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Strootman Landscape Architects Contemporary survey 01

Piraeusplein 37 1019 NM Amsterdam / NL T. +31(0)20-419.41.69 F. +31(0)20-419.06.17

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Strootman Landscape Architects Strubben Kniphorstbosch Drentsche Aa Location Wieringen and Wieringermeer Schoonloo-Oost Bloemendalerpolder Water Treatment Park Het Lankheet Eusebiushof Arnhem Baena promenade Park Saksen Weimar Belvedères Drentsche Aa Smithfield Plaza Dublin


Strootman Landscape Architects Strootman Landscape Architects is a design office set up in 2002. The office is a mix of landscape architects & urbanists working on projects on the outer edges of the discipline. We explore crossover zones where landscape architecture meets urbanism, cultural history, ecology, art and architecture. This exploration takes us from regional plans to garden design, from rural areas to the city, and from research to realisation. We regularly collaborate with other disciplines such as ecology, architecture, transport planning, hydrology, & sociology. In our office we work on a mix of projects of divergent scales, both in rural and urban areas. We make plans for whole regions but also for parks, country estates, housing areas and squares.

Research & design

The Sublime

Spatial Heritage

Landscape Urbanism

Our work is characterized by a mix of analytical depth and

Increasing the drama of a landscape and intensifying the

The Dutch landscape has been formed by a long process

Cities around the world are expanding, the boundary with

visionary perspective. We work rationally and academically

emotions of the user is a central aspect in our work. In

of human intervention. Landscape Architecture in the

landscape is blurring and the difference between urban

in analysis and concept stages, then artistically and playfully

that sense we are romantics. Romance in our work is not

Netherlands is a part of this process, which means that

and rural environments has all but disappeared. Landscape

in the development of it. Our work is conceptual but always

a formal question, but has more to do with an intensity

we work on additions and adjustments to the landscape

is able to comprehend and order this new condition

with a view to being constructed; at the end of the day all

of life, related to the sublime. As landscape architects, we

and rarely in a ‘greenfield’ situation; every action in the

because the two have begun to resemble each other: the

that counts is what is to be built. We combine thought with

disagree with philosophers such as Kant and Burke, who

landscape is thus a transformative action.

city now changes, transforms and evolves as a landscape.

material craftsmanship; we strive for certain earthy quality,

claim that man-made landscapes cannot evoke the feeling

We approach design contextually, both in space and in

In integrated area developments we use landscape to order

warmth and playfulness.

of the sublime. Increasing the drama of a landscape, and

time. We set up a ‘dialogue’ between our proposals and the

and give form to various programmes and to play the role

We love people. Children form a continuing source of

arousing sublime experiences, can be achieved be creating

surroundings, to harmonize, or in some cases to contrast

of ‘integrator’ between other disciplines. These strategies

inspiration for us.

spatial contrasts such as in our design for the Drentsche Aa,

with it, but never ignore it. We position spatial heritage

have been used in the design of the Wieringerrandmeer, the

where we combine small and large-scale spaces. In addition,

within a future perspective because design is by definition

proposal for Bloemendalerpolder, and the urban plan for

it can be achieved by the overwhelming effect of planting

always a forward-looking activity.

the SaksenWeimar barracks.

masses, such as in Japanese garden design. We like to give the everday an extra dimension by stimulating the fantasy of the user. Our designs are therefore not minimalist or abstract geometries or high-tech, but are earthy, sensual and monolithic.


Strubben Kniphorstbosch Development and Management Plan

Strubben Kniphorstbosch is one of the gems of the

which is considered a landscaping architectural assignment

impact by opening up the lanes, by planting the gaps made

don’t grow thick again. This will be a shepherded flock,

catchment area of the Aa River in Drente and is by far

which focuses on the image. An important aspiration of the

by the missing trees and in constructing pathways in the

whereby it is of vital importance that the shepherd is aware

the largest national archaeological monument of The

design is the enhancement of the contrast between the non-

lanes. In the dark coniferous forest surrounding a number

of the desired image. We spent some time with him at the

Netherlands. The area has an enormous concentration of

reclaimed landscapes in the north and in the south, and

of burial mound, small-scale intimate spots will be created,

terrain and have discussed the plan extensively with him.

