Page 1

Design Development 1


Strategy Development

Throughout.

Here.

Fast flow of water Obstacles try to slow the flow Abrstaction of water

Bee Sandstone

FARMLAND

Western edge of Pennines High rainfall Low peat content Fast water runoff Sheep farming

Carboniferous Limestone

STEEP HILLSIDE

Millstone Grit

Here.

Drought

+ -

HIGHLANDS

Key Aim of Filtration is to lower pollution rates in the water system and reduce the effect of flooding in settlements. This is achieved through biocentric cleaning systems, such as reed beds, willow stands and gravel beds.

Diverse Economy

Here. Here.

Key Aim of Flow is to decrease the rate of water flow down the valley sides and to reduce the side effects of water abstraction. This is achieved through series of pools, similar to how a natural stream behaves, however has a greater capacity to hold water. Key Aim of Laminar is to boost the suffering local economy through diversifying sources of income and enhancing yields. This is achieved through varying degrees of water across the flatter areas of the valley. With small layers of water over crop fields, yields will increase. With greater layers of water over small areas a greater variety of produce can be grown.

LAMINAR

Biodiversity

Key Aim of Absorption is to increase water retention at the source of the rivers in the Pennines, therefore reducing runoff. This is achieved through the re-introduction of peat bog, a more beneficial ecology.

FLOW CO2 Retention

Water Retention

The different issues require various solutions to resolving them, this is where heterogeneous fits into the picture. By having varied stages of the strategy will allow each localised issue to be tackled and resolved effectively, but still work as an overall system of reducing tension between the anthropocentric and biocentric caused by water. As previously mentioned, water is governed by topography and geology, therefore to resolve issues connected to water, these will be manipulated to form a more effective system.

ABSORPTION

Picking up pollutants Eroding fields Obstacles obstructing flow Flood plane, high house prices Crop and livestock farming


Throughout.

IRISH SEA

Adaptability

FILTRATION

Flexibility

Throughout.

P

Here.

P Na Na

K

Pb

Here.

Bee Sandstone

CARLISLE

Flood plane High house prices Flood defences

Obstacles

LOWLAND

Pollution

Penrith Sandstone

Here.

Flooding Pollutions Obstacles Flood defences

P

K Pb

K Pb K Na Na Na

Pb Na

Na

Pb Na P

Pb

+ -

Na P K

K

Na Na Pb

K

K Pb Pb

K

Mudstone

Flood plane Competing with sea and river levels Flood defences

IRISH SEA

Pb

LOWLAND

Na

Flooding

Pb

Capacity for Change

Throughout.

Rising in sea levels caused by the melting of ice caps due to climate change

Na Pb Pb


Precedents for each Stage

astructure

actory e

Water Cycle

FILTRATION

ABSORPTION LAMINEAR

FLOW

Absorption is utilising a natural process of where groundwater is collected. As rainfalls some soaks into the surrounding soils, some of the water will travel underground till it is forced upwards by a rock strata that it cannot penetrate and joins surface water in rivers in the form of a spring. This is a very slow process and it can take several years for water to reach the surface. If the amount of water going into the soils could be increased, then significantly less would be present to cause flood problems.

Chehalis River Basin, Washington, USA- Flood water study

At the Chehalis river basin, a project is underway to reduce flooding in the city of Aberdeen, Washington, by increasing the amount of water retained at the source of rivers in the valley. The sources of the flood water are indicated by this map and are the target areas for the scheme.

Blanket Bog in North Wales The LiFE Bog Project at Lake Vyrnwy seeks to restore blanket bog to the hills surrounding the lake. This is to increase the quality of the water entering the lake and improve wildlife numbers. Although this scheme is for a different intention, it is similar to this stage of the strategy.

Biocentric Infrastructure Underground stream and spring Layers of limestone which filter the water Slope of land

16,000 BOTTLES OF WATER per DAY

% of 0.4 ML

Ca-Mg H2O

Buxton Spring Bottled Water, Buxton Waterwater filtered

Stream on a Gradient

Water Interaction with Limestone

Swale on a Gradient or Berm

the geology. Water is filtered through layers of rock then comes to the surface as a spring. This process is similar to a part of Flow.

This diagram depicts how a stream functions on steep gradients, forming pools and falls. By flowing in this way, the over all flow rate is reduced and a greater amount of water is stored.

Water reacts with limestone to form deep caverns and holes. This property can be utilised to allow more water to join the groundwater system and reduce surface water flow.

Similar to how a stream forms, but this man made system is made up of a series of long trenches. This performs in the same way as a stream, however has a greater capacity of holding water.

through layers of limestone in Peak District They utilise the natural properties of


FILTRATION

ABSORPTION LAMINEAR

Natural Filtration Technique

Reed Bed Purification System

This natural filtration system is already within the valley, however, due the high concentration of pollutants in the water, it cannot cope alone. It is a slow process and requires a lot of time to purify water, so need to be used in conjunction with other processes.

Reed beds have a greater capacity in dealing with pollutants and the types of pollutants than the natural gravel bed filtration system. This should still be used with other processes to achieve the greatest effect.

Brockholes Reed Bed Water Treatment At Brockholes grey water is processed through reed beds before it enters the River Ribble as clean water and removed of harmful substances to the natural environment.

FLOW

Freshwater Shrimp Farming

Freshwater Oyster Farming

Freshwater Fish Farming

These three forms of aquaculture; shrimp, oyster and fish, can be used to diversify the local economy and also be performed along side other stages of the process in the pools created. By diversifying the economy it is strengthened against unpredictable events, like diseases such as foot and mouth.

Nile Basin Irrigation The Nile basin is a classic example of irrigation increasing yield of the land. Without the system of ditches and pumps, most of the Nile basin would be desert. By introducing water across a greater surface area the effects of a severe down pour are mediated.


H2O

1

Strategy linked with Map H2O The strategy can 1 be simply depicted, gaining a clearer view of the intention of each stage. Absorption is to increase groundwater flow, where as flow is about slowing and increasing the length the water must travel, laminar is about increasing water levels in certain areas to gain potential benefits and filtration is about cleaning the water before it enters the main water body in the valley.

H2O

1 2

2

3

2

Showing the bands of the strategy over a contour map of the valley. The placement of each band is dependant on the topography of the land and the geology3underneath it. The edges of each band are defined as a clear line here, where as in reality, each stage would blur into the next and is governed by topography and geology, not aesthetic appearance on a plan.

4 RIVER EDEN

H2O

1

2

3


H2O

1

H2O

H2O

1

H2O

1

1 3

2

2

2

3

H2O

2

1

4 2

RIVER EDEN

3

4

3

Absorption This stage is about retaining and holding water nearer the source. This is through introducing a new ecology that works with the geology and topography of the area. By retaining water at the source it will mean less water in the system lower down the valley. 2

4

3

Flow This stage is about slowing the momentum of run off down. By slowing the run off, flash floods will have less of an impact on the system. Through slower releases of water, the impact of erosion is lessened. This also collects the water and therefore reduces the effects of abstraction. Laminar This stage is about spreading the water, increasing the surface area which will improve water soaking away. Through moving water around and at varying levels it will allow a great range of anthropocentric activities. Filtration The final stage is about an existing problem in the valley but also needed after stages 1-3. Once the water has travelled through the system, it will require cleaning of pollutants, such as fertilisers. This processes occurs before the water enters the main body of water, the Eden river.

4 RIVER EDEN


Generic Axonometric

As previously mentioned, each stage is tailored to a particular topography and geology. This link it demonstrated here.

PENNINES

LAKE DISTRICT

R. EDEN

+600m

300m +600m 300m

100m 100m

0m

MILLSTONE GRIT

CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE

BEE SANDSTONE

MUDSTONE

PENRTIH SANDSTONE

CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE

ORDOVICIAN


Generic Axonometric with Strategy ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

FLOW

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

Where each stage of the strategy sits in relation to topography and geology of the valley.

MILLSTONE GRIT


Strategy over key Factors This strategy covers a huge area, but does have the capacity to change and adapt depending on the topography and geology present. Flow and Laminar utilise the majority of the area of the catchment, yet may not necessarily have the greatest impact on the water system. Absorption is the smallest of areas, accounting for only 10% of the catchment area, however, will have the greatest impact on water quality, water retention, carbon retention in soils and greatest change.

STRATEGY

STRATEGY

FLOW

ABSORPTION

ABSORPTION

FLOW

ABSORPTION

STRATEGY

LAMINAR

FLOW

Absorption Area

LAM

Flow Area

Laminear Area

Elevation +600m & +300m

ELEVATION

Millstone Grit Area

Absorption Area

Absorption Area Area Approx 2,300km or 10% of catchment area

ELEVATION

ELEVATION

2

Elevation 500-300m

Flow Area

Flow Area

Elevation +600m & +300m

Elevation +600m & +300m Millstone Grit Area

Elevation 500-300m

Carboniferous Limestone Area Area Approx 11,100km2 or 47% of catchment area

Area Approx 23,700km2

GEOLOGY

Area Ap

or 32% of catchment area Area Approx 7,500km2Elevation 500-300m

Area Approx 2,300km2 or 10% of catchment area

Area Approx 2,300km2 or 10% of catchment area

Bee Sandstone Area

Carboniferous Limestone Area

Millstone Grit Area Area Approx 11,100km2 or 47% of catchment area

GEOLOGY

Elevation 300-100m

Carboniferous Limestone Area

Area Approx 11,100km or 47% of catchment area 2

Area Approx


LAMINAR

low Area

Flow Area

Laminear Area

FILTRATION

FILTRATION

Laminear Area

Filtration Area Elevation 100-0m

Elevation 500-300m

Elevation 300-100m

Elevation 500-300m

Mudstone Area

Elevation 100-0m Mudstone Area

Bee Sandstone Area

Carboniferous Limestone Area or 47% of catchment area

Elevation 300-100m

Filtration Area

Bee Sandstone Area

Carboniferous Limestone Area

2

LAMINAR

Area Approx 2,600km2 or 11% of catchment area

Area Approx 7,500km2 or 32% of catchment area

Area Approx 7,500km2 or 32% of catchment area

Area Approx 2,600km2 or 11% of catchment area


Brainstorm of Ideas Each part of the overall strategy is about helping the anthropocentric in gaining a greater capacity to adapt to unpredictable events. Certain key processes are being put in place; drain blocking in absorption areas, pools and falls in flow, thin layers of water flooding large areas of land in laminar and filtering systems intending on reducing pollution in the water. These key processes have released a series of opportunities that the anthropocentric can gain more from. These opportunities also feed into increasing the anthropocentric capacity to adapt.

Views

Block Drains

Honey

Beef Farming

Recreation

Biomass

Habitat

Buffer

Energy Resource

Recreation

Spa

Habitat

ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

FLOW

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

FLOW


Livestock

Crops

Watercress & Shrimp

Fish

Mussels

Control of Water

Sewage

Agri. Waste

Biomass

Thatch

Urban Waste

Control of Water

ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

FLOW

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

FLOW


Absorption Exposure Access

Access for tourists to appreciate the views towards Carlisle and beyond.

The area is very exposed to the elements, shelter would make the experience more enjoyable.

Exposure

Exposure of rock or small cave network will provide habitat for a rare existing species.

