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Sheng Ying Ang 517920 Semester 2/2013 Tutors: Chris & Rosie


Table of Contents Introduction Part A. EOI I: Case for Innovation A.1. Architecture as a Discourse A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modelling A.4. Conclusion A.5. Learning Outcomes Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.1. Design Focus B.2. Case Study 1.0 B.3. Case Study 2.0 B.4. Technique: Development B.5. Technique: Prototypes B.6. Technique Proposal B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model C.4. Learning Objectives and Outcomes References

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03 - 07 08 - 12 13 - 17 18 19

20 - 22 23 - 28 29 - 42 43 - 54 55 - 62 63 - 74 75

76 - 92 93 - 99 100 - 105 106 - 107

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Introduction

maintained its significance and relevance from Mesopotamian temples right through to high-tech skyscrapers today.

I AM Sheng Ying Ang. 3rd Year Architecture Major. University of Melbourne. When I was younger I was very fond of home interior magazines - IKEA’s was one of the best. I would get quite a great sense of satisfaction from just browsing through pictures and keeping my favourite ones as reference for my future dream house.

Coming from an Urban Planning background, I am probably not very familiar with digital design. As a transfer student, I have not had the privilege to do Virtual Environments, and I realise the challenges that will come with that. My limited experience in designing softwares such as Rhino and AutoCAD comes mainly from the set modules in Visual Communications. That said I do look forward to learning Grasshopper and absorbing as much as I can within this course timeframe.

My interest in architecture is further influenced by the history of civilisation or mankind as a whole. I am always fascinated at how architecture has

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation Introduction A.4. Conclusion

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

This was one of the works I created for the Visual Communications Rhino module. It was an introductory assignment where we had to design a space using some basic commands. I really enjoyed the process through which the outcome was a leafenveloped walkway. What was more

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation Introduction A.5. Learning Outcomes

enveloped walkway. What was more interesting to me was the dynamism of the form, almost like a morphing bush form. Through this exercise, I learnt the fundamentals of digital modelling. There was certainly intrigue in creating a model in virtual space as compared

compared to conventional paper space. Since then I have gradually been exposed to the world of 3D modelling. The possibilities are great and I certainly hope to extend my knowledge beyond basics.

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Part A. EOI I: Case for Innovation


Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

A.1. Architecture as a Discourse

I would like to think of discourses as lenses - varied, interchangeable and independent; whichever lens you put on will dictate what you see and how you see things. We generally associate architecture as drawing buildings and designing spaces [1]. But really that is just stating the obvious. Perhaps architecture today has become digitally more advanced than ever before, what with the different digital software and tools available. Nonetheless our expectations of architecture have always been on the physical side - that of solidity, materiality and aesthetics. The expectation has always been for architecture to be solid, stable and reassuring [1]. I would argue that the architectural discourse is capable of more, much more than what we have been instilled with. As Williams put it, “architecture is as much a philosophical, social or professional realm as it is a material one�. Essentially it is the immateriality

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.1. Architecture as a Discourse

or professional realm as it is a material one�. Essentially it is the immateriality that speaks for itself, for completed buildings are but one set of reference points within the overall network of architectural communications [2]. This project aims to explore architecture as a discourse in its fullness - not mere physicality, but also the sophistication of reflecting a design problem and resolving it. It is about engaging architecture as a way of thinking, synthesising and resolving. The entire process should not only reflect richness materially and aesthetically, but on a deeper level, architecture ought to consider spatial, historical, experiential richness in a sophisticated manner. It is when we see through architecture as a way of thinking and doing that we truly admire its capacity and beauty.

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A.1.1 Precedent Projects

RMIT Design Hub, Melbourne, Australia 2007-2012 Sean Godsell Architects

From afar, it is hard to miss the building’s “armadillo-like, samurai chest-plate-wearing building” facade design and rightly so, the new RMIT Design Hub has become the focal point of talk among Melburnians. I have myself heard of many a passing comments, and most if not all cannot seem to dwell past the facade extent.

“People will love it and hate it if it is a good building. If people are ambivalent than we have probably failed. So I hope that people love it and I hope that they hate it because that means that we have done our job,” --- Sean Godsell

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.1.1 Precedent Projects

In one of the reviews for its opening, Engberg [3] points out something particularly useful to the architectural discourse - “you need to be around and inside a building, feel a building, sense a building through your body and, in the best possible scenario, use a building to test its functional premise,”, for as glamorous as photos appear, they are for the portfolio. The RMIT Design Hub successfully binds immaterial architecture to perception and experience. Using both linear and vertical gestures,

perception and experience. Using both linear and vertical gestures, Godsell creates studios, corridors, galleries and display halls up and around, in and above each other [3]. One of my personal favourites is the “sublime staircase” which spans three levels. The sheer height and drama of it evokes awe when transitioning from exterior to interior. The bitter preconceived notion of the facade vanishes as one experiences relevation of the architect’s idea. In fact, such experience is carried forward throughout the building - something quite unexpected from the repetitive circle patterns outside. Godsell is right in saying that there is no in-betweens when it comes to architecture, or good architecture that is. There comes to a point when one’s mind pauses to think and one’s senses to feel, and it is at that point that architecture becomes “good”.

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.1.1 Precedent Projects

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Parthenon, Athens, Greece 448-432BC Phidias, Ictinus, Callicrates

Just as Mesopotamia was the cradle of human civilisation, Athens proved to be the centreplace for modern democracy and classical ideas. Admittedly, the Parthenon is the single most represented icons of Greek architecture.

“But for the Greeks, form (and moral content) always trumped material,� --- Miles Lewis

Today when we think of the Parthenon, or any Doric temple for that matter, we think of brilliant white marble everywhere, or at least that is what we see. The Greeks, however, considered their temples naked unless the entablature and pediments were brightly painted with red, blue and yellow [4]. We might find this surprising, even disappointing, given that we today admire the beauty of the underlying material.

Parthenon, physicality fades and withers in the course of time, for there is a limitation to even the best form of material or building method. What I see as powerful in architecture as a discourse is the resonance of a certain idea as long as history permits. Even with incomplete and ruined architectural elements, the idea and experience of a particular civilisation remains strongly relevant to us today. The Parthenon not only allows man of the 21st century a glimpse into ancient Greek, it invokes architecture as a way in which ideas are constructed, experienced and propagated.

I stand with Lewis in view of architecture as more than just the surface aspect. As with the Parthenon, physicality fades and withers in the

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.1.1 Precedent Projects

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.1.1 Precedent Projects

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.4. Conclusion

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A.2. Computational Architecture

Even the slightest form of distinction sets the world of computerisation and computation apart, for as similar as these two may sound or appear, the former is the simple digitisation of preconceived ideas while the latter has far greater capacity in terms of form and structure generation [5]. Architecture has clearly come a long way from buildings being constructed and not planned to the Renaissance hallmark of building conception through design. In my opinion, architecture has in this evolution become more digitally inclined. As the world moves forward with technological advancements, it is only natural that designing too is on par with such advancements.

a problem [1]. Through the understanding of model expressed as algorithms, architects can now take designing to a whole new level, one which is not restricted by two-dimensional paper space and certainly one that produces far greater design potential than conventional computerisation outcomes.

