming Pool arena,

suitable ‘performing’ form that can mimic

structural mimicry of the soap bubbles

process of nature (Biomimicry Level 3)

and the voronoi/cellular geometry of AnAn

to resolve the chosen environmental

, Japanese Noodle Bar. The Parasite, an

problem in Merri Creek while providing

installation for International Biennale

a unique aesthetic i.e. beauty that also

of Contemporary Arts in Prague 2005,

suggested by nature, that can represent

for example reflect the application of

the image of a sustainable community.

Fig. 9 : AnAn, Japanese Noole Bar

computational modelling in cellular biology in architecture. It’s however useful to note that the research was not to offer useful architectural design technique but rather as means to explore the multidisciplinary approach in morphogenesis in architecture 27


B1.2 problem statement Brunswick East Blyth Road

Arthurto n

Northcote Road

Merri Creek Trail

Brunswick Melbourne

( 6.7 km, 20 min)

BACKGROUND Fig 10. Merric Creek and its surrounding

Eastern Freeway 28

(4.34 km, 10 mins)


AREA ON CONTENTION

Merri Creek Trail

is a shared trail commences at Dights Falls near where Merri Creek enters the Yarra River, mainly following the creek all the way to the Western Ring Road Trail. Along the way it passes by CERES, an urban environmental centre promoting sustainable community and living.

Fig 11. Merri Creek and the trail.

Problem statement:

Noise polution surrounding the bridge between Blyth and Atherton Roads over Merri Creek has resulted in degraded quality of living for its primary inhabitants i.e. birds and diverse wild life as well as the transient users of Merri Creek trail and the CERES community. 29


selection T

o initiate the process of form finding, I need to

Noise Reduction Quality_C1

process during the computation work.

Ability of the surface/form to reduce/diffuse the reflecting sound generated by the traffic on the bridge. As the “objective” of the design is to “trap” the sound waves and reduce the energy of the reflected sound waves within the structure , the inherent quality of the form to do this will result in reduction of noise pollution to the external environment.

During the form finding exploration, the variation of the

Porosity_C2

establish some design criteria that relates to the site and the problem that I intend to resolve.

These design criteria will scope my discovery in the explorative

parameters that controls the form will have direct and indirect consequence to the design criteria which I have set up. Having the design criteria will help to reduce the design potentials from the pool of permutations generated from computation work. This reduced set of design potentials can be the basis of discussion/consultations with stakeholders for analysis. The whole process can be repeated for refinement until an optimised form is reached. In view of the problem I wanted to resolve in Merri Creek, noise pollution, I have developed the following set of design criteria to discover the design potentialities of Case Study 1.0 - Seroussi Pavilion by Alisa Andrasek. This will help me to develop my design using the digital morphogenesis technique later in the design phase.

Defined here as the ratio between the voids to the opaque surface/structure, it’s an indicator of how permeable the interior space to the exterior environment. It’s particularly important in adding lighting , transparency and lightness of the structure. Constructability__C3 The term “constructability” defines the ease and efficiency with which structures can be built. The more constructible a structure is, the more economical it will be [8]. To achieve the sustainable objective of the project, I am also looking for material efficiency and constructibility. The target here is to fulfill the primary objective of solving the design problem while providing most realistic cost efficient and sustainable construction. It’s the material performance without looking into specific material per se, but rather the form that can give the most efficient use of material (whatever the chosen material is) This will be a balancing act between the density of the noise dampening criteria versus the porosity of the structure. The more dense the dampening surfaces is the better the noise reduction however this will in fact decrease the porosity of the

30


B1.3

criteria structure thus consuming more material for construction.

the design of the built form and the community.

Additionally constructibility also involves whether the design can be fabricated easily versus complex surfaces that is undevelopable for fabrication.

As a result, the aesthetics criteria plays a vital role in community mental and spiritual health as such that it will further promote sustainable living in the community.

Structural performance_C4 This attribute in the design will indicate whether the form require additional support system or not. Desirable quality would be a self-supporting structure where no additional support structure is required to hold the form up. Additional support system requirement will ultimately add to the material cost thus affecting the constructability of the design. Aesthetics_C5 As part of the overall triple bottom line approach (economic, environmental and social) to sustainability I have taken (material efficiency, reduction of noise pollution), I’m also including the social sustainable aspect to the built form. Although building a social sustainable community around Merri Creek will be a complex task, the build form I’m designing will address a small aspect of social sustainability. Social sustainability in this context is to provide amenities while offering distinctive built form to reinforce/create sense of local identity [9] for Merri Creek community. This is in line with the image of the local community which endorses sustainable living and lifestyle. Linking the design and aesthetic of the build form to local cultural values and aspirations will promote greater use of the area thus enhancing social cohesion. The aesthetics of the built form will conform to the local aspiration of the community. This can be acquired through regular consultation with the local community at the design phase. Community buy-in will result in stronger link between

Function_C6 This attribute refers to the ability of the design in producing spatial funtions such as gathering spaces, voids, entrances, rooms etc. For the pupose of the projct I will be ooking at the ability of the design in providing 2 functions : 1. 2.

Access for various types of transportion vehicle (car, vans , busses etc) to go through simulating a tunnel over the existing bridge. Design can create cavity ofr space to host or contain noise absorbtion or dampening surface or material. A desirable quality would be a design that intrinsically feature a surface that can absorb/diffuse noise. A possible compromise would be a deisgn that can host such surface in a parasitic way.

Biomimicry level_C7 There are three levels of biomimicry applications, 1) mimicking of natural form. The second level is a deeper level of biomimicry 2) mimicking natural process. An fninally the ultimate level of biomimicry 3) mimicking natural ecosystem. [11] For the purpose of this project, it’s desirable to not just mimic natural but also to go further by introducing performing attributes in the design that mimic natural process or natural ecosystem. Attaining highest level of biomimicry in design puts the design at par with other natural organism that coexist on earth over the long haul i.e. sustainable coexistance.

31


b 2.0 case study 1.0

SEROUSSI PAVILLION /PARIS//2007

“Double charged trajectories are producing internal cocoon like spatial fabric _ a system of veils that unfurls through the space building up continuous yet highly differentiated interlaced field. Wrapped in and in-between cocoon’s swirling fibers are the opportunities for different degrees of cohabitation or humans and art collection _ living with art.” [12]

Taking reference from the self-modifying patterns of electro-magnetic fields, Seroussi Pavilion illustrate how computation work can mimic natural phenomenon to generate interesting geometric form and spatial opportunities. This precedent was chosen as an explorative steps towards finding my own unique technique to solve the design problem in Merri Creek. Although it’s not in the genre of morphogenesis, I can see spatial opportunities and potential adaptation of its sinewy lines that represent the field trajectories.

32


BACKGROUND Fig 12 - 14 Seroussi Pavillion by Biothing , 2007

Alisa Andrasek _ principal designer FlowerPower custom written plug-in: Kyle Steinfeld with Alisa Andrasek Design team: Ezio Blasetti / Che Wei Wang / Fabian Evers / Lakhena Raingsan / Jin Pyo Eun / Mark Bearak Michael Reed (computational geometry) 33


SEROUSSI PAVILLION case study 1.0 S1

Species

input parameters

5

curve Resolution

curve Resolution

0.050

point charge radius

point charge radius

24

field lines /pt charge

Parameters

S2

input parameters

field lines /pt charge 100

sample iteration

sample iteration 2

charge strength (+/-)

point charge decay

1

5

0.05

2

0.1

Iterations

10

3

25

0.8

4 50

34

24 100 2

charge strength (+/-)

2

point charge decay

5 0.050

2.0

2


permutation matrix S3

S4

input parameters 5

curve Resolution point charge radius field lines /pt charge

point charge radius

24

field lines /pt charge

2

point charge decay

2

curve Resolution

0.050

point charge radius

24

field lines /pt charge 100

sample iteration

charge strength (+/-)

input parameters

5

curve Resolution

0.050

100

sample iteration

S5

input parameters

sample iteration 2

charge strength (+/-) point charge decay

2

5 0.050 24 100 2

charge strength (+/-) 2

point charge decay

plan view

1 Original design 0.05

0.05

2

0.1

Iterations

Type 2 0.1

3

0.8

0.8

4 2.0

2.0

35


SEROUSSI PAVILLION case study 1.0 Species Bezier Varying the curve profiles using graph mapper component

1

input parameters curve Resolution point charge radius field lines /pt charge sample iteration

5 0.050 25 100 1

charge strength (+/-) point charge decay

2

Parabola

Iterations

2

Perlin 3

Conic

4

36

S6


permutation matrix part 2 Species

Introduce the spin fields components to distrupt the patterns.

1

input parameters curve Resolution point charge radius field lines /pt charge sample iteration

5 0.050 25 100 1

charge strength (+/-) point charge decay

2

2

Iterations

S7

Plan view

spin field & point charge influence

3

4 x Spin fields

4

37


SEROUSSI PAVILLION case study 1.0

SUCCESSFUL SPECIES

CRITERIA RATING

S6_I 2

C1 0.00 C2 0.15 C3 1.20 C4 0.90 C5 0.30 C6 0.60 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 3.60

S7_I 2

(See Appendix 1 for rating details)

C1 0.00 C2 0.15 C3 1.05 C4 0.90 C5 0.30 C6 0.70 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 3.55

38


analysis DESIGN POTENTIALS

Section view 1_ The design is self-supporting through the parabolic curve forming an arch- like individual sections - no additional support system will be required 2_ Share the same spatial composition to the original design preserving the design intent.

Spatial volumes

3_ Cavenous spatial volumes

Plan view

1_ The design is self-supporting through the parabolic curve defining individual slats. - no additional support system will be required 2_ The circular spin fields (repellent field , ‘-’ values) creates a circular “courtyard” within the spatial composition , open air meeting / congregation space.

Courtyard potentials Opened entries

3_ The spin field also forces the composition to opens up at specific locations to form “entrances”

3 x courtyards

39


SEROUSSI PAVILLION case study 1.0

SUCCESSFUL SPECIES

CRITERIA RATING

S3_I2

C1 0.00 C2 0.15 C3 0.45 C4 0.90 C5 0.30 C6 0.70 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 2.95

S2 _I3

(See Appendix 1 for rating details)

C1 0.00 C2 0.05 C3 0.45 C4 0.90 C5 0.30 C6 0.70 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 2.85

40


analysis _[ cont ]

DESIGN POTENTIALS 1_Sufficient number of sections/slats that balances the permeability of the interior spatial volumes with the exterior surrounding. 2_ Maintain original design intent while increasing the number of sectionsto create more distinct spatlal volumes.

selection analysis

F

rom the criteria rating, each successful species have fulfilled at least two or more design criteria which are setup to solve one of the problem of the site, Merri Creek. However this case study did not fulfill critical design Criteria 1 and 2 as the technique used for this design did not address the Noise reduction criteria. An attempt to increase the number of sections/slats out of the field lines may have an opportunity to reduce the noise level however the technique created very permeable volumes exposed to the outside environment. Additionally, such increase also degrade the aesthetic of the built form.

