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AIR 2015_SEMESTER 1_CANHUI CHEN DEREK HUYNH_640183


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 4 ABOUT ME DESIGN FUTURING 8 HERZOG, DE MEURON AND BINSWANGER / PEREZ ART MUSEUM MIAMI 10 JOHN TODD / URBAN MUNICIPAL CANAL RESTORER FUZHOU DESIGN COMPUTATION 12 NBBJ / SHELL STADIUM NA 15 SHOP ARCHITECTS / BARCLAY’S CENTER BROOKLYN COMPOSITION VS GENERATION 18 FOSTER + PARTNERS / 30 ST MARY AXE LONDON 20 NBBJ / NA (EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT) LONDON CONCLUSION 22 22 SUMMARY 22 LEARNING OUTCOMES ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES REFERENCES RESEARCH FIELD _ GEOMETRY 28 GRIMSHAW / SOUTHERN CROSS RAILWAY STATION MELBOURNE 30 CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE PRACTICE / CATALYTIC FURNISHINGS NEW YORK CASE STUDY 1.0 / LAVA _ GREEN VOID 32 SUMMARY MATRIX + SPECIES 38 REFLECTION 38 SPECULATION CASE STUDY 2.0 / HG-ARCHITECTURE _ DDOARIMANG 40 ABOUT 42 REVERSE ENGINEERING 44 PARAMETRIC PRINCIPLES OF THIS TECHNIQUE 45 FINAL OUTCOME OF REVERSE ENGINEERING 46 ITERATIONS MATRIX 53 DISCUSSION ON SELECTION CRITERIA AND DESIGN SPECULATION TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 54 OPEN BOUNDARY SURFACE 55 CIRCLE-PACKING TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL 63 IDEAS FOR PROPOSAL 63 SPECULATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES REFERENCES


DESIGN PROPOSAL 74 RE-ASSESSING DESIGN PROPOSAL PRECEDENTS + DESIGN CONCEPT 76 PRECEDENT SELECTION: FORMAL QUALITIES 78 REDEFINING AND REFINING DESIGN CONCEPT 80 PRECEDENT SELECTION: MATERIAL EXPRESSIONS PROTOTYPES 82 PROTOTYPE ONE: REALISING MESH AND MATERIALITY 84 PROTOTYPE TWO: REALISING COMPLEX FORMS 87 PROTOTYPE THREE: REALISING MEMBRANE 89 FURTHER SPECULATION: LEARNING FROM PROTOTYPE THREE 90 FORM DEVELOPMENT FINAL 92 94 104 112 114

FINAL FORM: DRIP TIE FINAL: DIGITAL TO REALITY STUDIO PHOTOSHOOT INSTRUCTIONS SET SITE PHOTOSHOOT

LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 111 REFLECTION


INTRODUCTION ABOUT ME Melbourne-born and raised, third year architecture student who loves music and food but ultimately dreams of being an architect. I have a strong passion in designing to influence social interactions in built spaces - on a residential scale, crafting solutions tailored to specific clients’ interests and their lifestyles; on a commercial scale, evolving the use of spaces to improve functionality, emotive experiences and environmental impacts. Having relatively limited experiences in the digital realm as opposed to classical methods of designing, I believe CAD will provide the industry with an evergrowing tool to creating more complex and unique designs at higher efficiency than traditional methods. My experiences with digital architecture has primarily stemmed from use in both modelling and drafting in past design projects at university and at work. I believe parametric modelling through Grasshopper will be a very insightful learning curve, equipping me with knowledge at the forefront of the industry.

Playground of Secrets (top) interactive, play-themed pavilion at Herring Island Albion (centre) double-storey extension to a heritagelisted house in Brunswick Horizon (bottom) boathouse at Yarra Bend Park 4 CONCEPTUALISATION


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DESIGN FUTURING HERZOG, DE MEURON AND BINSWANGER / PEREZ ART MUSEUM MIAMI Design Futuring looks towards the sustain-ability of design outcomes - that is, how it impacts on the quality of our lives.6 This ideology branches into two categories: environmental and societal. A common practice in today’s architectural industry is to approach Design Futuring in a manner which ‘ticks-the-boxes’ in attempts to achieve maximum ‘green star’ ratings. However, Herzog and de Meuron’s museum highlights how designing for program and societal interaction should be of higher importance. Their ideology is simple - value stems from appreciation. A building which provides higher value for its users creates a more favourable environment. This, in effect, increases the value of the user’s encounters with the building and therefore strengthens the social qualities of the communities fulfilling the societal aspect of Design Futuring. With this in mind, the Perez Art Museum is based on design intentions of finding the original qualities of the site and integrating rather than resisting or redirecting them into the new design. For example, the building works with, rather than against, nature. Its open-shelter design encourages cool breezes to circulate around and throughout the structure, reducing the resistive method of using active air conditioning machinery. The addition of suspended vegetation acknowledges that flooding and its associated damage to vegetation occurs regularly on the site.8

Fig. 1 http://www.pamm.org/sites/default/files/ pamm_vertical_gardens_iwan_baan_2_0.jpg (accessed 10 March 2015) 8 CONCEPTUALISATION

The overall design mimics that of Miami’s traditional vernacular architecture - open-air, hut-like structures.8 The designers intended to account for more than just this historical connection but also aimed to create a contemporary cultural link. This is, the open-space nature of the structure reduces view blockages towards the bay - a highly valued aspect of the location. In addition, through clever planning, this open-space design also integrates local communities through crafting new public spaces - recreational walkways, public theatres and areas of relaxation. This idea of flexible, non-hierarchical and contextresponsive design is a step forward in Design Futuring. Rather than a ‘ticking-the-boxes’ approach, Herzog and de Meuron believed a more investigative method of ensuring the user’s appreciation of the site was much more important. When a user feels a genuine connection and appreciation for a space, they create a permanent association with it, resulting in the value of the design only growing over time.


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JOHN TODD / URBAN MUNICIPAL CANAL RESTORER FUZHOU Baima Canal Restorer is an excellent example of Design Futuring in environmental and social aspects. The sewage-injected watercourse has been transformed by the addition of a living, growing ecological ‘machine’.10 The most innovative idea stems from the design being an extremely cost-effective, living solution. This is, an environmental treatment centre which grows over time due to natural processes managing and maintaining its life and performance. In terms of time scale, this implementation becomes more effective in the future - appreciating in its value. This is a fascinatingly stark contrast from design solutions which are building-based - structures which generally de-value over time and require constant management resources. Furthermore, John Todd has linked these environmental actions to the local community. In terms of societal benefits, the area has been removed of its pungent odours and has a new recreational space completely connecting humans to nature.10 The effects of such a project does not end at a local or instantaneous scale. This is what is essential in a Design Futuring solution.6 Through gradually improving the immediate surrounding environment, sea life can begin to thrive again, consequently improving the sustainability of fishing industries downstream. With an increase in local farming, the resulting rise in economic independence further drives up the value of the regional community.

Fig. 2 http://www.eomega.org/sites/default/files/ omega-in-action/manual-features/313187_454827564 550249_1018641442_n.jpg (accessed 17 March 2015) 10 CONCEPTUALISATION


Before-and-after comparison highlighting the immediate effects to the local community. What is not seen here is the gradual, longerterm influences downstream to both the environment and human societies such as the fishing industry.