This is where computation, and not mere computerisation, expresses its relevance. More than just a oneway operation of feeding information, computational design allows the exploration of new ideas by augmenting the intellect of the designer and increasing the capability of solving

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.2. Computational Architecture

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A.2.1 Precedent Projects

Galaxies Forming Along Filaments, Like Droplets Along the Strands of a Spider ’s Web, On the roof: Cloud City / Metropolitan Museum o f A r t , N e w Yo r k 15 May - 4 Nov 2012 To m a s S a r a c e n o

Although Saraceno’s piece may appeal more to the artistic rather than digital spectrum for the fact that it was a work of installation in an art museum, the principle of connection resonates strongly with computational architecture, or at least can be an inspirational piece to it. Essentially it is a structure which makes use of the tensile properties of cable. When we transfer this model into the virtual space of computational modeling, it seems very plausible. In fact, computation would make the conception much fruitful in terms of creative outcomes and project efficiency.

intent and acumen to the best of what computation offers. In this case, Saraceno explores the visual experience through the “weaving of some monstrously big spider, or the utopian projection of galactic cities in 3D virtual space” [5]. Through this proposal I would like to advocate computational architecture as inspired by Saraceno’s installation. Saraceno has shown the possibilities of networks and connections; of which these can be mimicked and superceded by the power of computation.  

The possibilities are limitless because computational design places authority in the designer’s hands. Architects are able to integrate their architectural

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.2.1. Precedent Projects

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.2.1. Precedent Projects

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Deep Surface Prototype: Project 1 H y p e r - To r o i d a l Te n s i o n e d S u r f a c e M o r phologies Institute for Computational Design (ICD) W i n t e r S e m e s t e r 2 0 1 0 / 2 0 11 B o y a n M i h a y l o v, V i k t o r i y a N i c o l o v a Prof. A. Menges, Sean Ahlquist

This project was part of ICD’s block seminar on design and fabrication of large scale cable-net and membrane prototype whereby participants had to utilise previously developed tools in RhinoScript and Processing to generate a Deep Surface membrane system [7]. Mihaylov and Nicolova studied the possibility of advanced geometric complexity within a continuous tensioned surface and mesh structure. Tension is distributed between the cell surfaces and through the fixed-node cables - different level of cell complexity and arrangement would result in different tensile behaviour.

tensile properties of the structure to dictate the design outcome. Since stability of a purely tensioned structure relies upon equilibrium of distributed tension, the flexibility of computational modeling will ensure that the design solution satisfy this constraint. A change in an input parameter will trigger simultaneous change in form to maintain tensile equilibrium. In a way, the computational approach considers both aesthetic and structural quality as well as viability [8]. The result of the Deep Surface Prototype: Project 1 is one that speaks of light-weightedness and simplicity. This can be attributed to the computational ability to generate a form or structure to best tailor its requirement.

In this manner, tensile design flips the computational equation around. It allows for the varied tensile properties of the structure to dictate the design outcome. Since stability of a purely

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.2.1. Precedent Projects

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.2.1. Precedent Projects

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.4. Parametric A.3. Conclusion Modelling

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A.3. Parametric Modelling

The hype about parametric modelling and scripting cultures does not stand by itself - today it is accompanied by various opinions across the industry about what this culture or method actually means. On one end, there is Patrick Schumacher who is not shy in embracing parametricism as a credible and sustainable solution to 25 years of stylistic searching [9]. And on the flip side, the likes of Daniel Davis have asserted to keeping away from turning parametric design into a doctrine [10]. Despite heated discussion about the definition, or rather which definition to use, at the core of this lies something of greater significance - why are we all caught up in the parametric modelling/ parametricism/scripting culture debate? Burry [10] provides a simple but honest explanation - “scripting affords a deeper engagement between the computer and user by automating

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.3. Parametric Modelling

routine aspects and repetitive activities, thus facilitating a far greater range of potential outcomes for the same investment in time”. Simply put, parametric modelling allows architects to design buildings faster and more efficiently than before. It is shifting the design process whereby the level of control has increased remarkably. Davis himself emphasises the fineness of adjustments that can be made to the construction of Sagrada Familia [11]. This is definitely unachievable some decades ago without the use of parametric softwares. Such efficiency, however, has been attributed by some as problematic. Despite its changeability, the actual process of sifting through a whole lot of components to identify a fault might cause it to lose its edge [11]. Because parametric modelling is essentially a network of wires, there will be implication far down to the outcome as well.

Aesthetically speaking, it is also a challenge for architects to justify parametric “blob” designs as opposed to conventional structures; whether they are worth the cost, functional or even if there is any value in the architecture [12]. This applies for repetitive geometric pattern generation with parametric modelling. For all we know, they may be better off as art installations. Despite criticisms from both ends of the spectrum, it is probably not a bad thing. The amount of discussion generated around parametric modelling is actually doing it more good than harm. In my opinion, this is how a good design tool progresses and develops over time.

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A.3.1 Precedent Projects

Department of Islamic Arts at Louvre Paris, France 2005-2012 Mario Bellini + Rudy Ricciotti

Twenty-three years after I.M. Pei’s pyramid at the Louvre Museum, this is now a second contemporary intervention. Bellini and Ricciotti’s project is first and foremost a parametric design. Each of the 2,400 triangulated geometry is a function of particular parameter sets, forming the brilliant gold and silver aluminium mesh [14].

“I would personally define parametric, within the context of digital architecture, as a type of geometric model whose geometry is a function of a finite set of parameters.” --- Daniel Davis

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.3.1. Precedent Projects

or minor, would be achievable by adjusting certain components. The design provides a unique kind of spatial experience; the wave-like, floating form lends a kind of lightness to it, but more importantly, the lightness credits itself to the ability of parametric modelling to generate such outcomes.

The use of parametric modelling is clear. Eight of the slightly inclined surrounding pillars lift the waving form from the ground, with the maximum height being 8 metres. The height of the roof at different points is manipulable as long as the defined parameter, for instance a maximum height of 8 metres, satisfies the geometric function. Further adjustments, regardless major

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.3.1. Precedent Projects

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Jukbuin Pavilion Barcelona, Spain EME3 Architectural Festival, June 2012 CODA Barcelonatech

The structural system of the Jukbuin Pavilion is a technological adaptation of weaving traditions, essentially weaving a network of highly flexible elements to achieve a rigid structural fabric [15]. The differently weaved pieces, about 280 repeated ones, were successfully joined without the use of any joinery [15].

a real model is constructed proves its efficiency. Not only is error reduced to minimum if not zero, the method in which the design is to be produced and assembled can also be quickened. Overall only 15 standardised panels were used and no waste was generated [15].