Centre

Access

Access

A building to house information and equipment for the activities.

Farms will be able to farm the new ecology. Few species can thrive in these conditions; Belted Galaways Highland Cow can stay on the land all year.

Access to the recreational areas.

Carlisle

Heather Bales

Heather bales are used to block drains, previously dug to improve pasture land, however many benefits can be harvested from removing the ditches

1

BIOMASS BURNING

5

4

Factory

Hook up to the grid or links to houses.

HONEY

3

BEEF FARMING

2

RECREATION

VIEWS

Access

Belted Galaways

Link to Grid

Processing plant to convert material into electricity.

Existing Farms

Access to the pasture land will need to be provided for feeding.

BLOCK DRAINS

Bat Boxes

Simply to enhance the numbers already found in sink holes.

Factory

Exploiting the sink holes to contain some activities

Shelter

HABITAT

The key process for absorption is blocking of drainage ditches put in place during the Second World War to create more agricultural land. This land is poor quality and could perform much better without the draining of the land. By blocking the drainage channels the old ecology will repopulate the area; blanket bog. Very few plant species can grow in these conditions, mainly Heather or Calluna vulgaris. Heather can be utilised in many different ways and this is what has given rise to many of the anthropocentric opportunities in this brainstorm.

5

6

Access is needed to transport hives to site and harvest.

A processing house for bottling and distribution. Temp. and in low valley.

ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

FLOW


Aquifer Millstone Grit

Sub-surface Stone creates distinctive landform

Caving

Surface

Sink holes, limestone below surface collapsing 2400mm of rainfall

Beef farming on peat bog Honey

Block drainage ditches

Beer and whiskey flavourings Heather (Calluna vulagris)

Water Control

Production (food & recreation)

Biomass burning powers 16 homes

Peat bog absorbs water Soap and shampoo flavourings

Aquifer

View to Carlisle

Millstone Grit

Sub-surface

Rock climbing

Stone creates distinctive landform Peat bog

Caving

Surface

Biodiversity

Sink holes, limestone below surface collapsing

Heather (Calluna vulagris)

Bat habitat

2400mm of rainfall Filtration required

Beef farming on peat bog

The ideas can be grouped into the categories above. Water control and sub-surface are key ideas or points.

Honey Beer and whiskey flavourings Heather (Calluna vulagris)

Management points


Absorption The ideas (or opportunities) within each stage of the system needs to be introduced in stages, due to the fact an intervention needs to wait till the previous idea establishes. There is a logical order of introducing each idea. This moves the landscape in different directions over time.

By introducing these at this stage it establishes this area as a place to walk and appreciate the view. It is also a low impact, subtle changes first.

Once the uplands has established as a place, somewhere to go; recreational activities can start to take place, such as rock climbing in sink holes or caving in deeper ones.

6

Once the new ecology has had a significant time to establish and grow, farming can be introduced. These require less structure as opposed to biomass burning.

BIOMASS BURNING

5

4

3

BEEF & HONEY

New ecology of wetland is created by blocking drains. This will sustain a community of wildlife, after a few months; time for new ecology to grow.

RECREATION

2

ROUTES & VIEWS

This creates the new ecology from which all activities stem. This also is low impact to begin the process.

HABITAT

BLOCK DRAINS

1

This is the largest impact on the area. The heather is now well established, has spread, good density and can be harvested. The system is established now with access and other links to other areas.

Belted Galaways

Carlisle

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

Right hand page: Each opportunity needs to be analysed on its merits to the system, this is in terms of what built structures it might need, the resources it needs and what it produces. In the next few pages, these ideas have been analysed and sorted into whether they are viable or not.


caves. Land collapsesstreams due to and creating underground limestone bedrock anddue creates caves. Land collapses to shake/ sink holes. Industry Views/ Tourist limestone bedrock and creates shake/ sink holes. High topography 880m above Caving/ Rock Climbing/ Sink holes sea level. Limestone nearer the edge of the Pennines is dissolved by water, creating underground streams and caves. Land collapses due to limestone creates Beer andbedrock whiskeyand flavourings shake/ sink holes. Flavourings, very little needed to produce one product.

Views/ Tourist Industry

leDue to no significant sink holes or rock

iab V t

No

identified.

Carlisle

Heather flavours the ale/ beer in the fermentation process

Parts of the

Honey Production High topography 880m above plant are cropped sea level. Heather honey is produced very Calluna vulgaris Beer and whiskey flavourings quickly. Bees best situated within the heather. very little needed to Flavourings, produce one product.

e blLarge a i yield and low impact on V Parts of the surroundings. plant are cropped Calluna vulgaris

Flavoured Water from heather goes Heather flavours into the WHISKEY

the ale/ beer in the fermentation Carlisle process

Home to 4 million bats Medium amount of Loss of some Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure structure needed habitat space Path network/ routes Loss of heather Minimal Exposure of rockspace faces Shelter, resting points plantation Climbing centre Loss of some ecology Signage Management of view/ area Paths Eden Valley from Hartside, Directions/ Anthrobocentric Maps from Val Corbett Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure

Photography Churn Milk hole, near

of whiskey

Biocentric Infrastructure Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

View from Cross Fell along View from Cross Fell to Alston, Ardale Beck, mountain mountain along Pennine Way, Google Earth Image CrossWay, Fell, from Sell Gill near Pennine fromhole, Cross Fell Circuit Way alongnear Pennine showing shake holes Cross Fell Circuit

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large heather plantation Large machinery Harvesting of heather required 1/7thharvesting cut annually could damage the habitat Heather plantation Roads to plantation Topography guides Processing factory sited plantation structure 50ha area of heather elsewhere

Bowmore Whiskey, Fraoch Heather Ale, made using clean heather is used to water through Infrastructureflavour the drink Biocentric upland and heather honey

16 HOMES OFF THE GRID

10 Balls of Wool for 1 JUMPER Average house in the UK consumes

0.2kg of WOOL

Salt Spring Heather Ale, heather is also used to flavour the drink

Large amount of heather plantation in drier areas Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure of Anthrobocentric the uplands Sustaining a wide 1/7th cut each year to Requires more structure variety species HillsWool Farm, Perthshire, Home Wool dyeing process Natural Wool Dyeing, Natural Dyeing, colourminimise impact Processing factory inHeather Small scale from Painted Fish Studio colour taken from from Heather and Lichen from movement of Requires lowlands (seasonal) Scotland. Heather from to flickr.com wordpress.com species Cables link up to houses or grids Year 7

Year 6

Year 5

Energy produced / amount needed to power 1 house for 7 years Anthrobocentric Infrastructure 2,200,000 / 140,000 = 16 Houses could be powered for 7 years then start again Minimal on upland area

Year 4

Large heather plantation Minimal 50ha area of heather Large harvesting machinery A track/ road (dependant could damage the habitat on scale of buisness) Topography guides Lowlands; honey processing plantation structure factory (temporary; seasonal) Year 3

Minimal on upland area Harvesting of heather required 10 Balls Heather plantation Average house in the UK consumes of Wool 20,000 kWh annually Roads to plantation 20,000 x 7for = 140,000 power factory sited 1 kWhProcessing consumption for 1 house for 7 years elsewhere JUMPER

Year 2

0.2kg of

1m2 area can create 1kg of dry matter sustain heather. Heather can be 1ha = 10,000kg WOOL cut or burnt every 7 years as a 1kg = 16MJ of energy through burning minimum. This helps keep the 2 Calluna vulgaris 10,000 1m x 16 = 160,000MJ per hectare plants Woolhealthy. dyeing This will power 160,000 x 50 = 8,000,000 MJ total home indefinitely because the energy produced over the area 0.5kg ofisheather is needed to dye heather on a cycle of 3.6 MJ = 1kWh amount of energy 1 ball of wool. Thus 5m2 of heather harvesting. converted to electricity would be required to dye enough 8,000,000 / 3.6 = 2,200,000 kWh wool for the average jumper.

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Year 1

Wool dyeing Honey Production 0.5kg of heather is needed to dye 1 ball of wool. 5m2 of heather ot Heather honey isThus produced very Biomass burning (Heather (Calluna N vulagris)) wouldBees be required to dyewithin enough quickly. best situated wool for the average jumper. theHigh/ heather. 50Ha heather planted area dry areas of uplands could

Furness Bat Group, Cumrbia

Ideas within Absorption Sell Sell Gill Gill hole, hole, near near Pennine Pennine Way Way

Large amount of structure Pennine Way needed Large heather plantation Abstraction of water needed Steady flow of water, pure and clean Harvesting of some heather flowers Peat is sometimes used to fuel Roads and distillerary needed burners to create flavour, but is 4,900L of water Infrastructure Anthrobocentric Biocentric Infrastructure Bottling factory unsustainable at rate of burning produces 410L Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure amount of Loss of some ofMedium whiskey structure needed habitat space Bowmore Whiskey, Heather Ale, Salt Spring Heather Ale, Large amount of Fraoch heather Minimal Anthrobocentric InfrastructureLoss of heather Biocentric Infrastructure Path network/ routes made using clean heather heather is also used to plantation in drier areasis used to A track/ road (dependant Shelter, resting points plantation space water through flavour the drink flavour the drink of the uplands on scale of buisness) Large amount of structure upland and heather Signage Management of view/ areaLarge heather plantation needed Sustaining a wide Lowlands; honey processing honey Abstraction of water needed from Hartside, Steady flow of water, Eden pure Valley and clean View from Cross Fell along variety species View from Cross Fell to Alston, factory (temporary; seasonal) Harvesting of some heather flowers fromused Val Corbett Peat is sometimes to fuel Ardale Beck, mountain mountainHeather along Pennine Way,Perthshire, Hills Farm, and distillerary needed Photography from Cross Fell Circuit along Pennine Way, from burners to create flavour, but is Scotland. Small scale 4,900L of water Roads Cross Fell Circuit unsustainable at rate of burning produces 410L Bottling factory

Flavoured Water from heather goes e l Low yieldinto the b for lotsWHISKEY of heather. Conflicts Via with other processes.