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DESIGN COMPUTATION NBBJ / SHELL STADIUM NA The ideology behind NBBJ’s innovation in the digital design realm lies in their two core beliefs of what can be advantageous about technology - efficiency and new creative forms as outcomes.12 Their uptake in parametric modelling has allowed them to design complex geometries, bringing them into reality (although this case study was a competition entry, their other designs have been constructed) and, in the process, perform their developmental stages in an efficient and effective manner. Accompanying these new advantages are opportunities for restructuring the construction industry - Shell Stadium exemplifies this. One of the primary design intents of the stadium was to create a twisted, shell-like roof - one which spanned enormous dimensions and required complex engineering.12 This provided NBBJ with an opportunity to create scripts which would model possible design outcomes following two main requirements: structural feasibility and price. In terms of how this has changed design thinking, one must realise that this project did not revolve around re-iterating sketches. Instead, the team of designers thought in algorithmic terms - parameters such as site coverage; intended internal volumes; rational, cost-effective structural solutions; and so on. This new design process reduces the stress on solving problems but instead, emphasises the question of what problems exist, why do they exist, and what are the final desired outcomes.

Fig. 3 (top) NBBJ, Parametric Strategies in Civic and Sports Architecture Design, p.11. Fig. 4 (bottom) NBBJ, Parametric Strategies in Civic and Sports Architecture Design, p.10. 12 CONCEPTUALISATION

From this modelling, the designers produced a cladding network which involved pre-fabrication and assembling rather than the traditional raw material construction on-site. Communication through BIM technology further enhanced the design’s inputs by the various specialists involved, resulting in a structure which was crafted to ensure all stakeholders were satisfied and well-informed.12 Resulting from this is a large restructure in how the architect is placed and involved in the industry. The parametric modelling of the roofing takes regard for the engineer’s work, the pre-fabrication stage has shifted demand of material suppliers to prefabricators, the communication of the model itself has partly taken on the role of a project manager, the costings database guides the quantity surveyor and so on. NBBJ has redefined the roles of an architect, creating links and overlaps between other professions in the industry and blurring their responsibilities.


Another parametric scenario of NBBJ’s focus was to maximise the audience’s sight of the arena. This highlights the shift from traditional design thinking to algorithmic thinking.

In addition to the advantages already mentioned, parametric modelling also allowed efficient and accurate prototyping.

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SHOP ARCHITECTS / BARCLAY’S CENTER BROOKLYN Rather than traditionally focusing on the end product, SHoP Architects apply innovative ideas to the design and construction process.9 Equipped with knowledge of today’s digital technologies, the firm has managed to re-shape the responsibilities and roles of professions in the industry. Their vision of architects fast-becoming leaders of the direct-fabrication process emphasises how communication and efficiency play significant roles in not just the construction but also how designs are appreciated after completion.9 The Barclay’s Center highlights this ideology and how the role of technology acts as the glue of project member inputs and outputs. Rather than the traditional design-bidbuild sequence which lacks flexibility and does not allow input from specialists and contractors during the design stage - the process where significant decisions affecting their roles are made; the direct-fabrication method seeks to use BIM software as a medium for early-stage collaboration between all stakeholders of a project.9 SHoP Constructions developed a software which, in addition to the parametric modelling of their façade system - one which produced a unique form which would challenge ordinary construction workers; linked their design solution to the prefabrication workers, clients and contractors. Similar to their other projects, this application allowed everyday smartphone users to both be informed and interact with the status of the project.9 Thus changes to construction details or even the design could be accommodated to comparatively large extents without sacrificing time or revenue. In an age where program, flexibility and aesthetics heavily relies on funding, the firm has managed to provide high-quality designs at low costs through their innovative technological thinking.

Fig. 5 http://www.shop-construction.com/projects/ project_large__barclays (accessed 16 March 2015)

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Converting the artistic parametric model into a rational, pre-fabrication-ready panelling network. This new capability architects possess increases efficiency through transforming the documentation, construction and communication process. SHoP Construction iPhone application.9 Complex technology presented in a simple, accessible manner to all stakeholders improves communication and interaction throughout the construction process.

Fig. 6 (top) http://www.shop-construction.com/ projects/project_large__barclays (accessed 16 March 2015) Fig. 7 (bottom) http://www.shop-construction.com/ projects/project_large__barclays (accessed 16 March 2015) Fig. 8 (right) https://c1.staticflickr. com/5/4088/5083530806_ (accessed 19 March 2015) f2a13c8253_b.jpg 16 CONCEPTUALISATION


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COMPOSITION VS GENERATION FOSTER + PARTNERS / 30 ST MARY AXE LONDON Nicknamed ‘The Gherkin’ for its overall form - one which was primarily the result of computational generation, 30 St Mary Axe exemplifies the capabilities of modern technological advances in parametric modelling.7 Foster + Partners aspired to design a commercial building with a focus on passive, environmentallyresponsive features. Rather than traditionally composing building forms on pen and paper, the team seeked computational generative methods.13 Using complex algorithms, models were produced based on satisfying wind, thermal and structural conditions. This resulted in a building which exhibited several unique attributes: a facade with minimal wind turbulence, allowing passive cross-ventilation systems to span from bottom to top (a feature generally not possible in many skyscrapers due to the severity of wind forces at higher altitudes); and a distinct insulative two-skin barrier between the interior and exterior, maximising daylight penetration with no-column rooms as a result of exterior structural solutions.1 5 13 Through complex digital computations, the design process was influenced to favour efficiency while allowing more complex forms to become realities.14 Although computers can produce countless design iterations to model the ‘ultimate’ solution in satisfying specific design criteria, a drawback are their unsympathetic nature towards experiential aspects of designs. 30 St Mary Axe has been commended for the success of the designer’s performative goals of the building - the minimal wind loads, open-space interiors, and so on.13 However, it has been criticised for its un-resolved and uncomfortable planning influenced by the resultant modelled forms.13 Fig. 9 + Fig. 10 http://www.fosterandpartners.com/ projects/30-st-mary-axe/ (accessed 19 March 2015) 18 CONCEPTUALISATION


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NBBJ / NA (EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT) LONDON One of the most beneficial characteristics of computational generative design is the ability for designers to find the ‘ultimate solution’ following a specified set of criteria.11 15 NBBJ has pushed the boundaries of this notion through endeavouring to design a skyscraper which does not produce any shadows.17 Tackling this challenge through investigating the ‘ultimate’ form with parametric modelling software, the firm has significantly changed its design methodology. There has been a shift in thinking, from “what possible solutions CAN exist?” to “how can we make this preconceived solution a reality?” In detail, firms are now setting a design agenda for their projects and solely striving towards meeting these initial goals - in the case of NBBJ, developing a form that meets their agenda of producing a shadowless skyscraper.4 Computational processing provides the team with much faster and accurate iteration-analysisevaluation loops while making such deterministic ideas possible. This is because the script identifies and ranks solutions based on the specified criteria with the power and speed of a computer.11 15 However, with this success follows the rejection of tangential design outcomes. When an architect uses traditional, compositional methods to develop their ideas, they experience the iteration-analysis-evaluation loop but in a more conscious manner. Evaluations by humans recognise further design opportunities, often straying from their initial design intentions. Even though this may be seen as an interruption to workflow, it opens the project to a larger range of previously unthought ideas and potential solutions. Consequently, this encourages innovation in a different manner to that of generative design.