archaeological values, which to a large extent, are visible.

the rationally set-up reclamation landscape in the centre of

where the sunlight will light up the grass like a spotlight on

Aside from geological values such as depressions, aeolian

the planning area. The design caters for a greater diversity

the burial mound.

sands, small hollows and prehistoric monuments such as

of open places, contrasts are prompted more firmly and

megalith grave, many burial mound and ‘Celtic fields’, the

transitions are accentuated. Hence greater differences come

In the southern subarea too a section of the trees and

landscape will elevate it way beyond beauty alone. The

area contains many remnants from different periods, like

about in the perception of the three sections of the planning

shrubs will be removed from the place where there are

plan uses the opportunities to enlarge the visibility and the

major clusters of cart tracks over the Hondsrug, oak shrubs


many clusters of cart tracks, so that elongated open

spatial coherence between the traces of the past, in which

which clearly express the former prominent role of sheep on

When the plan has been realised, both the major contrasts, the vastness as wells as the tremendous timescale of this

‘trenches’ come about in the woods, where one emphatically

visitors might be impressed by the overwhelming amount

the heathland, remnants of ancient forms of (forest)control

In the northern subarea a broad belt is opened up along

perceives the dimensions of the clusters and the orientation

of historical material in this sublime landscape.

like cavities and copses, specially marked corners of

the fringe of the plateau of Schipborg, where most of the

on the Hondsrug, as well as the spatial coherence between

commons, relics from the Kniphorst country estate dating

visible monuments are situated. Here the heathland will

the cart tracks and the burial mound.

back to the 19th century and an almost complete collection

develop itself, which will be managed with sheep. This will

of military objects from the time that it served as a military

cause the old, erratic forests in the northern section, and

The proposed interventions bring about extremely rich

exercising ground.

the rationally set-up s in the central section to be separated

ecological gradients of closed to half-open and open

Until now the area has been managed as a nature reserve

from each other. The oak shrubs will be exempted, whereby

landscape, like the gradual transition from hollows via

In collaboration with: NovioConsult Van Spaendonck (process

and MoD terrain, which is why the present layout is rugged

their life span will be extended and whereby the fanning out

thickets to heathland. Furthermore rare species, which have

and communication) and Bureau Overland (cultural history)

with a great deal of forest. The amount of climbing plants

pattern becomes visible.

drastically reduced in numbers in the past decades because

has increased substantially in the past decades and the

The clusters of cart tracks and the major concentration of

the habitats strongly cohere with openness, will be given

Client: Northern Region of the National Forest Service in the

spontaneous growths of young forests and vegetation now

burial mound will also become visible again.

plenty of new opportunities in the proposed interventions.


cover a large portion of the archaeological relics. Due to

Designer: Strootman Landschapsarchitecten (Niels de Jong, Jan Maas, Jasper Springeling, Berno Strootman and Anne Zaragoza)

This will also be dramatized by the differences between nature and culture.

Size: 295 hectares

The fringes of the commercial forests are firmly prompted

Grazing sheep will play an important role in the future of

Year of design: 2007-2008, year of implementation: 2009-

Strootman Landschapsarchitecten have drawn up a

by exempting the bordering wood embankments. The lane

the Strubben Kniphorstbosch. They will ensure that the


development and management plan for the entire area

structure associated with roads and paths, is given more

open sections of the planning area remain that way and

the ruggedness and the forest vegetation, valuable contrasts

In the central subarea the rational features of the former

have also disappeared from the area.

country estate and of the commercial forests are enhanced.

