Learning from Quarantine [ENG] >>> Sneak-in preview >>> Shipping orders: office@studio-calas.net

Page 1

during the COVID-19 lockdown and their urban consequences* for the future

learning from Quarantine

40 historical events


*Due to the extensive consequences of COVID-19, the term ‘urban’ is extended to a broad range of thematic points of contact. Consequently, there are interactions with the social, the political, the economic, the digital and above all, the up-and-coming.


COVID-19 has hit us hard and affected our well protected ‚normality‘. This little book wants to look ahead. For this purpose, news that went around the world during the lockdown are used as a starting point for so-called ‚learnings‘. Conclusions that indicate a need for action and suggest the leaving of our comfort zone. 40 News with three conclusions each form a sourcebased, graphical and textual narrative. The rose-coloured glasses are put away and thoughtful action is recognized as an urgent necessity. The farewell to ‚normality‘ will be difficult.

€ [EU] 12,-


Borrowed Title ‘Learning from…’ 4 40 Days 5 Intro 6 01 CO2 Emissions Drop (for a short time) 8 02 Dolphins Seen in the Canals of Venice (resilience?) 10 03 Social Interaction Model (just temporary) 12 04 The Balcony as a Public-Private-Space (especially in these times) 14 05 New York Closes Streets to Cars (social distancing measures) 16 06 Current Activity Radius (strongly recommended) 18 07 ‚The Network Society‘ (it finally works) 20 08 Fight Mode: ON (against the virus) 22 09 Hide and Seek in 2020 (inspired by 1984) 24 10 100% Silent Blue Sky (at least in Vienna) 25 11 Smart Social Interaction (temporary urban life) 27 12 Latest Must-Have (new culture) 29 13 Public Wanders into Private (reverse action) 31 14 Decrease of Urban Mobility (whole modal split) 33 15 Stay at Home (~50% of world population) 35 16 Drones Track Down Citizens (robotic monitoring) 36 17 Shutting Down Parks (for health reasons?) 38 18 Freedom of Choice (also applies to mobile apps) 40 19 Non-human Law Enforcement (future or present?) 42 20 First Virtual Design Festival (new culture?) 43 21Tech-Companies Tackle Fake News (future habit?) 45 22 First Doughnut City (Amsterdam NL) 47 23 Presenting Hammer and the Dance (life after COVID-19) 49 24 Future Behaviour (adapted culture?) 51 25 In the Same Boat… ‚Home’ (3,8bn @ home) 53 26 Contactless Environment (call for design?) 55 27 Queuing-up Rules! (new culture) 57 28 Social Isolation (consequence of social distancing) 59 29 Resilient Mobility Diagram (during lockdown) 61 30 Physical Cultural Emptiness (expected until June) 63 31 Isolated Co-Working (modus operandi of the future) 65 32 Universal Isolation (same rules, different capabilities) 67 33 Social Distancing Protest (unabated democracy) 69 34 Paid to Consume (mass production…) 70 35 A Long Way to Go (also after the pandemic) 72 36 Food Distancing (disturbed supply chains) 74 37 Generational Deprivation (adults decide, youngsters adapt) 76 38 Troubled Tourism (blessing or curse) 78 39 Richy Rich Strikes Again (profitable pandemic) 80


40 Exclusive Spaces (authorised usage) 82 Epilogue 85 Bibliography 86 Authors 88 Imprint 89


‘Learning from Quarantine‘ is based on an architectural theory paper written in 1974 by Denise Scott Brown and Robert Venturi, entitled ‚Learning from Las Vegas‘. It encompasses a reflection on urban development, in which the built environment and its influence on social perception is investigated - a reflection on the city as a place of experience for the masses. Nevertheless, Scott Brown and Venturi‘s observations reveal a commercially reduced product that gradually appears to be separated from its urban historical quality and conception. Based on this criticism, the example of the Las Vegas’ ‘Strip’ is treated as a meaningful element of urban development and societal identification.

Borrowed Title ‘Learning from…’

Viewed from a post-pandemic perspective, the ‘Strip’ (or our urban environment) could serve as a point of reference for current urban design trends. Products of a physical as well as a social character that are mainly generated out of neo-liberal decisions and therefore create a continuity with the Las Vegas of the 70s. The cityscape has become a product of investment portfolios and austerity measures, and to which society had and continuously has to adapt.

4


The pandemic, caused by the COVID 19 virus, has suspended previous utilisation schemes of urban spaces, social coexistence, digital interaction, and ultimately architecture. These temporary restrictive measures were applied over a short period of time, but direct attention towards post-pandemic action. How do we go on? What can we take away from this? ‘Learning from Quarantine’ uses reflections as an opportunity to think further and to act. Therefore an additional theoretical consideration, based on the model of ‘Learning from Las Vegas‘, may seem necessary, but appears obsolete in the present context. Our publication, which you are holding in your hands, aims to focus on timely recognition, implementation and action.

40 Days

From March 19th, 2020 to April 27th, 2020 we were dissecting news items for 40 days, searching for their uniqueness and unprecedented manifestation - a different form of quarantine that allowed us a deeper investigation of content. Our conclusions and reflections enabled us to allocate the present in order to envision, with guiding principles, a better tomorrow. Unfortunately, we did not always succeed in this.

5


During the lockdown we saw ourselves confronted with a flood of information and news reports: in-depth analyses and clarifications around-the-clock. In the midst of this news flow, we recognized unique, unprecedented notifications that we identified as historical events. Something triggered us. We wanted to communicate these happenings through graphics by abstracting the essence of the communicated news items. At a certain point, standing on the balcony of our office and looking at the building opposite, a plain firewall, we had a strong desire to screen these images onto this leftover urban space. Equipped with a video beamer, we started to project the black and white images from our private space towards the public emptiness outside - an ideal display for our daily 99-minutes #wallups.

Intro

These initial screenings quickly led to conclusions which were then assigned to individual historical events. Thoughts which allow for a reflection of the flood of news and which direct the view into the post-pandemic. ‘Learning from Quarantine‘ intends to contribute to a documentation of this process of thought and to illustrate the attempt to recognise urban considerations and their interdisciplinary connections. These guiding principles, which reveal the necessity to rethink the oftcited ‚normality’, are for all of us, since it is a burden we collectively carry.

6


7


In their report from March 19th 2020, the BBC news portal releases an overview of how lockdownmeasures impact the development of fossil fuel emissions worldwide. Based on satellite images and measurements from Wuhan (an area already afflicted by COVID-19) as well as from the recently imposed confinement in northern Italy, a rapid decrease of CO2 emissions is registered.

01

CO2 Emissions Drop (for a short time) 19 March 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/ science-environment-51944780

Crises in general have a direct impact on emissions. The economic crisis in 2008/2009 lead to a global decline in CO2 emissions of 5%. Such empirical values, which have occurred regularly since the oil crisis in the 70s, show only a slump but no constant development: consequences of a compensatory and partly artificially driven economic pace.

Note

Long-term declines in pollutant emissions are based on radical changes in social behaviours. The latter can be triggered by crises, accounting, however, for merely temporary rethinking processes. Therefore, a change in social consumer culture and the associated economic relations will play a larger role in meeting emission reductions.

Societal Comfort Zone

8


Recently documented drops in CO2 have arisen without technological innovations and tools. Consequently, current technical progress is vested a humble role regarding emission reductions.

Impaired Technology

The ‚Tech-Culture-Act‘, referring to the mixed and multidisciplinary approach, could lead to a meaningful climate-friendly process change. A ‚Tech-Culture-Act‘, which, based on legal frameworks, changes in societal as well as consumer culture and technological backing, might create an emissions figure which is focused on the future.