1_ Circular holes on the apex of the domes provide “sky light” opportinities similar effect of the Pantheon’s oculus skylight.

S5_I2 was selected as one of the successful design species as It possess Criteria 3 , 4 and 5 satisfactorily. If the design statement was to search for a meeting place or social place then the arch-like cavernous volumes provides large space for that purpose. This species however introduced an opportunity to create selfsupporting structure which increase the constructability and structural performance ( C3 & C4) potentials. S6_I2 is an interesting discovery. By introducing a spin fields disrupted the original composition however

introduced architectural features to the design. The outcome created “circular courtyards” and entrances which expanded the functions of the overall design. Open air courtyard within the overall composition provides potential public and private meeting spaces depending on the size. S2_I3 and S3_I2 are outcomes of the variation of intrinsic parameters of the design. As oppose to S5_I2 and S6_I2 where I introduced variations in curve profiles and external definition added to the original definition respectively , S2_I3 and S3_I2 are results of varying the parameters of the definition. S2_I3 proposed an optimal number of slats/sections that balances the volume definition to constructability as well as the permeability of the volumes. Whereas S3_I2 introduces the architectural feature of an oculus to each apex of the volumes which can provide better lighting and increase permeability of the volumes to the external environment. In conclusion, the case study design overall failed to address the major requirements of the project. However there are potential design techniques that I can potentially use in my next design iteration.

41


Fig 15. Voronoi morphologies by Matsys.

Fig 16-18 Merri Creek and the trail.

42


b 3.0 case study 2.0

voronoi morphologies matsys design/columbus/ ohio//2005-2006

V

voronoi Morphologies is a speculative design by Matsys Design as part of an ongoing research into cellular aggregate structure [13]. It referenced the work of Revano Satria’s research [14] on cellular solid which occurs in nature in form of human bones, nature’s honeycomb structure as well as those of cork, sponges and wood cells. The objective of this design study was to demonstrate the use of voronoi morphologies as a tool to convert point-based data into volumetric form. The outcome of this conversion produces structures that are applicable in architecture. These structures can perform to respond to their local context. The project also developed fabrications scripts that unfold the surfaces, add labels and prepare geometry for CNC fabrication. As the

project was a research study, it’s highly versatile and implementable on any defined volume. In my opinion the design has been successful in its execution as the technique is adaptable to various application including architecture. Eventhough the case study used rectangular box as the bounding volume for the point cloud, the method can be extrapolated to complex volumes. This will be proven on the next stage i.e. Technique development. The point based conversion into volumetric structure have a strong structural application. A dense point cloud representing concerntrated structural load can be converted into volumetric form to support such load. I can speculate the data cloud can be acquired from the context or initial FEM (finite elements method) analysis of a preliminary design form.

43


v o r o n o i morphologies c a s e

s t u d y

2 . 0

Isometric viewa

Step 1 sa

Step 2a

Step 3a

Step 4a

STEP

44

01

02

03

04

Created - rectangular box

Generate/import point cloud - random points or import data cloud from structural analysis

Cenerate voronoi cells from point cloud

Select cells for substraction


B.3.1 reverse engineering_

Moments Isometric viewa

Step 5

Step 6

05

06

Offset surface border and fillet edges to form holes within the voronoi surfaces

Trim holes from cell surfaces

Final outcone Rendered

45


v o r o n o i morphologies c a s e

s t u d y

2 . 0

Pop3D Random point cloud OR Point cloud data analysis or mapping Box/Rectangle+Extr Create bounding box

46

Populate with point cloud

Voronoi3

Cull Pattern

Create voronoi cells from points

Select voronoi cells - cull pattern


B.3.2 Process speculated

SDiff

Scale/ Offset

Fillet

Boundary + join

Remove selected cells from whole

Offset cell edges for all surfaces

Fillet intersections

Create surfaces for all polylines edges

47


v o r o n o i morphologies c a s e

48

s t u d y

2 . 0

Background _Rendered final outcome with materiality


B.3.3

“

process outcome

A good engineer thinks in reverse and asks himself about the stylistic consequences of the components and

T

he reverse engineering process of voronoi morphologies was successful. I was able to accurately replicate the steps

within the technique to reproduce the same intended effect. While there are a lot of similarities to the original work, there are also some differences. The differences are mainly adjustments in the parameters which I would not be able to ascertain accurately. They are parameters such as number of points used in the point cloud and the filleting parameter used. Fig 19. Matsys original work

What’s more significant is which approach did Matsys used to select the subtracted cells. My approach was to select all the internal voronoi cells that is not touching the volume boundary as well as taking a percentage of the boundary cells. This certain gave a differentiated look from the original design.

systems he proposes.

Helmut Jahn

To discover its deisgn potential thus establishing my own technique which will cater for the deisgn problem I am trying to resolve, the following processes can further extend the value of the technique to the overall design : 1_ Generate point cloud which is not random but rather from data mapping or preliminary load analysis. 2_ The selection of substraction cells are based on a load analysis i.e. retain only cells that is used to support the structure and remove those are not contributing to the supporting of the form. 3_Search for desirable volume What’s beautiful about this technique is the versatility of the definition which can be applied to any volume which has been experimented by the original designer.

49


v o r o n o i morphologies c a s e

s t u d y

2 . 0

Plan view - final outcome

Front view - final outcome

50

Isometric NE - Final Outcome


B.3.4

dRAWINGS_ FINAL OUTCOME

SW Isometric

SE Isometric

NW Isometric

51


Solution Space

Goal Space

Fig 20. Kalay’s solution space

Different volumetric forms

Different GH definitions Case Study Reverse Engineered Design

Case Study

“Fittest” versions

Parameter variations Stage 1

Iterations

Stage 2

Stage 3

Iterations

Iterations

Fig 21. Technique development - search methodology

52

Optimised technique


B.4 Technique_ development

MORPHOGENETIC design evolution of a cellular structure.

T

he purpose of this technique development is

iterations performed in this phase were evolved from 3 stages

to extend the reverse engineering approach to

(Figure 21) :

develop my own unique technique that conform

1_ Iterations of intrinsic parameters

to the Design specifications that I have set up earlier. This

2_ Iterations of cross definitions

is also an evolutionary step using iteration to explore and

3_ Volumetric exploration

discover design potentials that may be applicable to my final design stage. Dunn[15]asserts that digital morphogenesis

Stage_1 iterations involve varying the intrinsic parameters of

allows the designer to evolve series of design potentials

the design.

into a smaller selection set for further development while Kolarevic [16] emphasizes the importance this technique in

Stage_2 iterations extend the design potentials by mixing

architecture that changes the design process from “making of

different computation techniques (with different defintions)

form” to “finding of form”.

into the design which will change signficantly the form from its original design. A hint of the original form still persist due to the

To arrived at an optimum technique (hence the design), Kalay

volumeric form used in the original design.

[17] described this process as a process of searching for a solution that fulfill a prescribed goals as well as constraints.

Stage 3_ will completely change the original form as the

In this exercise the goals and constraints are laid out in the

volumetric container will be changed. This will also illustrate

design criteria. According to Kalay [18], the design solution

the versatility of the technique when applied to a different

can be found within what he called “ solution space” (figure

volumetric containers.

20) where candidate solutions satisfy the design criteria. As described, rigorous iterative cycles in this stage will produce

From these iteration successful species will be isolated/

permutations which will bring up the latent potentials sets

extracted. This reduced set can be used to present the initial

out by the criteria for the “fittest” selection. These criteria

idea and approach to the stakeholders involved. This process

correspond to the architectural requirements as well as the

can be repeated to gain further variations of the design using

aesthetic objective I wanted to bring out for this project. The

the same technique. 53


technique : development Stage_1 // parameter iterations

b.4.1

S1

Species

Point density

S2 Random Seed

S3 Hole size (offset)

1

Parameters

n = 10

S=1

d =0.9

n = 25

S=2

d = 0.8

n = 50

S=3

d =0.6

n = 100

S=4

d = 0.5

2

3

4

54


permutation catalogue

Stage_2// cross definitions iterations S4

S5

Attractor Points varying the holes sizes

Smoothening (Using Weaverbird)

# of attractor = 1 Location 1

Catmull-Clark

# of attractor = 1 Location 2

Loop

# of attractor = 2

Split quad

# of attractor = 3

Frame on surface

55


technique : development b.4.1 S1

Species

Point density

Parameters

S2 Random Seed

S3 Hole size (offset)

5

n = 200

S = 10

d =0.4

n = 500

S = 20

d = 0.3

n = 800

S = 50

d =0.2

n = 1000

S = 100

d = 0. 1

6

7

8

56


permutation catalogue

Stage_1 // parameter iterations (cont) S4

S5

Attractor Points varying the holes sizes

Smoothening (Using Weaverbird)

# of attractor = 3 Varying locations

Frame

# of attractor = 3 Varying locations

# of attractor = 3 Varying locations

# of attractor = 4

Frame thicken

Frame thicken - smoothen

57


technique_ development b.4.1 Species

input parameters 500

point density 3

point seed

90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added %

0.8

Holes offset (% original)

input parameters 500

point density 20

point seed

90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added %

0.6

Holes offset (% original)

input parameters 1000

point density point seed

20 90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added % Holes offset (% original)

58

0.8

S6


permutation catalogue

Stage_3 // volumetric exploration S7

input parameters 1000

point density 8

point seed

1

90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added %

0.9

Holes offset (% original)

input parameters

2

900

point density 6

point seed

90

subtracted cell %

100

boundary cell added %

0.8

Holes offset (% original)

input parameters

3

900

point density point seed

8 90

subtracted cell %

100

boundary cell added % Holes offset (% original)

0.4

59


technique_ development b.4.1 Species

input parameters 800

point density 20

point seed

90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added % 0.6

Holes offset (% original)

input parameters 900

point density 15

point seed

90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added %

0.85

Holes offset (% original)

input parameters 900

point density point seed

10 90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added % Holes offset (% original)

60

0.4

S7


permutation catalogue

Stage_3 // volumetric exploration S8

input parameters

4

1000

point density 8

point seed

90

subtracted cell %

90

boundary cell added %

0.9

Holes offset (% original)

input parameters

5

900

point density 6

point seed

90

subtracted cell %

100

boundary cell added %

0.8

Holes offset (% original)

6

input parameters 900

point density point seed

8 90

subtracted cell %

100

boundary cell added % Holes offset (% original)

0.4

61


technique : development b.4.2 SUCCESSFUL SPECIES

CRITERIA RATING

S6_I 1

C1 1.20 C2 0.25 C3 0.90 C4 1.80 C5 0.20 C6 0.60 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 5.40

S4_I 3

C1 1.40 C2 0.25 C3 0.90 C4 1.80 C5 0.20 C6 0.60 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 5.40

# of attractor = 2 62


analysis_

successful species

DESIGN POTENTIALS

selection analysis 1_ The defintion applied to the volume produced a self-supporting structure. Sufficient amount of point cloud produce enough coverage over the volume 2_ Cavenous spatial volumes 3_ Sufficient number of voronoi cells to create porous structure 4_ Sufficient number of voronoi cells to potentially host performative surface /form. 5_ Surfaces can be unrolled for fabrication pragmatic fabrication method and applicable in real world implementation.