Three major landscape units




forest 1910 forest 1910

forest 1940 forest 1940

forest 1982 forest 1982

forest 2003 forest 2003

forest 2007 forest 2007

future forest future forest

Consecutive forested areas throughout the whole of the 20th century and future spatial main structure Three major landscape units


The Strubben area

on the plateau of Schipborg


Reclaimed area

(commercial forests

and Kniphorstbosch)


Aeolian sands and heathland area

with the sandy depressions Berekuil

[bear-pit] and Jerusalem

Burial mound

Wood embankment and pathway

Oak shrubs

at right angles to the cart tracks

Megalith grave

Hollow Driftw


ll Ho

Disappeared despression Borchermeer

ow Dr ay iftw

Assault course

Esweg [road] Shooting gallery at shooting range De Esch

Bomb crater Residence

De Koekoek Residence Residence Addersveentje [small lake] Residence

] weg [road Residence


Oak Thickets



Parabolic dune



Burial mound Specially marked corners of commons



Hand grenade range with building/ cellar

rg w




Small lake (sacrificial place)



Galgenberg [hill]

Bomb craters D7


open places in the forest at present

Boekweitenveentje [small lake]

future open places in the forest future transparent forest





ge or

future forested areas


rw ad

[ro ]

KrĂśller-MĂźller (Berlage) experimental farm


Game keeper's cottage which has disappeared, still recognisable by the beech trees and the cellar

field / meadow

De Berekuil depression Disappeared watch tower Forest ranger's cottage of the 1920s


Disappeared Villa Maria recognisable by the pond and the beech trees

General's barrow

Relics map

Bomb crater

axis hollow Jerusalem depression



Old holding farm

plateaus at Schipborg / at Anloo

ad] eg [ro

peat depression (hollow with a surrounding bank)

urnfields / remaining urnfields settlement site Late Neolithic burial mound Early and Middle Bronze Age


burial mound in the Late Bronze Age, Early Iron Age tumulus in the Late Iron Age Middle Neolithic megalith grave possible traces of Celtic field holt / wood


oakshrub vegetation

Existing situation on


es pr

cart tracks / distinct


parking area

at o lo An

cart tracks / vague


Grazed heathland + Clumps of trees + brushw ood + vegetation of saplings + creating new brushwood influenced by grazing

Clumps of trees + brushwood + vegetation of saplings + shrubbery

Northern Galgenbergweg [road]

Assault course

Shooting gallery at shooting range De Esch

Bomb crater Grazed heathland + Clumps of trees + brushw ood + vegetation of saplings + creating new brushwood influenced by grazing

Clumps of trees + brushwood + vegetation of saplings + shrubbery

Future situation

Dr if

tw ay

Present situation : New heathland at present spontaneous woods Ho llo w

Addersveentje [small lake]

Parabolic dune



Oak Thickets




rg w


Present situation: Accentuate relief (sand ridges/hollows)

Development plan

Small lake (sacrificial place)Trench [ro

Boekweitenveentje [small lake]



Bomb craters







To thin-out fringe of oaks = Schipborgremoval of vegetation and undergrowth weg Oak fringe [road]

Exempt oak shrubs = removal of undergrowth Embraced by the Parabolic dune: oak shrubs obstructed by competitors and cart tracks

Exempt Parabolic dune = leave only the oak shrubs and tree rings Thickly overgrown Parabolic dune


Schipborgweg [road]

Embraced by the Parabolic dune: oak shrubs obstructed by competitors and cart tracks

Thickly overgrown Parabolic dune


ge or

Middle Neolithic megalith grave


possible traces of Celtic field

Exempt Parabolic dune = leave only the oak shrubs and tree rings

Accentuate uneven relief by specifically keeping more trees on the higher sections and less in the hollows

Clumps of trees + brushwood + vegetation of saplings + shrubbery

Western Galgenbergweg [road]

tumulus in the Late Iron Age

Future situation Exempt oak shrubs = removal of undergrowth

To thin-out fringe of oaks = removal of vegetation and undergrowth

Eastern Galgenbergweg [road]

Galgenberg [hill]


Late Neolithic burial mound, Early and Middle Bronze Age

Accentuate uneven relief by specifically keeping more trees on the higher sections and less in the hollows

Clumps of trees + brushwood + vegetation of saplings + shrubbery

Hand grenade range with building/ cellar


burial mound in Late Bronze Age Early Iron Age

Burial mound Specially marked corners of commons



[ro ch


distinct cart tracks








s or

De Berekuil depression

grassland with scarce heathland shifting sand area

Disappeared Villa Maria recognisable by the pond and the beech trees

General's barrow

small pool / hollow

Bomb crater

field / meadow

Inside Outside the pasture area

eg Bosw

holt / wood

Present situation

m ale ion rus ss Je pre de

heathland with depression

Oak fringe

old forest

Inside Outside the pasture area


Anloo despression view

oak shrub vegetation forest with outdoor character

Embraced by the Parabolic dune: oak shrubs and tree rings + coming about of new oak shrubs influenced by grazing + distinct cart tracks + the coming about of a wealth of various-specied grasslands through grazing / mowing.