Biomass burning (Heather (Calluna vulagris))

Paths Exposure of caves system or rock faces Directions/ Bat Maps boxes to encourage mammals Increase in bat roosts into the Infrastructure sinkholes Anthrobocentric Biocentric Infrastructure Churn Milk hole,Devil’s near SinkholeGoogle nearBat, Cross Fell, Noctule photgraph State Earth Image Bat walks Pennine Way Natural Area, Texas, showing shake holes from Westmorland & USA:

Year 7

Year 6

Year 5

Year 4

Year 3

Year 2

Year 1

Home Wool dyeing process Natural Wool Dyeing, Natural Wool Dyeing, colour 50Ha heather 1m2 planted area High/ dry areas of uplands couldCalluna vulgaris Anthrobocentric Infrastructure from Heather Biocentric Infrastructure from Painted Fish Studio colour taken from and Lichen from 1m2 area can create 1kg of dry matter 20,000 kWh annually Bat habitat sustain heather. Heather can be Biocentric Infrastructure Heather from flickr.com wordpress.com 1ha = 10,000kg 20,000 x 7 = 140,000 kWh power Anthrobocentric Infrastructure cut or burnt every 7 years as a 1/7th cut each year to Requires more structure 1kg = 16MJ of energy through burning consumption for 1 house for 7 years Limestone nearer the edge of the minimum. This helps keep the minimise impact Processing factory in 10,000 x 16 = 160,000MJ per hectare Energy produced / amount needed Pennines is dissolved by water, Minimal to none Exposure of part of cave plants healthy. This will power Requires movement of lowlands (seasonal) to power 1 house for 7 years creating underground streams and160,000 x 50 = 8,000,000 MJ total Exposure of caves system or rock faces home indefinitely because the species energy produced over the area 2,200,000 / 140,000 = 16 Houses Cables to link up to caves.isdrainage Land Increase in bat roosts Block ditches heather on a collapses cycle of due to 3.6 MJ = 1kWh amount of energy could be powered for 7 years Bat boxes to encourage mammals houses or grids Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure limestone bedrock and creates into the sinkholes harvesting. converted to electricity then start again Noctule Bat, photgraph Devil’s Sinkhole State Sell Gill hole, near Pennine shake/issink holes.through the Water retained Bat walks 8,000,000 / 3.6 = 2,200,000 kWh from Westmorland & Natural Area, Texas, USA: Way 1/7th cut annually Minimal Increase in water vegetation creating peat, which Furness Bat Group, Home to 4 million bats e l Installation of heather bales to block content Cumrbia in the soil b absorbs water. Bat habitat Via High output. Allows anthropocentric to drains can be done by machinery Increase in peat Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure adapt to changing climates. Bales grow over with vegetation content in the soil Limestone nearer the edge of the Current drain Heather bale placed Water level raises LIFE Bog Project, drainage blocking Creates peat bog; Pennines is dissolved by water, Minimal to none Exposure of part of cave using heather bales change of ecology creating underground streams and Exposure of caves system or rock faces

16 HOMES OFF THE GRID


caves. Land collapses due to limestone bedrock and creates shake/ sink holes.

Paths Directions/ Maps Churn Milk hole, near Pennine Way

Ideas within Absorption

Views/ Tourist Industry Caving/ Rock Climbing/ Sink holes High topography 880m above Beer and whiskey flavourings Limestone nearer the edge of the sea level. Pennines is dissolved by water, Flavourings, very little needed to creating underground streams and produce one product. caves. Land collapses due to limestonebbedrock and creates le a i Easily fits into processes. Need some shake/ sink holes. V

Parts of the human interaction in area.

Heather flavours the ale/ beer in the fermentation process Carlisle

plant are cropped

Calluna vulgaris

Flavoured Water from heather goes into the WHISKEY

Honey Production Beer and whiskey flavourings Heather honey is produced very quickly. Beesvery bestlittle situated within Flavourings, needed to the heather. produce one product. Wool dyeing

Heather flavours the ale/ beer in the fermentation process

Parts of the

0.5kg of heather is neededplant to dye are cropped 1 ball of wool. Thus 5m2 of heather would bevulgaris required to dye enough Calluna wool for the average jumper.

Flavoured Water from heather goes of into0.2kg the WHISKEY

WOOL

vulgaris 1m2 Biomass burning (HeatherCalluna (Calluna vulagris))

Biocentric Infrastructure

View from Cross Fell to Alston, Sell Gill hole, near Pennine Way mountain along Pennine Way, from Cross Fell Circuit

along Pennine Way, from Cross Fell Circuit Bowmore Whiskey, Fraoch Heather Ale, made using clean heather is used to water through flavour the drink upland and heather honey

Salt Spring Heather Ale, heather is also used to flavour the drink

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of heather plantation in drier areas of the uplands Sustaining a wide variety species

Heather Hills Farm, Perthshire, Scotland. Small scale

Bowmore Whiskey, Fraoch Heather Ale, Salt Spring Heather Ale, made using clean heather is used to heather is also used to water through flavour the drink flavour the drink upland and heather honey Natural Wool Dyeing, Natural Wool Dyeing, colour Home Wool dyeing process colour taken from from Heather and Lichen from from Painted Fish Studio Heather from flickr.com wordpress.com Year 7

Year 6

Water is retained through the vegetation creating peat, which absorbs water. Bat habitat

Year 5

in the area.

10 Balls of Wool for 1 JUMPER

Year 4

N

0.2kg of WOOL

Year 3

Block drainage ditches o

Large heather plantation of whiskey Minimal on upland area Harvesting of heather required Large harvesting machinery 10 Balls Heather plantation could damage the habitat leLowtoyield of Wool Roads plantation Topography guides b for lots of heather. factory sited plantation structure for 1 t ViaProcessing Conflicting with other processes. Large elsewhere JUMPER No infrastructure required.

Average house in the UK consumes 20,000 kWh annually 20,000 x 7 = 140,000 kWh power consumption for 1 house for 7 years Energy produced / amount needed Anthrobocentric Infrastructure to power 1 house for 7 years 2,200,000 / 140,000 = 16 Houses could be powered for 7 years Minimal on upland area then start again Harvesting of heather required

leNo significant sink holes or caves found

iab V t

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure Minimal A track/ road (dependant Large amount of structure Large heather plantation needed on scale of buisness) Abstraction of water needed Steady flow of water, pure and clean Lowlands; honey processing Harvesting of some heather flowers Peat is sometimes used to fuel factory (temporary; seasonal) Roads and distillerary needed to create flavour, but is Infrastructure Biocentric burners Infrastructure 4,900L of waterAnthrobocentric unsustainable at rate of burning produces 410L Bottling factory Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Year 2

Limestone nearer the edge of the Pennines is dissolved by water, creating underground streams and vulgaris 1m2 Calluna caves. Land collapses due to limestone bedrock and creates shake/ sink holes.

Photography

of whiskey

Year 1

Bat habitat

Sell Gill hole, near Pennine Way

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure Medium amountAnthrobocentric of Loss of some structure needed habitat space Minimal Exposure of rock faces Large amount of structure Path network/ routes Loss of heather Climbing centre Loss of some ecology Large heather plantation needed Abstraction of water needed Shelter, resting points plantation spaceflow of water, pure and clean Paths Steady Harvesting of some heather flowers of view/ area Signage Management Directions/ Maps Peat is sometimes used to fuel Roads and distillerary needed Eden Valley burners Churn to create flavour, but isfrom Hartside, View from Cross FellFell, along 4,900L of water Bottling factory Milk hole, near Image near Cross from Val Corbett Google Earth Ardale Beck, mountain unsustainable at rate of burning Pennine Way showing shake holes produces 410L

50ha area of heather

50Ha heather planted area High/ dry areas of uplands could 1m2 area can create 1kg of dry matter sustain heather. Heather can be 1ha = 10,000kg cut or burnt every 7 years as a 1kg = 16MJ of energy through burning minimum. This helps keep the 10,000 x 16 = 160,000MJ per hectare Wool plantsdyeing healthy. This will power 160,000 x 50 = 8,000,000 MJ total homeofindefinitely thedye 0.5kg heather isbecause needed to energy produced over the area is on Thus a cycle 3.6 MJ = 1kWh amount of energy 1heather ball of wool. 5mof2 of heather harvesting. converted to electricity would be required to dye enough 8,000,000 / 3.6 = 2,200,000 kWh wool for the average jumper.

Google Earth Image near Cross Fell, showing shake holes

16 HOMES OFF THE GRID

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Requires more structure Processing factory in lowlands (seasonal) Cables to link up to houses or grids

Biocentric Infrastructure 1/7th cut each year to minimise impact Requires movement of species

Large heather plantation Large harvesting machinery 1/7th cutdamage annuallythe habitat Heather plantation could Anthrobocentric Biocentric Infrastructure Roads to plantation Infrastructure Topography guides plantation structure Processing factory sited Minimal to none Exposure of part of cave elsewhere Natural Wool Dyeing, Natural Wool Dyeing, colour Exposure of caves system or rock faces Home Wool dyeing process colour taken from from Heather and Lichen from from Painted Fish Studio Bat boxes to encourage mammals Increase in bat roosts Heather from flickr.com wordpress.com into the sinkholes Noctule Bat, photgraph Devil’s Sinkhole State Sell Gill hole, near Pennine Bat walks from Westmorland & Natural Area, Texas, USA: Way Home to 4 million bats

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Minimal Installation of heather bales to block

Furness Bat Group, Cumrbia

Biocentric Infrastructure Increase in water content in the soil


structure needed Path network/ routes Shelter, resting points Signage

Carlisle

Beef farming on peat bog Beef Farming can be viable on Beef farming on peat bog heather plantations.The livestock can be left up on the hill all year Beef Farming can be viable on and help maintain the heathland. heather plantations.The livestock Honey Production can be left up on the hill all year

and help maintain the heathland. Heather honey is produced very quickly. Bees best situated within the heather.

habitat space Loss of heather plantation space Management of view/ area Eden Valley from Hartside, from Val Corbett Biocentric Infrastructure Photography

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Belted Galaways

Highland Cow

Belted Galaways

Highland Cow

Livestock slows sucession; removal of small trees and shrubs Livestock slows sucession; removal of small trees and shrubs

Minimal Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Livestock can stay on the hills year round Minimal Existing farms can Livestock can stay on provide for them the hills year round Existing farms can provide for them

Ideas within Absorption View from Cross Fell to Alston, mountain along Pennine Way, from Cross Fell Circuit

View from Cross Fell along Ardale Beck, mountain along Pennine Way, from Cross Fell Circuit

Decrease in pioneering species; Biocentric Infrastructure shrubs and trees Increase in heather Decrease in pioneering species; Large heather plantation shrubs and trees Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure Increase in heather South Downs National Curbar Edge, Peak District, Park, Belted Large Galaways cow grazing Large heather plantation amountHighland of heather Minimal grazing drier areas A track/ road (dependant South Downs plantation National in Curbar Edge, Peak District, le b of the uplands on scale of buisness) a Park, Belted Galaways Highland cow grazing i Part of the management of the habitat. V Sustaining a wide Lowlands; honey processinggrazing variety species factory (temporary; seasonal)

Agilonby Beck, Pennines, Eden Valley. Current setting Agilonby Beck, Pennines, Eden Valley. Current setting

Heather Hills Farm, Perthshire, Scotland. Small scale

Soap and shampoo flavourings

Year 7

Year 6

Year 5

Year 4

Block drainage ditches

Year 3

No

SOAP

8,000,000 / 3.6 = 2,200,000 kWh Low yield for lots of heather. Conflicting with other processes.

