Filmmakers came to assume that a film should guide the spectator’s attention, making every aspect of the story on the screen as clear as possible. In particular, films increasingly set up a chain of narrative cause and effects. One event would plainly lead to an effect which would in turn cause another effect, and so on. (Bordwell and Thompson 1994, p. 39) Q. List two ways early cinema made narrative meaning that we no longer have to rely on? How narrative utilises the micro elements 1. 2.