Here parametric modelling expresses its practicality and relevance. In terms of structural stability, the team managed to produce a structure resistant to wind loads and weather conditions under a tight budget of 1500ÂŁ. The fact that parametric plug-in software such as Grasshopper and Kangaroo allow multiple iterations and tests to be carried out before a real model is constructed proves its

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.3.1. Precedent Projects

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.3.1. Precedent Projects

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A.4 Conclusion

Architecture as a discourse is not just about the exterior, nor is it just about pure aesthetics. I view architecture as a melting pot of richness, whether visually, sensually, historically, spatially or materially. As for the use of computation in architecture, this design proposal would be founded on the basis of parametric design. Computation has the potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the intellect of the architect through the generation of unexpected results.

be the dominant design tool. Overall this proposal envisions a gateway that will provide an arrival experience and become an iconic focal point of Wyndham. The usage of parametric software is understood. Perhaps what poses as a challenge is the fact that the design does not just have to be computed architecturally, but it also has to satisfy the discourse outlined in this proposal. Computation is certainly not an excuse to neglect architecture.

In saying that, parametric modelling provides the ideal medium for such activity. Almost like a catalyst, it aids computation in a superior manner. My design proposal hinges on these three things – the design will speak for a sort of experiential richness, computation will be chosen over computerisation, and parametric modelling using Grasshopper will

Part A. EOI I: Case for Innovation A.4. Conclusion

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A.5 Learning Outcomes

My experience learning about the theory and practice of architectural computing has been interesting so far. Three weeks ago, I was clueless about the difference between computation and computerisation, what more parametric modelling. However, this understanding has gradually developed as I was introduced to the world of computing. One of the differences I noticed between conventional design procedures and parametric modelling is the lack of some form of substance whether in mind or on paper during the start. This method of designing has practically made the virtual realm a canvass whereby ideas are plotted into components, wired and parametricised. It is a fresh change from the pen and sketch book method and something that I am still learning to familiarise myself with.

computation can actually be. Used wisely, it can have great impact on how architecture is perceived. It can even shape the way we experience architecture. Computation looks set to be the future of architecture, or at least part of it. It is undeniable that architects will have to engage not only in computerisation but more importantly computation in order to dicate greater design outcomes. In saying so, it is crucial at this stage to embrace computation (including parametric modelling) wholly to better prepare ourselves for what is to come.

My biggest takeaway thus far would be the realisation of how powerful

Part A. EOI I: Case for Innovation A.5. Learning Outcomes

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Part B. EOI II: Design Approach


Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

B.1. Design Focus

As a starting point, the design focuses on exploring a relaxed and minimal material system. One of the precedent projects considered was the Taichung Metropolitan Opera House by Toyo Ito. The brilliance of the idea comes from the fact that the main structure is formed from connecting curved wall units joined together with inlaid floors and interior walls [15]. This continuous surface network in an open structure is what Ito calls the “sound cave” [15].Structurally these sound caves consist of freeform steel reinforcement frames which provide the necessary tensile support to hold the structure in place. This forms the shape of the space or void. Similar to tunnel construction, the steel frames are then shotcrete to add the element of compression. In terms of parametric design, there is much flexibility as to how the

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.1. Design Focus

architect desires the voids to be. The construction process of the opera house demonstrates this property clearly. The reinforced steel frame comprises of a series of curves positioned in a circular manner and variably interpolated to make voids of varied sizes and shapes. The uppermost and lowest circles are then enclosed to create inlaid floors. As outlined before, parametric design will be the driving design approach for the Wyndham City Gateway project. However the aim is not just reiterating conventional designs, but rather challenging and stretching the parametric boundary. Take the shotcrete process away and the outcome can still present itself as a somewhat interesting gridshell design. Yet Ito’s Opera House is refreshing and inspirational for its curved shotcrete walls – something this design proposal can take a leaf out of. In a way the design does not stop at the completion of the parametric steel frames, but

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the construction procedure that follows chooses to conceal the tensile component in an alluring manner. Another precedent project that was looked into was the Green Void/ LAVA project. A close look at the Opera House and the LAVA project reveals similar structural framework, one which takes on a trumpet-like form.

of membrane as a result of perfect tension that makes for a deceptive effect. The membrane joints can be seen as invisible bubbles have also been introduced into the 3-dimensional space [16]. Inflation of tensile structures could be an area to explore given the qualities it presents. It has the ability to elevate tensile structures beyond convention.

The parametric approach may not differ greatly given such circumstance. LAVA, however, opts for a lightweight structure solely based on minimal surface tension [16]. The green void stretches freely between wall and ceiling and floor, encompassing all possible planes. The decision to reveal the tensile structure as opposed to Ito’s move to conceal is strikingly interesting. In this case, the tension comes purely from custom-tailored Lycra that is stretched and pieced together. While seemingly solid, it is actually the smoothness

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.1. Design Focus

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( o p : Ta i c h u n g M e t r o p o l i t a n O p e r a H o u s e - To y o I t o B o t t o m : G r e e n Vo i d / L AVA - C h r i s B o s s e , To b i a s Wa l l i s s e r, A l e x a n d e r R i e c k

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.1. Design Focus

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B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

A1 S 15; R 11; N 20.0, B 6.9; D 14.4; RL 0.41% A2 S 16; R 26; N 28.8; B 10.0; D 9.2; RL 0.41%

A5 S 6; R 9; N 6.9; B 8.0; D 30.0; RL 0.06% A6 S 8; R 12; N 5.8; B 5.7; D 12.1; RL 0.25%

A9 S 3; R 2; N 35.4; B 10.0; D 30.0; RL 0.11% A10 S 3; R 9; N 5.2; B 20.0; D 7.9; RL 0.16%

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

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A3 S 9; R 18; N 5.8; B 4.5; D 3.5; RL 0.41% A4 S 9; R 12; N 37.1; B 2.6; D 28.6; RL 0.41%

A7 S 8; R 12; N 13.5; B 5.7; D 12.1; RL 0.25% A8 S 5; R 3; N 13.9; B 10.0; D 4.7; RL 0.47%

A11 S 3; R 9; N 5.2; B 20.0; D 7.9; RL 0.56% A12 S 8; R 19; N 5.2; B 20.0; D 5.5; RL 0.26%

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

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B1 S 3; R 4; N 7.8, B 10.2; D 28.5; RL 0.64% B2 S 3; R 10; N 2.9; B 1.2; D 4.4; RL 0.64%