Year 2

l

iab V t

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure 50ha area of heather Minimal Large heather plantation Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure A simple road leading to Heavy harvesting machinery heather crop could damage the habitat Minimal Large heather plantation Dependant on the size of Topography guides A simple road leading to Heavy harvesting machinery the buisness, may need plantation structure heather crop could damage the habitat heavy machinery to Dependant on the size of Topography guides harvest or by hand the buisness, may need plantation structure Production could be sited heavy machinery to off heather area 1/7th cut annually harvest or by hand Production could be sited off heather area Year 1

Biomass burning (Heather (Calluna vulagris)) Soaps and shampoos have heather Soap and shampoo flavourings 128g planted of heather is used per Average bar (1kg)house in the UK consumes within this adds fragrance 50Ha heather area High/ them, dry areas of uplands could 0.128kg to of equals approx. 0.128m2,20,000 kWh annually and colour. Depending on the scale 1m2 area can create 1kg dry matter sustain heather. Heather be Soaps and shampoos havecan heather small area needed to produce20,000 a 1ha128g = 10,000kg ofcut theorindustry more7 or lessas heather burnt this every a of heather is used per bar (1kg)x 7 = 140,000 kWh power within them, addsyears fragrance significant amount of product. 1kg = 16MJ of energy through burning consumption for 1 house for 7 years maybe needed. helps keep the to equals approx. 0.128m2, minimum. and colour. This Depending on the scale 10,000 x 16 = 0.128kg 160,000MJ per hectare Energy produced / amount needed area needed to produce a 1kg of healthy.more This or willless power ofplants the industry heather 160,000 x 50small to power 1 house for 7 years = 8,000,000 MJ total significant amount of product. 0.128kg home indefinitely because the maybe needed. energy produced over the area 2,200,000 / 140,000 = SOAP 16 Houses heather is on a cycle of could be powered for 7 years 3.6 MJ = 1kWh amount of energy 1kg of harvesting. e converted to electricity 0.128kg then start again

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

16 HOMES Requires more structure OFF Scottish Heather TwoProcessing Soapfactory in a tin in - Heather, The lowlands (seasonal) Soap Gift Box, Highland Scottish Fine Soap Company THE GRID Soap Co., Cables to link up to Scottish Heather Twohouses Soap in a tin - Heather, The or grids Soap Gift Box, Highland Scottish Fine Soap Company Soap Co.,

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Water is retained through the vegetation creating peat, which absorbs water. Current drain

Heather bale placed

e blAllows a i all processes to perform. Key V intervention.

Water level raises

Minimal Installation of heather bales to block drains can be done by machinery Bales grow over with vegetation

Biocentric Infrastructure 1/7th cut each year to minimise impact Proctor & Gamble Factory Requires movement of (P&G), West Thurrock, species London

Proctor & Gamble Factory (P&G), West Thurrock, London

Biocentric Infrastructure Increase in water content in the soil Increase in peat content in the soil Creates peat bog; change of ecology

LIFE Bog Project, drainage blocking using heather bales


Flow

Landform Manipulation By changing the landform, enhancing and changing could provide for a wider variety of activities.

Turbines By adding hydropower turbines where water flows down the steep topography.

2

3

4

Well Construction Exploitation of the spring will need to be done. A deep well would provide a source of mineral water.

H2 O Ca-Mg

TERRACING

RECREATION

Limited Access Through limiting the access it will let the wildlife be undesturbed.

HABITAT

Native Woodland By introducting a new ecology it will provide a habitat for native wildlife.

Access Access needs to be provided for people to take part in the recreation.

Landform Manipulation By changing the landform; creating terraces and pools that slow water speed. Loss of Material To create terraces from the existing slope material needs to be taken out.

1

Bath House Housing to the pools could be provided for shelter and privacy.

5

Link to Grid Electricity will be created and some sort of hook up to the grid or houseing will need to be structured.

ENERGY RESOURCE

Pathways Pathways through the buffer will let maintenance occur.

SPA

Native Woodland Through adding the woodland will slow run off of the water further and increase absorption.

Access Access will need to be provided for harvest and maintenance of biomass.

BUFFER

The key process for flow is terracing or creating a series of pools and falls. This is to reduce the speed of the flow of water down the slopes and increase the capacity of water stored in the system. From the introduction of pools many different ideas (or opportunities) can be introduced.

6

ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

FLOW


Underground rivers

Permeable Limestone

Sub-surface Caves, tunnels and caverns

Caving

Surface

Spring line, bring up mineral water Steep gradient; 1:7 Rafting Mountain biking Zorbing

Exercise

Outdoor pools

Terraced pools

Rock climbing

Water Control

Energy resource Caving

Fall/ Water

Production (food & recreation)

Underground rivers

Spa; thermal waters, mineral, mud bath Bottled water

Permeable Limestone

Mining

Sub-surface Caves, tunnels and caverns Aquatic life

Biodiversity

Caving

Surface

Bat habitat

Spring line, bring up mineral water

Filtration required

Steep gradient; 1:7 Rafting

The ideas can be grouped into the categories above. Water control and sub-surface are key ideas or points.

Mountain biking Exercise

Zorbing Outdoor pools

Management points


Flow The ideas (or opportunities) within each stage of the system needs to be introduced in stages, due to the fact an intervention needs to wait till the previous idea establishes. There is a logical order of introducing each idea. This moves the landscape in different directions over time.

Habitat for indigenous wildlife to the area, will establish in the buffer, if something is provided or not.

4 Low amount of structure is needed for the type of recreation surggested. A significant time period has passed to let the buffer establish.

5

6

Further structure needed, will require exploitation of the spring line; deep wells dug. Significant time period has passed to allow the system to settle, particularly Absorption. This gives the landscape manager time to assess if there is enough water for a spa.

ENERGY RESOURCE

3

SPA

Native woodland buffer belt is planted along the terraced slopes, which will slow the speed of the run off further. This sets the perimeters for the stages to follow and what activities can take place.

RECREATION

2

HABITAT

Removing some material from the steep slopes to create pools and falls, this slows the overall flow of the water. This is the initial stage of the system.

WOODLAND BUFFER

TERRACING

1

Large scale structuring, this is the last stage to allow establishing time and assessment of how much water is within the system, after Absorption.

H2 O Ca-Mg

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

Right hand page: Each opportunity needs to be analysed on its merits to the system, this is in terms of what built structures it might need, the resources it needs and what it produces. In the next few pages, these ideas have been analysed and sorted into whether they are viable or not.


abstract of available Litres per0.02% day available. resource from source to be Sustainable abstraction: sustainable. 400,000 x 0.02= 8,000L No. of Bottles for Croglin: River Example 8,000/0.5= 16,000 bottles Bottled Water from Spring Nearby river, Croglin, has 0.4 Mega Litres per dayWater available. EU Bottled Federation Sustainable abstraction: abstract 0.02% of available 400,000 x 0.02= 8,000L to be resource from source No. of Bottles for Croglin: sustainable. 8,000/0.5= 16,000 bottles

Large structure Bottling plant sited on spring line 0.02% of 0.4 ML Roads to and from factory Large will need to be dug to access water Infrastructure Anthrobocentric

River Example Nearby river, Croglin, has 0.4 Mega Litres per day available. Sustainable abstraction: 400,000 x 0.02= 8,000L No. of Bottles for Croglin: 8,000/0.5=(Rafting/ 16,000 bottles Recreation Mountain Biking/ Zorbing)

gr

a

gr

ad

ie

n

Recreation (Rafting/t Mountain Biking/ Zorbing) Fall from approx. 600m to 250m in a space of 2.5km, 350m drop over 2500m. Gradient of 1:7

e 1: blLow 7 key implentation a i impact. Exploits gr V ad of pools and falls.

ie

nt

Recreation (Outdoor pools/ Rock Climbing/ Caving) Limestone is dissolved by water creating underground streams, caves and tunnels. Shake or Sink holes are created when the Recreation (Outdoor pools/ Rock Climbing/ Caving) limestone below the surface collapses. Limestone is dissolved by waterRock climbing creating underground streams, caves and tunnels. Shake or Sink Caving holes are created when the limestone below the surface collapses. e Rock climbing

blLow impact. Exploits key implentation a i V

of pools and (Outdoor falls. Recreation pools/ Rock Climbing/ Caving) Limestone is dissolved by water creating underground streams,

Caving

Ca-Mg

tai

ikin

Ideas within Flow

ble a i 16,000 t V Conflicts with other processes. o N BOTTLES Large structure required, does

Buxton Bottled Water, water filtered not fit the character of development. OF WATER through layers of limestone in Peak per DAY District

H2O

Ca-Mg Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

nb

Buxton Bottled Water, water filtered through layers of limestone in Peak District

HO

16,000 BOTTLES OF WATER per DAY

Biocentric Infrastructure

Buxton Bottled Water, water filtered through layers of limestone in Peak District

2 Minimal infrastucture Minimal impact is made on ng A small amount of natural processes due to the Te rra facilities need to be engagement of the activity. ce do provided for these Some damage will be utd Mo oor activities. sustained however, nothing Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure un po tai ols n b (s The landform or water that could not be restored ikin low National White Water Rafting Maccesfield Zorbing Centre, g sr Zo Minimal infrastucture Minimal impact is made on through management. is the only real un rbi Centre, North Wales, Bala need a hill, a zorb and barriors ng off natural processes due to the A small amount of Some loss of habitats element that is needed. )G Te org rra facilities to be engagement of the activity. ew ce Landformneed manipulation or exploiting them. do alk provided forenhance these the Some damage will be utd ing in place to oo rp sustained however, nothing activities. activity. oo ls (sl that could not be restored The landform water Pathways andorsignage ow National White Water Rafting Maccesfield Zorbing Centre, sr is the only real through management. Mo un Centre, North Wales, Bala need a hill, a zorb and barriors Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure un off Some loss of habitats element that is needed. )G tai nb org ikin ew or exploiting them. Landform manipulation g Zo Minimal impact is made on Minimal infrastucture alk rbi ing in place to enhance the ng natural processes due to the A small amount of Te activity. rra engagement of the activity. facilities need to be ce Pathways and signage do Some damage will be provided for these utd oo rp sustained however, nothing activities. oo ls (sl that could not be restored The landform or water ow National White Water Rafting Maccesfield Zorbing Centre sr through management. is the only real un Centre, North Wales, Bala need a hill, a zorb and barri off Some loss of habitats element that is needed. )G org Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure ew or exploiting them. Landform manipulation alk ing in place to enhance the Minimal infrastucture Minimal impact is made on activity. A small amount of facilitiesPathways and signage natural processes due to the need to be provided for engagement of the activity. Outdoor pools these activities. Some damage will be sustained Anthrobocentric Biocentric The landform or Infrastructure water is however, nothingInfrastructure that could not Gorge walking be restored through management. the only real element that Minimal infrastucture Minimal made on is needed. Someimpact loss ofishabitats or A small amount of facilities natural processes due the Landform manipulation in exploiting to them. Gorge Walking, South Wales activity Sparth outdoor pool, Huddersfield, need provided engagement of the activity. Outdoor pools place to to be enhance thefor activity run by Outdoor Education Centre popular pool these activities. Some damage will be sustained Pathways and signage The landform or water is however, nothing that could not Gorge walking the only real element that be restored through management. Scuba diving is needed. Some loss of habitats or Landform manipulation in exploiting Infrastructure them. Gorge Walking, South Wales activity Sparth outdoor pool, Huddersfield, Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric place to enhance the activity run by Outdoor Education Centre popular pool Pathways and signage Minimal infrastucture Minimal impact is made on natural processes due to the A small amount of facilities

rbi

di to 250m in Fall from approx. 600m en a space of 2.5km, 350mt drop over 2500m. Gradient of 1:7 7

Mo Zo

Recreation (Rafting/ Mountain Biking/ Zorbing) 1: 7

HO

2 Underground stream and spring Layers of limestone which filter the water Slope of land

16,000 BOTTLES OF WATER per DAY

0.02% of 0.4 ML

un

Fall from approx. 600m to 250m in a space of 2.5km, 350m drop over 2500m. Gradient of 1:7

1:

Large structure 0.02% of 0.4 ML Bottling plant sited on spring line Roads to and from factory Large will need to be dug to access water

Underground stream and spring Layers of limestone which filter the water Slope of land Ca-Mg Biocentric Infrastructure

g


110C Cheese production

can be ultiliesed in a variety of ways for anthropocentric gain.