Societal Tech-CultureAct

9


The news about Dolphins spotted in the canals of Venice turns out to be fake news. The hunger for ‘likes’ on social media platforms and the demand for sensational news, given the lockdown measures, allowed these out-ofcontext image to spread world-wide. The fact that the water quality in this lagoon town has improved rapidly due to a decline in boat traffic and reduced amount of wastewater, is ignored.

02

Dolphins Seen in the Canals of Venice (resilience?)

20 March 2020 https://www.nationalgeographic. com/animals/2020/03/ coronavirus-pandemic-fakeanimal-viral-social-media-posts/

The decline of social interactions with the environment shows an increased recovery of nature - a circumstance that reflects all too well the relation between human being, built environment and nature. Venice, as a tourist attraction and façade city, forms an antithesis to its natural surroundings, remaining, nonetheless a place of yearning for many.

Note

10


So-called ‘feel-good‘ stories enhance faith in

Feel-good Distortion

the restorative power of nature. Error and truth simultaneously underline, on the one hand, the human suppression of the natural environment and, on the other hand, the phenomenon of natural resilience. This resilience is triggered by the radical removal of disruptive factors, such as mass tourism in Venice.

The search for symbols shows a desire for good and for an intact world. Crises intensify this demand, so news is accepted without critical thinking. The positivepsychological imperative takes over as a mood booster and the objective perception of real circumstances is suppressed.

Imperative of That Which Is Intact

Less prominent reports testify that nature can recover rapidly. The ingredients of a synchronised coexistence between nature and human beings are based on changes in human interaction and social intelligence. An ‘out-ofsync’ status, which has been diverging from its natural environment since the fossil fuel age, documenting the scaleless societal behaviour regarding its surrounding.

Synchronisation of the Obvious

11


On March 15th, 2020 the Austrian Government issues public restrictions in order to contain COVID-19. The new law imposes, among other regulations, a minimum distance of one metre between all individuals in public.

03

Social Interaction Model

(just temporary) 21 March 2020 https://www.ris.bka. gv.at/GeltendeFassung. wxeAbfrage=Bundesnormen &Gesetz

Public urban spaces are not designed for such measures, which is why friction rises between the legal basis and real implementation. The restrictions on public life will be upheld from March 15th to May 1st, 2020.

Note

The choice of wording and the narrative around ‘social distancing’ are formulated incorrectly, creating a distorted picture of societal interaction. The physical distancing between organisms does not necessarily entail a social disconnection. Physical distancing instead of social distancing!

Wording Please…

12


Due to the intensity as well as the duration of the practised social distancing measures, one may assume that our new behaviour could outlast the pandemic. Interaction between individuals in public spaces, on public transport and in shops is creating a new (informal) set of rules and adapted patterns of movement.

Lasting Habit

Urban design is a direct consequence of social interaction. Social interaction results in rules of conduct, therefore the human scale is or rather should be the main driver for planning. Hence, a survival of social distancing behaviours would lead to an adaptation of public spaces, which would result in opportunities to make people the focus of planning and readapt a sometimes misguided urban design.

New Order

13


Videos and posts from people making music on balconies and windows span around the globe. The balcony becomes a stage for various activities during confinement. A common picture emerges worldwide: people appear on their balconies, but also in their windows to express missing community.

04

The Balcony as a Public-PrivateSpace (especially in these times)

22 March 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/ av/world-asia-india-51997699/ coronavirus-indians-bang-potsand-pans-to-support-fight

There is music, singing, and interaction in multiple ways.

Note

The balcony becomes a space of transition between the private and the public and a structural symbol of a newly understood function during lockdown. The connection of the public to the private merges within the private space. Activities contribute to the vitalisation of the public as well as the private.

Merger

14


Publicly visible elements of the private housing unit act as an analogue communication interface with its surroundings. The public display of windows and balconies is a testament to a convertible interaction platform. Due to the ‘feel-good’ nature of these numerously shared messages, these activities are spread virally on social media.

Analogue Platform

Apart from being a psychological outlet, a private-public interface and an analogue ‘feel good’ platform, the balcony fuels a structural inequality in the private sphere. Appropriation practices and informal extensions offer room for discussions regarding private annexation zones ‘on the outside’.

Right to the Balcony?

15


In the course of the exponential growth of COVID-19 infections and in consideration of the imposed social distancing measures, New York’s mayor Bill de Blasio, closes some roads to cars.

05

New York Closes Streets to Cars (social distancing measures) 23 March 2020 https://www.nytimes. com/2020/03/23/nyregion/ coronavirus-nyc-crowds-density. html

The temporarily closed roads are intended to provide more space for the local population to move around and guarantee the maintenance of the required minimum distance.

Note

Urbanity and efficient land use follow the urbanistic credo of a reasonable density. Urban design guidelines lead to a new consideration regarding dimension and structure in connection with the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Density will be examined in a diversified way and this will provide a paradigm shift in planning.

Cure-all Density

16


The lockdown measures make spatial relations visible. Compulsory safety distances between individuals highlight an immediate impact on the traffic distribution of public space. Spatial compositions that lead to a rethinking of scale and the corresponding user relationships, are required. In this context, a nuanced assessment of the mobility behaviour in occupied space becomes prioritised.

Discovered Ratio

The radical adaptation of street sections and the realignment of road spacing have rarely been present on political agendas. Nevertheless, convincing studies, simulations and test phases show an increased demand for action. The imposed measures to contain the pandemic are unveiling needs, which can be met by fairly relating public space to the requirements of people.

New Fairness

17


During lockdown key-services, which supply the population, are upheld. This includes economic and infrastructural enterprises as well as professions whose continuous existence must be guaranteed. Regulations for use of and movement in public spaces are subsequently set up.

06

Current Activity Radius (strongly recommended) 24 March 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/ world-us-canada-52022743

The previously discussed services relate to daily essential urban activities, such as grocery shopping or going to the post office and pharmacy. Leisurely strolls are allowed for health reasons. (Austrian measures)

Note

Reduced radiuses of movement in urban areas increase the need for a city of short paths. Reduced distances renew the need for an urban scale focused on humans, which is based on walking. The decline in use of public transportation is an additional indicator , underlining the importance of accessibility on foot.

Restored Walkability

18


Reduced urban distances are a result of the functional mixing-up of one’s own environment - an indicator, which can be attributed to urbanity and a healthy mixture of key-services.

Healthy Mix

Running errands digitally reduces distances covered by individuals, which means that paths and routes are transferred to supply platforms and delivery services. Local distribution chains are reorganising themselves and adapting their sales and consumer strategies. Digital globalization is bridging the gap towards reduced activity radius and forward-looking micro-local restructuring is strengthening the decentralised urban design of tomorrow.

Micro-local vs. Privateglobal

19


Work, school and leisure activities are transformed into digital home offices, distance learning platforms and video hangouts. G-20 representatives are exchanging notes on the COVID-19 virus via video conferences. The theoretical term ‘Network Society’ used by Manuel Castells and Jan van Dijk, is receiving an acknowledgment by its practice during lockdown. From a socio-morphological view, the ‘Network Society’ entails a sociocultural and activity-based civic acceptance of technological networks. A society based on social interaction, which is increasingly organised around electronic processing networks.

07

‚The Network Society‘ (it finally works) 25 March 2020 https://www.weforum.org/ agenda/2020/03/g20-leadersvideo-conference-coronaviruscovid19-pandemic-outbreak/

‘It finally works‘ refers to the digital adaptation of society as a whole and its long-term implementation.

Note

The internet was invented with the aim to contribute to the democratisation of society. Recent digital developments show substantial grey areas, which is why the entire online/digital spectrum is on the wrong path. The Corona pandemic amplifies the need for an online connection to be a fundamental right, on the basis of having to access work, school and leisure digitally. Ultimately, this is a claim to technological democratisation with social benefits, which must be followed by continuous negotiations concerning data protection.