B5 S 3; R 10; N 31.1; B 10.0; D 4.4; RL 0.92% B6 S 3; R 22; N 2.9; B 1.2; D 4.4; RL 0.64%

B9 S 3; R 20: N 29.7; B 3.1; D 5.0; RL 0.48% B10 S 3; R 9; N 5.2; B 20.0; D 7.9; RL 0.16%

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

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B3 S 3; R 8; N 17.8, B 1.7; D 37.8; RL 0.76% B4 S 6; R 17; N 17.5; B 3.7; D 20.5; RL 0.51%

B7 S 3; R 26; N 36.4; B 3.1; D 7.9; RL 0.66% B8 S 3; R 25: N 36.4; B 3.1; D 7.9; RL 0.48%

B11 S 3; R 3; N 4.0; B 16.3; D 14.3; RL 0.03% B12 S 3; R 3; N 4.0; B 16.3; D 14.3; RL 0.03% Offset laid on top of mesh to form double layer

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

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C1 S 4; R 20; N 6.7; B 1.5; D 26.3; RL 0.57% Anchor point evenly distributed around mesh edge C2 S 4; R 20; N 6.7; B 1.5; D 26.3; RL 0.57% One anchor point at each mesh edge

C5 S 4; R 20; N 6.7; B 1.5; D 26.3; RL 0.47% Randomly placed anchor points at mesh edge C6 S 4; R 20; N 6.7; B 1.5; D 26.3; RL 0.61% Stiffness 1.797 Randomly placed anchor points at mesh edge

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

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C3 S 4; R 20; N 6.7; B 1.5; D 26.3; RL 0.57% Randomly placed anchor points at mesh edge C4 S 4; R 20; N 6.7; B 1.5; D 26.3; RL 0.20% Two anchor points at each mesh edge

C7 S 8; R 7; N 45.9; B 3.7; D 20.0; RL 0.61% Anchor points along one side of each “arm� C8 S 6; R 3; N 25.4; B 1.4; D 7.5; RL 0.30% Anchor point evenly distributed around mesh edge

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

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B.3. Case Study 2.0

The selected project for this section of case study is the Articulated Tension @ University of Calgary. The installation is a result of a form-finding workshop to produce architectural prototypes for freestanding pavilion structure. The form itself is a dynamic mesh which has been simulated to form a tensioned membrane structure. A series of structural patterns are then materialised as rigid tessellated skin assemblies.

The Articulated Tension installation exemplifies the tensile qualities beautifully from the way the structure is physically hung up to ceiling and across walls. Individually, each tessellation also reacts to one another in tension to maintain equilibrium. There is a certain level of relevance in terms of form as a product of this discovery. It engages with computational modelling on a whole new level - and that is definitely refreshing to see.

Extending the form-finding works of Frei Otto, Antonion Gaudi, Heinz Isler and Felix Candela, the team explored different digital and analogue techniques through material and geomteric organisation as well as force simulations [17]. The use of mesh relaxation to obtain forms, in particular, complements the Wyndham Gateway project direction thus far, which has been leaning towards a tensile structure.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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A r t i c u l a t e d Te n s i o n @ U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y - A l v i n H u a n g , J a s o n S . J o h n s o n

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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Reverse Engineering Ve r s i o n 1 . 0

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.4. Conclusion

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.5. Learning Outcomes

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1. Create input surface. 2. Create a surface mesh.

5. Extract branches from tree data. 6. Cull elements from the list using True/False panels.

9. Repeat Steps 5, 6 and 7 to obtain all necessary arcs. 10. Create surface from the respective four arc edges.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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3. Plug algorithm into Kangaroo Physics to allow mesh relaxation. 4. Deconstruct mesh to obtain vertices.

7. Continue culling to retrieve necessary points to form tessellation. 8. Create a three-point arc through the desired points.

11. Create circles from centre point retrieved from steps above. 12. Split surface with circles and retrieve desired tessellation surface.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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Version 1.0 of the reverse engineering made use of the Kangaroo plug-in to achieve some degree of tessellated surface mesh relaxation. The rest length of the mesh could be controlled to create different mesh outcome. On the other hand, the tessellation pattern is derived from arcs drawn on surface grid points.

out of stretchable material pinned at a point, but this will be fairly restrictive to the design process. The next version of reverse engineering will address these issues.

The focus of this exercise is probably less on attaining the exact form as the case study example, but rather mimicking similar mesh relaxation methods and geometrical tessellations. This gives the gateway project greater flexibility in terms of adapting techniques useful for tensile structures. The tessellation pattern is achieved by creating a surface each from the four bounding arcs. On a higher level, this is not very feasible, especially when fabrication comes in. Each pattern is only joined to adjacent patterns at one point at the start and end of the arcs, which makes it difficult for joint construction. It can be constructed

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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1 & 2 Front view

3 & 4 To p v i e w

5 & 6 Perspective view

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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Reverse Engineering Ve r s i o n 2 . 0

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

1. Create input surface. 2. Extract subset of surface.

5. Retrieve item from data tree, for example {0;0;0;1}. 6. Do so for the necessary points to form four side curves.

9. Again, repeat Step 7 to connect all points to make the desired tessellation.

10. Create a patch surface from all the bounding curves.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.3. Case Study 2.0

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

3. Generate grid of points, i.e. u=4; v=3, on each surface subset. 4. Retrieve item from list of points, i.e. 0,1,2, and 3.

7. Create interpolated curves through the points to form the four sides of tessellation. 8. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to obtain the corner points in between the four sides.

11. Create circles using centre point retrieved from Step 4 and 5. 12. Split tessellation surface with the circles and retrieve desired surface.

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

As compared to the first version, this reverse engineering model appears to have a more accurate tessellation. Each piece overlaps the adjacent pieces at the respective edges to allow for joint connections using pin-like fasteners in the case of Articulated Tension. Instead of creating surfaces out of arcs, this version interpolates a set of points at correct position to form curves and thereafter surfaces.

The difficulty to this is creating the “inside-out” effect which still exists as a continuous piece of relaxed mesh. Nonetheless the use of computational strategies have been useful in bringing together the surface mesh and tessellation.

This version is not connected to Kangaroo as the aim was to fix the joint connection and tessellation pattern. However it is safe to imply the practicality and relevance of Kangaroo to create a relaxed surface mesh. In terms of difference, this version lacks the “inside-out” aspect to the surface mesh. The geometry supposedly flips both in and out on itself, charactersining on an ambiguous surface orientation. Regardless to where one stands, there is no definite “inside” or “outside” surface view.