1_ Attractor points allows for modulation of cell openings to inform the site i.e. smaller/ close surface to block noise waves from escaping while larger openings will opens the cells to receive noise waves and/or host performative surfaces ( i.e. hyperbolic surface for noise diffusion) 2_ Self supporting structure; sufficient number of voronoi cells to let the volume stand on its own without requiring further support. 3_ Sufficient number of voronoi cells to create porous structure 4_ Sufficient number of voronoi cells to potentially host performative surface /form. 5_ Surfaces can be unrolled for fabrication pragmatic fabrication method and applicable in real world implementation. 63


technique : development b.4.2 SUCCESSFUL SPECIES

CRITERIA RATING

S3_I 2 C1 0.80 C2 0.25 C3 0.90 C4 1.80 C5 0.20 C6 0.40 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 4.80

n = 0.8

S5_I 1 C1 0.80 C2 0.25 C3 0.52 C4 1.80 C5 0.30 C6 0.60 C7 0.45 TOTAL SCORE : 4.72

Smoothening (using Weaverbird’s Catmull-Clark algorithm. 64


analysis_

successful species (cont.)

DESIGN POTENTIALS

1_The offset value n=0.8 created the hollow opening for the voronoi surface. This is sufficient opening size as the default size prior to any modulation of the opening. 2_ Self supporting structure; sufficient number of voronoi cells to let the volume stand on its own without requiring further support. 3_ Sufficient number of voronoi cells to create porous structure 4_ Sufficient number of voronoi cells to potentially host performative surface /form. 5_ Surfaces can be unrolled for fabrication pragmatic fabrication method and applicable in real world implementation.

1_The smoothening of the form using the weaverbird plug-in transform the voronoi cells into more organic , aesthetically superior to other species. 2_Increased porosity.

65


technique : development S4_I 3

b.4.2 Successful species_ r e n d e r i n g s Noise dampening quality Porosity Structural quality Can host additional surfaces Attractor points to modulate spatial openings Too permeable Complex fabrication

66


S3_I2

S5_I1

67


technique : development b.4.2 Successful species_ r e n d e r i n g s

SUMMARY POTENTIAL

68

Voronoi morphology offers intrinsic structural atrributes to host performative surfaces in Part C.

Spatial void for hosting porous and/ or acoustic absorbtive surfaces

Intrinsic “porous” surfaces that trap sound waves propagate into the spatial voids.

S6_I 1


Noise dampening quality Porosity Structural quality Can host additional surfaces Too permeable Complex fabrication Too monolithic

69


technique : development b.4.2

D

espite having strong set of potential features for use in for my design in Part C, there are

few issues and shortcomings that require further treatment or innovation before the technique can be fully usable. The technique is is very permeable at its current design iteration. In Part C, I intend to address this design weakness. An option to implement is to apply a boundary condition to all exterior surfaces or using attractor point to modulate the exterior surface to be a close surface. .Additionally , I can also use the attractor points/curve to inform the site and have a graduated openings in some portion of the surface while the rest is fully closed. Mapping of specific local characterics such as traffic intensity, site views or some other relevant atrribute that can inform the site can be a good potential to modulate the openings. The current definition did not have a “algorithmic routine” to cull “floating”

70


analysis_

technique shortcomings

voronoi cells. The technique I used culled certain percentage of the boundary voronoi cells to give the aggregated or growth look. A different approach is needed in

The

complexiety of the fabrication

reduce the constructability of the design. Prefabrication technique will not work in this situation due to the varying dimensions

replacement to resolve the issue at hand.

of the members, The technique do however

The technique also used GH random

form and further fabricated.

allow for the surfaces to be unrolled to 2D

numbers component to generate the centre points of the voronoi cells. When applied to a volume, culling the points that are outside of the volume created voids within the voronoi patterns as such that it created patches of voids on the volume surface. My design intention was the voronoi cells are aligned to the boundary surface to create a seamless surface that reflect the volumetric form. Extruded 2D voronoi pattern or some other geometric pattern can potentially retain the boundary surface, however I may lose the cellular attribute of the design. The fabrication of the technique can pose a great challenge due to its irregular pattern or having the emergent qualities.

71


B.5 Technique prototypes

1.

T

o fabricate the different successful iterations I

to the LEGO pieces. Thera are many drawback of this approach

have looked at 4 fabrrication approaches

at which will be detailed out in the subsequent section on the fabrication details.

Rapid prototyping - 3D printing

2.

2D cutting - Card cutter

I have used two techniques in 2D cutting which each of

3.

2D cutting - Laser cutter

them have different material requirements and preparation

4.

Manual fabrication

approaches.

Rapid prototyping is an additive process (19) in digital

2D cutting using card cutter, uses a flatbed cutting plotter

fabrication. There are various methods of this additive oriented

from Graphtec which accurately cut 2D line “drawing” on light

process such as Stereolithography(SLA) that uses

to medium density card sheet. The standard thickness for

liquid polymers as the material which then is melted and

the FabLab cutter is 1mm thickness. However this was not

solidify as laser light “traced” through them. This would be the

achieve due to broken machine at FabLab.

preferred technique for the complex form of my prototypes. This approach offers high degree of accuracy and high quality

2D cutting using laser cutter, uses similar conventional

in surface finish or detailing. I have not been able to use this

model making technique of cutting sheets of material and

approach due to its cost and availability of the fabrication

assemble to form the final three dimensional design. This

machine.

approach gave the ability to cut up to 20mm thickness of material [20] . In this instance, I am using box board as well

The rapid prototyping technique I end up using is the Fused

as MDF sheet. For assembly due to its thickness, using MDF

Deposition Modelling (FDM) where the object is

as the fabricatio material requires that I build notches on

fabricated by melting plastic filament which solidifies as it

each part for connection while using box board a simple butt

cools. The layer after layers are builts on top of each other

joint with glue will suffice. This process is elaboared in the

to form the final object. In my instance I have used 1.75mm

subsequent sections.

diameter filament of ABS materaial which is similar material 72


Figure 22: Laser cutting machine

Figure 23 : Stereolithography

Manual fabrication, try to simulate a possible real world fabrication method. It’s possible to explore/emulate welded steel member (possibly Circular hollow section, CHS) with a hollowed steel sheets to make up the surfaces of the voronoi cells. This technique will use combination of steel wires soldered together ate ends with hollow cardboard glued to the wires . In short, each of these technique requires different techniques and ultimately chanegs the overall form and aesthetics of the final form due to their limitations and material constraints. Additionally, the scale of the prototypes has to be considered for each of the technique however by fabricating the form in parts will scale up the model with the consideration of time , material and ultimately cost in mind.

Figure 24 : Laser cutting machine

73


technique Prototypes b.5.1

74


rapid prototyping 3D printing using FDM method 01 3D PRINTER Fig.26 PP3DP UP Plus 2 3D printer at the fablab.

I

02 converting to stl file Fig. 27 Export Rhino model to STL file readible in the staging software.

03 UP 2 printing software Fig. 28 Importing the STL file into the UP 2 staging software

04 Printing

Fig. 29

Printing process

05 3d print Massing model Fig. 30 The massing 3D model for the voronoi cells.

06 Massing model DRAWING Isometric line drawing of the massing model ; partial massing

n my initial evaluation, 3D printing was a good candidate to fabricate my model. However after understanding various techniques and 3D fabrication machines, there are serious concerns that compromises the delivery and final finish of the prototype. As

mentioned

earlier,

the

Stereolithography(SLA)approach

is the most suitable for thin and hollow model like my model. The liquid polymers changes state into solid as the laser light traces the polymers and build the layers one after the other once it hardens. The final form is treated to ensure tougher finish. This method is however not available in Fablab and is currently expensive. An alternate method is using the FabLab’s ZPrinter 450 that employs ceramic powder in layers bonded together to form the final 3D model. The advantage of this method is that it’s a zero waste fabrication as the excess powder can be extracted and reuse. I did not use this method as the model needs to be prepared well in advance by Fablab. I may be looking at this method for my final design when I have more time to prepare the model for submission.

approach is not entirely suitable for my model due to its thin and irregular shapes. The constraint was due to the hollow nature of the voronoi cell which the printer will have to build support for portions that spans the hollow space. This is a wasteful as the support will be removed at later stage. Additionally, removing the harden support from the printed support may compromise the model as it’ slim and fragile. I was however able to print a massing prototype of the voronoi cells to give an idea of the pattern and form of my technique. As the prototype using the 3D model is an exact replica of the intended design, no additional connection need to hold them together other than gluing the bottom cells to the model base. As mentioned, I was not able to achieve the intended effect of the hollowed voronoi cells, the prototype is merely a suggestion to inform of the overall form of my design.Having the solid characteristic of the prototype, the performance of this fabrication technique is better than the other methods tried on this exercise. The prototype may achieve the strcutural performace criteria however it does not fulfill most other criteria set for the brief.

The approach that I have decided to use for 3D printing is the FDM fabrication using the UP Plus 2 printer using ABS filament. This approach is the most cost effective and accessible in Fablab. However this

75


technique Prototypes b.5.2 assembly diagram & laser cutting template

Cell 01

Cell 02

Cell 03

Cell 04

Fig. 31

76

Cell 04

Fig. 32

Fig. 33


2D cutting_ box board

Cell 04

Cell 03

Cell 05

fabricated units

Cell 02

Cell 01

prototype - parts diagram

Fig. 34

77


technique Prototypes b.5.3 2.7

01 cutting wires to length

3.4

3.1

Fig. 35

3.6 1.7

2.1 2.6

3.4 3.4 5.1

4.4 4.7

4.7

2.1

1.7 7.5

5.7

3.6

5.7

7.6 7.5

02 soldering the connection of the frame Fig. 36

4.4

02 assembLED UNITS Fig. 38

78

2.9

4.4

3.1

2.6 2.6

3.1

5.1

5.1

4.7

4.7

3.9

2.7

Fig. 37

3.4

7.6 2.9

2.9

02 assembling the frames together

4.7

6.1

3.9

6.1

2.9

3.9

2.7 6.1

Sample Specification for voronoi cell unit : Cell 1


MANUAL FABRICATION Wires & soldering

2 27 32 30

18

29

25

22 31

28

28 20

14

24 19

4

22

25

23 26

21

R

32 15 26 16 21

17 1

0

The voronoi cells can be fabricated using steel pipes/ SHS (square hollow section) and laser cut hollowed steel sheet as the voronoi surface. The hollowed steel sheet can be bolted to the pipes/ SHS at the junctions.