Future situation

seedbed forest

exempt Parabolic dune + the coming about of a wealth of various-specied grasslands through grazing / mowing. variable

production forest transparent production forest


spontaneous forest

Embraced by the Parabolic dune: oak shrubs and tree rings + coming about of new oak shrubs influenced by grazing + distinct cart tracks + the coming about of a wealth of various-specied grasslands through grazing / mowing.

avenue and wooded bank oaks placed out of line

exempt Parabolic dune + the coming about of a wealth of various-specied grasslands through grazing / mowing. variable

parking area visual relationship with environment

at o

lo An

(Bailey)bridge or underpass N34 in the direction of Annen



s es pr


former shooting range and assault course

Anloo church view

solitary tree

Artist’s impression: Hollow and parabolic dune with thicket


2 12

Drentsche Aa Landscape plan

The river basin of the Drentsche Aa is a fantastic landscape

The river basin of the Drentsche Aa is approximately

In the current situation less than half of the waterways

that has survived the wave of post-war land consolidation.

30,000 ha. The landscape plan is predominantly a design

still retain their original character. The plan proposes

Even so the area is slowly fragmenting and clogging up.

approach and contains a large number of proposals at all

the reinstatement of natural character to all waterways

The landscape plan demonstrates how the drama of the

scales, consistent with each other. A thorough analysis of

in the catchment area. In addition a number of artificial

landscape can be brought to life and how the historical

the current landscape is accompanied by proposals which

waterways are to be dammed to raise to the groundwater

layers can be made more visible. The plan works on all

accentuate the landscape and improve the legibility of

level. These measures will also improve the visual and

scales and delves into aspects which are important for the

historical elements. Also there are proposals for adjusting

amenity value of the landscape and increase natural values.

future of the area: archaeology, management, new country

water management, improving village expansions and

The proposal also improves retention capacities, discharge

estates, traffic control, recreational facilities, water retention,

making new viewpoints. Using a number of trial projects,

rates and reduces flow rates so that natural processes of

scenic viewpoints, village extensions and agriculture: under

a provocative perspective on the future is presented in

infiltration and percolation can occur.

the motto ‘conservation through development’.

which new developments are envisaged in a powerful and proactive landscape.

Client: Staatsbosbeheer & Nationaal beek- en esdorpenlandschap Drentsche Aa

The landscape plan for the Drentsche Aa accomodates major developments in places where interventions have

The landscape plan is based on an in-depth, visual,

already occurred. Despite widespread appreciation of the

integrated analysis of the landscape and its historical

Team: Strootman Landschapsarchitecten

cultural history of the area it is inadvisable to put a freeze

development. That development goes back approximately

In association with NovioConsult Van Spaendonck

on development and turn the landscape into a museum.

6000 years. Design principles are borrowed from all phases

The North-Willems canal between Assen and De Punt for

of history for the landscape vision. The plan is based both

example is an ideal new development axis for new country

on history and nature values and outlines a solution for

estates. This line could develop into an alternative for the

contemporary conflicts and dilemmas. The new landscape

villas along the Rijksstraatweg in Haren and can guide

must be strong enough to accommodate new developments.

development between Groningen and Assen.

Status: completed


Harry de Vroome

Implementation: 2005-2025



In 2005 Berno Strootman was awarded the Harry de Vroome medal for the landscape plan Drentsche Aa.


Nothern streambed of the Drentsche Aa


NAP – In the Netherlands the altitude of structures is recorded in relation to NAP (Normaal Amsterdams Peil). In English this is also called AOD (Amsterdam Ordnance Datum).






5 km


Stream valley

Cultivation Mound


Field sections

Long section

Field sections


BallooĂŤrveld present situation

BallooĂŤrveld design proposal


3 22

Location Wieringen and Wieringermeer Wieringen Passage

If there is one spatial development that has captured the

This is a construction plan being designed at a regional

The easternmost island is like a boat floating in the lake.