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

1 Front view 2 Back view

3 Right view 4 Left view

5 Perspective view 6 To p v i e w

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

B.4. Technique: Development

Patterning using 2 Attractor Points

1. Min 0.40 2. Min 0.72

5. Divisor of first point=50.00; Divisor of second point=50.00; Min=15.03 6. Surface divide - u=2; v=2 Divisor of first point=18.81; Divisor of second point=50.00 Min=15.03

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

3. Divisor of first point=50.00 Divisor of second point=24.06 Min=5.59 4. Divisor of first point=50.00 Divisor of second point=50.00 Min=3.00

7. Surface divide - u=3; v=3 Divisor of first point=21.93 Divisor of second point=29.21 Min=12.07 8. Surface divide - u=4; v=4 Divisor of first point=29.72 Divisor of second point=29.21 Min=3.99

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Mesh Relaxation I

The following matrices are produced by allowing different rest length for the mesh. At certain point, the mesh exceeds its tensile strength and becomes irregular.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.4. Technique: Development

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.4. Technique: Development

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Form Finding I The following matrices are produced by moving around control points in Rhino. This gives more flexibility in terms of form finding. The final image triggered the next series of form finding matrix.

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.4. Conclusion

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.5. Learning Outcomes

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Form-finding II The following matrices are produced by similar methods as Form Finding I. Here the form appears to be more twisted and organic.

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S u r f a c e Te s s e l l a t i o n

The following matrices are produced by interchanging points that make up the initial arcs (as in Reverse Engineering 1.0).

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Dividing Surface

1. u=4; v=3 2. u=6; v=4

5. u=7; v=5 6. u=9; v=4

9. u=11; v=10 10. u=15; v=5

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

3. u=8; v=8 4. u=8; v=3

7. u=10; v=3 8. u=10; v=5

11. u=21; v=9 12. u=18; v=4

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B.5. Technique: Prototypes

This section takes off from the vector development process to the actual materialisation of a prototype. The materialisation will need to include fabrication and assembly. Too often it is easy to design something, but to make the design into a reality, much consideration ought to be taken into account. The team has explored a few fabricating prototypes with varying material choices. Our main aim at doing so is to test how forms work with material and more specifically how these forms are connected to enable structural coherence. Inspired by the case study precedent, the team looked at a similar kind of tessellation pattern fabricated using polypropelene and perspex. The tessellations generally have four contact points which allow each piece to join with adjacent pieces forming a large surface tessellation eventually.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.5. Technique: Prototypes

For perspex, notches were made on separate circular connection pieces at different angles to allow for surface curvature. The tessellation pattern were then slot into these circular connections in between each other. The team was satisfied with the aesthetic effect produced with perspex as the overall form has a clear, lightweight allure. However, the joints were not as fitting as they were expected to be. The structure has also lost some of the tensile qualities. Another material which brought more desirable effects was polypropelene, a softer, more bendable and flexible material compared to perspex. The team exploited the excellent qualities of polypropelene to explore several more tessellations and forms. Within each exploration, the team looked at different joint connections like the screw and bolt connection, the tab and slit connection, as well as the wire

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To p : P e r s p e x n o t c h c o n n e c t i o n Bottom: Slits ar varying angles

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connection. Some connections are more feasible than the rest. In particular, the team thought that the screw and bolt connection was fairly easy to make. Not only did the screw and bolt fit nicely to hold the overlapping tessellations, it also provided some nice ornamental effect to the entire structure.

cases, self-supporting forms. As with the tab and slit form, the curling effect was also undesired altogether. Due to the manner in which we folded the creases, the polypropelene reacts accordingly. We thought that the entire structure resembled a form-wrapping pavilion.

The tab and slit connection had some clean, nice finishing to it, which made the structure almost look seamless. It was also much more efficient as the entire strip was fabricated out of several continuous triangles instead of individual pieces. On another interesting note, the material charateristics has allowed us to play around with the form. With the individual tessellation pieces, we could connect them however we wish as long as the elements overlap and are joined to each other. This resulted in multidimensional twirling forms and in some

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

To p l e f t & r i g h t : S c r e w a n d B o l t c o n n e c t i o n Bottom left: Wire connection B o t t o m r i g h t : Ta b a n d s l i t c o n n e c t i o n

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With that, the forms have also led us to discover some other precedents with similar qualities. One of them was Vlad Tenu’s MC/2* London 2012 project. It is a minimal level tessellated surface composed of 500 pieces [18]. Similiarly, Tenu has chosen to use laser-cut polypropelene albeit a thicker type to introduce structural integrity. The assembly process proved to be very efficient as reflected from our own exploration. The 3 x 2.1 x 1.6 metre structure managed to be assembled and installed within two days [18].

on materiality and connection has bounded the possibility of taking the project beyond surface level. It was good that we discovered the pros and cons of each material, but one thing lacking was certainly the depth in which we could develop the design. Evidently, our prototypes reflect the precedent too closely. Success in determining the ability of certain connections to work well meant that we could and should in fact take our design to consider more than just plain connections but still applying the things we have learnt so far.

In terms of fabrication efficiency, the team has made note and kept in view the option of using polypropelene as a plausible material choice for this project. This is because polypropelene provides easy bending and formfinding abilities ready for tessellation. One of the major flip side we found from the perspex and polypropelene exploration was that the emphasis

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M C / 2 * L o n d o n 2 0 1 2 - V l a d Te n u

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Deviating from what we have been exploring previously, this section focuses on branching ideas of our main concept. While refining our concept, we started by generating a series of questions - what else can we do with the tessellation? how else can we move away from typical surface tessellation? This brought us to the idea of inflation, which is something which still complements the tensile structure we wanted. Thinking about what to inflate, we tried to steer away from inflating a giant form in entirety which almost always creates a “balloon-like� structure. We were certain that the gateway project should not be defined by a giant balloon hovering above freeway users. Rather we thought about inflating the actual tessellation itself to make it pop out like three-dimensional creatures. This will add another dimension to the relatively flat surface tessellations.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.5. Technique: Prototypes

The material that we experimented on included ziplock bags, plastic bags and chip bags (basically any inflatable lightweight material). The difficult part to the technique of inflation was actually joining pieces together. Due to the nature of inflatable materials, we had to seal them up by heating the seams with a lighter and allowing the melted edges to cool and join together. Admittedly, this was not a pleasant experience as we found the material to be too floppy to work with. It was also difficult to create perfect seams as some edges do not join properly or burn before they could be joined. Nonetheless, the outcome with chip bags was better than expected because they seal easiest among all. Aesthetically, the inside surface when flipped outside exudes a shiny, fluid effect similar to mercury. This could have an appeal in terms of visual strikingness for the gateway project.

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Chip bag experimental 3D tessellation

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B.6. Technique Proposal

Our previous prototype explorations have proved helpful in making a final technique proposal as we were able to assess the strength and weaknesses of the different techniques and decide on the best for the Wyndham gateway. The chip bag experiment in particular was a major factor which steered the project away from the conventional notion of installations. Instead we began to explore with materials which can give context and meaning to the project. In actual fact, chip bags themselves are certainly not something one would expect from a gateway representative of a city. However such quirkiness in material choice provides an ideal platform to launch conversations. There is an awareness that such projects if done poorly can be a failure. Hence we realise a need for a strong story to support our unconventional approach. Our concept for the Wyndham City Gateway is to create an installation through the engagement in

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.6. Technique: Proposal

commercial architecture. This will be further elaborated in Part C. This idea is not at all foreign in European regions. It is a smart way of bringing brand marketing to an everyday level. It is subtle and speaks to people from all walks of life, nothing like those in-your-face kind of advertising. More importantly it is very effective cost wise.

product marketing or brand promoting. At the very least, there is always a subtle hint of the logo or product in the drawing.