Ideas within Flow

scuba centre, etc. Roof structure stabilised. Pathways and roads.

Encourage new habitats

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Scuba diving

Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. Caving and cheese production work side by side

Wookey Hole, Somerset. Similar Agen Allwedd Cave, Wales.Caving and cave attraction, cheese in a cave diving takes place here

Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. Caving and cheese production work side by side

Wookey Hole, Somerset. Similar Agen Allwedd Cave, Wales.Caving and cave attraction, cheese in a cave diving takes place here

Recreation Underground Limestone is dissolved by water creating underground streams, caves and tunnels. These caves are cold, often hold large bodies of water (where rock is less permeable) and dark. These things can be ultiliesed in a variety of ways for anthropocentric gain. Spa (thermal waters/ minera/ mud bath) Minerals are picked up from the water flowing through the bleVarious No significant caves found. a i limestone. spa uses for V t o mineral water... Nthis Thermal waters Mineral water Mud baths Ice Spabaths (thermal waters/ minera/ mud bath) Swimming pools Minerals are picked up from the water flowing through the limestone. Various spa uses for this mineral water... Thermal waters Mineral water Mud baths Ice baths Swimming pools

Large amount of impact Large scale infrastructure. dependant on cave If caves are not found, would Bat Habitat presence or not. require large excavation which Disturbance to natural cannot be justified. Caving landform and habitats. Facilities need to be provided, 110C Encourage new habitats scuba centre, etc. Cheese production Roof structure stabilised. and roads. AnthrobocentricPathways Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure Scuba diving Large scale structuring Exposure of well/ spring needed. Exploiting the mineral water Well construction, possible Underground river network H 2O exposure of spring. Ca-Mg Bath house or outdoor pools. Roads/ paths leading.

2

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

2

Ca-Mg

H 2O

Large scale structuring needed. Well construction, possible exposure of spring. Bath house or outdoor pools. Roads/ paths leading.

Biocentric Infrastructure Exposure of well/ spring Exploiting the mineral water Underground river network

e blUtilising a i a natural event along spring V line.

Spa (thermal waters/ minera/ mud bath) Minerals are picked up from the water flowing through the Mining limestone. Various spa uses for this water... Bee mineral Sandstone, Penrith Sandstone Thermal watersare mined in the and Limestone Mineral water stones are used for valley. These Mud baths building, cement and glass Ice baths production. Swimming pools

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

2

Ca-Mg

Szechenyi Baths, Hungry, take water from a thermal spring (warmer due to climate)

How water travels through limestone, limestone study in Ireland

Bristol Roman Baths, water taken from a natural underground spring

Szechenyi Baths, Hungry, take water from a thermal spring (warmer due to climate)

How water travels through limestone, limestone study in Ireland

Szechenyi Baths, Hungry, take water from a thermal spring (warmer due to climate)

How water travels through limestone, limestone study in Ireland

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large scale structuring Exposure of well/ spring needed. Exploiting the mineral water Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Biocentric Infrastructure Well construction, possible Underground river network H2OAverage mine exposure of spring. Large scale structure Exposure of rock faces Bath house or outdoorOpen pools. 6,000 tons cast mining More cliffs Roads/ paths leading.Tracks/ Roads Loss of existing habitat per day Large machinery Impossible for wildlife to stay Large open space in the same area as mining Bristol Roman Baths, water taken from a natural underground spring

Mining Bee Sandstone, Penrith Sandstone and Limestone are mined in the valley. These stones are used for building, cement and glass production.

Bristol Roman Baths, water taken from a natural underground spring

Average mine 6,000 tons per day

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large scale structure Exposure of rock faces Open cast mining More cliffs e bl Conflicts with other processes. Large habitat Tracks/ Roads Loss of existing a i impact on landscape. Largeomachinery tV Impossible for wildlife to stay N open space Large in the same area as mining

E Moorhouse and Sons Ltd, existing quarry in the valley that mines St. Bees Sandstone

E Moorhouse and Sons Ltd, existing quarry

The Hartley limestone quarry, an existing limestone quarry near Kirby Steven

The Hartley limestone quarry, an


E Moorhouse and Sons Ltd, existing quarry in the valley that mines St. Bees Sandstone

Energy Resource

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

300m

4.6L/s

4.6L/s

Gravity 9.8 m/s2

Woodland Buffer A native deciduous woodland along the terraced edges would slow run off speed further and decrease the amount of water flow down the hill Trees tolerant of exposed, hillside areas would need to be chosen.

Woodland Buffer A native deciduous woodland along the terraced edges would slow run off speed further and decrease the amount of water flow down the hill Trees tolerant of exposed, hillside areas would need to be chosen.

e blKey a i part of the process of slowing V runoff.

Fall of slope Speed of flow Extraction of stone to create terraces

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of structure Turbines and housing Cables required to carry power back to grid or homes 13.5kW Road to install structure

per second

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

13.5kW

Gravity 9.8 m/s

2

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of structure Turbines and housing Cables required to carry power back to grid or homes Road to install structure

300m

Taking advantage of the fall of the land and the flow of water down the hillside. Power = head x flow x gravity Head is 300m (the fall) Flow rate is 0.4 ML per day (Croglin example) = 4.6L a second Gravity 9.8 Energy Resource 300 x 4.6 x 9.8 = 13,524W/s Taking advantage of the fall of the land and the flow of water down the hillside. Power = head x flow x gravity Head is 300m (the fall) Flow rate is 0.4 ML per day (Croglin example) = 4.6L a second Gravity 9.8 300 x 4.6 x 9.8 = 13,524W/s

Very little structure needed. per second Bank stablisation may need to occur, while trees establish.

The Hartley limestone quarry, an Ideas within existing limestone quarryFlow near Kirby Steven

Fall of slope Speed of flow Extraction of stone to create terraces

Center of Alternative Technology, uses hydro power from a high reservoir to run a lot of machines

Rammelsberg Mine, Germany. A water wheel is used to power the mining, small scale however

e blCould a i produce large amounts of V

energy. Allows anthropocentric to adapt to changing climate.

Center of Alternative Technology, uses hydro power from a high reservoir to Biocentric Infrastructure run a lot of machines

Rammelsberg Mine, Germany. A water wheel is used to power the mining, small scale however

New woodland structure. New habitat. Could effect water levels in a negative way; too much taken out.

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Very little structure needed. Bank stablisation may need to occur, while trees establish.

New woodland structure. New habitat. Could effect water levels in a negative way; too much taken out.

Taken by Adam Burton, from bbc.co.uk/nature/places/United_Kingdom. Thick deciduous woodland buffer down the centre of the picture

Taken by Adam Burton, from bbc.co.uk/nature/places/United_Kingdom. Thick deciduous woodland buffer down the centre of the picture


Laminar

Improved Soils By washing water over the land, nutrients will be deposited and improve the soils.

2

3 CONTROL OF WATER

2

Control of Water By controlling water levels will create pools for growing, harvesting and a constant flow of water.

Varying Water Levels Through controlling the water it creates various water levels it allows more of a diverse range of agriculture. Gates/ Sluice These are the tools to control the water.

1

Lakes These lakes will allow to grow and harvest the freshwater mussels. By hanging ropes through the lake, mussels will grow along the ropes.

Lakes These lakes will allow to grow and harvest the fish.

MUSSEL FARMING

Existing Existing crop farming is improved by adding nutrients to soils.

CROPS

Improved Soils By washing water over the land, nutrients will be deposited and improve the soils.

Control of Water By controlling water levels will create pools for growing, harvesting and a constant flow of water.

FISH FARMING

Existing Existing livestock farming will continue and be improved through soil improvement.

Retaining Pools These pools will be used to grow the plant with the freshwater shrimps.

WATERCRESS & SHRIMP

Control of Water By controlling water levels will create pools for growing, harvesting and a constant flow of water.

LIVESTOCK

The key process being introduced in the laminar stage is water control, through using a network of ditches, small dams and sluices a varying water levels across a wide area can be achieved. This is to increase the diversity of agriculture in the valley and also increase the amount of water absorbed into soils. Some areas will have greater volumes of water than others; this is controlled using the network of gates, ditches and sluices. The different depths of water will be utilised in different ways, such as fish farming requires deeper pools than watercress production.

4

5

ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

FLOW


Water Control

Reed beds Wash

Drinking supply

Reservoirs/ Lakes

Fishery Sand filter

Sandstone/ Mudstone

Sub-surface Aquatard; repels water

High in Pollutants

Surface

Agricultural hub; Grade 2-3 Gradient of 1:50 Irrigation/ improved soil

Biomass burning

Gates/ Diversions/ Ditches/ Sluice

Water Control

Fish farming

Bore

Thatch

Reed beds

Reed (Phragmites australis)

Wash

Drinking supply

Reservoirs/ Lakes

Fishery

Production (food & recreation)

Phytomining Clean water

Agriculture waste Urban waste Sewage

Sand filter

Crop farming

Sandstone/ Mudstone

Improved soil

Sub-surface Aquatard; repels water

Water cress and Freshwater shrimp Quality of livestock Fresh water Oysters

Reed beds

High in Pollutants

Surface

Biodiversity

Agricultural hub; Grade 2-3 Gradient of 1:50

Wetland ecology

Irrigation/ improved soil

The ideas can be grouped into the categories above. Water control and sub-surface are key ideas or points.

Wildlife habitat

Filtration required

Biomass burning Fish farming Thatch

Management points


Laminar The ideas (or opportunities) within each stage of the system needs to be introduced in stages, due to the fact an intervention needs to wait till the previous idea establishes. There is a logical order of introducing each idea. This moves the landscape in different directions over time.

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

One Unit of Time

5

New structure is required at this point. However, is of smaller impact that other systems to follow. Requires steady flow rates and clean water, therefore better to establish this way.

One Unit of Time

MUSSEL FARMING

4

3

Once new water patterns have been tested and settled, old, current ways of farming can re-establish. However, with much higher production due to improved soils.

FISH FARMING

2

WATERCRESS & SHRIMP

Moving and varying water levels in the low elevated areas in the valley, will govern what type of farming will happen and where.

EXISTING FARMING

CONTROL OF WATER

1

Currently does exist, but on a smaller scale. More structure required, pools as opposed to flows of water. Creates more impact in the system.

Very different way of farming, requires an established new infrastructure of pools, gates and ditches. Introduced once system is well established and settled before introducing new crop.

One Unit of Time

Right hand page: Each opportunity needs to be analysed on its merits to the system, this is in terms of what built structures it might need, the resources it needs and what it produces. In the next few pages, these ideas have been analysed and sorted into whether they are viable or not.