Basic Right: Online

20


The network society expresses itself through the intensity of internet usage, but also through the way in which it interacts with digital technologies. Thus, the exponential growth in the usage of digital platforms demands competence in dealing with tools. The crisis and its resulting redesigning of digital spaces intensify digital inequality along with raising questions of transparency and data generation. A constantly existing space for discussion and negotiating answers is needed.

Homo Sapiens Digitalis

Urban space includes the structural development history of mankind. Accordingly, the Western city rests on the fabric of the 19th century, with questionable urban developments during the 20th. A conglomeration that is constantly supplemented with digital technologies from the 21st. Different demands on the urban, which are coming to a head during the pandemic and weigh on a physical-analogue unprepared infrastructure.

Digital City of the 21st Century?

21


Measures, which involve a withdrawal into the private household, are expanded. Roads are deserted, the human scale in the public space is reduced. The private space becomes a necessary retreat in the ‚fight‘ against the spread of COVID-19. Some politicians describe home quarantine as a ‚combat mode‘.

08

Fight Mode: ON (against the virus) 26 March 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/av/ health-52008673/coronavirusupdate-why-does-staying-athome-help

Staying at home becomes the top priority in containment measures. The relationship to the private turns into a ‚fight mode‘, any contact with the public being a potential danger.

Note

The initial acceptance of behavioural rules to contain the pandemic are recognised as civic duties. The call for personal responsibility merges with official decrees. Government measures are combined with the individual’s sense of responsibility. Depending on its interpretation, the unconditional acceptance of the measures strengthens or weakens democratic awareness.

Personal Liability, Democratic Burden

22


Within the private sphere, cohesion is increasing or diverging. The potential for private conflicts is increasing, public disputes are on the decrease.

Public-Private Ambiguity

The inside private sphere is turning into an individual safe haven and place of security compared to the outside world. One’s perceived safety is reduced from urban space down to one’s own four walls, if available. The demand for protected spaces is increasing, which is why inequality is spreading.

‘Safe‘ Space

23


‘Yes, it‘s happening now’, headlines the Forbes online platform. Smartphone tracking is used as a common practice in the fight against the virus. Active and passive data acquisition is the key to this. The population is encouraged to install mobile applications. With these newly adopted measures, aspects of data protection are blurred, which is why the question of post-pandemic surveillance remains unanswered.

09

Hide and Seek in 2020 (inspired by 1984) 27 March 2020 https://www.forbes.com/sites/ zakdoffman/2020/03/27/ covid-19-phone-locationtracking-its-moving-fastthis-is-whats-happeningnow/#73d411da11d3

Tracking as a cure to contain the pandemic reveals the issue of digital control, which is often brushed aside and rarely discussed. The parallel to George Orwell‘s novel ‚1984‘ calls for a cautious approach to excessive and personal surveillance. ‚Opting-out‘, the right to withdraw from digital mechanisms, becomes prioritised. The physical/digital connection requires, therefore, a broadened perspective. After all, opting-out could result in a refusal of using certain mobile applications, in physical or public access restrictions.

Note

Right to ‚Opt-out‘

24


Differing cultural practices are also embedded in the digital environment, making it difficult to negotiate general digital basic rights. For instance, China has a different approach to data than Italy, which is why the global discrepancy in the bargaining of digital agreements is growing. Digital cultural practices contribute to the division of cooperative efforts.

Digital Discrepancy

Digital tools need handling in a way which requires competence and a disposition to be informed regarding their impact. Forms of visibility are needed, whereby, for example, the intention of mobile applications can be recognized promptly. So-called digital content tables, similar to nutrient tables, could clarify matters.

Digital Enlightenment

The Corona crisis brings air traffic to a standstill. Closed borders and the measures to contain the virus restrict air travel. The Flughafen Wien AG predicts a 99% decline in the numbers of passengers in April 2020 compared to 2019.

10

100% Silent Blue Sky (at least in Vienna) 28 March 2020 25


https://nats.aero/blog/2020/03/ weathering-the-stormcoronavirus-and-air-trafficcontrol/

The loss of aviation contributes to the temporary reduction in emissions. In addition, the acoustic component of air traffic in urban spaces is eliminated.

Note

De-globalisation An essential aspect of globalisation is the worldwide accessibility by aeroplane. The collapse of the aviation industry makes it possible to reflect upon the significance of flying. Distances are being reevaluated.

The legitimation for short distances (flights up to 1.000km) is decreasing. Alternative models are increasing.

Short Distances

26


The decline in civil aviation is demanding the growth and expansion of already existing means of transportation. Rail transport offers the most promising approaches. A world of short distances and relativised travel time will follow.

Fool.com reports on the exponential growth rates of video conference providers during the lockdown. For instance, the number of users of the video platform ZOOM will increase by 500% in comparison to 2019. The lockdown is shifting everyday conversations from work, education and leisure into the digital sphere.

A Switch to That Which Already Exists

11

Smart Social Interaction

(temporary urban life) 29 March 2020 ttps://www.fool.com/ investing/2020/03/26/theres-abig-problem-with-zoom-stock. aspx

27


The rapid growth is accompanied by an excessive demand for digital infrastructure and security. Services are faced with serious safety concerns regarding privacy, which is why video conferencing systems have subsequently been criticised by data privacy activists.

Note

The knowledge of how to use digital platforms and the associated skills are growing and are a prerequisite for fundamental communication processes. Knowing how to use digital tools presents a new challenge for digital interaction. User behaviour and the technological predisposition are adapting.

Digital Action

Post-pandemic digital behaviour is increasingly spreading in areas of work, education and leisure. The rigid structures of organised and time–based work are being questioned and increasingly individualised.

Digital Pervasiveness

28


Digital communication is extended by individual perception. Interactors perceive themselves more intensely via the digital medium and also adapt the real environment in the detail of the image. A process of desubjectivation is gaining momentum.

The Austrian Federal Government announces compulsory masks in supermarkets and pharmacies. Having been initially rejected by representatives of the federal government, masks become a mandatory element for some parts of public life.

Desubjectification

12

Latest MustHave (new culture) 30 March 2020 https://edition.cnn.com/ world/live-news/coronavirusoutbreak-03-30-20-intlhnk/h_562c3627a29a40d 434c7dae9ba9e4c93

29


Masks are used to prevent droplet infection, which is released into the environment when coughing, sneezing and breathing more intensively. Protection of the mouth and nose is meant to help protect those surrounding.

Note

The mask has become an accessory of protection. Furthermore, the non-verbal signal emitted by the mask suggests compliance with social distancing rules. Personal accessibility or inaccessibility is being communicated to others in an unmistakable way.

Non-verbal Communication

While the historical context of the mask is rooted in the area of facial jewellery, hidden eroticism and the veiling of the face, in recent history oro-nasal protection is becoming a security tool for public interactions. The individual design contributes to personal identification as well as a reinterpreted signal effect and expands cultural assumptions.

Cultural Accessories

30


Production shortages and quality deficiencies are evidence of the fragility and lack of responsiveness of the supply system.

Restriction to the private sphere and the progress of the lockdown, documents an exponential migration of public activities into digitally extended private space. Our adaptability to lockdown is characterised by a modified continuation of everyday life - a digital everyday life that reverses our view of public and private relations.

Fragility

13

Public Wanders into Private (reverse action) 31 March 2020 https://www.technologyreview. com/2020/04/07/998552/ why-the-coronavirus-lockdownis-making-the-internet-betterthan-ever/

31


The public sphere sometimes wanders onto the digital

Note

platform and vice versa. The blurring of public/private boundaries and a partial inversion have already been recognised with the advancing digital age. The shifting of physical/digital spaces results the migration of public activities into the private sphere during the lockdown. The private sphere is integrating the public realm through a digital extension of one’s living room. The living room becomes a mobile app and end device.