Some of the precedents we looked at were street art projects commissioned by global sportwear brands such as Nike and Adidas. These drawings and projects are just like any graffiti one may find on walls in tiny alleys or hip neighbourhoods. They are bright and loud, always with an urban attitude and style. The distinction between everyday graffiti and that commissioned by a certain company may not be obvious. However a closer look will almost certainly reveal some ingenious form of

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To p l e f t & r i g h t : N i k e s t r e e t a r t c o m m i s s i o n Bottom left & right: Adidas street art commission

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We are quite keen on the idea of using unconventional materials. Within the context of our approach, we have also explored the use of aluminium drink cans. They are everyday materials in which we consume and throw away regularly. It is this fascination that got us to investigate more about its characteristics and properties.

they have a stronger quality about it. Not only does it pass off as a durable material, it is aesthetically pleasing. The effect from the prototype was unexpectedly attractive. From far it has a metallic sheen and sophistication to it; yet it baffles minds that it is actually waste.

The interesting thing about using aluminium cans is that at first glance (or at least from a distance) one would not have known that the structure is actually made of recycled material or technically waste. There is an element of surprise as one comes into closer contact of the installation and seeing the underside of it. This provides a unique architectural experience as the materiality opens up experiential richness. In similar ways, aluminium cans are similar to chip bags - they are both consumables which are commonly tied with the notion of waste. What we like about aluminium cans, however, is that

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.6. Technique: Proposal

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To p l e f t & r i g h t : P r o t o t y p e a t d a y t i m e Bottom left & right: Prototype at night time

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Our approach to this prototype is quite labour intensive as each individual cans have to be cleaned, dismanteled and flattened before the template could be traced on and cut out. Each can makes roughly one tessellation. These tessellations are then joined adjacently to make up a wider surface.

Besides that, the model was light and flexible enough for a good amount of force to be exerted upon it. We could bend the completed surface tessellation in multiple directions as well.

Far from expected, tt was fairly easy to cut up the cans and also to cut out the design template. We learnt that aluminium can sheets when flattened are rather thin and malleable. This could be a material characteristic that we want to focus on. We managed to make a decent-sized model and made some evaluations from there. For a start, we adored the effect of the materiality as explained before, and would like to retain this uniqueness for the final proposal. It has completely undertaken a makeover in terms of form, shape and use if we think of where and what we started from.

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1

COLLECT ALUMINIUM CANS

CUT OUT TEMPLATE

6

7

FOLD TEMPLATE

DISMANTLE TOP AND BOTTOM

2

OUTLINE DESIGN TEMPLATE

5

8

ATTACH TABS TO FORM PYRAMID

CUT OUT INTO SHEET

3

4

9

FLATTEN SHEET

REPEAT TO CONNECT PYRAMIDS

Manual can processing

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As seen in our prototype the aluminium cans have been flattened out and joined together as triangular pieces to form 3D tessellations. If anything this is an abstraction of the Caltex star - another subtle move in brand promotion. The form was inspired by the shrink wrap as we wanted the installation to not only sit on the petrol shed but interact with it. We plotted the existing site with some additional geometry attached to it and proceeded to shrink wrap all of them together. This produced a form which has connection to its original form, yet is ambiguous and totally new.

representative of Caltex to the entire outer surface form. These 3D tessellations are different depending on the input parameters; and they can be altered to achieve different experimental outcomes. This final form would be one which wraps and drapes itself around and on top of the petrol shed, like a creature enveloping the petrol shed.

The next step was applying force to the form. Imagine attaching a spring to the form at different anchor points and exerting varying force to it. This created a slightly elongated and relaxed form. Then we applied the tessellation

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.6. Technique: Proposal

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Logo abstraction matrix

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.6. Technique: Proposal

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Shrink wrap form matrix

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Shrink wrap form matrix

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Physics force test form matrix

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Conceptual image

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Part A. EOI I; Case for Innovation A.4. Conclusion

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B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Since the installation will be primarily constructed with aluminium cans, it is worthwhile to consider the scale in which it will span and take up. Some of the questions that were probably neglected in the initial conceptial stage were that of material processing and fabrication. Realistically it might be quite a challenge to cut up, flatten and assemble thousands of aluminium cans to achieve the wrapping effect of the petrol shed. In addition, the size of a flattened sheet of aluminium can may not be able to span the size of the tessellation desired. In hindsight, we will need to further refine the idea to iron out issues such as this. One way in which this might be resolved is to add in some elements of community participation. In terms of gathering resources and putting it together, we could mobilise the community and give them ownership over the installation.

Part B. EOI II: Design Approach B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

In terms of fabrication, it will be useful to look into ways to maximise the material size, possibly sourcing larger aluminium sheets or just having a portion of installation made of aluminium cans. Overall the development of the gateway project has greatly utilised a computational approach to design. Our design explorations have incorporated the use of parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication. This has proved successful in generating more design possibilities. More importantly, we have been able to dissect and interrogate the brief. Our concept responds to that by providing a gateway installation for Wyndham that will do more than just capturing visual interest, but also encouraging reflection and conversation through an experiential richness.

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Site B (Caltex petrol station in near distance)

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

Our design approach since start has been very much based on the power of commercial architecture; commercial architecture being structures which have specific business or commercial intention. Gone are the days when roadside billboards and giant poster advertisments can still draw a great pool of attention. In fact, hardcore selling just does not work anymore in this day and age. We think that Wyndham as a city deserves more than just hardcore selling. Hence, the idea is to build an installation which hijacks a global brand to create attention. Caltex, for one, is certainly not new to the idea of commercial architecture as there has been similar commissioning of installation done in the recent years. The GS Caltex Pavilion for the 2012 Korean Expo is one good example. The pavilion presents itself as a dynamic ensemble reminiscent of an oversized rice field [19]. The

grass blades are programmed to mimic various weather conditions and they light up when touched. In the centre of the energy field is a star-shaped mirrored pavilion - a direct resemblance of the Caltex star. In the round room upstairs, panaromic projections show black and white poetic images which convey the company’s willingness to take responsiblity in sustainable energy concepts [19]. The pavilion takes form as advertising in the most ingenious and subtlest form. The chances of a marketing strategy crossing visitors’ mind would be minimal, yet the Caltex star, the programmed blades and aesthetic projections all point to the same brand at the end of the day. This, we think, is marketing at its best. Drawing inspiration from this precedent, we would like to propose for Caltex, the company behind the petrol station near site B to commission the installation as part of their marketing

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

GS Caltex Pavilion for the 2012 Korean Expo - Atelier Bruckner

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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exercise. What sets our concept apart is that when a giant global brand like Caltex commissions an installation, it is bound to generate interest and hype at a scale impossible for any other installations. The spillover effects could look like publications in architectural journals or even the average Australian daily news. We believe that through the power of an existing major brand like Caltex, Wyndham may be mapped not just locally or regionally but internationally as well.

that stands out amidst the flat grassy plains. It would be hard to miss the structure while driving along the freeway. As seen in the site analysis view diagram, drivers on Princes Freeway (Views 1 and 2) and Geelong Road Exit (Views 3 and 4) regardless would be offered a generous clear view of the petrol station. Furthermore, it is a plus point for having an installation commissioned by Caltex built on its own site. This not only shows greater conviction on Caltex’s part, but also easier relatability for the general public.