Ideas within Laminar

Gates/ Diversions/ Ditches/ Sluices Controlling the water for anthropocentric gain. To enhance production. This could create: Bore Waves vary between 1-3m for the Severn bore, which is an Gates/ Diversions/ Ditches/ Sluices in surfable wave Drinking supply/ Fishery Controlling the water for anthropocentric Low gradient,100m fall over 6km, this gain. To enhance production. makes creating bodies of water easier. This could create: Gradient of 1:50 Bore Waves vary between 1-3m for the Severn bore, which is an in surfable wave Fish farming Drinking supply/ Fishery Low densities gradient,100m fallthan over 6km,kg/m3 this Fish greater 20-25 makes creating water easier. problems start tobodies occur, of with average Gradient of 1:50 fish size being 1-3kg. This allows for 8 fish per m3. There is a large existing agricultural practice in the area, with fertile land of grade 2-3.

Fish farming Fish densities greater than 20-25 kg/m3 problems start to occur, with average fish size being 1-3kg. This allows for 8 fish per m3. There is a large existing agricultural practice in the area, with fertile land of grade 2-3. Fresh Water Mussel Farming There is an existing hub of agriculture Grade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse range of farming could occur. Also with bodies of water being created, makes a growing pool for mussels.

Fresh Water Mussel Farming There is an existing hub of agriculture Grade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse range of farming could occur. Also with bodies of water being created, makes a growing pool for mussels.

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

1:50 g

Large amount of structure Heavy control to water Gates/ sluices/ ditches/ damns Varying levels of water Collection pools

radien

t

Biocentric Infrastructure More river/ water side ecology Some obstacles to fish, however care will be taken to prevent this Lose of monoculture e.g. pastureland

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure 1:50 g

radien

t

Ditches control the water and distribute to fields

Ditches control the water and distribute to fields

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount More river/ water side ecology le of structure bcontrol a Heavy to water Some i in moving water obstacles to fish, however V Key intervention Gates/ sluices/ ditches/ damns will be around the area and creatingcare variety of taken to prevent this Varying levels of water Lose of monoculture water levels. Collection pools e.g. pastureland

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Large amount of structure. Heavy control of water. Pools and lakes. Harvest requires more water control. Farmer needs to invest in new structures. Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of structure. Heavy control of water. Pools and lakes. Harvest requires more water control. Farmer needs to invest in new structures. Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Large amount of structure. Heavy control of water. Pools and lakes. Harvest requires more water control.

Severn Bore, Newnham, Gloucestershire. Inspiration, not direct representation

Biocentric Infrastructure Higher control of water. Promotes water ecology. Draining to harvest fish could damage established water ecology. More efficient land use.

Biocentric Infrastructure Higher control of water. Promotes water ecology. Draining to harvest fish could damage established water ecology. More efficient land use. Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of structure. Higher control of water. Heavy control of water. Promotes ecology. e bl deeper areas of water provided. Draining towater Poolsia andIflakes. harvest fish V Harvest requires more could damage established water control. water ecology. Farmer needs to invest More efficient land use. in new structures.

Biocentric Infrastructure Higher control of water. Promotes water ecology. Draining to harvest fish could damage established water ecology.

Severn Bore, Newnham, Gloucestershire. Inspiration, not direct representation

Rice Paddies in May, China Rice and fish are harvest to create more efficient land use

Rice Paddies in May, China Rice and fish are harvest to create more efficient land use

Cornish Mussels, farmed in the river Fal, Cornwall

Llyn y Fan Fach trout farm, South Wales. This is current fish farming practice

Llyn y Fan Fach trout farm, South Wales. This is current fish farming practice

Freshwater Mussel farming, Shelton, Washington, USA


water control. Farmer needs to invest Anthrobocentric Infrastructure in new structures.

fertile land of grade 2-3. Fresh Water Mussel Farming There is an existing hub of agriculture

Large amount of structure. Heavy control of water. Pools and lakes. Harvest requires more water control. Farmer needs to invest in new structures.

Ideas within Laminar Grade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse

range of farming could occur. Also with bodies of water being created, makes a growing pool for mussels.

Fresh Water Mussel Farming

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

There is an existing hub of agriculture Grade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse range of farming could occur. Also with bodies of water being created, makes a growing pool for mussels.

Large amount of structure. Heavy control of water. Pools and lakes. Harvest requires more water control. Farmer needs to invest in new structures.

Existing Farming Practice (improved)

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

There is an existing hub of agriculture Grade 2-3; fertile soils. These soils have been made fertile through flooding and silt deposits. By creating a wash and regular flooding it will improve the yield of the land and the quality.

There is an existing hub of agriculture Grade 2-3; fertile soils. These soils have been made fertile through flooding and silt deposits. By creating a wash and regular flooding it will improve the yield of the landBurning and the quality. Biomass

REED 1ha produces 50 tons

Biomass Burning Reed Can harvest twice a year, 5 tons of dry matter per hectare per year. Calorific value (energy per kg) = 18 MJ/kg Energy content of 1ha is 21 MWh for a year. This could power a significant Watercress and Fresh water Shrimp Farming number of homes. An existing hub of agriculture ofGrade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse range of farming could be achieved from creating pools of water. Clean, shallow and with a steady flow is what is needed for this type of farming.

Higher control of water. Promotes water ecology. Draining to harvest fish could damage established water ecology. More efficient land use.

Rice Paddies in May, China Rice and fish are harvest to create more efficient land use

Cornish Mussels, farmed in the river Fal, Cornwall

Biocentric Infrastructure Higher control of water. Promotes water ecology. Draining to harvest fish could damage established water ecology. More efficient land use.

Cornish Mussels, farmed in the river Fal, Cornwall

Biocentric Infrastructure

More open water Large amount of infrastructure e of release, ltimes Source extra aquatic b Control of water, ia If areas of deeper, fast flowing wateroflife, short lived volume, rateVof flow and time of provided. Improved soil conditions containment Ditches, gates and sluices Lakes and pools needed

Existing Farming Practice (improved)

Reed Can harvest twice a year, 5 tons of dry matter per hectare per year. Calorific value (energy per kg) = 18 MJ/kg Energy content of 1ha is 21 MWh for a year. This could power a significant number of homes.

water ecology. More efficient land use. Biocentric Infrastructure

REED 1ha produces 50 tons

21 MWh of POWER

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of infrastructure Control of water, times of release, volume, rate of flow and time of containment Ditches, gates and sluices Lakes and pools Infrastructure needed Anthrobocentric

More open water Source of extra aquatic life, short lived Improved soil conditions

Large scale structure needed Large plantation of reed to make it viable Roads/ pathways Processing plant Link to grid or housing

e blHigh Infrastructure a i output. AllowsAnthrobocentric anthropocentric to V adapt to changing Large climates. scale structure needed

21 MWh of POWER

Large plantation of reed to make it viable Roads/ pathways Processing plant Link to grid or housing Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of structure Heavy control of water Retaining/ growing pool Harvesting machinery needed Constant flow of water

Biocentric Infrastructure Large plantation of reeds Flow of water changed Wildlife habitat (temp.) Increase in aquatic life

Biocentric Infrastructure

Llyn y Fan Fach trout farm, South Wales. This is current fish farming practice

Freshwater Mussel farming, Shelton, Washington, USA

Freshwater Mussel farming, Shelton, Washington, USA

River Nile, Egypt. The regular flooding of the banks have created a green wedge, showing the benefits of flooding

Fens, Norfolk. A flat landscape which is flooded regularly, contains half the grade 1 agricultural land in England and is high arble production

River Nile, Egypt. The regular flooding of the banks have created a green wedge, showing the benefits of flooding

Fens, Norfolk. A flat landscape which is flooded regularly, contains half the grade 1 agricultural land in England and is high arble production

Charcoal production from reed in Exeter, Somerset Levels

Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, North-West England. Large reed beds cover the area.

Charcoal production from reed in Exeter, Somerset Levels

Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, North-West England. Large reed beds cover the area.

Large plantation of reeds Flow of water changed Wildlife habitat (temp.) Increase in aquatic life Biocentric Infrastructure New aquatic habitat Control over species New water ways Predators would not be welcomed


Farmer needs to invest in new structures. Existing Farming Practice (improved) There is an existing hub of agriculture Grade 2-3; fertile soils. These soils have been made fertile through flooding and silt deposits. By creating a wash and regular flooding it will improve the yield of the land and the quality. Existing Farming Practice (improved) There is an existing hub of agriculture Grade 2-3; fertile soils. These soils have been made fertile through flooding and silt deposits. By creating a wash and regular flooding it will improve the yield of the land and the quality. Biomass Burning Reed Can harvest twice a year, 5 tons of dry matter per hectare per year. Calorific value (energy per kg) = 18 MJ/kg Energy content of 1ha is 21 MWh for a year. This could power a significant number of homes.

REED 1ha produces 50 tons

21 MWh of POWER

Biomass Burning Reed Can harvest twice a year, 5 tons of dry matter per hectare per year. Calorific value (energy per kg) = 18 MJ/kg Energy content of 1ha is 21 MWh for a year. This could power a significant Watercress and Fresh water Shrimp Farming number of homes. An existing hub of agriculture ofGrade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse range of farming could be achieved from creating pools of water. Clean, shallow and with a steady flow is what is needed for this type of farming. Watercress and Fresh water Shrimp Farming An existing hub of agriculture ofGrade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse range of farming could be achieved from creating pools of water. Clean, shallow and with a steady flow is what is needed for this type of farming.

REED 1ha produces 50 tons

21 MWh of POWER

More efficient land use.

Cornish Mussels, farmed in the river Fal, Cornwall

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of infrastructure Control of water, times of release, volume, rate of flow and time of containment Ditches, gates and sluices Lakes and pools needed

More open water Source of extra aquatic life, short lived Improved soil conditions

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of infrastructure Control of water, times of release, volume, rate of flow and time of containment Ditches, gates and sluices Lakes and pools needed Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

More open water Source of extra aquatic life, short lived Improved soil conditions Biocentric Infrastructure

Large plantation of reeds Large scale structure needed Flow of water changed Large plantation of reed to e blIncreases Wildlife habitat (temp.) make itiaviable V pathways yield. Its a result from Increase in aquatic life Roads/ moving water around over land. Processing plant Link to grid or housing Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large scale structure needed Large plantation of reed to make it viable Roads/ pathways Processing plant Link to grid or housing Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Large plantation of reeds Flow of water changed Wildlife habitat (temp.) Increase in aquatic life

Large amount of structure Heavy control of water Retaining/ growing pool Harvesting machinery needed Constant flow of water

New aquatic habitat Control over species New water ways Predators would not be welcomed

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

ble

Large amount of structure a Takes advantage of low water levels in ViHeavy control of water

some areas.

Retaining/ growing pool Harvesting machinery needed Constant flow of water

Biocentric Infrastructure

New aquatic habitat Control over species New water ways Predators would not be welcomed

Freshwater Mussel farming, Shelton, Washington, USA

Ideas within Laminar

River Nile, Egypt. The regular flooding of the banks have created a green wedge, showing the benefits of flooding

Fens, Norfolk. A flat landscape which is flooded regularly, contains half the grade 1 agricultural land in England and is high arble production

River Nile, Egypt. The regular flooding of the banks have created a green wedge, showing the benefits of flooding

Fens, Norfolk. A flat landscape which is flooded regularly, contains half the grade 1 agricultural land in England and is high arble production

Charcoal production from reed in Exeter, Somerset Levels

Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, North-West England. Large reed beds cover the area.