2,100 houses, 600 hectares for new natural areas

headlines in the Netherlands in recent years, it is the

scale. It involves simultaneous conceptualization of a large

In the northeastern part a new housing island is nestled

and a new 850-hectare lake

plan to separate the former island of Wieringen from the

water body in the peninsula of Noord-Holland, traffic

against a relic of the former ‘boezem’ of the polder Waard-

polders of Noord-Holland by the creation of a new lake. A

design around the lake, design of water edges and banks,

Nieuwland, that will dissolve in the future lake. Moreover,

mayor had to step down, letters were sent to government

the form of housing islands, subdivision principles and the

the historical dyke, the Wierdijk, which is now on the

Strootman Landschapsarchitecten

ministers asking them to examine the plan critically, and

design of bridges, housing thresholds and water levels.

border between Wieringen and the polder, can regain its

(Berno Strootman, Gloria Font, Bieke van Hees,


traditional significance. Extensive areas for recreation and

René van der Velde, Ymkje van de Witte and

fire to the planner’s office. At the beginning of 2008, the

Wieringen is very old and up to 1930 was an island; the

beaches will be scattered around the islands. There will

Thijs van der Zouwen)

municipalities of Wieringen and Wieringermeer as well as

Wieringermeer polder is pumped dry only in the 1930’s.

also be space available for housing on the other (eastern)

the province of Noord-Holland approved the masterplan

The atmosphere of the islands reflects the atmosphere of the

side of the lake at the Robbenoordbos, which will have

In collaboration with

for the Wieringen Passage. This new passage to the south

land behind the dykes. In the western part the former Island

waterways for pleasure boats. An ecological corridor will

Palmboom & van den Bout Stedenbouwkundigen

of the former island of Wieringen is intended to connect

of Wieringen has a romantic, organically developed, soft-

be created on the south shore. The selection committee

(Jaap van den Bout, Monique Mooij, Leonie Rupert and Bas

the Amstelmeer with the IJsselmeer. 1,845 to 2,100 new

rolling landscape, while in the east there is the pragmatic

thinks that this large-scale, courageous intervention is the

van der Vinne), Jos Rademakers Ecologie en

permanent and recreational dwellings are planned in and

polder of the robust Wieringermeer with its long strong

only way of providing this declining region with the desired

Ontwikkeling, Witteveen+Bos Consulting Engineers

around the passage. The Wieringen passage is expected to


socio-economic impulse. In the Netherlands, planners

an angry artist spent three months in prison for setting

provide a much-needed economic impetus to the region.

have to go back to the days of Cornelis Lely, the engineer

Commissioned by Boskalis,Volker Wessels Stevin Bouw

In addition, the project will enlarge and improve natural

Ecological gradients are to be introduced depending on

known for the Afsluitdijk (IJsselmeer dam) and IJsselmeer

& Vastgoedontwikkeling, the municipalities of Wieringen

habitat areas and improve agriculture, recreation and rural

the depth of the water and the situation in relation to the

polders, for any long-term plans of this magnitude. Some

and Wieringermeer, and the province of Noord-Holland

living standards in the area.

island, ranging from the shallow foreshores to the reed

of the present residents and users find it difficult to accept

lands just above water level, and from the wet grasslands to

that their agricultural landscape is going to be overturned

The Lago Wirense consortium – composed of Boskalis,

the dry-land wooded nature areas on the small islands with

for a recreational and nature landscape, which only their

Volker Wessels Stevin Bouw & Vastgoedontwikkeling and


children and grandchildren will be able to enjoy. One of the

Witteveen+Bos – commissioned the designers at Strootman

Area 1,600 ha Design 2007 Implementation period 2009–2032

designers puts it this way: ‘For centuries, we sacrificed water

Landschapsarchitecten and Palmboom & van den Bout

The configuration of the islands is partly based on sightlines

for land without difficulty for our own well-being. Now we

Stedenbouwkundigen to design the masterplan, which was

to and from Wieringen. The shaped wood-elements play an

have to learn that it is legitimate to sacrifice land for water

developed on the basis of various existing models, designed

important role in the visual structure of this part of the lake.

for the same reason.’

by Bureau Alle Hosper.