On another note, Caltex as the commissioner would be bearing a major portion of the installation cost. This is definitely good news for the Wyndham City Council. Our design strategy is to fully utilise the strategic positioning of Caltex’s petrol station and to have an installation that is physically related to it. From far, the petrol station is the sole structure

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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1

2

2

1

3

3

4 4

Site Analysis - different views

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For the design, we propose a tensile structure with a tessellated system. As part of a natural form progression, we ended up with a structure which wraps itself above, inside out and around the petrol station in a random and almost creature-like manner. As for the tessellation, we had made several attempts to reverse engineer precedents and further develop them throughout the exploration period. However, we did not want to select a random tessellation based on pure aesthetics or convenience. Following from site relatability, our aim is to have something which portrays the Caltex identity - and this can come from the tessellating pattern itself.

The subtle hint of a brand even in unthinkable areas such as the tessellation may seem a little out of place, but we believe that this tiny bit of resemblance is sufficient to spark curiosity and interest. When people are able to connect the tessellation to the brand, that is when the installation speaks for itself. This is what we hope to achieve through commercial architecture.

We thought that the easiest way people relate to a brand is through its logo, which in our case, is the Caltex star. Taking the GS Caltex Pavilion precedent a step further, we abstracted the Caltex star into 3D triangulated pyramids. This then became our main tessellation for the installation.

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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Caltex logo abstraction process

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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Design Process Concept Diagram

1

OUTLINE ROOF CANOPY

5

APPLY PHYSICS SIMULATION

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

2

6

SHRINKWRAP

TRIANGULATE SURFACE

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3

7

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

CREATE OPENINGS

CREATE STRUCTURAL FRAME

4

8

SMOOTHEN FORM

APPLY 3D TESSELLATION ON EACH TRIANGLE

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9

APPLY SMALLER TESSELLATIONS TO EACH TESSELLATED TRIANGLE

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

10

CREATE STRUCTURAL FRAME FOR UNDERSIDE OF ROOF

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11

REPEAT DOUBLE TESSELLATION ON THE UNDERSIDE

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

12

CREATE SUPPORT BRANCHES

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Aerial view of installation`

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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Plan & Elevation

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Petrol station rendered image

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Roof underside rendered image

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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Rendered perspective `

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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Studio Air SM2/2013 Western Gateway Design Project, Wyndham

Rendered perspective - night time

Part C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

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C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

As explained in earlier sections, our material choice for the installation would be aluminium drink cans. This is very much because of their unintentional double-effect; from one side the cans have a metallic shine, and from another it is brightly coloured with labels and designs. The surprise element of our installation hinges heavily on an everyday material many would least expect, and we hope to deliver this in a sophisticated fashion. Besides that, the idea of an oil and gas company creating an installation out of recyclable materials is a marketing pride in itself. Similar to many other giant companies who do their best in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects, this would be Caltex’s initiative albeit rather creatively. We are sure that Caltex would be more than happy to associate themselves as an environmentally responsible and innovative force in the industry.

The installation consists of three core elements, i.e. the roof, the frame and supporting columns. The roof will be covered by alumimium can double tessellations as proposed. This gives us the ability to create a large base tessellation first before filling it up with smaller ones. Hence we do not lose the scale of the entirety nor do we lose the details of it. This solves the issue we faced regarding the realisticity of scale since we are using drink cans.

In terms of tectonics, we continued to explore ways to fabricate the structure.

Part C. Project Proposal C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

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3D TESSELLATED ROOF

METAL STRUCTURAL FRAME

EXOSKELETON SUPPORT BRANCHES

Core elements of installation

Part C. Project Proposal C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

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Structural support - skeletal frame & supporting branches

Part C. Project Proposal C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

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TO BE RECYCLED TOOL: CNC ROUTER

DISJOIN PARTS

1

TOOL: SHEET METAL FLATTENER

CUT OUT INTO SHEET

2

3

FLATTEN SHEET

TOOL: TIG WELDER TOOL: CNC ROUTER

6

CUT OUT TEMPLATE

5

TOOL: ROBOTIC MACHINE

7

FOLD TEMPLATE

4

OUTLINE DESIGN TEMPLATE

WELD SHEETS INTO LARGER PIECE

TOOL: ADHESIVE BONDING

8

FORM PYRAMIDS

9

REPEAT TO CONNECT PYRAMIDS

Factory-driven machine-controlled fabrication - can processing for roof element

Part C. Project Proposal C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

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GLUED WITH CONSTRUCTION GRADE ADHESIVE BONDING

1

ANGLE OF FRAMING ELEMENT

3D TESSELLATION

2

ANGLE BETWEEN ADJACENT ELEMENTS

FORM Te c t o n i c s c l o s e - u p

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The other issue that we had from the earlier design stage was the limitation of the can size. As such we propose a large scale fabrication under factory conditions whereby the processing of drink cans would be controlled primarily by machines and mechanical tools. This eliminates concerns about the limitation of drink cans. The process is akin to the stitching-up of individual drink cans into a larger fabric, hence providing a larger area for larger templates to be cut out. This thus makes up larger 3D tessellations that would span the petrol station. (Refer fabrication process on Pg. 96) The completed 3D tessellated roof sits on a second element which is the frame. The frame acts as a skeletal structure underneath the sheet of roof skin while providing structural support. The use of aluminium for the frame is mainly to achieve material continuity from the first to subsequent elements.

Part C. Project Proposal C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements

As seen from the tectonics detail (Pg. 97), the frame derives itself from the base shape of the primary tessellation or vice-versa in terms of construction. On the other hand, the angle between adjacent framing elements determines the form, that is the ups and downs of the roof.

Instead we have decided to use construction-grade adhesive bonding as a sealant for the joints. The use of such glue is not uncommon in the aerospace industry as it offers great bonding strength for the aluminium components. In addition, this allows us to achieve greater flexibility in terms of form and tessellation.