18

16

7

11

3

24 34

10

34 12

29

31

13

14

4

6

3

7

0

5

2

8 33

1

19

esorting to traditional fabrication technique to show the possibility of real world fabrication of steel and laser cut steel sheet that makes up the hollowed surface of the voronoi cell.

9

Automation of the dimensioning process can be assisted via grasshopper to generate markings/label for assembly and can be etched (score) through laser cutting for assembly. Assembly drawing is also required to identify the connections of all members as well as the voronoi surfaces.

33

Although, I am referencing steel as the fabrication material, this may not be suitable for this project due to my sustainability objective. This technique performed better under a stress condition applied to it. The rigid connections at the junctions displayed ideal characteristic suitable for actual fabrication. IT also uses less material than the 3D printing approach.

Sample assembly drawing for voronoi cell unit : Cell 1

79


p r o b l e m & solution Fig. 39

Merri Creek Trail D

Blyth Ro ad

C B A

Average noise level recorded (dB) Weekday Peak

Weekend

A

48

54

48

B

71

83

66

C

58

61

54

D

47

49

45

Common noise sources (dB) [21] Noisy urban daytime

80

Commercial area

60

Quiet urban daytime

50

Quiet urban nightime 40 80

Merri Creek Trail

Arthurto n

Road


B.6 technique proposal

Problem Statement Noise pollution from traffic over the bridge between Blyth and Atherton Road over Merri Creek is degrading the quality of living for its inhabitants; wildlife and the user of the Merri Creek Trail

Solution proposal Design a performative noise barrier along the bridge to reduce the noise pollution to an acceptable level.

81


technique proposal b.6.1 Host structure - cellular Proposed technique

+ Fig. 39

Fig. 40 : The three main types of porous absorbing materials.

Part B - Development

A

s laid out by the problem statement, the noise pollution

I will be using the technique I have developed in Part B to achieve

generated by the heavy traffc over the bridge at Blyth

a viable structure to host the performative surface. As illustrated

and Atherton road impact the local fauna especially

in the technique development, the form can can be generated form

the birds in that area. I am proposing a performative noise barrier

this technique posses intrinsic quality of porosity which can trap

structure on the bridge to lessen the impact of the noise pollution .

the the sound waves created by the traffic.

My concept of the noise barrier will be two pronged :

With the inclusion of the performative acoustical surface to this

1_A host structure that willl take on morphogenesis of the cellular

structure placed strategically within the spatial voids will further

structure of typical plant taking reference from the abundance of

enhance the performance of the noise reduction. The performative

the diverse flora in Merri Creek (Figure 11).

surface will either be a designed surface that have a performing

2_ A performative surface ithe by design or materiality that display

quality or a selected materaility that can perform at the same level

good level of porosity to absob the noise and/or diffusive quality to

which can further simply the overall design.

deflect and dampen the noise level.

82


performative noise barrier Performative acoustical surfaces

Fig. 42

+

DESIGN PRECEDENCE Fig. 43

Fig. 41 : FABPOD - RMIT Design Hub

Part C - Development •

Use of sound scattering properties of hyperboloids surfaces

Inspired by Gaudi’s use of hyperboloid forms in La Familia Segrada

Diffusive sound quality within the enclosure

The design considerations for this project can be summarised as :

existing bridge structure. 4_To maintain the viewscape surrounding the bridge. This limits

1_The height and width of proposed structure. A typical height of

the height of the structure. Alternate approach would be to look

a noise barrier wall starts at the line of sight (typically 2-3 meters)

into increasing the transparency of the structure so that some

with a typical noise reduction of 5dB with 1.5dB reduction for every

views are maintained despite the imposing structure.

1m height increment. The objective is to reduce the noise by 1020dB from the peak value [22].

The above requirements will bcome the task to be undertaken in the final design phase, Part C.

2_ As the structure will be built on the bridge or possibly through a parasitic approach The width of the strcure will be deternine by the width of the bridge tha can accommodate 2 lanes of trafic. 3_The structure should not add significant amount of load to the

83


technique proposal b.6.2

F

eedback from the interim review highlights

Additionaly the proximity of CERES to the problem area

major issues and concern that neede to be

and the frequent use of Merri Creek trail does justify the

address in my next design iteration, Part C.

need to solve the noise problem over the bridge. It’s a

One of the fundamental comment made in the Crit was

justifiable problem and not a solution trying to find a

the lack of clarity to whom am I solving the problem for.

problem.

To resolve this confusion, I proposed the solution to

84

the problem was intended primarily for the local wildlife

A comment by the panel about the technique producing

that form an integrated ecosystem of Merri Creek. From

a monolithic design posed another dilemma to the

observation of the site, there is lack of presence of local

design challenge. The bridge over Merric Creek itself is

birds near the bridge as oppose to the diverse fauna

a monolithic human creation. A design solution to this

moving away from the noisy bridge. If human had built

is to build a “lighter” structure by using the intrinsic

the bridge and benefit from the access created, it would

nature of the technique i.e. porosity to let more lights

be equally fair for us to solve the problem we created

and transparency to the overall form. A possible thin

for the fauna in Merri Creek. The fundamental question

and “transparent” skin can also overcome the problem.

is should we quantify the value of sustainability of the

Another possibility recommended was to redesign the

fauna to justify the constructtion of the noise barrier.

existing bridge using the technique to solve the noise


i n t e r i m presentation

feedback

problem while finding suitable form that minimises its footprint on the site. This can be explored in Part C however due to the time constraint, this may not be a feasible approach. It was also recommended that a possible solution to the performative surface can be approached via the materiality of the surface i.e. a porous surfacea. This is deinitely a viable solution to save time and cost effectiveness of the overall project. In conclusion, a thorough analysis will be undertaken to evaluate these comments and their feasibility to be added into the next design stage , Part C.

85


learning objectives

F

rom the handbook, the whole experience in Studio Air is driven by specific objectives. In relation to Part B - Criteria Design, I can identifty the specific objectives and how they are being met in my own experience: Objective 1 “Interrogating a brief” - in the tutorial group we were assigned a research topic in this case biomimicry. By researching what biomimicry is and how we can emulate nature through biomimetic design gave us the opportunity to interrogate the brief. We interrogate the brief by developing a set of design criterai which is site specific. The process also took advantage of the nonlinear and iterative nature of digital design specifically parametric design to manipulate options to achieve the brief.

Objective 5 “Case for proposal” - the progressive work within Part B with an eventual delivery of a proposal develop our skills in critical thinking and making a case for design through precedents, analysis and innovation through discovery. Precedent analysis also allows for critical evaluation of “good work” or “successful built work” as a foundation of further innovations in design. Research accompanying analysis and design proposal will furthur substantiate design proposal.

Objective 2

Objective 6

“Generate design possibilities for a given situation” - the iterations of the case studies enabled us to develop technique to analyze design possibilities. The two tiered approach of iterative discovery i.e. Case Study 1 , to explore existing work and spot latent design potentials and architectural features, Case Study 2, to reverse engineer a precedent and innovate through experimentation, when combined became an effective approach to filter design potentialities. Wide range of design tools through GH definitions allows us to fully explore design possibilities.

“Design analysis of contemporary architectural project” - case studies and precedent works are used to develop design analysis.

Objective 3 “Develop skills in various three dimensional media” - the production of the journal as well as the weekly algorithmic task requires that we work on different tools and technique in producing wide range of media such as 3D modeling, diagrammatic analysis, page design as well as image editing. Furthermore, typical of a studio based learning, model making was included however new technique of digital fabrication is introduced. Objective 4 “Develop understanding of relationship between

86

architecture and air” - the computational nature of digital design isolates us from the actual site. However by bringing the site context, interrogating the site and developing actual model that is site specific tie together the virtuality of computation work with the actuality of the physical site.

Objective 7 “Understanding of computational geometry, data structures and programming” - extensive weekly video and exercises in grasshopper definition introduces many aspects of use of new and traditional geometry in space making, ornamentation as well as performative. Example and exercises in list manipulation and management illustrates the complex nature of data structure. Introductory exposure in scripting illustrates its importance in extending the functionality and potential in visual programming. Objective 8 “Develop own computational techniques” - innovation through discovery when using and mixing different GH definitions. Accumulating personalised definitions through the iterative process and discovering the latent potentials for space making, ornamentation and performative.


b . 7. 0

learning outcomes

M

y personal learning outcomes are also driven by the objective set out in the course:

Objective 1 “Interrogating a brief” - through personal site visit, developing a problem statement as well as the design criteria that are sensitive to the site guided my design discovery through the technique development. Research in biomimicry and biomimetic design gave me the basis of my explorative work. Objective 2 “Generate design possibilities for a given situation” from the case studies analysis; in Case Study 1 despite the limitation of the possible relevant case study to my area of research i.e. digital morphogenesis, I was able to discover potential space making technique through computation work. Variation of parameters in iterations generated new potentials. Case study 2 further developed my skills to analyze and take advantage of different computational techniques to generate new potentials in design. The explorative nature of the iterative process futher enhances my ability to innovate and develop my own repertoire of GH definitions that generate specific outcomes. Objective 3 “Develop skills in various three imensional media” - I was able to learn new technique in model making using digital fabrication. I also developed new understanding on materiality and how it’s closely tied to the fabrication process or technique. Realizing the limitations of the various techniques will helped me pick the best approach in fabricating my model to achieve my design intentions; massing, prototypes and presentation. My only regret was the I did not have enough time to fully explore the various fabrication techniques. I feel that fabrication is an integral part of computation work. I felt that this experience is not fairly weighted in the learning process despite its growing importance. However I fully acknowledged its importance and hope to acquire the skills in other opportunities.