Fig. 11 http://www.gizmag.com/the-no-shadow-towernbbj/36555/pictures#7 (accessed 19 March 2015) 20 CONCEPTUALISATION


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CONCLUSION SUMMARY Today, digital technologies are more than just aids for workflow efficiency - they are now multi-functional, complex tools working in collaboration with humans.11 15

New capabilities and opportunities have lead to a period of experimentation. Designers have questioned their roles, their processes and how technology can benefit not the single profession but the family of professions in an industry.14 Through acknowledging this mentality, I believe there will be three significant shifts for architects and designers in the future: 1. The capabilities of architects will lie in their knowledge of technology. For example, aspects in the industry such as employability will be based around computational knowledge rather than drafting experience. This means experience will no longer be proportional to employability.

3. Technology will glue professions together. The architect will regain its traditional roles of being the central figure but in a new context. The roles and responsibilities between professions will be blurred but in a means that encourages efficiency. My intended design approach will integrate these three ideologies, balancing their most advantageous aspects with those of traditional methodology. For example, using compositional design in the early stages of schematic design phases before using generative processing will create a larger range of potential solutions rather than if I solely used generative design which would result in a narrower project scope.

2. Designers will begin to question “how can we, through technology, make this pre-conceived solution a reality?” rather than “what possible solutions CAN exist?”. Technology now allows designers to create exactly that of their intention. The focus is no on the ‘how’ rather than what other solutions can be viable alternatives. LEARNING OUTCOMES My knowledge of the qualities and influences of digital technology in design professions has grown immensely over the past three weeks. I realise that technology is a constantly-growing and evolving aspect of human life. There are advantages and disadvantages with its integration to our responsibilities and, as outlined in the precedent studies, balance is key to harnessing the most successful outcomes. For example, my project at an architectural practice could have incorporated 3D

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modelling in its earlier stages to improve effective communication of our ideas between not only us and the clients but also the engineers (the roofing structure, for example, exposes LVL beams so it is vital that aesthetic intents and structural feasibility work harmoniously). On a personal scale, I have also become much more familiar with parametric design software and its growing importance in the industry.


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

Gridshell spiral CONCEPTUALISATION 23


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All of the algorithmic sketches showcased in this journal represent digital modelling forms which can be fabricated and assembled in reality with ease. The selected works also highlight the new generation of design thinking - algorithmic data processing to achieve a generative modelling approach. Although these examples do not relate to Design Futuring aspects of the aforementioned case studies, they are strongly linked to ideas of the directfabrication process. Geodesic curves, driftwood surfaces and extruded geometries are all design forms which can be easily converted from the digital realm into reality. This process has already begun to significantly influence the architectural and construction industry, blurring the boundaries between each profession.

(Left - top) Driftwood surfaces (Left - second row) Populate 2D, Delaunay and Voronoi (Left - third row) Visualising interpolation of surfaces (Left - bottom row) Visualising interpolation of surfaces CONCEPTUALISATION 25


REFERENCES Arup 2015, 30 St Mary Axe | Arup | A global firm of consulting engineers, designers, planners and project managers, viewed 19 March 2015, <http://www.arup. com/Projects/30_St_Mary_Axe/Details.aspx>. 1

Dietrich, E. 2011, “Algorithm”, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, MIT Press, Massachusetts. 2

Dunne, A and Raby, F 2013, Speculative Everything, MIT Press, Massachusetts. 3

Edelson, Z 2015, NBBJ’s Shadow-Zapping Skyscraper Concept for London, viewed 19 March 2015, <http:// architizer.com/blog/nbbj-no-shadow-tower-london/>. 4

Kalay, Y. 2004, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-aided Design, MIT Press, Massachusetts. 11

Miller, N. 2015, Parametric Strategies in Civic and Sports Architecture, NBBJ, viewed 17 March 2015, <http://www.slideshare.net/woodsharold2/parametricstrategies-civic-and-sports-architecture-design>. 12

na na, Swiss Re - The Gherkin - 30 St. Mary Axe, viewed 19 March 2015, <http://www.webpages. uidaho.edu/arch504ukgreenarch/CaseStudies/ swissre1.pdf/>. 13

Oxman, Ri. and Oxman Ro. 2014, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, Routledge, Oxford. 14

Foster + Partners 2015, 30 St Mary Axe | Projects | Foster + Partners, viewed 19 March 2015, <http:// www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/30-st-maryaxe/>. 5

Fry, T. 2009, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, Oxford International Publishers Ltd., New York. 6

Goel, T 2012, The Design and Engineering of the Gherkin: 30 St Mary Axe, London, viewed 19 March 2015, <http://www.brighthub.com/education/ homework-tips/articles/60104.aspx>. 7

Peters, B. and DeKestelier, X. 2013, “Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design Journal, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. 15

Shop Construction 2015, Shop Construction : Barclay’s Center / Facade, SHoP CONSTRUCTION SERVICES LLC, viewed 17 March 2015, <http://www. shop-construction.com/projects/project_large__ barclays>. 16

Williams, A 2015, Here comes the sun: NBBJ unveils shadow-reducing concept towers, viewed 19 March 2015, <http://www.gizmag.com/the-no-shadow-towernbbj/36555/>. 17

Herzog and de Meuron, ‘Pérez Art Museum Miami’, in japan architecture + urbanism (Tokyo: A+U Publishing Co., Ltd, 2014), pp. 82-93. 8

Holden, K., Pasquarelli, G., Sharples, Ch., Sharples, Co. and Sharples W. 2012, shop architects: out of practice, Thames & Hudson Pty Ltd., London. 9

John Todd Ecological Design 2015, Urban Municipal Canal Restorer Fuzhou, China, viewed 17 March 2015, <http://toddecological.com/clients/PDFs/100623. casestudy.baima.pdf>. 10

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B DESIGN CRITERI A

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RESEARCH FIELD _ GEOMETRY GRIMSHAW / SOUTHERN CROSS RAILWAY STATION MELBOURNE The form-finding nature of Geometry naturally interconnects itself with various other parametric ideologies. Rational forms are influenced by structural findings, passive performative aspects are improved through biomimicry research and expressive design intents are executed with aesthetic-based modelling such as tesselation. Grimshaw’s design for Southern Cross Railway Station exemplifies each of these aspects and showcases the joint effect of combining these research fields in one uniform design intent. In addition to general building typology requirements, the brief asked for a railway station which would provide shade and shelter for commuters, ventilation to extract diesel fumes from trains; an aesthetic that would be interesting to both direct users of the site but also viewers from neighbouring towers; and encourage connectedness between the threshold of the central business district and Docklands. Through initially researching natural wind-swept forms such as dunes and snow moguls, the team simulated an array of digital parametric scenarios to create a performance-based roof structure. The resulting fluid nature of the trusses, roof sheeting and panels were comprised of easy-to-manufacture materials and if constructed today, would have allowed efficient offsite pre-fabrication managed by BIM software. However, Grimshaw managed to provide solutions to all of the brief’s questions utilising a well-researched, integrated, performance-based structure:

Fig. 1 http://www.zigersnead.com/blog/wp-content/ uploads/2007/10/southern-cross-station-image-10. jpg (accessed 6 April 2015) Fig. 2 http://grimshaw-architects.com/project/ southern-cross-station/ (accessed 6 April 2015) 28 DESIGN CRITERIA

- the undulating pattern would control natural wind flows, passively exhausting the diesel fumes and removing the requirement of conventional, unsustainable, high-power fan machinery; - accompanied by the glass, the overall structure would present an interesting aesthetic for both ground-level viewers and those looking down from skyscrapers; - the uniform, rational structural form would provide consistent shading and shelter throughout while keeping the site open and connected to its surrounds. Grimshaw has highlighted the advantages of a geometric-based approach to parametric design where interconnecting various other methodologies have produced integrated structures which are multifunctional and ‘multi-solutional’.