They outline spaces, connect, hideor emphasize different

Budget € 300,000,000

parts of the area. In the eastern part the water is relatively deep and banks are steep. 23


Former island of Wieringen (1930)



Masterplan Wieringerrandmeer The ‘’Schorren’’ plan October 2007

dry grasslands

sound bar rier

wet grasslands



bicycle path

shrubs on sandy ridges


reed lands

car bridges

protection of reed lands

bicycle bridge

ecozone - south

bicycle ferry

harbour area

shallow water ( 1.30 metres below sea level)


shallow water ( 1.90 metres below sea level)

recreational houses

shallow water ( < 3 metres below sea level)

recreational ‘forts’

fairway ( 4.25 metres below sea level)


The island of Wieringen and the sea, situation 1930

The island of Wieringen and the reclamed land, situation 2007

Open views to the water from

Water in contact with the old dyke of

Open views to the water from

the island of Wieringen

the island of Wieringen

the island of Wieringen

The island of Wieringen and the new water passage, situation 2012

New design for water and landscape


Location of shallow shorefaces

Reference image of shallow shorefaces

Location wood

Robbenoord wood

Location of reed marsh (natural reed-lands)

Reference image of natural reed marsh (photo:Joop van Reekum)

Location Southern dyke (dry ecological zone)

Reference image of Southern dyke (Wierholt)

Location of shrubs

Reference image waterlogged meadows (photo: Joop van Reekum)

Location of other nature (dykes, ecological connections)

-Reference image of other nature (dykes, ecological connections)

Ecotope types

Location of shrubs

Reference image of shrubs on ridges Lauwers lake (photo: Google Earth)

Areas in the Master Plan

Shallow shorefaces


215 ha.

Reed marsh


150 ha.

Waterlogged meadows


40 ha.



20 ha.



5 ha.

Southern dyke: dry ecological zone


75 ha.

Other nature: dykes, ecological connections


95 ha.

Total nature


600 ha.

Total Wieringerrandmeer

approx. 1,600 ha.



+0.30 water level -0.40 water level

Wier dyke




shrubs on sandy ridge

wet grassland

shallow water

housing area


Typical section

Impression of the proposal


metres +/sea level

Wier dyke

New dyke

Wier-dyke with wet-land

housing area +0.70 (backwater level)


+0.30 (max. water level) +0.10 (floodgate closed) -0.20 -0.40


dry ecotopes

-0.40 (fixed water level) wet grasslands and shrubs reedlands shallow waters (type 1) shallow waters (type 2)

deep waters



Wier-dyke with reed-land

metres +/sea level


4 30

Schoonloo-Oost Forest design

The project site, anciently 22 hectares farmland, lied

A first layer of plantation, namely the North and South

The third and most autonomous layer enriched the woods

along a long strip of woods connecting two major forests

broad alleys and the backward meadow should provide a

with a variety of open spots. These spots must be unusual

over 3 kilometres from east to west. The long woods was

consistent framework. The woodland estate was regarded as

and bring excitement along. As principle each spot must

becoming a place of nature as well as of culture. Already

a whole, a clear entity with a plain outline.

be unique in terms of size, shape and filling, no matter

few farmlands lying along had been in turn converted into

Inside the regular framework would grow the inner woods.

it accommodates a sole species, a body of soil or a water

places of leisure, namely a woodland estate and a horse

A great challenge for these inner woods was to create an

feature. Most of the spots would be located in the inner

farm. The project site was also to become a woodland

attractive heterogeneous woodland environment within

woods though few would overlap with the regular plantation.

estate, benefiting/increasing simultaneously to the value

limited amount of time. This would be achieved through

According to the flowering calendar, the seasons would

of the ecological corridor. The project site would host two

simulating the diverse development stages of a natural

enlighten the spots each in turn.

woodland houses.

woodland. Natural referred here to a mosaic woodland

The edge of the long woods displayed superb full-grown

made of various patches. Each patch would differ according

Location: Schoonloo near Assen & Emmen,

beeches, what had an great impact on the surrounding open

to size, species and density.

district Aa-en-Hunze, Drenthe

landscape. This aspect was fully taken into account in the design for the new woodland estate. In order to allow sights

Client: Terra Beheer BV

along both edges, the long woods and the woodland estate were to be demarcated through an elongated wetland.