Objective 4 “Develop understanding of relationship between architecture and air” - constantly interrogating the brief and site allowed me to inform y design especially when I was considering the performative approach in my technique. By mapping the local context, my deisgn can be site responsive and establsihed a continuing link between my design process and the actual physical environment. Objective 5 “Case for proposal” - I felt that I was not taking full advantage of this experience to develop a critical analysis and substantiate my proposal in Part B. I was very conservative and cautious in my selection of case studies and looking back I realize I am able to take design risk and explore more innovative and diiffcult case study to reverse engineer. Objective 6 “Design analysis of contemporary architectural project” - The lack of relevant case studies (Case Study 1.0) that I can select from the list had impacted my ability ot innovate in Part B. Felt that with more challenging examples I could discover more relevant technique. Objective 7 “Understanding of computational geometry, data structures and programming” - I have developed expanded GH “vocabulary” but what’s more imporatnt was my have acquired the essential skill of algorithmic thinking where I have to break down problems into little pieces than tackle these problem one at a time to achieve the overall objectives. I think this learning experience was my more significant breakthrough in my learning experience. Objective 8 “Develop own computational techniques” - I would like to use my Studio Air experience as an additional skills as pary of my overall skill portfolio. What I took from part B, It’s not a style but rather a tool that I can use to inform my design, be site responsive and create performative design that promotes sustainability. 87


A

PART C detailed design

88


content Page PART C C1.1 Interim Feedback 90 C1.2

The Concept : Sine & Sound

91

C1.3

In search of style : Critical Regionalism

92

C1..4

Precedent - Japan Pavilion, Hanover 2000

94

C1.5

Form finding - Mathematical recipe

96

C1.5.1 Architectural qualities 98 C1.5.2

Form finding - Site response 100

C 1.6

Technique development - 2D voronoi pattern

102

C 1.6.1

Pattern Making - SIte response

104

C 1.7

Technique development - workflow 106

C2.0 Tectonic Elements 108 C2.1

Tectonic - Sound diffusing panels

110

C2.1.1

Tectonic - voronoi cells

111

C2.2

Production process 112

C2.3

Construction process 114

C2.4 Prototypes 116 C3.0 Final Detail Model 118 C4.0

Drawings & Renderings - Section views

120

C4.1 Renderings 122 C4.2 Design in Context 126 C3.1.2

Mood, lighting & shading

128

C.4.0

Learning Objectives & Outcomes

130

References 136

89


C1.1 feedback

F

eedback from the interim

the proximity of CERES to the problem

be around 5000 to 10000 cells which will

review highlights

major

area and the frequent use of Merri Creek

give finer quality to the suface and reduce

issues and concerns that

trail justifies the need to solve the noise

the monolithic appearence. However

problem over the bridge.

this will impose tremendous amount of

needed to be addressed in the next design iteration, Part C.

computing power beyond the scope of One of the comment made was how

this project resources. A new approach/

One of the fundamental comment made

monolithic the design is. This is due

technique is required to resolve this

in the Crit was the lack of clarity to

to the scale of the voronoi cells. The

fundamental design problem.

whom am I solving the problem for. To

number of voronoi cells required to

resolve this confusion, I proposed the

generate the existing design is about

A recommendation was made to a

solution to the problem as intended

800 cells. This number is the limit of my

possible solution for the performative

primarily for the local wildlife that form

existing computer ability to compute

surface. This can be approached through

an integrated ecosystem of Merri Creek.

the grasshopper defintion. This resulted

materiality i.e. porous surface. This is

From observation of the site, there is lack

in relatively large voronoi cells to cover

definitely a viable solution to save time

of presence of local birds near the bridge

the size of the project. The monolithic

and cost effectiveness of the overall

as oppose to the diverse fauna moving

attribute of the design can be addressed

project as there’s an existing solution to

away from the noisy bridge. If human

by increasing the number of voronoi cells.

the problem.

had built the bridge and benefit from the

Additionally the smaller the cells the more

access created, it would be equally fair

apparent the container form will appear

In conclusion a new design approach is

for us to solve the problem we created

which is a desirable effect. I speculate

needed to fulfill the project brief hence

for the fauna in Merri Creek. Additionally

the optimum number of cells required will

the final concept of : SINE & SOUND is adopted.

90


C1.2 the concept : sine & sound

t

he concept behind my design is inspired

The second component of the concept is the digital

by the elemental component of sound,

morphogenesis idea which I wanted to carry through

sinusoidal waves ( sine waves in short).

the project that reflect the cellular aspect of nature. The

The combination of sine waves made up

ideas of cellular structure and randomness of nature is

the different types of sound in the natural state i.e.

reflected in the pattern making process. Once the final

noise, human voice, music etc. The sine waves of sound

form is achieved, 2D voronoi pattern is projected then

are vibrations that travel through air that radiates

extruded to form the final overall design. The randomness

from

sources.

of the pattern will appear onceit’s

This elemental component is

the

sound

subjected to the traffic pattern

refected in the core deisgn problem I am trying to resolve, noise pollution. Additionally the component is also part of the diverse sound sources in Merri Creek i.e. natural sound sources form its fauna nd flora. The overall technique is a

Form finding & pattern making

over the bridge. To minimize the impact of traffic noise to the adjascent bird “colonies�, the design will block out traffic noise at the locations nearest to the concerntration of the colonies. The performative surface will absorb some noise

combination of form finding and pattern making. The

pollution and diffuse the reminder noise waves to lower

form finding process involved using a unique concept

dB levels.

of the basic element of sound ( i.e. noise and ambient

surrounding views, the rest of the voronoi cells are left

from fauna), sine waves, and and imposing the wave

open.

As a secondary objective to preserve the

pattern to a recognizable classical architectural feature of a barrel vault. A mathematical equivalent of the three

By using the extruded 2D voronoi pattern instead of 3D

dimensional form is used to vary the architectural

voronoi, I reducethe dimensional complexity to the project.

qualities of the form to achieved the final form that is

The randomness of the cellular quality of the 3D voronoi is

site responsive to resolve the design problem.

replaced with a random pattern of 2-D voronoi cells which is site responsive.

91


C1.3 in search of style : CRITICAL REGIONALISM

k

enneth Frampton, a architectural historian-theorist, in his essay “Towards a Critical Regionalism” [1] recalls the ideas of Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre to “rethink architecture through the concept of region” while adopting the progressive qualities of modern architecture. This essentially proposed the idea of using the contemporary technology, in my opinion for this project, the parametric technique as means to generate form that are modern and progressive while using the locality i.e. topography, climate, light, sound to infuence the final tectonic form. Frampton also emphasize the sense of touch over visual sense as the response to this approach. In this case I argue that for my project the the sense of touch may not be as significant as the distance and function of the structure (sound barrier) may not allow such sensory to be experience effectively. However I do feel that the tactility of the “touch” can be represented by the variation of the noise level interspersed with the sound of nature provides a different sensory experience to the users.

Although, the surface patterning of the 2D voronoi reflect the complexety of the design, it’s however projected to a simple geometry of a 3D sine wave skewed to response to the site conditions. The outcome of this combination I hope provide an interesting constrast and contradiction. As put forward by Tzonis and Lefaivre, critical regionalism do not need to draw directly from the context[2] It can be detached of its context and used not in a familair way but strange or unique as proposed in the project. Drawing upon the works of Critical Regionalist, Rafael Moneo, such as the Kursaal Palace in San Sebastian reflect the monumentality of the design, detached from the urban fabric but playing a role as a monument to the city. I wanted to create similar effect with my design The scale of the “barrel” vault suggest its massiveness yet the space created underneath are open and preserved its function for the 2 way traffic.

The monumentality of the design is also hoped to fulfill one of my design intent as a visual treat to the locals and hopefully generate enough buzz, negative Figure 1 : Säynätsalo Town Hall by or positive alike, contributing to the Alvar Aalto [1] architectural discourse. The social The materiality of the design i.e. sustainability proposed in this idea timber represent the qualities of the style of critical is the community ownership towards the design which regionalism. The plywood and glulam members can bind the community together. represent the progressive and innovative outcome of the timber industry while timber as the core Such elements of critical regionalism in my design component is locally inspired as part of Merri Creek would hope to establish meaningful relationship to natural environment. its context and engage with its environment while participating in the overall architectural discourse.


BACKGROUND Flemish bond arrangement of local brick at Alvar Aalto’s Säynätsalo Town Hall. [5]

01 Figure 2 :Glenn Murcatt’s Magney House 1984 [2]

02 Figure 3 : Corridor at Alvar Aalto’s Säynätsalo Town Hall [3]

03

01

Figure 4 : Tadao Ando Church of Light [4]

02

03


The Japanese Pavilion in Hanover 2000 is a collaboration between architect Frei Otto to design a gridshell structure of a tunnel-arch geometry which was made out of paper tubing. The concept behind the pavilion is a recyclable structure and produce as little as possible industrial waste consistent to the theme of Hanover Expo with is the environmanal sustainability. Shigeru Ban used a grid shell of threedimensional curved lines which have variable curve at the heights and width which according to him are stronger when it comes to lateral strain[3].

94


BACKGROUND Interior hall, JapanPavilion, Hanover by Shigeru Ban [6]

C 1.4 precedence_ japan pavilion Hanover, Germany, 2000 Shigeru Ban Architects, Tokyo , Japan

95


C 1.5 mathematical recipe Mathematical approach to form finding

The form finding approach was to take the conceptual idea of an elemental component of noise,sine wave, and transform a typical architectural element of barrel vault defined by a mathematical recipe (1) and apply the sine wave equation onto (2) it. The The sine curve can be read in plan as well as longitudinal elevations. The variation of the curvature in y and z direction can be controlled by dividing the v-parameter in the sine function (3) [4]

Sine wave y(t) = A sin (2 π ft+ φ) Barrel vault x=v y=cos (u) z = sin (u) {(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥ π, 0 ≤ v ≥ nπ } 96


1 x=v y=cos (u) z = sin (u) {(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥ π, 0 ≤ v ≥ 5π }

2

3

x=v y=(2 + sin (v) )cos (u) z = (2 + sin (v) )sin (u) {(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥ π, 0 ≤ v ≥ 5π }

x=v y=(2 + sin (v)/3 )cos (u) z = (2 + sin (v) /3)sin (u) {(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥ π, 0 ≤ v ≥ 5π }

97


1.5.1 architectural qualities Parametric control of architectural features

x=v

y=(2 + sin (v)/3 )cos (u)

z = (2 + sin (v) /3)sin (u)

{(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥ π, 0 ≤ v ≥ 5π }

controls radius of tunnel

98

controls the curvature


99


form finding site response Regionalism

EXTRACTED FROM SITE ANALYSIS (pp. 28 & 80)

Traffic

Dense vegetation with bird colony

Dense vegetation with bird colony

Traffic

100


x= u + v

y=(2 + sin (u+v)/4 )cos (u) z = (2 + sin (v) /4)sin (u)

{(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥ π, 0 ≤ v ≥ 5π }

“adding u to the x coordinate sheared the tunnel to extend the corner forward. “

opaque Noise barrier wall

opaque Noise barrier wall

transparent for view

101


C 1.6 2d voronoi pattern

CULL PATTERN PERMUTATIONS

TYPE 01

TYPE 02

TYPE 03

102

TYPE 04

TYPE 05

TYPE 06


CULL WITH PARTITION PATTERNS APPLIED

SELECTED PATTERN

103


pattern making_ site response Regionalism

2D voronoi with cull pattern

Traffic noise influence as curve attractor

Pattern after attractor curve influence

“adding the randomness to the pattern� 104


pattern projection Applying pattern onto the vault/tunnel 2D voronoi - Final pattern

sinusoidal barrel vault

Voronoi barrel vault 105


C 1.7 technique development_ workflow Site analysis

Parametric modelling approach

Mapping - noise distribution

Rectangle with points

Generate voronoi pattern Curve attractor Voronoi Cull Partition

Crv CP

Re-generate voronoi pattern with site influence

Move CullPt Voronoi

106


Math recipe x= u y=v

z = sin (u) cos (v)