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CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE PRACTICE / CATALYTIC FURNISHINGS NEW YORK In addition to maximising material and spatial efficiency, Geometric modelling can also improve performative and functional aspects of design. Contemporary Architecture Practice produced a parametric furnishing range focused on bridging the gap between the technical and cultural. That is, a furniture series based on a set of form-finding scripts which seek data of an individual’s characteristics and needs to produce a result. Such information not only finds the furniture’s sizes and proportions to match a specific user, but also researches how they would specifically use the object - their sitting posture, leaning and laying stature, and how these would further relate to their contexts - working, lounging, eating, etc.. Research into materiality also played a major role in the project. Given the infinite amount of possible formfinding solutions of each person, CAP looked towards a flexible material which could be incorporated into a mass-production process. This would maximise flexibility in design and efficiency in manufacturing. Their choices towards fiberglass monocoque shells allowed easy-to-mold products while hybridising this with a series of gels to vary softness of the material. Closing the feedback loop between design, fabrication and post-production performance, the source of innovation has shifted from solely the designers to all stakeholders of a project. This cooperative method, binded by digital geometric form-finding, allows for products to be a result of more well-informed design and production decisions with clients directly participating in the process.

Fig. 3 http://www.c-a-p.net/project_furniture.html (accessed 7 April 2015)

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Fig. 4 Rahim, A. 2005, ‘Performativity: beyond efficiency and optimization in architecture’, in Performative Architecture Beyond Instrumentality, pp. 187-188.


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CASE STUDY 1.0 / LAVA _ GREEN VOID SUMMARY MATRIX

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SPECIES 01

Paragraph

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SPECIES 02

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SPECIES 03

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SPECIES 04

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REFLECTION

SPECULATION

SELECTION CRITERIA

ARCHITECTURAL APPLICATIONS + DESIGN IDEAS

Functionality - how can it be used, who would want to use it, how might it interact with its surrounds

Given the light nature of the form-found models, there is a much larger potential for my project to be suspended, stretched like a web or even behave with local environmental characteristcs such as sound and wind.

Potential for further development - what other ideas can stem from the current design themes? How can this further my design intents of a project based on Design Futuring principles

GOALS DURING THE ITERATION PROCESS I wanted to experiment between the extremes specifically associated with the core values of LAVA’s Green Void script. Stretching these formfinding principles to extremities while also finding a harmonious balance through integration: Static vs. dynamic (geometric parameters) Rigid vs. fluid (rest length parameters) Sharp vs. soft (mesh parameters) Inflated vs. deflated (pressure parameters) Separation vs. unity (anchor point parameters)

ABOUT THE FOUR HIGHLIGHTED OUTCOMES Given the nature of form-finding parametric modelling, I was not focused on the aesthetic aspects of the forms but more so the performative aspects linked to the design and scripting. From this period of experimentation, of looking to the extremes and to the balanced, I was strongly engaged with the outcomes which expressed a combination of the above spectra in a unique manner.

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Through the manipulation of the primary geometric forms - which could link to specific site-driven design intentions such as incorporating the land and water, nature with environment or inside and outside; and integration of different mesh and relaxation parameters, I could create a structure which possesses its own behaviour. It could have a ‘life of its own’. Continuing from LAVA’s ideology of creating maximum effect from minimal materials I could also continue down the path of rationality and efficiency. For example, adding perforations to the material could reduce its structural requirements while responding to or creating new experiential aspects in Merri Creek; whether it be emphasising the threshold between humans and nature, filtering sound from the environment or creating a new ornamentative aesthetic.


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CASE STUDY 2.0 / HG-ARCHITECTURE _ DDOARIMANG ABOUT The Ddoari is a traditional, hand-crafted Korean household item. Consisting of local straw from rice production, the object served as a symbol of the nation’s strength in local agriculture. HG-Architecture’s Ddoarimang takes this object and uses its core aesthetics as a skin, integrating the old with the modern parametric forms and geometric patterning of the pavilion. The levitating characteristic of both the overall forms and the circular geometry functions as an artistic sculpture while interacting with viewers through its light and shade effect sand seating provisions. Given the importance of the traditional Ddoari straw, HG-Architecture’s focus on combining the old with the new has proven to be quite effective, connecting users of the site back to the nation’s younger days. While integrating this experience with simple joints and forms, the design carries on the association of ‘simple lives’ linked to the days of Korea’s agricultural success in rice production.

Fig. 5 http://livecomponents-ny.com/?p=1214 (accessed 24 April 2015) 40 DESIGN CRITERIA

Fig. 6 http://livecomponents-ny.com/?p=1214 (accessed 24 April 2015)


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04 FAILED ATTEMPT: USING PATH MAPPER BUT COULD NOT ‘WRAP’ SHIFTED DATA

REVERSE ENGINEERING

02 DIVIDE + INTERPOLATE LINES

01 SET TWO CURVES

04 DATA TREE MANAGEMENT + POLYLINE

03 BOOLEAN + CULL POINTS

03 POPULATE 2D + CULL POINTS OUT OF CURVE

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06 INPUT TO KANGAROO WITH UNARY FORCE, EQUALIZATION FORCE, BEND FORCE + PULLTO-CURVE

05 CONSTRUCT, WELD + UNIFY MESH

05 CONSTRUCT DELAUNAY MESH

08 CREATE RANDOM LIST, CULL, BOUNDARY SURFACE AND EXTRUDE

07 CREATE CIRCLE FROM THREE TANGENTS

07 FAILED ATTEMPT: DID NOT KNOW ABOUT EQUALIZATION FORCE + BEND FORCE USED TO IMPROVE CIRCLE PACKING DESIGN CRITERIA 43


PARAMETRIC PRINCIPLES OF THIS TECHNIQUE

Circle-packing properties based on initial mesh and geometric form and adjusted through force parameters

Geometric form is a result of the position of curves which can be altered and automatically re-calculated at any time

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Unique patterning output (specifically the triangular mesh which can vary based on design intent) makes use of parametric scripts of dividing data, interpolating, boolean/culling and tree management

Mesh and circle sizes are automatically updated based on parameter inputs


FINAL OUTCOME OF REVERSE ENGINEERING

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ITERATIONS MATRIX

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SPECIES 01 ORGANISATION vs RANDOM