Subsequent Inversion

The call for architectural flexibility and an adaptable private space is a natural consequence of the shifting of activities between the public and private. The requirement for multifunctionality and individual adaptability become a creative challenge. Especially the inclusion of additional functions in already existing floor plans presents new challenges.

Adapted Flexibility

Digital platforms are causing a multi-layered influx from the outside to the inside. For example, delivery services are islands of digital responsiveness and their frequency is an indicator of real demand.

Platform Influx

32


According to the Austrian newspaper ‘derStandard’, in its online edition on 01.04.2020, the general volume of mobility in urban areas has collapsed by 85%. Only necessary movement radii are being traveled. Public transportation guarantees the continuity of its services, but also registers a significant drop in the number of users.

14

Decrease of Urban Mobility

(whole modal split) 01 April 2020 https://www.derstandard. at/story/2000116411484/ coronavirusbewegungsanalysen-zeigenstabilen-mobilitaetsrueckgang

The decline during the lockdown is linked to a drastic change in the modal split. The data is based on anonymised mobile phone data.

Note

With the decline in mobility, a change in transport behaviour becomes apparent. Cycling and walking as means of transportation record the smallest declines. At the same time, urban spaces experience a new standard due to the reduced speed of transportation.

Trusted Transport

33


Public transport needs a change in design due to the psychologically deeply rooted social distancing rules. The perception of safety regarding health decreases when using public transport.

Public Distancing

Urban distances are not only perceived in a nuanced way, but also reconsidered in terms of planning. The emergence of local urbanity promotes slow-mobility. Motorised private transportation, which produces high emissions, is confronted with a drastic restructuring in urban areas.

Local Urbanity

34


Half of humanity is in a state of a legally ordered quarantine. Staying at home becomes the epitome of the COVID-19 measures. The right to housing, a secondgeneration human right, is pushed to its limits. The safety zone to which people are retreating is not accessible to everyone.

15

Stay at Home (~50% of world population) 02 April 2020 https://www.dw.com/en/ coronavirus-latest-globalcoronavirus-infections-top-1million/a-52987648

At the peak of the Corona crisis, 3.9 bn people were in lockdown.

Note

Equality applies to those who have to (are allowed to) sit out the crisis within their own four walls. Inequality happens to those who have no private space of refuge.

Equal Inequality

The basic right to housing fails due to the predisposition or distribution of land resources and the redistribution of the built environment. Vacancies can become spaces of opportunity, if a potential use, be it also temporary, presents itself. These kind of strategies can enable the availability of unused space resources and therefore reinforce the basic right to housing.

Basic Right to Use Space

35


The social evaluation of living space, as well as its successive use, guarantee claim to equality, putting aside economic speculation.

The Spanish executive praises the successful use of drones during the first weeks of the lockdown. Drones are considered an efficient tool in ensuring the adherence to COVID-19 measures. In the public sphere people are asked, via auditory signals and announcements, to comply with the regulations.

Fragile Commodity

16

Drones Track Down Citizens

(robotic monitoring) 03 April 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/ av/world-europe-51900325/ coronavirus-please-stay-athome

36


Since the beginning of the 2000s, drones have been used for crime control. Their targeted use in the control of social distancing regulations is a novelty in the surveillance repertoire of this executive branch.

Note

The anonymity of this executive branch is increasing. Remote-controlled systems enable more efficient and contactless operations. The interaction component is reduced to a man-machine relationship.

Robotic Anonymity

Due to the obligation to wear masks, anti-mask laws are repealed. The fact that regulations and systems of facial recognition have now become obsolete, gives way to an adapted form of surveillance.

Unmasking

37


Robotic interactions have an intimidating effect due to the lack of a human component.

The opening of the Austrian Federal Gardens is a Corona debacle and a political issue. Due to the initial restrictions, the Federal Gardens were closed from March 16th, 2020 - a measure that was supposed to contain the pandemic and prevent „unnecessary“ lingering outdoors.

Robotic Intimidation

17

Shutting Down Parks

(for health reasons?) 04 April 2020 https://www.derstandard.at/ story/2000116462368/einestadt-im-lockdown-gaertenhinter-gittern

38


This measure is met with a great lack of understanding

Note

by the population. Politically, the procedure generates a widespread debate, which ultimately contributes to the reopening of the parks on April 14th, 2020. Public goods are considered to be not-so-public. Privatisations as well as restrictions on access to public spaces are more obvious.

Public-Not-Public

As a green oasis, the urban park is classified as a recreational zone and an area providing balance. In times of crisis, health and psychosocial aspect of society is reinterpreted as a danger zone.

Oh, Park

39


The proportionality of green recreational zones to the

Green Scale

built environment is being upgraded. In addition, the relationship between green spaces and sealed surfaces is seeping emphatically into the perception of urban residents.

(Individual) Austrian politicians advocate mandatory use of the ‘Corona App’. Tracking smartphones is used to combat the spread of COVID-19. In Austria, the population is encouraged to use the so-called ‘CoronaApp’, a mobile application of the Red Cross. At times there is also discussion of obligatory use. The protection of data privacy is repeatedly assured by the developers.

Although the use of the app should be voluntary, mandatory measures are being discussed on a political level. This is a discrepancy that goes hand in hand with a closer look at civil liberties and the regulation of privacy.

18

Freedom of Choice

(also applies to mobile apps) 05 April 2020 https://orf.at/stories/3160723/

Note

40


On the one hand, events concerning the environment are

Bidirectional

observed via smartphone monitoring. On the other hand, the smartphone becomes the main tool in dealing and interacting with the environment. Generating data in an invisible and partially contactless way, manifests itself to be the real bidirectional.

Monitoring

Obligation and voluntariness blur in exceptional circumstances. Redirecting measures into the digital sphere, creates an ambivalent means of social pressure.

Voluntary Obligation

The system design obscures the purpose of mobile applications in many ways. Accordingly, clearly communicated content must be based on the ‚rightto-know‘-principle and the ability to have a broad understanding as a user. Analogue and digital hacking is developing as a circumvention practice.

The Right to Know

41


Surveillance robots are being used for the first time to ensure quarantine regulations are kept in public spaces. Robotic assistants are known for their work in the health sector or in cases of imminent danger. The BBC portal reports of police robots being used for the first time to monitor lockdown measures. Robots approach pedestrians in Tunisian towns to check their identity cards and identify their reason for moving in a public space.

19

Non-human Law Enforcement (future or present?) 06 April 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/ world-africa-52148639

An exponential increase of surveillance robots has been recorded particularly in Asian and North African regions during the lockdown.

Note

Robot-human controls reduce interaction to a minimum and maximise the collection of information.

Robotic Interaction

42


Robotic automation is on the rise due to the shift towards a contactless society.

Contactless Dogma

Artificial static sensors of urban spaces are enhanced by mobile robotic ones. Robots, which are usually used in dangerous situations and health care facilities, move into urban space for public purposes. The way in which robots are used remains basically the same.

Sensory Extension

Due to the lockdown and the associated public restrictions, the online portal Dezeen ‚Architecture and Design Magazine‘ is hosting its first virtual design festival - a digital way to compensate for the numerous cancellations in the cultural sector. Cultural institutions are forced to find new ways of visibility. Their content is conveyed through videos, podcasts and VR-tours.

20

First Virtual Design Festival (new culture?) 07 April 2020 https://www.dezeen. com/2020/04/02/dezeenannounces-virtual-designfestival/

43


This is an unprecedented situation which not only allows to rethink the possibilities of cultural production, but also question the role of culture in general.

Note

Culture is increasingly merging with the digital sphere. Room for possibility and communication is created and explored. The trial-and-error principle becomes the repertoire of cultural production.

Melting Pot

Digital technologies are developing from being something tried out to being a matter of course in the cultural sector. This step also leads to a more general reflection on cultural practices.