Team: Strootman Landschapsarchitecten

The design for the woodland estate contained mostly three layers.

Status: Design 2007-2008 Implementation: 2009







Ettenstoel (holt)

Planning area 22 ha 74 a 70 ca

Planning area with existing small hollow 10 10m

Meadow / Stabling facilities 6 ha 63m

NSW wood / Terra Natural terrain 6 ha Scho onloĂŤ


t rstraa

Woodland living 1 5,2 HA

Forest strip

Woodland living 2




5,2 ha

Dodshoorn country estate

Small wood for horses 2.5 ha


existing forest edge

sustainable frame

mozaic forest

open spaces

typical section of the natural (existing) forest

sketch design

existing forest edge

sustainable frame 34



4 11 10 3 9


Dense phase: 60% Soft birch 40% Sessile oak

Dense phase: 100% Beech

Staking phase: 100% European oak

Staking phase: 100% False acacia

Dense phase: 100% Aspen

Staking phase: 80% European oak 20% Beech

Dense phase: 100% Beech

Staking phase: 85% European oak Dense phase: 15% False acacia 100% Aspen Dense phase: 60% Soft birch 40% Sessile oak

Dense phase: 100% Common silver birch




Tree phase: 60% European oak 20 % Beech 20% Soft birch

Dense phase: 100% Soft birch





Construction basis for wood mozaic

Special open places: field of rhododendrons

Special open places: field of rhododendrons

Special open places: field of liliaceae

Special open places:

Special open places: field of apple serviceberries

(preferably Fritillaria)

each time, throughout the year, a space is highlighted

(Amelanchier lamarckii) 36

5 37

Bloemendaler polder Landscape and city merged into one overall composition

This 500 hectare plan is situated on the river Vecht to the

One of the ambitions of the plan is to ensure a strong

A large new lake is the central feature of the plan and is the

Client: Public-Private Partnership (National Government,

east of Amsterdam, between the towns of Muiden and

relation with the river. A characteristic of the Vecht

focus for the remaining housing areas and recreation. A

province of North-Holland, Water board Amstel, Gooi &

Weesp. The scheme includes 2,350 houses and associated

region is the contrast between compact river-towns with

new subdivision strip is proposed between the Vecht city

Vecht and the municipalities of Muiden and Weesp) and three

infrastructure, including the relocation and widening of the

high density housing, and the open, sparsely populated

and the new lake utilizing a variety of house typologies.

private real estate developers (Adriaan van Erk associates,

A1 motorway and the construction of an aqueduct for the

landscape around them with housing in a very low density.

Small communities are clustered around the lake, and are

AM/Ymere en Van Wijnen/Delta Lloyd/Blauwhoed).

motorway under the Vecht river, retail and social services,

This contrast has been translated in our plan by establishing

connected to the strip. Along the river, four new parks

a new water system and a 330 ha strategic landscape project

a new river-town close the existing centre of Weesp, with

- estates really - are proposed. These estates are primarily

In consultation with the Departments of Rural Services

for recreation and nature. The design strategy conceives

relatively high density housing, and including canals,

programmed for recreation and ecology. They connect

and State Forestry.

the area as totality, in which landscape and city are merged

boating channels with locks between the river and the

the centre of the scheme to the river. Wetland recreation

into one overall composition. By designing the landscape,

interior, and narrow streets. High-quality brickwork and a

and ecological areas are proposed to the west of the site

Team: Strootman Landscape Architects

water & urban components together a weave of housing and

range of interesting and pleasant public spaces give the new

- including meadows, a teahouse, an arboretum, raised

with input from Atelier Dutch and

landscape is achieved, which is characteristic for the Vecht

city its specific character.

promenades for pedestrians and cyclists, alder woodlands

Loof & Van Stigt architects.


and wetlands.