{(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥4 π, 0 ≤ v ≥ 4π }

Math recipe x= u+ v

y=(2 + sin (u+v)/4 )cos (u)

BBox Sbox Morph

z = (2 + sin (v) /4)sin (u)

{(u,v) | 0 ≤ u ≥ π, 0 ≤ v ≥ 5π }

Eval

Morph to surface

SrfGrid

Crv CP P Cen Vec2Pt Extr

using the sine surface

Project pattern to surface Map Srf

Extrude pattern inwards

Python scriptboolean trim

107


C 2.0 Tectonic elements

Isometric view

2D pattern on surface

2D pattern on surface

71m

8m 16m

108


Voronoi cells connection/ joints

Diffuser panel in voronoi cell enclosure

109


C 2.1 tectonic_ sound diffusing cells 1

2

Hot rolled steel shoes lift cells above ground

Bolt connection to platform

Bolt connection to glulam member

Plywood/glulam laminated timber

Sound deadening wave diffuser

DIFFUSER PANELS The sound diffusing cells consist of 2 parts (1) enclosure cell (2) performative sound diffuser. The enclosure cells are made of either thick treated plywood or glulam laminated timber panel. These are fabircated through the CNC milling process at the factory. The second element is the sound diffuser panels which are made of porous sound deadening foam or porous Class A thermoplastic which can diffuse wide frequency range. These panels are mounted into the enclosure cells and position to face towards the center of the road for optimised sound diffusion and absorbtion. The panels themselves form a rigid base for the subsequent cells above. The diffuser cells is anchored to the bridge by steel brackets (shoes) using bolt connection.

110


C 2.1.1 Tectonic_ voronoi cells

VORONOI CELLS Voronoi cells are made of moisture and rot resistant marine plywood bolted together by customied angled steel brackets. Brackets are cold form steel which have combination of round holes for boltings and performation of diamond holes for cuttting and bending to size and appropriate angles. Plywood are cnc mill cut to size and engraved with part ID.

Bolted cold form brackets connects all adjacent plywood panels

111


C 2.2 Production ( p r e- fa b r i c at i o n ) Part sequencing and pre-fabrication program

Pre-fabrication program

12m

S1

S3

S5

S7

S9

S11

S2

S4

S6

S8

S10

8m

S12

Dimensional limit - Transportation constraints Prime mover and semi-trailer mass limit - VicRoads 2009 [6]

** The rear overhang must not exceed the lesser of 3.7 m or 60% of the distance from the point of articulation at the from of the trailer to the rear overhang line.

112


AUTOMATED MACHINE CODE GENERATION For production, grasshopper will not only generates the exact geometries of all the parts of the voronoi cells that makes up the structure but also the numbering sequence to allow easy assembly (see below convention). The cutting templates are laid out and nested on glulam panels and marine grade plywood boards for milling. G-code generator (http://www.shopbottools.com/controlsoftware.htm, http://www. grunblau.com/ghcode.htm) can be used from Grasshopper to generate G-code to control CNC-router. It will generate the appropriate codes to engrave the part ID onto the glulam/plywood as well as drilling the holes for connection.[5]

S1C2P1 S1C1P4 S01

S12

S1C1P5

S1C1P3

S1C1P1

S1C1P2

S1CyPz

Part sequencing - Grasshopper labeling script SxCyPz Section x

Cell y

Part #z

113


OFF SITE

SITE PREPARATION

Pedestrian extensions 1. Cutting - CNC milling 2

Install pedestrian extensions

2. Assembly 1 Factory Pre-fabrication

Cell shoes metal brackets 3 Install shoes for diffusers and ground row cells to resist buckling.

4 Delivery to site

6 Trips per day 2-day delivery program

114


C 2.3 construction process Production to installation

ON SITE

Tilt-up to position by crane

temporary prop 4

Tilt-up & support

bolt end connections

5

bolt section connections

6 Repeat 4 tilt-up for 2nd half and bolt end connections.

Repeat 4 & 5 per install program until completion.

115


C 2.4 prototypes Diffuser cells & performative surface

Performative acoustical surface - sound absorbing foam

Cold form metal brackets connects diffuser cell parts together.

116

Diffuser cell metal shoes to raise the diffuser cell above ground and provide bracing supporing to resist buckling from lateral oad (wind load) and gravity (dead load)


Adjacent diffuser cells

Diffuser cell facing towards the traffic 117


C 3.0 final detail model

03 02

01

118

04

08 05

06

07

09

10

11

12


a s s e m b ly diagram 16 15

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

14 25 13 119


C4.0 drawings & renderings Section Views Section A-A & B-B SECTION B-B Dissipated reflected waves

Noise waves

Noise absorbtion & diffusion

120


B

A

A

B

SECTION A-A

121


C 4.1 renderings Clay renderings

PERSPECTIVE : SOUTH FACING

122


“The fundamental strategy of Critical Regionalism, is to mediate the impact of universal civilization with elements derived indirectly from the peculiarities of a particular place” Kenneth Frampton “Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance,” in Hal Foster, ed [7]

123


C 4.1 renderings Clay renderings

PERSPECTIVE : WEST ENTRANCE

124


SOUTH FACING PERSPECTIVE

BIRD’S EYE VIEW

125


C4.2 design in context

126


127


mood, lighting, & shading

128


129


learning objectives

F

rom the handbook, the whole experience in Studio Air is driven by specific objectives. In relation to Part C - Detailed Design, I can identifty the specific objectives and how they are being met in my own experience: Objective 1 “Interrogating a brief” - in Part C , the process of interrogating the biref is a significant undertaking where intensive study of the brief will reveal the project requirements which then be compared against the site analysis. Objective 2 “Generate design possibilities for a given situation” - in Part C, the design possibilities are more focused and driven by the combination of the site analaysis geographical,environental and cultural context , with design intent. Whereas Part B focuses on purely on the design potentials generated from the technique, Part C uses these potentials to solves and fulfill the design intent. Objective 3 as per Part B. Objective 4 as per Part B. Objective 5 & 6 “Case for proposal” + “Design analysis of contemporary architectural project” - Part C brings the justifications for the design to fruition. Precedent analysis done in Part B suggest the development of the technque for the project while in Part C, additional precedent studies will asisst in substantiating the revised technique or/ and form finding. Objective 7 as per Part B.

130

Objective 8 as per Part B.


C 4.0

learning outcomes

M

y personal learning outcomes are also driven by the objectives set out in the course:

Objective 1 “Interrogating a brief” - in Part C, the process allows me to list out what is the project objectives and compare that to the site analysis which I have previosly done in Part B. This process allow sets out the task I need to undertake and influnece the final approach in terms of the technique that I have researched and how I can adapt that technique to achieve the project objectives. I was also influence by my exposure to deisgn syles introduced in my architecture history subject. The post-modern approach of critical regionalism which combines the modern architectural tradition with the specificity of the site (environmental, material, culture etc) . Objective 2 “Generate design possibilities for a given situation” Whereas in Part B, the exploration of the design possibilities generated from the technique gave me of hints of what I can use for my final design, in Part C the technique was further modified and refined iteratively through the combination of further studies from site analysis as well as prototyping to achieve the optimum soluion for the final design and built. Objective 3 as per Part B.

Objective 5 + 6 “Case for proposal” + “Design analysis of contemporary architectural project” - the outcome of Part B and the interim design critique had questioned the suitability of the technique I have chosen to resolve the design problem. I have adapted the technqiue and undertaken another precedence study to help me build a case for the revised technique. I have learnt to let go and not hang on to my first attempt to resolve the problem but used the industry responses and further analysis to develop a more refined approach that fulfill the design and site requirements. Objective 7 “Understanding of computational geometry, data structures and programming” - in Part C, I am was able to extend my grasshopper techniques to cover other advanced areas such as data structures and programming using python to solve complex design problem. The breakthrough I had experince in Part C was to build an expanded grasshopper definitions based on my prexisting collections. I now undertand how to use grasshopper effectively by breaking up design problem into its “atomic” level and thread these solutions together to form collective resolution to the overall problem. Objective 8 as per Part B.

Objective 4 “Develop understanding of relationship between architecture and air” - in Part C , I recognized the challenge of transforming the design to which only exist in the virtual world into something buildable and scaled appropriately to the real world. In doing so, parametric design helps me to adjust the necessary parameters to scale the project to actuality such as the the width, length and height of the design. This in itself is an iterative process that involved prototypying , rationalizing and understanding materiality of things.

131


REFERENCES

part A

IMAGES 1 David Cohn, ‘Perspective of Nave Structure’, in The Architecture Review (London: EMAP Publishing Limited, 2012). <http:// www.architectural-review.com/Journals/2012/07/23/p/e/i/Nau-trams-interior_vector.jpg> [accessed 19 March 2015]. 2 Ferda Kolatan and Erich Schoenenberger, ‘Ps Canopy’, ed. by(http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/PS_Canopy_lg.jpg , 2014). [accessed 13 March 2015] 3 Luis Ros, ‘Achitecture and Construction in Plastic’, (Barcelona : Linksbooks, [2012]. 2012), p. 54. 4 ———, ‘Achitecture and Construction in Plastic’, (Barcelona : Linksbooks, [2012]. 2012), p. 54. 5 Unknown photographer, ‘Pabellón De La Sed. Zaragoza’, ed. by 02_psed.zgz_.jpg (Madrid: Arenas&Asociados, 2008). 6 Nelson Garrido, ‘Qatar National Convention Centre’, 2013. http://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2013/08/dezeen_Qatar National-Convention-Centre-by-Arata-Isozaki_3.jpg 7 ——— ‘Qatar National Convention Centre’, 2013. http://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2013/08/dezeen_Qatar National-Convention-Centre-by-Arata-Isozaki_5.jpg 8 Jane Burry, and Mark Burry, The New Mathematics of Architecture (London : Thames & Hudson, 2010). p.130 9 Cameron Talishi and Lauren Stromberg, ‘Som, Commercial Development Project, Shanghai, China 2011’, (Chichester John Wiley & Sons, 2013). p55 10 Jürgen Mayer H, Metropol Parasol, 2005 (http://src.holcimfoundation.org/img/f0c99194-38a3-428b-92d4-59ab62fa99f3/ EU05_00079_bearb_02b.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 11 Yasha Grobman, and Eran Neuman, Performalism : Form and Performance in Digital Architecture (London Routledge, 2012). p.96-97 12 Ferda Kolatan and Erich Schoenenberger, ‘Ps Canopy’ 2011 (http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/wp-content/ uploads/2011/02/canopy-a.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 13 Enrico Dini, ‘Parametric Model HSaring’ 2010 (http://www.australiandesignreview.com/wp-content/uploads/old_ img/4465907806_6f7f2245ba_o.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 14 Mark Burry, ‘Robotic stone cutting machinery’ 2013 (http://www.sial.rmit.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Robot stone-cutting.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 15 unnamed, ‘Nave of Sagrada Familia’ ,2011 (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Sagrada_Familia_ nave_roof_detail.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 16 John Gollings. ‘Fabpod RMIT’ ,2013 (http://www.danieldavis.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/20130316_DX_0283 cooler.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 17 Daviel Davis, ‘Responsive acoustic surface modelling’ ,2011 (http://www.danieldavis.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/1_ sphere_circa_201101.png). [accessed 13 March 2015] 18 Nick William, ‘5 axis router’ ,2011 (http://www.danieldavis.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/5axBiesse.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 20 Andrew Kudless , ‘P_Wall Ohio Process Summary” , 2006 (http://matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/ process_sum.jpg). [accessed 13 March 2015] 21 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2004). p. 10