Self-reflection

44


Culture thrives on continuity, adaptation and critical

Transcendence

examination. For this reason, transitions from the imaginary, to the real, to the virtual, right up to the digital, legitimise the continuation of cultural practices and are regarded as self-evident transcendence.

The rapid increase of fake news during the coronavirus crisis forces social media platforms to act. Systems are being put in place to limit multiple relayed messages which are forwarded multiple times and filter for distorted content. Advanced fake news identification is being set up.

21

Tech-Companies Tackle Fake News (future habit?) 08 April 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/ technology-52157202

Technology companies are faced with using surveillance, censorship and handling personal data in a nuanced way. The discourse oscillates between necessity and self-regulation.

Note

45


The spread of the epidemic is bringing with it an

Infodemic

exponential increase in digitally provided information as well as digitally retrieved messages. A combination in which fake news can nestle and reach a global distribution. The so-called ‘infodemic’ requires users and content providers to have digital competence, but also an enhanced mode of examining the offered content. AI is sure to greet us soon.

Digitally accessible content is increasingly being identified as a potential carrier of hoaxes. Social media platforms are expanding their radius of action to prevent fake news. A more in-depth discussion is necessary when it comes to dealing with censored content.

Creepy Line

The measures taken by large internet companies to contain fake news, show their global power. Their influence on informational content underlines the para-

Digital Power

46


governmental role of large private Internet platforms. Regulatory measures are explicitly necessary.

On the 8th of April 2020 the city of Amsterdam announces the implementation of the ‚Doughnut model‘. The concept is intended to facilitate urban action in post-pandemic times and promote a sustained political field of action.

22

First Doughnut City (Amsterdam NL) 09 April 2020 https://www.theguardian.com/ world/2020/apr/08/amsterdamdoughnut-model-mend-postcoronavirus-economy

Since 2012, the doughnut approach has been developed by British economist Kate Raworth at the Department of Environmental Change at Oxford University. The economic principle of the model involves an interaction between market, state, society and the common good. The shape of the doughnut is intended to help locate

Note

47


these relationship. According to this, social foundations such as education, affordable housing, equality and political participation should be located within the protected circle. This hole in the doughnut is protected by a circular frame that symbolizes the ecological limits of the planet in terms of local consumption chains, sustainable space production and the promotion of sustainable energy sources. A deep-fried pastry that symbolizes the urban balance between ecology and social demands in a simple form.

The crisis reveals the fragility of our urban development. A consequence resulting from austerity measures that lead to the degradation of the urban environment. This is a consequence of portfolio-oriented economic investments distracting from the real benefits of urbanity.

Urban Discount

Vibrant urban areas hardly ever result out of pure economic interests. Changes due to rigid legal frameworks are also met with poor response, which is why urban flexibility and ad-hoc governance involving factors concerning urban balance seem necessary.

Ad-Hoc Urbanism

48


A comprehensive and flexible urban governance to protect urban life seems inevitable. Ultimately, it is the strategic narratives that should be supported by legal frameworks, not the other way around.

Due to a loosening of the lockdown, possible progressions of the development of COVID-19 will be investigated more closely. The ‚hammer‘, which refers to the strict restrictions at the beginning, is replaced by the ‚dance‘, which is supposed to illustrate a gradual return to ‚normality‘.

Narrative Endorsement

23

Presenting Hammer and the Dance (life after COVID-19) 10 April 2020 https://www.derstandard. at/story/2000116754341/ einzigartige-experimente-inechtzeit

49


This scenario of the hammer and the dance is well known in the world of business. The impact of such a description and prognosis regarding the COVID-19 infections is still uncertain - an experiment.

Note

The management of the restrictive measures shows a new culture of general social conduct. Cooperative actions, coupled with interests regarding health, are considered to be the solution process.

Cooperative Behavioural Need

Adaptation and wide-ranging social flexibility are indications of the post-pandemic code of conduct. A rethinking of the previous modus operandi is inevitable.

Flexible Adaptability

50


Community-wide cooperation makes it possible to influence global circumstances. The rising awareness of such a form of action extends to further levels of everyday life.

Shaking hands changes from a welcoming gesture into a bioweapon. The BBC news portal considers social manners in times of Corona.

Cooperative Expansion

24

Future Behaviour (adapted culture?) 11 April 2020 https://www.bbc.com/worklife/ article/20200413-coronaviruswill-covid-19-end-the-handshake

51


Western forms of greetings, such as shaking hands, have come under severe criticism.

Note

Formerly friendly and trusted gestures are being reinterpreted as irresponsible actions. Emotional distancing takes place as new manners are implemented step by step.

Western Behavioural Protocol

The rules of conduct, that were followed during the COVID-19 actions, legitimize the continuation of these new manners in post-pandemic situations. The culture of interpersonal communication is changing.

Adapted Culture

52


The way we behave has a direct influence on the environment. Contactless relationships lead to an urban environment with reduced interaction. Manual control becomes sensor-controlled.

The fear of being infected with the COVID-19 virus ‚from the neighbouring country‘ led to disputes on the French-German border. A small incident with huge consequences. These incidents were reported in the international press because of the special circumstances and the motives which were so hard to understand. Even politicians were forced to act, which is why the news portal ‚Deutsche Welle‘ quotes the statement of the German Minister of Foreign Affairs that the virus ‚has no nationality‘.

Reciprocal Relationships

25

In the Same Boat… ‚Home’ (3,8bn @ home) 12 April 2020 https://www.dw.com/en/ germany-slams-abuseof-french-visitors-overcoronavirus/a-53097380

53


At this point, Germany and France have similar infection rates.

Note

The similarity of local measures in containing the pandemic, unifies the approach. International cooperation is becoming an essential element of crisis management. National attitudes remain for the time being, but are becoming less important.

Local Globalism

In the face of an invisible danger, borders and walls become obsolete. Support is handled locally. Experiences and critical support are discussed and implemented globally. The international approach strengthens cooperation.

Obsolete Border

54


Forward-thinking and comprehensive measures to contain the pandemic will be taken through cooperation. Competition increases an asymmetrical approach to the crisis management.

Will our environment be operated via smartphone from here on in? This is the question raised by architecture reporter Oliver Wainwright in ‘The Guardian’ about human interaction with architecture. This is a question whose answer is still open and which will fundamentally influence the relationship between design and space.

Cooperation and Competition

26

Contactless Environment

(call for design?) 13th April 2020 https://www.theguardian.com/ artanddesign/2020/apr/13/ smart-lifts-lonely-workers-notowers-architecture-after-covid19-coronavirus

55


For the design of the ‚Bee‘ah Waste Management‘ company headquarters in Sharjah/United Arab Emirates, Zaha Hadid Architects designed contactless access routes. An elevator can be controlled via a smartphone and the doors can be opened by sensors and face recognition systems.

Note

Our environment as well as our social relationships are mainly based on physical interactions. Measures which demand zero contact, call for a redesign of our personal and public sphere. Urban and private spaces will be given a contactless shell.

Contactless Layer

The materiality as well as the fabric of the environment are identified as potential carriers of the invisible. Thus, the design of the haptic elements (or how things feel) calls for a neutral patina.

Inert Materiality

56


Contactless points of intersection allow interaction with physical space but leave technology in control of the environment. The human component risks being chauffeured by the increasingly technological surroundings without being able to decide on speed and direction. Urban and private space becomes an automated machine while the unidirectional influence of users diminishes.

After the Easter holidays, the lockdown restrictions are being relaxed in all countries. Even non-essential shops will be allowed to commence operation but only in accordance with certain social distancing rules.

Interface-driven Automation

27

Queuing-up Rules! (new culture) 14 April 2020 57


https://www.politico.com/ news/2020/04/14/europebegins-tentative-easing-ofcoronavirus-lockdown-185429

Customers must wear face masks, follow distancing rules and enter the shops in small numbers. The formation of queues which maintain the minimum distance can lead to bizarre behaviours.