Charcoal production from reed in Exeter, Somerset Levels

Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, North-West England. Large reed beds cover the area.

Former watercress farm (Victorian), Lemsford Springs, sustains watercress and shrimps, both could be farmed. Middlesex, UK

Watercress farm at Purely Organic in Wiltshire, England. Constant flow of water

Former watercress farm (Victorian), Lemsford Springs, sustains watercress and shrimps, both could be farmed. Middlesex, UK

Watercress farm at Purely Organic in Wiltshire, England. Constant flow of water


Filtration

N

KK

P

NK

P

P NK

K

N

P

P

P KK

NK P

P

P NK

K

Large Plantations Plantation of reeds to provide roofing material.

4

5

Retaining Pools A further tool to use to controlling the water.

Process Factory Some drying and sorting process will need to be done. Shelter would need to be provided.

Large Plantations The more biomass grown the more electricity which can be created.

Link to Grid Electricity produced need structure to link to the grid or houses, through pylons and cables.

BIOMASS

Retaining Pools Pools are to allow for the cleaning process to have time to take place.

3

P

P

Large Plantations The plantations would need to be of considerable size to deal with large amounts of waste.

URBAN WASTE

2 P

Slowing of Water To slow the water retaining will occur, this allows time for the filtration process to happen.

THATCH

Large Plantations A plantation of considerable size is needed to clean a large amount of grey water waste and other waste.

SEWAGE

Retaining Pools Pools are to allow for the cleaning process to have time to take place.

CONTROL OF WATER

Large Plantations The plantations would need to be of considerable size to deal with large amounts of waste.

AGRICULTURAL WASTE

Similar to laminar, the key process in filtration stage is the controlling network of water. Through the control of water, it allows time for pollutant to settle and then be abstracted from the water, either by plants or filters. Filtration occurs after laminar, but in conjunction with it. Laminar is the point where water is exposed to human activities the most and therefore could potentially pick up many contaminants, therefore the filtration stage is there to take these out of the system before returning the water to the Eden river.

6 REED 1ha produces 50 tons

Gates/ Sluices These are the tools used to control the water and slow the water down.

1 ABSORPTION

FLOW

LAMINAR

LAMINAR & FILTRATION

FLOW


Wash

Drinking supply

Reservoirs/ Lakes

Fishery Sand filter

Sandstone/ Mudstone

Sub-surface Aquatard; repels water

High in Pollutants

Surface

Agricultural hub; Grade 2-3 Gradient of 1:50 Irrigation/ improved soil

Biomass burning Fish farming

Gates/ Diversions/ Ditches/ Sluice

Water Control

Bore

Thatch Reed (Phragmites australis)

Reed beds

Production (food & recreation)

Wash

Drinking supply

Reservoirs/ Lakes

Fishery

Phytomining Clean water

Agriculture waste Urban waste Sewage

Crop farming

Sand filter Improved soil

Sandstone/ Mudstone

Sub-surface

Water cress and Freshwater shrimp Quality of livestock

Aquatard; repels water

Fresh water Oysters Reed beds

High in Pollutants

Surface

Biodiversity

Agricultural hub; Grade 2-3

Wildlife habitat

Wetland ecology

Gradient of 1:50 Filtration required

Irrigation/ improved soil

Biomass burning

The ideas can be grouped into the categories above. Water control and sub-surface are key ideas or points.

Fish farming Thatch Reed (Phragmites australis)

Production (food & recreation)

Phytomining

Management points


introduced in stages, due to the fact an intervention needs to wait till the previous idea establishes. There is a logical order of introducing each idea. This moves the landscape in different directions over time.

Watercress and Fresh water Shrimp Farming

2

3

This is an existing issue and is the target for the filtration system. Certain time period needs to pass for pools and plants to start filtration process.

P N

P

P

P KK

URBAN WASTE

An existing hub of agriculture ofGrade 2-3; fertile soils. A more diverse range of First stage to the system, be achieved from creating byfarming controllingcould the water; pooling and it Clean, shallow and pools ofslowing water. allows for filtration of is what is needed for withtime a steady flow the water to occur. this type of farming.

AGRICULTURAL WASTE

CONTROL OF WATER

1

NK

P NK

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large amount of structure

N

P

P

P KK

P

One Unit of Time

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure After the system has beenHeavy control of water established, the system could Retaining/ growing pool be enhanced and deal with Harvesting machinery needed other forms of waste, such Constant flow of water as grey water.

P K

Large plantation of reeds Flow of water changed Wildlife habitat (temp.) Increase in aquatic life

NK

P NK

Charcoal production from reed in Exeter, Somerset Levels

4

New aquatic habitat

Control over species Again, once the system has New water ways been established and tested, thePredators filtration system can not would incorperate further cleaning, be welcomed such as sewage treatment.

K

One Unit of Time

The Reed plantations need time to establish and work within the filtration system before they reach a level where some can be harvested.

Former watercress farm (Victorian), Lemsford Springs, sustains watercress and shrimps, both could be farmed. REED Middlesex, UK

P

One Unit of Time

5

Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, North-West England. Large reed beds cover the area.

One Unit of Time

6 BIOMASS BURNING

21 MWh of POWER

Large scale structure needed Large plantation of reed to make it viable Roads/ pathways Processing plant Link to grid or housing

THATCHING MATERIAL

REED 1ha produces 50 tons

SEWAGE TREATMENT

Reed Can harvest twice a year, 5 tons of dry matter per hectare per year. Calorific Filtration value (energy per kg) = 18 MJ/kg Energy content of 1ha is 21 MWh for a The ideas opportunities) year.(or This could powerwithin a significant each stage of the system needs to be number of homes.

After a period of establishment the reeds have reached their maximum height, they have spread and become dense. Structures and systems have been established for previous stages, therefore biomass can now be harvest and used.

Watercress farm at Purely Organic in Wiltshire, England. Constant flow of water

1ha produces 50 tons

One Unit of Time

Below and Right hand page: Each opportunity needs to be analysed on its merits to the system, this is in terms of what built structures it might need, the resources it needs and what it produces. In the next few pages, these ideas have been analysed and sorted into whether they are viable or not.

Biomass Burning Reed Can harvest twice a year, 5 tons of dry matter per hectare per year. Calorific value (energy per kg) = 18 MJ/kg Energy content of 1ha is 21 MWh for a year. This could power a significant number of homes.

REED 1ha produces 50 tons

21 MWh of POWER

e blHigh a i output. Allows anthropocentric to V

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Large scale structure needed Large plantation of reed to make it viable Roads/ pathways Processing plant Link to grid or housing

Large plantation of reeds Flow of water changed Wildlife habitat (temp.) Increase in aquatic life

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Charcoal production from reed in Exeter, Somerset Levels

adapt to changing climates.

Phytomining Phosphorus from NPK fertilisers could be extracted through using plants. The

Phosphorus

Medium amount of structure.

Large plantation of one speies

Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, North-West England. Large reed beds cover the area.


toyear. water, ideal to retain and hold water This could power a significant innumber large amounts. Hydrocarbons within of homes. the stone repel water making it a aquitard. It could keep the water in the same place to allow of plants to take up N the elements. K

50 tons P

N

K

N P

P N

N K P P K N

N

P

P

N K

N

P

P

P K

K

P

P P

P

Phytomining

P

NK

KK

KN

K

P

P

NK

K

Phosphorus

Phosphorus from NPK fertilisers could be extracted through using plants. The mudstone below this area is impervious Cleaning water/ Agricultural waste/ Urban waste/ Sewage to water, ideal to retain and hold water in large amounts. Hydrocarbons within A few things make this area ideal for this the stone water making it a 6km. process: lowrepel gradient,100m fall over aquitard. It could keep the water in the P Gradient of 1:50. Hydrocarbons within same place to water; allow of plants to take up Biomass Burning the stone repels Aquitard. N N N K P N K P N K P the elements. P K Impervious to water, ideal to retain and K N N N Reed hold water in large amounts. These Can harvest twice a year, 5 tons of dry REED mean that pools can be created easily matter per hectare per year. Calorific P P and water can be held while the water 1ha value (energy per kg) = 18 MJ/kg N K K is cleaned. N N N N P Energy content of 1ha is 21 MWh for a K N N K P N Pproduces P K N year. This could power a significant 50 tons Cleaning number of water/ homes.Agricultural waste/ Urban waste/ Sewage

P

P

P

P N

K

K

P

K

K

KN

P

P

P

P

NK

KK

KN

P P

K

P

P P

K

P

P

P

P

NK

21 MWh of POWER P

P

P

P

KK

NK

P

NK

A few things make this area ideal for this process: low gradient,100m fall over 6km. Gradient of 1:50. Hydrocarbons within Thatch Production the stone repels water; Aquitard. Average roof size 14m2 Phytomining 2 Impervious to water, ideal to retain and Average weight 240kg/m Phosphorus Decline due to cheap slate, no longer REED hold water in large amounts. These 3.36 tons to cover 1 house Phosphorus fromisNPK fertilisers could the case. Thatch a good insulator. 1ha P mean canusing be created P P P P P be extracted plants. The Also thethat act pools ofthrough growing provides a easily thatched P P P P P P 15 P and water can be held while the water produces mudstone below this provide area is impervious wildlife habitat. Could cheap houses N NK K KK is water, cleaned. N N K N P N K P N K NK K KN to ideal to retain and hold water and effective roofing solution for the 50 K tons P P K K N N N in large amounts. Hydrocarbons within local area. ble Low yield. Conflicts with other the stone repel water making it a a i P P P P P P aquitard. It could keep the water in the processes. P P P tV P P P P o N same place to allow of plants to take up N NK K KK N N K N P N K P K N NK K K KN K P the elements. P K K N N N Thatch Production Decline due to cheap slate, no longer REED the case. Thatch is a good insulator. 1ha Also the act of growing provides a Urban waste/ Sewage Cleaning water/ Agricultural waste/ produces wildlife habitat. Could provide cheap and effective roofing solution for the 50 tons A few things make this area ideal for this local area. process: low gradient,100m fall over 6km. Gradient of 1:50. Hydrocarbons within the stone repels water; Aquitard. Impervious to water, ideal to retain and hold water in large amounts. These mean that pools can be created easily and water can be held while the water N is cleaned. P N K P N K K

N

P

N

P

K N

P

N

P

N K

N

P

P K

K

P

K

P P KN

P

Biocentric very much controlled

P KK

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Biocentric Infrastructure

Medium amount of structure. Processing factory to extract minerals. Anthrobocentric PlantationsInfrastructure of plants extract heavy elements Largethat scale structure. the water system. Largefrom amount of space Water systems to move for cleaning processes. K Retaining the water the area. pools.around Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Controlling of water. LargefilterscaleSandstone structure needed Sand Large plantation reedfilter to bedrock acts as aof sand makewould it viable which purify water. Roads/ pathways Processing plant Link to grid or housing Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Large plantation of one speies New aquatic ecology Biocentric very much controlled Biocentric Infrastructure

Large scale structure. Large amount of space for cleaning processes. Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Retaining pools. Anthrobocentric Infrastructure Minimal extra infrastructure, Controlling of water. after waterSand controlling reed bed filter- and Sandstone Medium amount structure. cleaning bedrock actsofas a sand filter Processingmachinery factory Harvesting which would purify water. to extract minerals. Roads/ pathways Plantations of plants Storage facilities that extract heavy elements Houses to distribute to from the water system. Water systems to move the water around the area.