REFERENCES 21 Tony Fry, Design Futuring : Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Sydney : University of New South Wales Press, 2009. Australian ed., 2009). p1-4 22 ———, Design Futuring : Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Sydney : University of New South Wales Press, 2009. Australian ed., 2009).p6 23 ———, Design Futuring : Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Sydney : University of New South Wales Press, 2009. Australian ed., 2009).p6 24 ———, Design Futuring : Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Sydney : University of New South Wales Press, 2009. Australian ed., 2009).p10 25 ———, Design Futuring : Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Sydney : University of New South Wales Press, 2009. Australian ed., 2009).p12 26 Patrik Schumacher, The Autopoiesis of Architecture. [Electronic Resource] : A New Framework for Architecture, Ebl (Chichester : John Wiley & Sons., 2011).p 2.

132


BACKGROUND Author’s own work. Digital sculpture - “Green tubes” , Grasshopper scripting with Vray rendering

REFERENCES 27 Anthony Dunne, and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything : Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2013). p.34 28 ———, The Autopoiesis of Architecture. [Electronic Resource] : A New Framework for Architecture, Ebl (Chichester : John Wiley & Sons., 2011). p1 29 Luis Ros, ‘Achitecture and Construction in Plastic’, (Barcelona : Linksbooks, [2012]. 2012), p. 52. 30 Annette LeCuyer, Efte : Technology and Design (Basel: Birkhäuser Basel, 2008). p.30 31 ———, Efte : Technology and Design (Basel: Birkhäuser Basel, 2008). p.86 32 Yasha Grobman, and Eran Neuman, Performalism : Form and Performance in Digital Architecture (London Routledge, 2012). p.5 33 Lance Hosey, ‘Performalism : A Budding Design Movement Asks: What Does It Mean for a Building to Perform?’, Architect, 06/2010 2010. (http://www.architectmagazine.com/sustainability/performalism.aspx). [accessed 13 March 2015] 34 ———, Performalism : Form and Performance in Digital Architecture (London Routledge, 2012). pp.10-11 35 Jane Burry, and Mark Burry, The New Mathematics of Architecture (London : Thames & Hudson, 2010). pp. 130 36 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2004). p. 10 37 ———, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2004). p. 11-12 38 Brady Peters, and Xavier De Kestelier, Computation Works : The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Architectural Design: [V. 83, No. 2] (Chichester : John Wiley & Sons, 2013). p. 10 39 ———,The Autopoiesis of Architecture. [Electronic Resource] : A New Framework for Architecture, Ebl (Chichester : John Wiley & Sons., 2011).p 3 40 Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age : Design and Manufacturing (New York, NY : Spon Press, c2003., 2003). p. 3 41 ———, Architecture in the Digital Age : Design and Manufacturing (New York, NY : Spon Press, c2003., 2003). pp. 6-7 42 Nick Dunn, Digital Fabrication in Architecture (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2012). p. 6 43 ———, Digital Fabrication in Architecture (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2012). p. 6 45 Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age : Design and Manufacturing (New York, NY : Spon Press, c2003., 2003). p. 5 46 ———, Performalism : Form and Performance in Digital Architecture (London Routledge, 2012). p96 47 Dimitris Kottas, Digital Architecture (Barcelona : Linkbooks, 2013., 2013). p.136 48 Jacques Lucan, Composition, Non-Composition : Architecture and Theory in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Essays in Architecture (Lausanne, Switzerland : EPFL Press ; Abingdon, Oxford : Routledge, 1st ed., 2012). p 49 JuHyun Lee, Ning Gu, and Anthony P. Williams, ‘Parametric Design Strategies for the Generation of Creative Designs’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, 12 (2014), pp. 265. 50 ———, Computation Works : The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Architectural Design: [V. 83, No. 2] (Chichester : John Wiley & Sons, 2013). p. 10 51 Kostas Terzidis, Algorithmic Architecture (Oxford : Architectural, 2006). p. prologue xii 52 La Sagrada Família Foundation, ‘Basilica De La Sagrada Familia - Architecture’, La Sagrada Família Foundation (<http://www.sagradafamilia.cat/sf-eng/docs_instit/historia.php> [Accessed 19/03/2014 2014]. 53 RMIT University, ‘Basilica De La Sagrada Família: Glory Facade’, RMIT University, (2014) <http://www.sial.rmit.edu.au/portfolio/basilica-de-la-sagrada-familia/> [Accessed 19/03/2014 2014]. 54 RMIT University, ‘Basilica De La Sagrada Família: Passion Facade’, RMIT University, (2014) <http://www.sial.rmit.edu.au/portfolio/passion-facade/> [Accessed 19/03/2014 2014]. 55 RMIT University, ‘Basilica De La Sagrada Família: Sala Creuer Construction’, RMIT University, (2014) <http://www.sial.rmit.edu.au/portfolio/sala-creuer-construction/> [Accessed 19/03/2014 2014]. 56 Daniel Davis, ‘Fabpod’, Daniel Davis, (2013) <http://www.danieldavis.com/fabpod/> [Accessed13/03/2014 2014]. 57 Mark Burry, ‘Fabpod’, Mark Burry, (2014) <http://mcburry.net/fabpod/> [Accessed 19/03/2014 2014]. 58 ———,‘Fabpod’, Daniel Davis, (2013) <http://www.danieldavis.com/fabpod/> [Accessed 13/03/2014 2014]. 59 Carlo Aiello, Evolo 6: Digital and Parametric Architecture. ed. by Paul Aldridge Carlo Aiello, Anna Solt, Jung Su Lee. Vol. 6 (New York: Evolo, 2014), p. 312. 133


REFERENCES IMAGES

134

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27-30 31-34 35-38 40 41 42 43

part B

Clemence, Paul. 2014. “Louis Sullivan’s Prudential (Guaranty) Building, Buffalo “ In. New York: Paul Clemence.http://www.metropolismag.com/ IMG_2118-detail%20Sullivan%20bldg.jpg [accessed 15 March 2015]. Haeckel, Ernst. 1904. “ Kunstformen der Natur “ In. Leipzig. (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Haeckel_Ophiodea_70.jpg . [accessed 5 April 2015] unkonwn , 1914, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Taut_Glass_Pavilion_exterior_1914.jpg[accessed 10 April 2015] ———, 904. “ Kunstformen der Natur “ In. Leipzig. (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Haeckel_Ophiodea_70.jpg . [accessed 5 April 2015] Name:Jean-Pierre Dalbéra, 2006, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Maison_Huot_de_style_art_nouveau_(Nancy) _(7965996816).jpg. [accessed 12 April 2015] unknown,2006 https://74fdc.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/bone-chair-rear-3-quarter.jpg. [accessed 12 April 2015] Artopoulos, Giorgos, Roudavski, Stanislav. 2009. The Parasite, https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/76/9c/de/769cde76059a076e3871 5e7591e30c89.jpg. [accessed 12 April 2015] unknown, 2013, Beijing Water Cube. http://hdwallpapersfactory.com/wallpaper/architecture_beijing_water_cube_desktop_3000x2000_hdwallpaper-2727.jpg [accessed 12 April 2015] Baan , Iwan, Meinel, Udo. 2005 An An Japanese Noodle Bar http://burodestruct.net/sites/default/files/styles/bd_wide/public/anan_noodlebar1. jpg?itok=VNCe3C14. [accessed 25 April 2015] GoogleEarth 2014 (https://www.google.com.au/maps/place/Merri+Creek+Trail,+Melbourne+VIC/@-37.746478,144.9848247,1681m/data=!3 m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x6ad64526415fedb7:0x78482db7f0d97f1d). [accessed 25 April 2015] Ambotang, Rizal 2015, Merri Creek Trail unnamed, SEROUSSI PAVILION ,2007 (http://www.evolo.us/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Paris-Seroussi-Pavilion-Biothing-04.jpg) [accessed 13 March 2015] unnamed, SEROUSSI PAVILION ,2007 (http://www.evolo.us/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Paris-Seroussi-Pavilion-Biothing-02.jpg) [accessed 13 March 2015] unnamed, SEROUSSI PAVILION ,2007 (http://www.evolo.us/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Paris-Seroussi-Pavilion-Biothing-03.jpg ) [accessed 13 March 2015] Matsys, Voronoi Morphologies, 2005 (http://matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/IMG_4353mod_1-590x786.jpg). [accessed 13 April 2015] ———, Voronoi Morphologies, 2005 (http://matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/IMG_4339_mod1-590x774.jpg). [accessed 13 April 2015] ———, Voronoi Morphologies, 2005 (http://matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/IMG_3939_1024-590x442.jpg). [accessed 13 April 2015] ———, Voronoi Morphologies, 2005 (http://matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/IMG_3930_mod_01_1024.jpg). [accessed 13 April 2015] ———, Voronoi Morphologies, 2005 (http://matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/IMG_4339_mod1-590x774.jpg). [accessed 13 April 2015] Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2004). p. 17 Ambotang, Rizal. Technique development - search methodology 2015 Lasercutter 2013 KR1280 (http://www.lasercutter.co/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/kr1280_laser_cutting_machine.jpg) [accessed 13 April 2015] Solid Concepts, SLA 2014. (https://www.solidconcepts.com/content/images/stereolithography-sla-technology-diagram.jpg) [accessed 13 April 2015] Graphtec Corp 2014. Graphtec 4500 (http://www.shoemaster.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/Graphtec-FC4500-Series.jpg) [accessed 13 April 2015] PP3DP, Up Plus 2 , 2014 (http://static.webshopapp.com/shops/024440/files/006998853/pp3dp-up-plus-2.jpg) [accessed 13 April 2015] Ambotang Rizal, 2015 “Various” Ambotang Rizal, 2015 “Prototypes for voronoi morphology” Ambotang Rizal, 2015 “Manual fabrication for voronoi morphology” Arenas, J., & Crocker, M.. Recent Trends in Porous Sound-Absorbing Materials. Sound And Vibration, 44(7), p.14 Williams, Nicholas, 2011 “FabPod : A prototype designssystem for acosutically Diffuse enclosure “ (https://i.vimeocdn.com/video/428242087_640. jpg). [accessed 30 April 2015] Davis, Daniel, 2011 “responsive acoustic surface” (http://.www.danieldavis.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/uncompressed_Page_165_ Image_0001.jpg) [accessed 30 April 2015] LSU Architecture , 2011 “deci.brick” (http://payload215.cargocollective.com/1/13/442142/6600195/reallllllbrackss_2.jpg), [accessed 30 April 2015]