VARIABLES: INPUT MESHES (I.E. DELAUNAY TRIANGULATION) RANDOM CULL ATTRACTOR POINTS POINT CHARGE FORCE SPIN IMAGE SAMPLER CIRCLE-PACK TIGHTENING VIA KANGAROO 48 DESIGN CRITERIA


SPECIES 02 SIMPLICITY vs COMPLEXITY

VARIABLES: INPUT GEOMETRIES (XYZ MOVEMENT AND ROTATION) CIRCLE-PACKING TIGHTNESS (EQUALIZATION AND BEND FORCES) REST LENGTH UNARY FORCE PRESSURE

PULL CURVE

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SPECIES 03 RIGIDITY vs FLUIDITY

VARIABLES: INPUT GEOMETRIES (XYZ MOVEMENT AND ROTATION) CIRCLE-PACKING TIGHTNESS (EQUALIZATION AND BEND FORCES) REST LENGTH UNARY FORCE PRESSURE 50 DESIGN CRITERIA

PULL CURVE MESH MACHINE RELAXATION PANELLING (I.E. CIRCLE PACKING)


SPECIES 04 ORDER vs CHAOS

VARIABLES: INPUT GEOMETRIES INPUT MESHES (I.E. DELAUNAY TRIANGULATION) (XYZ MOVEMENT AND ROTATION) (EQUALIZATION AND BEND FORCES) REST LENGTH UNARY FORCE PRESSURE

PULL CURVE MESH MACHINE RELAXATION MESH SUBDIVISION (CATMULL-CLARK ALGORITHM)

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SPECIES 05 RELAXATION vs TENSION

VARIABLES: INPUT GEOMETRIES (XYZ MOVEMENT AND ROTATION) CIRCLE-PACKING TIGHTNESS (EQUALIZATION AND BEND FORCES) REST LENGTH UNARY FORCE PRESSURE 52 DESIGN CRITERIA

PULL CURVE MESH MACHINE RELAXATION MESH SUBDIVISION (CATMULL-CLARK ALGORITHM) PANELLING (I.E. CIRCLE PACKING)


DISCUSSION ON SELECTION CRITERIA AND DESIGN SPECULATION The outcomes I was most interested in strongly reflected ideas focused around mesh relaxation and parametric form-finding. My favourite from the Species 04 range, for example, was a result of complete parametric or ‘heavy’ calculations from start (Populate 2D and Voronoi) to end (Kangaroo mesh output and Catmull-Clark Algorithm). The other two iterations which appealed most to me (from Species 02 and Species 05) were a result of balance between innovations in the digital realm and real-life architecturally-applicable ideas. Both iterations I see as being canopies (although contrasting from each other in their structural formats where one is tensile and the other is compression) which have a strong association with my ‘take’ on the design brief. These points include the relationship between the structure and air, exploration in delivering digital parametric capabilities into reality and creating a site-responsive solution to my own agenda. While the iteration from Species 02 evokes feeligns towards open-ness, an inviting and communal environment, the other iteration from Species 05 I feel tends towards cosiness, intimacy and discovery. I can later apply these ideas to assist me in portraying certain emotions, atmospheres and aesthetics in my project development and refinment stages.

DESIGN CRITERIA 53


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES OPEN BOUNDARY SURFACE The use of tabs to join panelling elements allowed for increase construction efficiency while also providing a new design aesthetic. From this idea, I decided to use thinner material (black ivory paper) to emphasise the linearity and tesselative nature of the prototype. Furthermore, the selection of a darker hue has emphasised the light and shadow effects created by the tabs and openings within the centre of each panel. Experimenting with various angles of perspective and lighting conditions, I believe the subtle undulation effect combined with the shadowlines of the tabs creates much more interest than a flat equivalent. I found it most convenient to unroll, flatten and add connection tabs to the grasshopper model before going back into Rhino - this was an extremely efficient process given the parametric nature of dealing with a large quantity of information through simple inputs and outputs. These advantages have encouraged me to pursue fabrication as a means of producing the resources to assemble rather than hand-crafting.

54 DESIGN CRITERIA


CIRCLE-PACKING I believe a strong aesthetic of levitation, simplicity and movement is present in both the research precedents and the intention of my prototype. As a result, I chose to conceal the joints between two plys of thick boxboard, similar to HG-Architecture’s use of solid circles in streams of structural importance in their pavilion. From this exercise I believe fabrication allows the most flexibility and precision in cutting while providing a direct translation of digital model information into reality. Finally, I decided to attempt to add more interaction with the ‘cladding’ prototype by adding axes of rotation to circles to enhance the effets of movement and levitation.

DESIGN CRITERIA 55


TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

SITE MAP / CERES COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT PARK SITE OF INTEREST BOUNDED IN RED BOX SCALE 1:2000

56 DESIGN CRITERIA


SITE MAP / MERRI CREEK SCALE 1:25000 DESIGN CRITERIA 57


Fig. 7 http://www.ceres.org.au/sites/default/files/ CERES_Site_Map.jpg (accessed 30 April 2015) 58 DESIGN CRITERIA


SITE OF INTEREST Not in main axes of circulation Connectivity - can interconnect with roles of Learning Centre, Community Gardens, Dam and EcoHouse to improve the value of the whole Valued as a functional zone - currently an outdoor amphitheater and public communal and event space

SITE PHOTOS

DESIGN CRITERIA 59


EXISTING GOALS ON SITE (CERES)

CERES MISSION OBJECTIVES Address the causes of climate change Promote social wellbeing and connectedness Build local and global equity

CERES AIMS TO To prompt actions that will reduce water usage To appreciate water as a precious natural resource To educate the whole CERES community about ways to reduce water usage both indoors and outdoors

ACTIVITIES ON THE SITE Gardening Educational school excursions

60 DESIGN CRITERIA


RESPONSIVE DESIGN AGENDA

ENCOURAGE AND INCREASE SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES ON THE SITE BY

IMPLEMENTING A WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WHICH

SHOWCASES AND EDUCATES TO THE COMMUNITY AND VISITING PUBLIC THE BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED DESIGN WHICH BENEFITS EXISTING SITE USE

BEFORE

AFTER DESIGN CRITERIA 61


62 DESIGN CRITERIA


IDEAS FOR PROPOSAL Interactive structure - operable components such as rotatable panels could be used to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;transformâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; the structure in different climate conditions Rain-capturing form which harvests rainwater and funnels into a storage outlet - this interconnects the site with its neighbours as mentioned earlier - Dam (where water can be stored), Communal Gardens (where water can be used) and Learning Centre (where the water management process can be seen and act as an educational tool.

Undecided between two pavilion styles. TOP (ITERATION A): open, inviting, communal, public, exposed, fluid, light BOTTOM (ITERATION B): closed, explorative, cozy, semi-public, intimate, semirigid, heavier I later thought - why not design one that expresses both styles? (more on following page)

HOW MY TECHNIQUE CAN BE APPLIED TO THE SITE CERES Community Environment Park offers several key design and constructability opportunities which are well suited to my technique: Large trees for tensile structure suspension Open spaces which can emphasise the play between light and shadow

DESIGN CRITERIA 63


STAGE 01 - SUNNY (ITERATION A)

STAGE 04 - RAIN BEGINNING TO FALL

STAGE 02 - RAIN BEGINNING TO FALL

STAGE 05 - DOWNPOUR (ITERATION B) Blue arrows = diversion of rain water from top of canopy into storage for later uses such as gardening, etc.