Minimal extra infrastructure, after water controlling and reed bed 15 thatched cleaning Harvesting machinery Infrastructure houses Anthrobocentric Roads/ pathways Large scale structure. Storage facilities Large amounttoofdistribute space to Houses for cleaning processes. Retaining pools. Controlling of water. Sand filter- Sandstone P P bedrock acts as a sand filter P which would purify water. le NK

NK

metals from soils using plants, Jounral of Geochemical Exploration Charcoal production from

reed in Exeter, Somerset Levels

Anthrobocentric Infrastructure

Average roof size 14m2 Average weight 240kg/m2 3.36 tons to cover 1 house

P

to extract minerals. Processing plant Plantations plants Link toofgrid or housing that extract heavy elements from the water system. Water systems to move the water around the area.

Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, North-West England. Large reed Ideas within Laminar beds cover the area.

Basic method of extracting metals from soils using plants, Jounral of Geochemical Exploration

Large plantation of reeds. New wildlife habitat. Increase in aquatic or edges. Biocentriclife Infrastructure

le

Large plantation of reeds ab Viof Nochanged significant research into large t Flow water o N Wildlife habitat amounts of heavyLarge metals in (temp.) water treatment unit in valley.Malaysia. Using reed Increase inwaterbodies aquatic life in theTioxide, beds

Wessex Water Ltd, Somerton, England. Six reed beds being used to filter phosphorus from water systems

Charcoal production from Leighton Moss RSPB Reserve, Biocentric Infrastructure reed in Exeter, Somerset North-West England. Large reed Large plantation of reeds. Levels beds cover the area. New wildlife habitat. Increase in aquatic Biocentric Infrastructure life or edges. Biocentric Infrastructure Large reed bed plantation Temporary aquatic habitat Large plantation of one Very much one speies plant New aquatic ecology Basic method of extracting species, however Large Wessex Water Ltd, Somerton, metals from soilswater using treatment unit in Biocentric verynatural much controlled mimics process Tioxide, Malaysia. Using reed England. Six reed beds being plants, Jounral of beds Scales Farm, Essex, England. Geochemical Exploration Produce Straw for thatch, reeds can be used however

Biocentric Infrastructure Large reed bed plantation Temporary aquatic habitat Very much one plant species, however Biocentric Infrastructure mimics natural process Large plantation of reeds. Scales Farm, Essex, England. New wildlife habitat. Produce Straw for thatch, reeds Increase in aquatic can be used however life or edges.

b Via Key intervention of the stage. Allows

anthropocentric to decrease its impact on the biocentric.

Large water treatment unit in Tioxide, Malaysia. Using reed beds

to filter phosphorus from The Northused Norfolk Reedcutters water systems Association, Norfolk, England.

The North Norfolk Reedcutters Association, Norfolk, England.

Wessex Water Ltd, Somerton, England. Six reed beds being used to filter phosphorus from water systems


H2O

1

ABSORPTION Absorption is the first and key stage of the whole strategy; by retaining water closer to the source it will have the biggest impact on the system. Peat soils have an available water capacity of about 50%, which is the amount of water available within the soil for plants to grow from. Whereas, silt loam soils only have 35% and clay even less with only 20% available for plants to utilise. Therefore if there is no rain, the plants can be sustained for longer by the soil. With this high water available capacity a large amount of water can be retained at the source and therefore reduces the effects all that water would have in the lower valley. Not only does this soil retain water, but also locks away carbon it absorbs from the atmosphere. Roughly 60% of the soil make

up is carbon, whereas many other soils hold much less. The project programme begins with absorption as it takes the longest to establish, the new ecology takes a few years to grow and begin to perform. With 1mm of peat laid down every year, it is a slow process. By starting the project in this way, the amount of available surface water can be calculated for the other stages of the project. This stage begins by blocking the old drainage systems in poor pasture land. By blocking the drains using heather bales it will raise the water table and creates the new ecology.

2


Materiality Due to the conditions in the absorption areas, primarily in high elevated areas with a lot of annual rainfall, a limited palette of materials and plants can be used. These materials must cope with extreme exposure to large amounts of water in the soils and rain, have the strength against high wind speeds (recorded in the excess of 100 mph) and not to be effected by the acidic soils found in blanket bog.

Plants that can cope with very wet conditions and low growing (not to block views or over shadow heather): Heather Bearberry Dwarf birch Bilberry Sundews Sphagnum mosses Ribbed Bog Moss Hare’s-tail Cottongrass

Calluna vulgaris Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Betula nana Vaccinium myrtillus Drosera tokaiensis Sphagnum spp Aulacomnium palustre Eriophorum vaginatum

Block Drains

plant list

Palette of materials

Dams Heather bales will be used to block the drainage ditches.


Existing Farms Surrounding existing farms have the facilities to care for the livestock.

Access Needed for the care and harvest. Can utilise other pathways proposed. Factory/ Processing Plant The product needs to be sorted and packaged, the factory could be temporary or off the uplands. - Timber - Rough cut stone

biomass burning

Access Tracks/ roads for access to care for livestock. Simple material to reflect area. - Crushed aggregate

honey production

Shelter/ Centre/ Plateforms Places to shelter from the elements, made from materials that suit the landscape - Timber - Rough cut stone

beef farming

views/ recreation

Access Pathways to certain points. Simple path, that allows water to drain through easily. - Crushed aggregate

Factory The heather needs to be processed and then burnt to turn into energy. The factory could be situated off the heather plantation and work only once a year. - Timber - Rough cut stone Link to grid Power lines to carry electricity to the homes. For minimal impact, could be dug in.


Management

EXISTING PIONEERING SPECIES

ABSORPTION Pioneering species (large shrubs and trees) are managed out. Plants like birch, rhododendron, scots pine and various other trees blow in, will be cut down to stop the bog from drying out. Drainage ditches blocked to create the new habitat for peat bog species (high moisture content).

RHODODENDRON

PEAT BOG SPECIES GROUND LEVEL OR 0 Heather plantation planted and managed/ cared for, so it covers the area quickly and in a dense carpet.


HEATHER NUMBERS HEATHER FLOWERS

1/7TH BIOMASS The heather is pruned and maintained so it puts on a lot of flowers each year, this will benefit the honey production. The heather should be pruned annually or biannually.

The peat bog reaches a maximum point, it cannot spread due to drier areas of the uplands. But does not decrease due to management of trees and shrubs.

CUT HEATHER STRIPS Heather is encouraged to grow rapidly ready for the next rotation of biomass harvest.

Maintained so the plants continue to lay down layers of peat, which helps retain water. Also maintained so land is constantly covered by vegetation, this will stop peat erosion (from the sun drying out plants and soils) and as a result methane release.

Livestock are used to mange the heather/ bog effectivily, by grazing young shrubs and trees. Cutting by hand will still need to take place, to keep the bog from its natural succession process.

LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

PEAT EROSION

Continually management is needed, seeds will blow in from various plants and the livestock will miss a few.

MANUAL MANAGEMENT


Absorption Visualisation


This visual depicts Absorption at its final stage. From this point onwards, the landscape is maintained to stay at optimum performance, which is static. However, with the heather cropping cycle the landscape changes. A static cycle is developed.


LAMINAR 3

This stage of the strategy creates the most variety and heterogeneous landscape. It has a wide range of activities that change throughout the year, depending on water levels. The ideas implemented at this stage will resolve a lot of existing problems and increase the anthropocentric’s capacity to handle unpredictable events, such as pollution, erosion and diseases. Through creating a variety of economic sources, the dependence on dairy and beef is less. Therefore if other diseases enter the system the economy can stay a float through other sources of income, unlike when foot and mouth disease hit the area. In 2001, the disease hit many parts of the country, costing up to £5 billion and 20 million animals had to be lost, Cumbria experienced 44% of all outbreaks in the UK. With a variety of water levels produced, it will allow for a wide variety of activities and production of different produce. Therefore allowing the anthropocentric to adapt to its changing economic climate, environment and unpredictable events such as disease.


Materiality The proposed interventions in Laminar stage are largely agriculture based and water controlling systems. Therefore materials that have a long life span shall be chosen. The implantations proposed are of low impact within the landscape and most will result from one intervention, which is controlling of the water system to allow for a variety of water levels in different areas.

Barley Maize Watercress Common Reed Canary Reed Grass

Hordeum vulgare L. Zea mays L. Nasturtium officinale Phragmites australis Phalaris arundinacea

Existing This is an existing activity within this area. Therefore little or no new structure is introduced.

crop farming

This list includes plants that are currently grown in the lower valley, provide a crop or product, can cope with levels of flooding and benefit from nutrient deposition after flooding:

livestock farming

plant list

palette of materials

Existing This is an existing activity within this area. Therefore little or no new structure is introduced.


Retaining Pools Deep or shallow pools are needed to grow the fish that have a steady flow and good quality water running through and suitable flooring. - Earth embankments - Gravel bed - Timber sluice gate

mussel farming

Retaining Pools Shallow pools are needed to grow these two products that have a flow of water running through and suitable flooring. - Earth embankments - Gravel bed - Timber sluice gate

trout farming

watercress & shrimp

control of water

Gates/ Sluices/ Ditches/ Dikes/ Keys These control the water levels in various fields and change the level depending on season and rainfall. A complex system, however should work to be subtle within the landscape. Using simple materials, understated. - Timber - Stone walls - Earth embankments

Retaining Pools Shallow pools are needed to growthis product that have a flow of water running through and suitable flooring. If a deeper pool is created a change in the way the mussels are grown is required. - Earth embankments - Gravel bed - Timber sluice gate - Floating growing baskets


Management This diagram represents the dynamic and changing water levels through a year. As the water levels change through the year, so does the time of year each produce can be harvested. This creates a diverse economy that provides for most of the year.

EXISTING LAMINAR A wider variety of crops will be harvested throughout the year, from maize to shrimp. This allows the land to be more productive for longer because of the improved soils.

FLOODED CROP FIELDS

Unpredictable, various water levels often not suited or harmful for anthropocentric needs

MAIZE TO SHRIMP

SUMMER AUTUMN

WATER LEVEL

GROUND LEVEL OR 0


WATER CONTROL SYSTEM

Water is managed so it is at an appropriate level for each crop and each field. A complex system will be put in. One crop may need less water while another more at the same time of year.

AUTUMN WINTER

WINTER SPRING

HIGHER RAINFALL

Higher water levels for time of year, will need to be controlled so does not damage the new anthropocentric activities, but also enhance them.

SPRING

SUMMER


Laminar Visualisation


This visual depicts Laminar in its final stage. As seasons change and rainfall levels change, the landscape will produce different products. Capitalising on changing conditions.

MA Landscape Architecture: Part 2  

Second portfolio created during MA Landscape Architecture. Development of strategy is displayed within this portfolio.

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