BACKGROUND Author’s own work. Digital sculpture - “Green tubes” , Grasshopper scripting with Vray rendering

REFERENCES 1 Bergdoll, Barry, Dario Gamboni, Philip Ursprung, and Angeli Sachs. 2007. Nature design : from inspiration to innovation (Baden, Switzerland : Lars Müller Publishers, c2007.). p.9 2 ____, 2007. Nature design : from inspiration to innovation (Baden, Switzerland : Lars Müller Publishers, c2007.). p.9 3 ____, 2007. Nature design : from inspiration to innovation (Baden, Switzerland : Lars Müller Publishers, c2007.). p 46-57 4 Weinstock, Michael, Michael Hensel, and Achim Menges. 2004. Emergence : morphogenetic design strategies (Chichester : Wiley-Academy, 2004.). p. 26-33 5 Dunn, Nick. 2012. Digital fabrication in architecture (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2012.). p. 66 6 ____, 2012. Digital fabrication in architecture (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2012.). p. 68 7 Roudavski, Stanislav. 2009. Towards morphogenesis in architecture (Multi-Science Publishing)..p . 351 8 Zealand, The Institution of Professional Engineers New. 2008. “Constructability.” In, New Zealand.p.2 9 Edmonds, Natasha Palich and Angelique. 2013. “Social sustainability : creating places and participatpry processes that perform well for people.” In, edited by Environment Design Guide, Australia: Australian Institute of Architects.p.2 10 Benyus, Janine M. “Biomimicry Primer.” In, 5-6. Missoula, M: Biomimicry.net.p1. 11 ____., “Biomimicry Primer.” In, 5-6. Missoula, M: Biomimicry.net.pp. 5-6 12 Biothing. 2014. ‘SEROUSSI PAVILLION’, Biothing, Accessed 30/04/2015. http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5. 13 Mesghali, Ehsaan. 2011. ‘Matsys Voronoi Morphologies’, Biomimetic Architecture, Accessed 30/04/2015. http://www.biomimetic architecture.com/2011/matsys-design-voronoi-morphologies/. 14 ____, 2011. ‘Cellular Solid Morphologiess’, Biomimetic Architecture, Accessed 30/04/2015. http://www.biomimetic architecture.com/2011/revano-satria-cellular-solid-morphologies/ 15 ____, 2012. Digital fabrication in architecture (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2012.). p. 68 16 Kolarevic, Branko. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age. [electronic resource] : Design and Manufacturing (London : Spon Press , 2003.). p.13 17 Kalay, Yehuda E., Thomas Kvan, and Janice Afflek. 2008. New heritage. [electronic resource] : new media and cultural heritage (New York : Routledge, 2008.). p.17 18 ____, 2008. New heritage. [electronic resource] : new media and cultural heritage (New York : Routledge, 2008.). p.17 19 ____, 2012. Digital fabrication in architecture (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2012.). p. 107 20 ____, 2012. Digital fabrication in architecture (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2012.). p. 90 21 Transportation, Department of. 2015. ‘SOUND BARRIERS GUIDELINES - HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE’, Department of Transportation Accessed 30/04/2015. http://www.roads.maryland.gov/Index.aspx?PageId=827. 22 ____2015. ‘SOUND BARRIERS GUIDELINES - HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE’, Department of Transportation Accessed 30/04/2015 http://www.roads.maryland.gov/Index.aspx?PageId=827.

135


REFERENCES IMAGES 1 2 3 4 5 6

136

part C

Patt, Trevor . 2012. “Säynätsalo Town Hall by Alvar Aalto “ In. Jyväskylä : Trevor Patt. (http://presstletter.com/wp-content/up loads/2012/04/6108862252_5206a534c5_z.jpg[accessed 8 June 2015]. Metcalf, Andrew 2012 “ Glenn Murcutt: Magney House (1984) “ In. Bingie Bingie . (https://formandwords.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/murcuttglenn_1984_magney-resid-07_bingie-bingie_nsw_2012-04-29 candrewmetcalf.jpg. [accessed 8 June 2015]. Dowse, Jonathan. 2011, “ Corridor : Säynätsalo Town Hall by Alvar Aalto “. (http://jbdowse.com/eur/pix/saynatsalo-2/9530.jpg ) [accessed 8 June 2015]. unknown. 2015, “ Tadao Ando Church Of Light “. ( http://imgkid.com/tadao-ando-church-of-light-section.shtml) [accessed 8 June 2015]. Soustiel, Mario. 2015, “ Brick Wall : Säynätsalo Town Hall by Alvar Aalto “. (https://mariosoustiel.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/36-b_saynatsalotown-hall_brick.jpg?w=848 )[accessed 8 June 2015]. ArchiExpo 2015, “ Japan Pavilion, Expo 2000 Hanover“. (http://trends.archiexpo.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/japan-pavilionshigeru-ban.jpg)[accessed 8 June 2015].


BACKGROUND Author’s own work. Digital sculpture - “Green tubes” , Grasshopper scripting with Vray rendering

REFERENCES 1 Eggener, Keith L. 2002. ‘Placing Resistance: A Critique of Critical Regionalism’, Journal of Architectural Education (1984-), 55: 228-37. 2 ____, 2002. ‘Placing Resistance: A Critique of Critical Regionalism’, Journal of Architectural Education (1984-), 55: 228-37. 3 Ban, Shigeru. 2015. ‘JAPAN PAVILLION, EXPO 2000 HANNOVER ‘, SHIGERU BAN ARCHITECTS, Accessed 8/06/2015. http://www. shigerubanarchitects.com/works/2000_japan-pavilion-hannover-expo/index.html. 4 Choma, Joseph. 2015. Morphing : a guide to mathematical transformations for architects and designers (London : Laurence King Publishing, 2015.).p.158 5 Sakamoto, Tomoko, and Albert Ferré. 2008. From control to design : parametric/algorithmic architecture (Barcelona ; New York : Actar-D, [2008?]). p. 175. 6 VicRoads. 2009. “General Vehicle Mass and Dimension Limits.” In, edited by VicRoads, 2-3. Melbourne: VicRoads. 7 ____, 2002. ‘Placing Resistance: A Critique of Critical Regionalism’, Journal of Architectural Education (1984-), 55: 228-37.

137


appendix 1 Rating system described : STEP 1 Proportional weightage of selection criterias. * This is bassd on design objectives and priority Criteria

Type

% Weightage

C1 Noise Reduction Quality 20 C2 Porosity 5 C3 Constructability 15 C4 Structural performance 30 C5 Aesthetics 5 C6 Function 10 C7 Biomimicry 10

TOTAL 100%

STEP 2 Rate each iteration against selection criteria. Rating is based on scale of 0 to 10 where 0 not matched

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

fulfill

10 fittest

STEP 3

Multiply criteria weightage with rating to get score on each iteration

STEP 4

Add all scores on each iteration to get the Total score for the iteration. Compare total of iterations together to determine the most successful species.

138


SAMPLE CALCULATION - CASE STUDY 1.0 Rating Rating

Species

S1_I1

S1_I2

S1_I3

S1_I4

S2_I1

S2_I2

S2_I3

S2_I4

S3_I1

S3_I2

S3_I3

S3_I4

S4_I1

S4_I2

S4_I3

S4_I4

Not 0 matched

C1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

C2

0

1

2

3

3

3

1

2

0

3

3

3

2

2

1

2

C3

3

3

2

2

1

2

3

3

3

3

2

1

1

2

3

3

C4

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

1

3

3

3

4

2

C5

5

4

3

2

2

2

6

4

2

6

4

4

1

3

3

3

2

5Fulfill

C6

5

5

5

5

5

5

7

5

5

7

5

5

3

5

5

5

6

C7

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

7 8

Rating

9

Species

10Fittest

S5_I1

S5_I2

S6_I1

S6_I2

S6_I3

S6_I4

S7_I1

S7_I2

S7_I3

S7_I4

C1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

C2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

0

C3

3

3

3

8

2

2

2

7

2

2

C4

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

C5

5

5

4

6

4

6

4

6

4

4

C6

5

5

5

6

5

5

4

7

4

4

C7

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

weightage Species

S1_I1

S1_I2

S1_I3

S1_I4

S2_I1

S2_I2

S2_I3

S2_I4

S3_I1

S3_I2

S3_I3

S3_I4

S4_I1

S4_I2

S4_I3

S4_I4

Noise Reduction Quality

C1

0.2

C1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Porosity

C2

0.05

C2

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.05

0.1

0

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Constructability

C3

0.15

C3

0.45

0.45

0.3

0.3

0.15

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.3

0.15

0.15

0.3

0.15

Structural performance

C4

0.3

C4

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.3

0.9

0.3

0.9

Aesthetics

C5

0.05

C5

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.05

0.15

0.05

0.15

Function

C6

0.1

C7

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.7

0.5

0.5

0.7

0.5

0.5

0.3

0.5

0.3

0.5

Biomimicry level

C7

0.15

C6

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

2.95

2.5

2.35

1.35

2.4

1.35

2.4

TOTAL Species Noise Reduction Quality

C1

2.55 S5_I1

2.55 S5_I2 0

2.4 S6_I2

2.25 S6_I3

2.4 S6_I4

2.85 S7_I1

2.6 S7_I2

2.4 S7_I3

S7_I4

C1

0.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Porosity

C2

0.05

C2

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Constructability

C3

0.15

C3

0.45

0.45

0.45

1.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

1.05

0.3

0.3

Structural performance

C4

0.3

C4

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

Aesthetics

C5

0.05

C5

0.25

0.25

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

Function

C6

0.1

C6

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.7

0.4

0.4

Biomimicry level

C7

0.15

C7

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

2.7

2.7

2.65

3.6

2.5

2.6

2.4

3.55

2.4

2.4

TOTAL

0

2.4 S6_I1

0.3

*** Same calculation was applied to case study 2.0. Calculation is not included here for simplicity.

139

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