Note

Distancing rules are subsequently applied to all public activities. The limits of what is practical are broken and creative solutions are required along with a nuanced approach to using space.

Social Distancing – Structural Stress

The culture of distancing leads to a redesign of the environment. The psychophysically perceived distance complements the planned/designed one.

Planned Culture

58


Whilst social distancing measures start from the human body, the complete opposite effect is emerging. The body becomes the object of a new shell, breaking the rules of interaction.

Prolonged social isolation, as foreseen by the lockdown measures, catapults society into an unprecedented situation. People spend most of their time in closed rooms, which is why stress levels are rising rapidly. The psychological, physical and social consequences are hidden due to the reduction of one‘s appearance in public.

Back-to-the-Body

28

Social Isolation (consequence of social distancing) 15 April 2020 https://www.theguardian.com/ science/audio/2020/apr/15/ covid-19-how-can-socialisolation-affect-us-podcast

59


A significant (20%) increase in anxiety disorders and depression was recorded during the lockdown. Psychologists are expecting a much higher number of unreported cases, which will only become quantifiable in the following months.

Note

After the lockdown, private space is receiving increased appreciation. The physical adaptability of one‘s own environment as well as the psychological supplementation with social factors, which often resorts to digital aids, lead to a changed structuring of one‘s own four walls.

Psychophysical Adjustment

Digital interfaces become a psychosocial oulet. Digital tools are adapting and the former gap is decreasing.

A Digital Outlet

60


Forms of emotional expression are changing. Due to digital interaction, perception of linguistics and symbolism is shifting. The use of emoticons is already well established in the current digital discourse. Their increase brings new forms of emotional expression.

Google offers worldwide mobility diagrams to download, which were created on the basis of user behaviour during the Corona crisis. The mobility data provides an insight into how the containment measures have affected one’s immediate neighbourhood/city. In parallel to the Google diagrams, in-depth mobility analyses were carried out to show transport behaviour. ‘Der Falter-Die Stadtzeitung Wiens’ illustrates the changed transport behaviour of Viennese citizens in the April 15th, 2020 issue.

Divergent Articulation

29

Resilient Mobility Diagram (during lockdown) 16 April 2020 https://www.google.com/ covid19/mobility/

61


The data was based on the interactions of Google Maps users interactions who had the ‚location history‘ function enabled in their default settings. The mobility database is updated continuously.

Note

The usage of public transportation has decreased due to the lockdown. A necessary change of infrastructure with user interaction as well as the creation of attractive services is forcing us to act.

Forced Action

Changes in our everyday lives, such as an increased use of home office time, have an enormous impact on the modal split. The increasing inversion of public activities into the private sphere is noticeable in the volume of traffic.

Modal Split Correction

62


Urban space is adapting to the change in mobility. The spatial distribution for specific road users will be changed in favour of slow mobility.

Cultural events were particularly affected during the lockdown. After the quarantine restrictions, cultural institutions are only slowly getting back on track, which is why most physically staged events are facing a month-long suspension.

Forced to Slow Down

30

Physical Cultural Emptiness (exptected until June) 17 April 2020 https://www.derstandard. at/story/2000116941238/ im-sommer-wird-es-keinegrossevents-in-oesterreichgeben

63


The period of Austrian precautions to contain the COVID-19 virus (March 16th to April 30th, 2020) was extended until the

Note

end of August 2020 for major cultural events. The rigid infrastructure of the cultural sector is being replaced by a more flexible approach. Digital trends in cultural mediation and participation are developing (rapidly).

Dynamic Response

Established cultural institutions are facing new challenges from digital ‚pop-up culture‘. Culturally exclusive spaces become more inclusive and sociocultural strategies are equipped with new tools.

Cultural ‚Pop-up’

Virtual and augmented reality technologies are accelerating in their development. Open-source formats and simplified usability enable a larger participation.

Democratic Augmentation

64


Office-related working environments, just like daily life, are affected by strict precautions. The news portal ‘VOX’ (Understand the News) provides a picture of how the workplace will develop after the coronavirus pandemic. According to these studies, social, economic and spatial structures will undergo a paradigm shift.

31

Isolated CoWorking

(modus operandi of the future) 18 April 2020 https://www.vox.com/ recode/2020/4/14/21211789/ coronavirus-office-space-workfrom-home-design-architecturereal-estate

Studies by MIT and the University of Chicago both predict a rapid increase in working remotely. In the North American region, 34% of the working population will switch to using a home office in the upcoming years. This change will have a particular impact on higher-wage jobs as well as small and medium-sized businesses.

Note

Digital models are gradually but continuously being integrated into the modus operandi. The implementation of new strategies increases the flexibility of work. Space and the digital sphere become more competitive.

Real Flexibility

65


Monofunctional working spaces are regressing, adaptivity and multifunctional spaces are increasing. The flexibility of location-based employment extends to the dynamic change of the physical workplace.

The New Dynamic

The compatibility of work, family and private life is increasing. Employments are changing and new methods of cooperation are emerging. This also leads to stark inequalities in terms of the way in which low-paid jobs operate. These jobs are also threatened by the progressing growth of automation.

Conditional Compatibility

66


Since the pandemic was first to affect industrialised countries, successful prevention measures against the virus were transferred to developing countries without any changes. The reactions of each affected population vary widely, as their cultural, infrastructural and political conditions are fundamentally different.

32

Universal Isolation

(same rules, different capabilities) 19 April 2020 https://medicalxpress.com/ news/2020-04-covid-world.html + https://www.derstandard. at/story/2000116936307/ arme-laender-kopieren-diecorona-strategie-von-reichendas-koennte

Economist Mushfiq Mobarak is questioning the reasonableness of these regulations. A reference to cultural conditions and an adjustment of the measures could more effectively prevent the spread of the disease.

Note

The lockdown measures are leading to an existential threat in developing countries, informal work, which accounts for a large percentage of employment, is no longer available. For those who lead a hand-to-mouth existence on a daily basis, it creates a chain reaction that will threaten their living environment in general.

Killing Argument

67


Until now, people in poorer economic circumstances have moved from the countryside to more urban areas. The lockdown triggers a reversal of this movement, which causes problems to be shifted. The ability of urban as well as rural space to react to such an inversion is difficult to assess and could severely disturb the local balance.

Urban-rural Inversion

Major industrial sectors, such as the textile industry, are facing a rapid downward trend. People who are living under poor working conditions end up on the streets. This vicious cycle shows why having more diverse types of employment in (state) policy could have positive effects on future development strategies.

Monofunctional Dependency

68


The first protest complying with the social distancing measures was held in Israel/Tel Aviv. Demonstrators exercise their right to demonstrate by keeping their distance and wearing face masks. The right to demonstrate was not affected in Israel due to the COVID-19 restrictions.

33

Social Distancing Protest (unabated democracy) 20 April 2020 https://nypost. com/2020/04/20/israelispractice-social-distancing-at-telaviv-protest/

The protests targeted the excessive digital surveillance of the state as well as excessive measures taken by the police forces to apply social distancing regulations.

Note

Ways of practising the constitutional right to protest are changing. Digital protests as an alternative space are growing and the analog manifestation remains present, despite its decline.

Demonstration Shift

69


Democratic rights, which are significantly reduced in the

(Re-)claimed

course of a strengthened state, are strongly demanded also out of fear of losing them.

Persistence

Glimpsing into a democratically fragile future presents the political sphere with new challenges. More severe uproar in the realm of civil society is to be expected, especially with regard to changes in digital operations and usage constraints.

Growing Anger

For the first time in the history of the oil industry, we are observing negative figures for the price of a barrel. The Guardian reports that oil producers are paying -40$ to get the oil out of their reservoirs.