STAGE 03 - RAIN BEGINNING TO FALL 64 DESIGN CRITERIA


OPPORTUNITIES FOR INNOVATION I thought it was quite interesting how in several projects, including those I researched deeply, used form-finding processes such as Kangaroo to dynamically simulate a digital structure in an environment but produced a final outcome which was static. Force parameters, in particular Unary Force for Kangaroo, simulate loads applied on a structure at a given direction. I want to challenge this ideology and create a structure which can, rather be a static product of dynamic modelling, be a dynamic product of dynamic modelling. Given Unary Force simulates gravity, I figured in a rain event, the ‘Unary Force’ in reality would increase - how would this affect the model? From this point, I simulated a structure which could dynamically transform from one pavilion style (Iteration A) to the other pavilion style (Iteration B) depending on the weather.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF MY TECHNIQUE CONCEPTUAL Light membrane-like structure with the ability to transform given certain environmental conditions Open - no supporting members required directly underneath structure “Organic”/Soft - ability to fabricate planar surfaces which form an overall design which appears fluid TECHNICAL Structure and ornament are unified Most efficient structural outcome is found through complex computational processes DESIGN CRITERIA 65


ADVANTAGES OF MY TECHNIQUE Minimal structure footprint Maximum material efficiency Unique form given by computational modelling Newer constructability constraints given the opportunity to model-prefabricate-assemble rather than model-document-build

DISADVANTAGES OF MY TECHNIQUE Material constraints - detailed research into compressive/tensile properties and bending properties of materials will solve this challenge I have already prototyped rigid construction details using firmer materials but will investigate into tensile materials and their specific applications. Given the complex nature of forces in reality, it will be very challenging to simulate the intended environment further prototyping will assist. Structural integrity based on surrounding structures (trees) - secondary site visit focused on examining structural integrity of trees in site of interest will reduce chance of structural failure upon completion of assemblage.

66 DESIGN CRITERIA


LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES Through researching a range of precedents, I found that many firms were attracted to parametric design for its strong computational abilities leading to efficiency and higher accuracy in the design process. The integration of ornamentation with structure for example, highlights the new abilities where programmers can focus on specific characteristics of a material, form, space or functional criteria; develop and refine them; and eventually unify it all as a whole. The large quantity of outcomes driven by parametric scenarios can efficiently be reviewed by a design team, culling those of lesser interest and further refining those of higher potential. Whether it be Herzog and de Meuron’s project-specific scripts, or Foster+Partners’ environmental simulation programs or SHoP architect’s fabrication software, designers have entered a realm where their focus can be solely on the conceptual end or technical end or a balance of both in the spectrum. Firms are in a position to propose designs which have already been accurately simulated to perform as specified by clients and, in the process, create a feedback loop.

I have personally found myself improving vastly in the parametric and computational design realm over the past few months (my Case Studies). Familiarising myself with plug-ins such as Kangaroo, I have acquired the skills to create forms primarily reliant on computational inputs (Obj. 2 and Obj. 3). The mesh relaxation outcomes that follow can be efficiently adjusted to meet my design intentions whether it be aesthetic, philosophical or technical (Case Study 2.0) (Obj. 6 and Obj. 7). Furthermore, the force inputs of Kangaroo have allowed me to simulate environments where real-life material effects and forces such as gravity exist (Obj. 3 and Obj. 4). Consequently leading to research and experimentation into joints, detailing and materiality, I have been pushed in a direction where the design process strays from the traditional sense of designing, drafting and contracting to a designing-feedback-prototype loop followed by fabrication and assembly. My technical knowledge of data management in Grasshopper has grown immensely over this time. This has allowed me to push the boundaries with my designs given the efficiency of changing few components of a script to re-align iterations towards newer design intentions (Obj. 6-8). Experimenting with Case Studies has allowed me to specialise in a specific technique, examining how data flows and functions will stretching it to its limits. In this process, I have been able to develop my own understanding of the flow of components and create my own scripts (Obj. 8) as seen in the latter stages of my Case Studies. Applying all of this new information in the context of a design studio, I have been introduced to new methods of approaching briefs and developing agendas (Obj. 1). The potentialities associated with parametric design and new design processes has led to new design possibilities such as the structures I have prototyped and proposed for Merri Creek.

DESIGN CRITERIA 67


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

68 DESIGN CRITERIA


DESIGN CRITERIA 69


70 DESIGN CRITERIA


DESIGN CRITERIA 71


REFERENCES CERES 2015, Welcome to CERES, viewed 26 April 2015, <http://www.ceres.org.au/>. 1

Contemporary Architecture Practice 2012, Contemporary Architecture Practice, viewed 7 April 2015, <http://www.c-a-p.net/project_furniture.html>. 2

Grimshaw 2015, Southern Cross Station < Project | Grimshaw Architects, viewed 6 April 2015, <http:// grimshaw-architects.com/project/southern-crossstation/>. 3

HG-Architecture 2015, HG-Architecture | Live Components, viewed 24 Aprile 2015, <http:// livecomponents-ny.com/?p=1214>. 4

Holden, K., Pasquarelli, G., Sharples, Ch., Sharples, Co. and Sharples W. 2012, shop architects: out of practice, Thames & Hudson Pty Ltd., London. 5

Kolarevic, B. and Klinger K. 2008, Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture, Routledge, New York, pp. 6–24. 6

Kolarevic, B. 2014, ‘Computing the Performative’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Routledge, London, pp. 103–111. 7

LAVA 2015, Green Void, viewed 21 April 2015, <http:// www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/green-void/>. 8

Moussavi, F. and Kubo, M. 2006, The Function of Ornament, Actar, Barcelona, pp. 5-14. 9

Peters, B. 2013, ‘Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron’, in Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56-61. 10

72 DESIGN CRITERIA

Rahim, A. 2005, ‘Performativity: beyond efficiency and optimization in architecture’, in Performative architect Beyond Instrumentality, Spon Press, New York, pp. 177-192. 11

Tedeschi, A. 2014, AAD_Algorithms-Aided Design, Le Penseur, Brienza. 12

Whally, A. of Grimshaw 2005, ‘Product and process: performance-based architecture’, in Performative Architecture Beyond Instrumentality, Spon Press, New York, pp. 22-40. 13

Woodbury, R. 2014, ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Routledge, London, pp. 153–170. 14


C DE TAILED DESIGN


RE-ASSESSING DESIGN PROPOSAL

THE SITE

SIT

E (4

8S

QM

)

670#

26000 L

ANNUAL RAINFALL (MM/YEAR) (PRESTON/RESERVOIR WATER STATION)

VOLUME OF RAIN WATER FALLING ONTO THE SITE PER YEAR

EQUIVALENT TO

2150

59000*

SHOWERS

STUDENTS VISITING CERES FOR EXCURSIONS

OR

>33%*

1950

PERCENTAGE OF VISITORS WHO ‘HAVE A LOOK AROUND’