One obvious thing perhaps is the absence of any joinery or connection parts. As a matter of fact, we have explored quite extensively on the properties of aluminium and arrived at the conclusion that joints are not that ideal in our case. A few of the joint prototypes we looked into were creating tabs and slits, riveting, duct taping and using adhesive polyurethane. All of them did not work out very well as the joints failed to seal properly, or even if they did they were unclean and not very secure.

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To p l e f t : D u c t t a p i n g & t a b s a n d s l i t s c o n n e c t i o n ( o n a l u m i n i u m d r i n k c a n ) To p r i g h t : A d h e s i v e p o l y u r e t h a n e ( o n 0 . 5 m m C N C - c u t a l u m i n i u m s h e e t ) Bottom left: Riveting (on aluminium drink can) Bottom right: Mixed technique

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C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model

1:150 Site Model

Part C. Project Proposal C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model

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To p l e f t : N o r t h To p r i g h t : S o u t h Bottom left: East Bottom right: West

elevation elevation elevation elevation

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Primary tessellation detail

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To p l e f t : S u p p o r t b r a n c h e s d e t a i l To p r i g h t : R o o f w r a p p i n g d e t a i l Bottom left: Shadow feature Bottom right: Roof form detail

Part C. Project Proposal C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model

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1:50 detail model

Part C. Project Proposal C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model

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To p : A n g l e o f f r a m i n g e l e m e n t d e t a i l B o t t o m : To p v i e w

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C.4. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

The main concern from the project presentation was the structural aspect of the roof. Under real-life weather conditions, it cannot be assumed that the lightweight aluminium roof will stay intact. Also, there may be considerable noise issue since the drink cans do make noise upon some exertion of wind load. Admittedly, we do not have a counter solution for this. We acknowledge the fact that our concept is unconventional on many levels in the first place. The use of aluminium drink cans as a start is not a path many would take to create an installation. That said, it is this novelty that we are cashing in on. If we were to think of practicality in its fullness we could substitute the drink cans to a more structurally sound material like Alucobond. The cost of this would then be losing the beauty of the materiality and its dual-face effect. The least we can do is to consider both by having an Alucobond-like surface layered with drink can on the

Part C. Project Proposal C.4. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

underside. Even then there is already a sense of forced compromise which would not result in the initial desired outcome. We would like to think that this installation if not controversial, is designed to break free of the convention. One of the pressing questions we asked ourselves at the start was “Why design an installation out of aluminium cans?”, and our own conviction was “Why not?”. Of course, this decision comes justified within the whole context of Caltex and an intended marketing ploy. Furthermore, Wyndham is in need of something refreshing and the novelty of commercial architecture is truly fitting.

In terms of tectonics, there is definitely room for improvement. There is a possibility in creating better joints instead of the reliance in adhesive. There is also a need to address how the three core elements relate to one another realistically, e.g. how the frame

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connects to the branches and how the roof connects to the frame. All in all, this project has provided me a good peek into what architecture is about. It has added itself onto my branching idea of architecture. From grasping computational scripts in the early stages to designing a parametric model and fabricating it, it has been a hectic but enjoyable twelve weeks.

the Caltex installation, architecture has proven itself again as not just structures built out of materials. Much more than that, this project has allowed me to explore and challenge the architectural discourse greatly architecture is not just the creation of the physical, but rather an experience, a transition, a journey, a story and so much more.

One of the great takeaways from the project is the role of computation in the design process. Computation has allowed designing to take place at a more sophisticated level. Through plug-ins like Grasshopper, we design by command and think by command. This requires some familiarising, but one has to admit its advantages and potential past that familiarising stage. It is fair to say that computational design can open up a great world of design possibilities if used wisely. More specifically through the design of

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References

1.Jonathan Hill, ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, theory, 10 (2006), 51-54. 2. Patrick Schumacher, ‘Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System’, The Authopoiesis of Architecture (2011), 1-4. 3. Juliana Engberg, ‘RMIT Design Hub’, ArchitectureAU, 2 (2013), <http:// architectureau.com/articles/rmit-design-hub-1/>. 4. Miles Lewis, ‘The Classical Orders’, in Architectura: Elements of Architectural Style (New South Wales: Global Book Publishing, 2008), pp. 176-181. 5. Peter Brady, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83 (2013), 8-15. 6. Tomas Saraceno, ‘Saraceno’s Galaxies Forming Along Filaments’, (2012), <http:// www.tomassaraceno.com/Projects/OntheRoof/>. 7. Achim Menges, ‘Deep Surface Prototype: Project 1’, Institute for Computational Design (2011), <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404>. 8. Patrick Schumacher, ‘Patrick Schumacher on Parametricism - ‘Let the Style Wars Begin’’, AJ (2010), <http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrikschumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article>. 9. Daniel Davis, ‘Patrick Schumacher - Parametricism’, (2010), <http://www. danieldavis.com/patrik-schumacher-parametricism/>. 10. Mark Burry, ‘Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming’, (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), pp. 8-71. 11. Parametric Modelling, by Daniel Davis (ABPL 30048 Lecture 03, 2013). 12. Adam Nathaniel Meyer, ‘Style and the Pretense of ‘Parametric’ Architecture’, (2010), <http://adamnathanielmayer.blogspot.com/2010/06/style­and­pretense­of­

References

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parametric.html>. 13. Abraham Garcia, ‘Department of Islamic Arts at Louvre | Paris, France | by Mario Bellini + Rudy Ricciotti’, (2012), <http://www.solidform.co.uk/blog/2012/9/29/ department-of-islamic-arts-at-louvre-paris-france-by-mario-b.html>. 14. Abraham Garcia, ‘Jukbuin Pavilion | Barcelona, Spain | by CODA Barcelonatech’, (2012), <http://www.solidform.co.uk/blog/2012/9/29/jukbuinpavilion-barcelona-spain-by-coda-barcelonatech.html>. 15. Designboom, ‘Toyo Ito: Taichung Metropolitan Opera House’, Designboom (2010), < http://www.designboom.com/architecture/toyo-ito-taichungmetropolitan-opera/>. 16. Ethel Baraona Pohl, ‘Green Void/LAVA’, ArchDaily (2008), < http://www. archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/>. 17. SDA Synthesis Design + Architecture, ‘Articulated Tensions @ University of Calgary’, SDA (2013), <http://synthesis-dna.com/articulated-tensions-univ-ofcalgary/>. 18. Vlad Tenu, ‘MC/2* London 2012’, Vlad Tenu (2012), < http://www.vladtenu. com/2012/mc2-london-2012/>. 19. Lidija Grozdanic, ‘GS Caltex Pavilion for the 2012 Korea Expo/ Atelier Bruckner’, (2012), < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/gs-caltex-pavilion-for-the-2012-koreaexpo-atelier-bruckner/>.

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2013 S2 Sheng Ying Ang