34

Paid to Consume

(mass production‌)

21 April 2020 https://www.theguardian.com/ business/2020/apr/20/over-abarrel-how-oil-prices-droppedbelow-zero

70


The negative oil price refers to the US market. The

Note

recovery of market price is expected to occur in the short term. Due to speculative-economic growth, production is susceptible to disruption, as it is based on constant demand. Sustainable sales minimise mass production and overproduction.

Questionable Massproduction

Interrupted production chains result in a reassessment of what is essential. In the context of individual consumption culture, shortages lead to a recognition of that which is superfluous.

Recognised Necessity

The appreciation of easily comprehensible products increases in connection with locally produced

Lean Esteem 71


goods. Lean manufacturing processes, from the necessary to the superfluous, are experiencing an broadened acceptance and subsequent legitimation of microeconomic processes. Decentralised urban production chains are growing.

The WHO announces long-lasting consequences of the pandemic at a global scale. The press reports focus on the problematic but necessary consequences of the long-lasting lockdown. The WHO‘s announcement is based on scientific studies that were prepared with the involvement of globally active researchers.

35

A Long Way to Go (also after the pandemic) 22 April 2020 https://www.theguardian. com/world/live/2020/apr/22/ coronavirus-live-news-un-warnsof-biblical-famine-as-whitehouse-prepares-immigrationhalt

According to the WHO, continuous distancing and reduced contact guarantee the prevention of a continuous spread and the recurring increase in COVID-19 infections.

Note

72


Populistic tendencies and fake news, which are part of

Isolated Populism

certain politicians‘ political repertoire, are confronted with scientific findings without being able to stand up to scrutiny. We are increasingly seeing the return of reliable political messages and regaining the associated trust in the opinions of experts. Science is great again.

State leadership during the Corona crisis illustrates its complex role in decision-making. Through numerous press conferences and announcements of restrictions, the state is more prominent to the public. Generally speaking, this outwardly directed perception has led to a positive recognition of the role of the state and increased demand for its involvement. A strengthened state also means a more intense presence of public authorities in the business, health and education sector.

Strengthened State

73


Public-private endeavours are receiving a boost under changed conditions. The experience already gained with PPP models reveals weaknesses that are compensated for by a strengthened role of the state. Due to the changed circumstances, the cooperation method focuses more on the common good than on profit.

Due to the COVID-19 restrictions, food chains and food production are disrupted in their flow. France reports shortages and bottlenecks, which particularly affect low-income social classes. Urban food expenditure is growing exponentially.

PPP Reloaded

36

Food Distancing (disturbed supply chains) 23 April 2020 https://www.euronews. com/2020/04/23/unresthunger-and-hardship-in-frances-locked-down-suburbs

The Paris food bank reports a 200% increase in visitors - a consequence of the rising number of unemployed people.

Note

74


Disrupted supply chains confirm systemic fragility and

Endagered Need

reveal relationships of dependency. The basic supply of everyday food is moving into the focus of redistribution strategies. Poorer social classes are severely affected.

Local food production is being reviewed and rapidly expanded. So-called grass-roots movements, such as urban gardening, are experiencing increased popularity and participation. Food production and its associated processes are moving into the consciousness of urban residents.

Food Awareness

Urban food production and its methods of cultivation are being advanced. Urban food chains are recognised as an essential component of urban planning processes and gradually integrated into development concepts.

Urban Food

75


COVID-19 measures and restrictions are imposed by adults. Children and adolescents must adapt to the decisions. In an article of the German magazine ‚Der Spiegel‘ the age distribution and gender ratio of expert committees are criticised. Numerous scientists have called for an increased involvement of people between 25 and 50.

37

Generational Deprivation

(adults decide, youngsters adapt) 24 April 2020 https://www.spiegel.de/ panorama/corona-krisewissenschaftler-kritisierenbenachteiligung-von-juengerena-28525d71-b967-470c-87ed5d243b987133

The ‚Leopoldina‘ expert group, which had drawn up recommendations for easing measures, consisted of 24 scientists, only two of whom were women. The mean age was 63 years.

Note

Increased attention will be paid to childcare, as a large part of the overall social system and its flexibility ultimately depends on it. Forward-thinking childcare models reduce stereotypical gender roles and promote an equally shared responsibility for the youngest members of society.

Childcare First

76


The call to open kindergartens and schools during lockdown is proof of the government’s inability to produce alternative childcare models. The latter pose a major challenge for future managements and require widespread appreciation.

Model of Esteem

Dealing with the youngest members of society becomes the invisible link between education, family and health. Cohesion can only be achieved through an adapted approach and by including the child‘s perspective. The risk of failure is rising.

Handle With Care

77


The tourism industry is facing a global downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A report in the ‘Deutsche Welle’ (DW) refers to OECD data, according to which a 40-70% decline is expected for the year 2020.

38

Troubled Tourism

(blessing or curse) 25 April 2020 https://www.dw.com/en/ where-are-we-headingtourism-after-the-coronaviruscrisis/a-53208870

According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), 1.4 billion international travellers were counted in 2019. According to the statistics, 1/5 of the world‘s population made a tourism-related trip.

Note

Reduction and adaptation is forcing the tourism industry to rethink. Plexiglas boxes and reduced bed load show desperate gestures towards the restructuring of tourism, whereby the actual problem is being deviated from. After all, mass tourism is exhausting the capacity of muchfrequented places. The slogan ‘quality instead of quantity‘ and scale instead of ‘push‘ could gain importance and have a significant impact on the tourism industry.

Scaled Quality

78


Virtual tourism shows a new approach to sites and places without invading them and, consequently, without straining them. The sensuality is lost, which is why the digital sphere reaches its limits. Nevertheless, paths are opening up to relieve overrun tourist destinations. For the time being, we have a digital space of possibilities with cutbacks.

Virtual Sensuality?

The foreseeable temporary upturn in local tourism is accompanied by an appreciation of what is directly accessible. A change in values could be added to this and drive the opportunities, or, depending on the perspective, the limitations of the global-local.

Altered Values

79


While millions of people are sliding into unemployment, the super-rich are registering a significant growth in their wealth. This is a consequence of the social-digital fusion during the Corona crisis, which is why the biggest winners come from the tech industry. And as we know, some of these corporations operate without tax control.

39

Richy Rich Strikes Again

(profitable pandemic) 26th April 2020 https://www.theguardian. com/world/2020/apr/26/ heads-we-win-tails-you-losehow-americas-rich-have-turnedpandemic-into-profit

According to a study by the ‚Institute for Policy Studies’, the wealth of the super-rich grew by 10.5% between 18th March and 22nd April 2020.

Note

States guarantee financial rescue packages and promise to do everything necessary to come off lightly after the crisis. These are measures that cannot be implemented in the present modus operandi, which is why a change in priorities and transparency must be established.

Whatever it Takes

80


Stark income inequalities have a negative impact on all areas of life and the physical environment. This is not news. The Corona crisis shows once again how sensitively income inequality affects the majority of society. Maslow‘s ‚hierarchy of needs‘ renews the appreciation of the essential, but also implies a redistribution of goods and wealth - a complex and cultural rethinking process.

Anxious Income

Productivity is deeply rooted in the dogma of political promises. Individual security comes to the forefront as a social necessity and influences the post-pandemic discourse. These consequences allow fields of social experimentation of the past to gain in importance. Basic income, social justice and redistribution guarantee social cohesion and sustainable security.

The New Social

81


The Austrian newspaper ‘der Standard’ reports on the public space as a place of uncertainty. With the question, ‘Who is allowed to stay outside?’, the extended living room is considered from a sociological perspective as well as from the viewpoint of age distribution.

40

Exclusive Spaces (authorised usage) 27 April 2020 https://www.derstandard.at/ story/2000117050689/fuerarme-und-alte-ist-die-stadt-einverbotener-ort?ref=article

Older generations or individuals perceived to be older and homeless people are particularly affected by stigmatisation.