CARROTS

Daily Rainfall - 086096 , Bureau of Meteorology, viewed 16 June 2015, <http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ ncc/cdio/weatherData/av?p_nccObsCode=136&p_ display_type=dailyDataFile&p_startYear=2015&p_c=1482551334&p_stn_num=086096>. #

*Annual Report 2014, viewed 16 June 2015, <http:// www.ceres.org.au/about/AR2014_FINAL.pdf>. 74 DETAILED DESIGN


CERES MISSION OBJECTIVES + GOALS

INTERVENTION EMERGING DIGITAL, TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS

DESIGN TO: WHILE PROVIDING IMMEDIATE, TANGIBLE BENEFITS SUCH AS SAVING WATER EQUIVALENT TO:

ENGAGE STUDENTS ENCOURAGE COMMUNITY ACTION ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE WATER PRACTICES

DETAILED DESIGN 75


PRECEDENT SELECTION: FORMAL QUALITIES

76 DETAILED DESIGN


Marc Fornes & TheVeryMany CHRYSALIS

Matsys Design Studio SHELLSTAR PAVILION

Rigid and grounded Fluid Open - large scale

Rigid and light Open/Enclosed

CM Design AUSTRALIAN WILDLIFE HEALTH CENTRE

LAVA GREEN VOID

Soft Monolithic but light

Tensile and floating Continuity Simple Unity inside/Separation outside

Zaha Hadid LILAS PAVILION

Ernesto Neto INSTALLATION 2001

Motion Fluid Open - soft carved forms

Tensile, hanging aesthetic Interactive Confusing but engaging Open/Enclosed Outside/Inside Unity of space

DETAILED DESIGN 77


REDEFINING AND REFINING DESIGN CONCEPT Taking architectural qualities of Ernesto Netoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Installation 2001 and applying to site. Tensile, hanging aesthetic Interactive Confusing but engaging Open/Enclosed Outside/Inside Unity of space

78 DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN 79


PRECEDENT SELECTION: MATERIAL EXPRESSIONS

80 DETAILED DESIGN


Barkow Leibinger Architects LOOM HYPERBOLIC

Marc Fornes & TheVeryMany UNDER STRESS

Interesting light and shadow effects Degree of interaction - can stretch

Patterning can be expressive Metal sheets - added depth from reflectivity

Always requires tensile props Minimal reliance on fabrication

Not-planar - added fabrication complexity Simple to divide digital form into strips, complex to assemble post-fabrication No margin for human error

Achim Menges WORKSHOP INSTALLATION

Numen TAPE MELBOURNE

Degree of interaction - can stretch

Complex - no evidence of patterning Continuity Fluidity Light

Always requires tensile props

Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t allow fabrication of templates Tape plastic - not durable Always requires tensile prop to hold structure up

Softlab NORTHGATE

Bruch, Talbot & Roudavski EXPERIMENTAL STRUCTURE

Simple patterning element - easy to fabricate Interesting light and shadow effects

Tensile but can be independent of props Allows degree of human error Simple elements that allow complex patterning Cable tie tails add extra complexity and expression Interesting light and shadow effects Degree of interaction - can stretch

Requires tensile props to hold form

DETAILED DESIGN 81


PROTOTYPE ONE: REALISING MESH AND MATERIALITY Realising the structure with cable ties offers a large opportunity for exploration - use of a simple object to create an extremely complex form Consequently, this allows the average person to participate in the construction and assembly process rather than specialists. Combined with the opportunity to use printable templates rather than custom-fabricated objects, this method can be extremely economical, efficient and applicable to the every day person.

82 DETAILED DESIGN


A11 A12 A10

B10 B09

A09

B07

A07

B06

A06

B05

A05

B04

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E04

F05 F04

E03 E02 E01 E00

F03 F02 F01 F00

Cable tie templates - triangular meshes indicate the spaces for cable ties. Small circles located at the mid-point of each triangular edge are guides for connection points between each cable tie.

DETAILED DESIGN 83


PROTOTYPE TWO: REALISING COMPLEX FORMS 14.0 14.0

1100 .0.0

Triangles offer a planar, tessellative mesh unit which lowers margin for human error during assembly. However, triangular meshes applied to complex forms often feature distorted triangles. These increase the chance of error during assembly as cable ties are naturally inclined to form round shapes rather than jagged. Without careful use of Kangaroo Physicsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Equalization Force, distorted triangles can reduce the readability of the form.

11.0 11.0

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A large challenge faced in the assembly of this form was the complexity of the strips. Rather than being maximally linear, some components curved around the form and connected one tunnel to the other, proving difficult to identify and connect.

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In following prototypes: - compartmentalise complex form into simpler forms before flattening to strips - ensure strips are labelled in an order synchronous to the form - i.e. clockwise

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84 DETAILED DESIGN

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DETAILED DESIGN 85


86 DETAILED DESIGN


PROTOTYPE THREE: REALISING MEMBRANE STEP 01

STEP 04 A

If sheeting membrane is not stretchy and fabrication is unavailable: Match template to sheeting material. This ensures the membrane fits to the form which is crucial to more complex geometries.

TRANSPARENT VINYL Clean aesthetic and joints Soldered together - allows flexibility in joints Maximum transparency allows views of entire cable tie expression and complex form Transparency offers design opportunity to incorporate natural and contextual elements into overall aesthetic Joining system independent of cable tie structure

STEP 02 Cut membrane accordingly.

STEP 04 B

NOTE: Allowing for a degree of overlap between membranes is recommended but not required given the sheets can be held in tension when fixed together.

BUBBLEWRAP

STEP 03

Provides a degree of interaction - an aspect crucial to design intent Durable Confusing aesthetic Interesting texture may remove attention from cable tie expression Less transparent - cable ties are less visible

Construct form for membrane fixing.

EXPLORING A LARGER RANGE OF MATERIAL OPPORTUNITIES AND JOINING SYSTEMS FOR MEMBRANES WOULD BE THE NEXT STEPS IN REFINING THE DESIGN PROJECT. THIS IS CRITICAL IN BOTH DESIGN FUNCTIONALITY AND ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION AND LEGIBILITY.

DETAILED DESIGN 87


88 DETAILED DESIGN


6 .0

Transparent membrane (perforated at connection points)

5 .0

8.0

7.0

Connector cable tie

Cable tie

Perforation point - existing connection points on edge of strips for connector cable ties to bind.

Given Prototype Three practised methods of joining one membrane to another, an aspect which was not resolved was the question of joining the membrane to the cable tie structure. After further speculation, a more optimal method has been created which improves upon the workflow of the construction of Prototype Three and the constructability of the entire model.

8. 0

Rather than printing the paper template as guidance tools, the unrolled strips could instead be fabricated as the plastic membrane strips. In addition to the general linework template, connection points at the edges of the strips can be perforated to allow for the new joining system figured above.

9 .0

9 .0

0

FURTHER SPECULATION: LEARNING FROM PROTOTYPE THREE

7.

5.0

0 6.0

This new method reduces construction and assembly time, integrates fabrication into the entire model building process and increases ease of construction. However, this proposal also sacrifices flexibility as the process would now require fabrication machines to mark and cut plastic membranes rather than ordinary printers to print on paper.