Note

Denunciations and a lack of understanding of fellow citizens who meet and move in public spaces are growing rapidly. However, the motives for staying outside could not be more diverse. Cramped living conditions and socioeconomic shortcomings warrant the use of public spaces as an outlet. Ultimately, a place is required where society as well as appropriation and socialisation can or must be. Changed regulations will shake the aforementioned foundations of public space usage.

Distorted View

82


The heterogeneity of users is an indicator of the quality of public space. The homogeneity of emerging rules of behaviour is an evidence for the generalisation of user patterns. A conflicting relationship results, which is why standardisation and codes of conduct restrict publicly performed rituals. Alternative forms of exchange explore inventive ways of interaction.

Reduced Heterogeneity

Social distancing measures influence self-perception and one’s relationship to the environment in an unprecedented way. Accompanying methods that promote a cooperative rather than a hostile approach are absent from the current debate. Ultimately, post-pandemic mitigation measures are required.

Social Distancing and‌

83


84


‚Learning from Quarantine‘ draws a sober, sometimes positive picture of the post-pandemic. The conclusions stated, underline this image and place a strong emphasis on an urgently needed rethinking process and actions that can be implemented gradually. They once again take urban space as a starting point for change and identify the urban environment as a combination of social, political, ecological, economic, digital and planning relationships - a place that has often developed from crises, but has also contributed to the creation of crises.

Epilogue

‚Learning from Quarantine‘ expresses trends as conclusions, which demand a cooperative way of acting and a nuanced way of dealing with the environment. The insights gained from COVID-19 reports, illustrate the fragility of our environment, which is why socialromantic aspects seem obsolete and have been avoided in this publication. Rather, the intention is to provide a multifaceted and prompt response to our surroundings, which (hopefully) avoids returning to the previously prevailing ‚normality‘.

85


https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51944780 (19.03.2020)

Bibliography

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/03/coronaviruspandemic-fake-animal-viral-social-media-posts/ (20.03.2020) https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung. wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=20011078 (21.03.2020) https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-asia-india-51997699/coronavirusindians-bang-pots-and-pans-to-support-fight (22.03.2020) https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/nyregion/coronavirus-nyc-crowdsdensity.html (23.03.2020) https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-52022743 (24.03.2020) https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/g20-leaders-video-conferencecoronavirus-covid19-pandemic-outbreak/ (25.03.2020) https://www.bbc.com/news/av/health-52008673/coronavirus-update-whydoes-staying-at-home-help (26.03.2020) https://www.forbes.com/sites/zakdoffman/2020/03/27/covid-19phone-location-tracking-its-moving-fast-this-is-whats-happeningnow/#73d411da11d3 (27.03.2020) https://nats.aero/blog/2020/03/weathering-the-storm-coronavirus-and-airtraffic-control/ (28.03.2020) https://www.fool.com/investing/2020/03/26/theres-a-big-problem-withzoom-stock.aspx (29.03.2020) https://edition.cnn.com/world/live-news/coronavirus-outbreak-03-30-20intl-hnk/h_562c3627a29a40d434c7dae9ba9e4c93 (30.03.2020) https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/04/07/998552/why-thecoronavirus-lockdown-is-making-the-internet-better-than-ever/ (31.03.2020) https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000116411484/coronavirusbewegungsanalysen-zeigen-stabilen-mobilitaetsrueckgang (01.04.2020) https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-latest-global-coronavirus-infectionstop-1-million/a-52987648 (02.04.2020) https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-europe-51900325/coronavirusplease-stay-at-home (03.04.2020) https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000116462368/eine-stadt-im-lockdowngaerten-hinter-gittern (04.04.2020) https://orf.at/stories/3160723/ (05.04.2020) https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-52148639 (03.04.2020) https://www.dezeen.com/2020/04/02/dezeen-announces-virtual-designfestival/ (07.04.2020) https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-52157202 (08.04.2020) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/08/amsterdam-doughnutmodel-mend-post-coronavirus-economy (09.04.2020) https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000116754341/einzigartigeexperimente-in-echtzeit (10.04.2020)

86


https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200413-coronavirus-will-covid-19end-the-handshake (11.04.2020) https://www.dw.com/en/germany-slams-abuse-of-french-visitors-overcoronavirus/a-53097380 (12.04.2020) https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/apr/13/smartlifts-lonely-workers-no-towers-architecture-after-covid-19-coronavirus (13.04.2020) https://www.politico.com/news/2020/04/14/europe-begins-tentativeeasing-of-coronavirus-lockdown-185429 (14.04.2020) https://www.theguardian.com/science/audio/2020/apr/15/covid-19-howcan-social-isolation-affect-us-podcast (15.04.2020) https://www.google.com/covid19/mobility/ (16.04.2020) https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000116941238/im-sommer-wird-eskeine-grossevents-in-oesterreich-geben (17.04.2020) https://www.vox.com/recode/2020/4/14/21211789/coronavirus-officespace-work-from-home-design-architecture-real-estate (18.04.2020) https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-04-covid-world.html (19.04.2020) https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000116936307/arme-laender-kopierendie-corona-strategie-von-reichen-das-koennte (19.04.2020) https://nypost.com/2020/04/20/israelis-practice-social-distancing-at-telaviv-protest/ (20.04.2020) https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/apr/20/over-a-barrel-how-oilprices-dropped-below-zero (21.04.2020) https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/apr/22/coronavirus-livenews-un-warns-of-biblical-famine-as-white-house-prepares-immigrationhalt (22.04.2020) https://www.euronews.com/2020/04/23/unrest-hunger-and-hardship-infrance-s-locked-down-suburbs (23.04.2020) https://www.spiegel.de/panorama/corona-krise-wissenschaftlerkritisieren-benachteiligung-von-juengeren-a-28525d71-b967-470c-87ed5d243b987133 (24.04.2020) https://www.dw.com/en/where-are-we-heading-tourism-after-thecoronavirus-crisis/a-53208870 (25.04.2020) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/26/heads-we-win-tails-youlose-how-americas-rich-have-turned-pandemic-into-profit (26.04.2020) https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000117050689/fuer-arme-und-alte-istdie-stadt-ein-verbotener-ort?ref=article (27.04.2020)

87


Studio Calas is an architectural collective whose framework of action explores socio-cultural practices. The projects exhibit aspects of architecture, theory, urbanism, art, digitalisation, design and the curating of exhibitions. The theory-based, yet practice-oriented approach enables an open-ended navigation between the disciplines. The cooperative working method, driven by dialogue and discourse, fosters the search for a continuously added value in the creative process.

Authors

David Calas Architect, educator, critic and curator. David operates between the blurring boundaries of architecture, urbanism, art and politics. These areas of activity embrace co-creative strategies to enhance digital approaches towards the built environment. Sven Wuttej Photographer, architectural designer and illustrator. Sven understands architecture and design not just as a matter of style but as a relational response to the identity of a particular environment. The main focus and motivation of his work is the enhancement of social, cultural and local strategies. Clemens Horvath Architectural designer with a strong focus on algorithmic processes and digital implementations. Clemens concentrates on digital interpretations of architectural design and application. Therefore, he combines pragmatic approaches with design sensitivity, creating an added value to the whole process.

88


Published by Studio Calas GbR Š 2020 Studio Calas, Vienna

Imprint

ISBN 978-3-200-06973-2

Concept: Studio Calas Author: David Calas Graphics: Clemens Horvath, David Calas, Sven Wuttej Layout and Graphic Design: Sven Wuttej Proofreading: Madeline Dyson Font: Heebo Published and manufactured: Druck.at, Leobersdorf, AUT Š Text and Graphics Studio Calas Studio Calas Helblinggasse 1-3/35 1170 Vienna Austria www.studio-calas.net

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or processed, copied or distributed by electronic means without prior written permission from Studio Calas (office@studio-calas.net).

89


STUDIO calas