DETAILED DESIGN 89

4.0


FORM DEVELOPMENT

After the three prototyping stages, we have experimented and learnt the capabilities of both the digital and material parame outlined architectural qualities: simplicity/complexity of form, enclosed/open spatial experience, maximum/minimum fluidi

PLANAR FORM (SIMPLE)

ENCLOSED (DOWNWARDS SPOUTS)

INITIAL, BASIC, MESH-RELAXED FORM

MAXIMAL INSIDE/OUTSIDE + BRANCHING

UNIVERSAL FORM

90 DETAILED DESIGN


eters of this design. With this experience in mind, we began to formulate and craft a final outcome incorporating the ity and universal/site-specific outcomes.

PLANAR FORM (COMPLEX)

OPEN (UPWARDS SPOUTS)

MINIMAL INSIDE/OUTSIDE + BRANCHING

COMPROMISED, COMPLEX FORM

SITE-SPECIFIC FORM

DETAILED DESIGN 91


FINAL FORM CLEAR CABLE TIES + CLEAR MEMBRANE = TRANSPARENT AESTHETIC AND BLURRING OF SURFACE AND EXPRESSION

SPOUTS TO FACILITATE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS: LIVE WATER SOURCE, TEMPORARY WATER STORAGE, & DIVERSION OF WATER TO NATURAL TREATMENT SOURCE

D RE TE OFF L I F NLLY RU A R R TU ATE NA INW RA

92 DETAILED DESIGN


PLANAR FORM TO MATCH SITE SPATIAL CONDITIONS

DIFFERENT HEIGHT SPOUTS PROVIDING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INTERACTIONS FOR DIFFERENT USERS

BRANCHING OF SPOUTS CREATES INTRIGUING SPATIAL AND SIGHT EFFECT

DETAILED DESIGN 93


FINAL: DIGITAL TO REALITY

The chosen iteration (Iteration 02) was a compromise between economic and time constraints (number of cable ties), phys Given the flexibility of the parametric script, altering the parameters to suit these requirements was a very time efficient pro This workflow was especially beneficial when we wanted to subdivided only the mesh faces which accommodated for cab

ITERATION 01 (MAXIMUM COMPLEXITY) SIZE 13200 X 10300 MESH TYPE ALL QUADS SUBDIVIDED INTO TRIANGLES CABLE TIES (CELLS) 4840 CABLE TIES (CONNECTORS) 14520 MIN. CABLE TIE LENGTH 319.5 MM MAX. CABLE TIE LENGTH 609.8 MM

94 DETAILED DESIGN

ITERATION 02 (BALANCED CO SIZE 3960 X 3090 MESH TYPE LARGE QUADS S CABLE TIES (CELLS) 2746 CABLE TIES (CONNECTORS) 4 MIN. CABLE TIE LENGTH 87.0 MAX. CABLE TIE LENGTH 279


sical constraints (available cable tie lengths) and legibility of architectural qualities (mesh type). ocess. ble tie lengths exceeding 280.0 mm.

OMPLEXITY)

SUBDIVIDED INTO TRIANGLES

4948 0 MM 9.9 MM

ITERATION 03 (MINIMAL COMPLEXITY) SIZE 3960 X 3090 MESH TYPE QUADS CABLE TIES (CELLS) 1210 CABLE TIES (CONNECTORS) 2478 MIN. CABLE TIE LENGTH 280.0 MM MAX. CABLE TIE LENGTH 1132.4 MM

DETAILED DESIGN 95


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PREPARATION (DIGITAL TO FABRICATION) Segment complex overall form into simple segments. Unroll segments in circular order for efficiency in assemblage of parts. Script to automatically sub-divide cells further when the predicted cable tie length exceeds that of physical constraints (280mm) DETAILED DESIGN 99


CUTTING TEMPLATE TO SIZE IMPROVES WORKFLOW DURING STRIP CONNECTION STAGE (STEP 06)

+

STEP 01: PRINT AND CUT TEMPLATE

STEP 02: OBTAIN CABLE TIE A

TAPING THE CABLE TIES TO THE TEMPLATE HELP SECURE THEM WHILE CONNECTING THE STRIP.

STEP 05: SECURE CABLE TIE B TO TEMPLATE 100 DETAILED DESIGN

STEP 06: JOIN TEMPLATES TO PRODUCE DESIRED FORM, THEN REMOVE TEMPLATE


SMALLER PERIMETER CIRCLES INDICATE CONNECTION POINTS (FOR CABLE TIE B) - AVOID CLOSING CABLE TIES NEAR THESE SECTIONS.

SHORTER CABLE TIE B REDUCES OBSTRUCTION DURING ASSEMBLY.

+

STEP 03: CLOSE CABLE TIE ACCORDING TO TEMPLATE

STEP 04: OBTAIN CABLE TIE B (CONNECTOR TIE)

ON FOLLOWING SPREAD:

STEP 03

STEPS 04 + 05

STEP 06

STEPS 01 + 02

STEP 06 DETAILED DESIGN 101


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The philosophy behind this design reflects societal evolution there has been a significant shift from hierarchical processes to community-sourced projects. Inspired by CERES, the construction can be communitysourced and the water-storage and filtration provisions encourage community activity. Closing the gap between digital and reality, designer and outcome, and art and community through technology.

106 DETAILED DESIGN


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REFLECTION Even though computation and parametricism lie in the digital realm, I found several key concepts in this course to relate directly to reality. Learning about how the two opposites connect allowed me to produce highly explorative and un-imagined outcomes. Exposing myself to new approaches, I was able to push the traditional boundaries and limits of conceptual and practical design. A large proportion of my subject experience, for example, explored formfinding concepts. The efficiency and rationale behind its use to sculpt the precedents I studied and my final project reflect what I have learnt as architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s next steps forward - simulating accurate experiential and uniquely expressive design intentions in an extremely efficient process. One of the major challenges I have began to overcome throughout the semester is understanding and taking advantage of thinking between 2-dimensional (traditional), 3-dimensional and data-based realms (new). Now having the ability to transition between these allowed me as the designer to dictate outcomes with ease and efficiency. My final design for example, was a result from my strong engagement in the digital morphogenetic processes. Finally linking these new conceptual understandings and applying them to a hypothetical brief equipped me with skills to push past the boundaries of my traditional approaches to designing.

DETAILED DESIGN 111


T TO INSTRUCTIONS SE

MAKE DRIPTIE

TM

E

TES AND CABL STEP 01: TAKE TEMPLA TIES OUT OF PACKET

ECTOR CABLE TIES STEP 05: USE CONN CENT STRIPS TO CONNECT ADJA

112 DETAILED DESIGN

STEP 02: CLO SE CABLE TIE S INTO LOOPS

STEP 06: CON TINUE JOININ G STRIPS TO CREATE FO RM.


G TO

CCORDIN IRCLES A

PLACE C STEP 03: E TEMPLAT

S CABLE TIE ING THE IX ED F V O R O M F E EAT AN BE R PE IS GR TS AND C E E HINT: TA H S E EMPLAT TO THE T R LATE

STEP 04: ATTACH CONNECTION CA BLE TIES TO TEMPLAT E. HINT: CUTTING CA BLE TIE TAILS RE DUCES LATER OBSTRUCTION DU RING ASSEMBLY .

DETAILED DESIGN 113


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2015 S1 Derek Huynh  
2015 S1 Derek Huynh  
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