Woodland Littoral forest and scrubland Reedbeds Grassland Water Estate

Cycle path Footpath Track Boardwalk

Long bridge Short bridge Causeway Sluice Railway viaduct

Decoy pond

Bloemendaler polder to the centre of Amsterdam by bicycle

Maitenance depot Boathouse Beach Grazers Angling Water arboretum Park Ferry Skating rink Jetty Waterlandtak Observatory Flower garden Picking garden Campfire Special bridge Forest playground Horse meadow


Canal system

Section: canals


Wetlands and housing area

Impression of the new water bird grove

Recreational use of the canals

Wetlands between the dykes


Small canals (situation)

Housing typologies of the new river town

Small canals (section)

The town of Muiden and motorway A1: existing situation

Houses around a park / estate (situation)


town near the Vecht

The town of Muiden and motorway A1: proposed aqueduct Houses around a park / estate (section)


Arboretum park


6 44

Water Treatment Park Het Lankheet Lankheet estate is primarily a production forest. Typical

A number of locations in the water park will be accentuated

Water purification by reed beds is a natural process. The

estate features such as avenues and a hedge labyrinth exist

by special objects. Granite boulders will mark places where

biomass of the harvested reed produces sustainable energy.

but there is no central house. The estate has a centuries-old

water flows from one basin to another as well as where

Diverting the filtered water into existing drought affected

tradition with water. Traditional water features on the estate

water enters the system. Fords are to be built where a supply

woodland produces optimum conditions for development

retain water and release it later onto pastures. In the past

ditch crosses a sand path. The Scottish artist Jim Buchanan

of new alder-cherry woodland.

a creek used to service the estate but these days the roles

is making a water feature at the end of the system.Extensive

are reversed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the estate maintains the creek. The water

new woodlands are planned for the estate. Part of the new

park will become the main attraction in the estate: water

woodland will be marshy and is to be planted with marsh

in all its aspects demonstrates an intimate relationship

cypresses and other unique species. A boardwalk is to be

Team: Strootman Landschapsarchitecten

with the landscape. Water will be purified naturally using a

constructed through the marsh. Other parts of the existing

In association with Plant Research International and Alterra

terraced reed bed system. The water purification system has

woodlands are to be accentuated with exotic perennials and

been used to transform the estate into a spectacular water


Client: Landgoed Het Lankheet bv, Provincie Overijssel

Status: Partly completed

garden. Each link in the water system has been made into a park element. The elements are linked by water and an undulating, sinuous dyke which forms a backbone to the park and a lookout at the same time.





Water filtration system


Infiltration of filtered water in the wet forest

Panorama dyke and water distribution canal: sections

Path of wooden poles, where water flows through 48

Impression of gargoyles in a dyke between filtration fields

Filtration fields

Models for gargoyles

Model of gargoyles in a dyke between filtration fields


Model of the giant sculpture based on an existing pump structure

Impression giant sculpture based on an existing pump structure

Dragonfly as inspiration for the sculpture and gargoyles


Panorama dyke under construction

Filtration fields and panorama dyke

Circuit walk


7 52

Eusebiushof Arnhem Two Internal Courtyards

A new offices complex has been built along Eusebiussingel

We perceive the Voorhof as an ‘urban lobby’: a

Cheerful mowing robots which look like ladybirds,

Client: Eurocommerce Holding BV

in Arnhem which was designed by Pi de Bruin (Architekten

representative place with a special atmosphere, where you

guarantee a perfectly maintained lawn and provide a

Team: Strootman Landschapsarchitecten

Cie) and Royal Haskoning. The building is an extension to

take a seat for a short while before going inside or where

very special scene to look at. A white wooden fence has

Status: Under construction

the existing municipal offices of Arnhem. At the surface

you make appointments with others. During the day the

been placed around the hill. Incorporated in this fencing

level on top of the basement parking garage there are

Voorhof is accessible to the public via a high portal and a

are parking spaces for 20 cart-seats, which look like they

three courtyards: Voorhof, Binnenhof and Expeditiehof.

fancy gate.

are part of the fence. The cart-seats are panelled stone

On commission for Eurocommerce Holding BV, we have

The paving comprises a designed cobbled panel of dark

wheelbarrows. Visitors can pick up a cart-seat and drive to

designed the layout of the Voorhof and the Binnenhof.

grey concrete (2.00 x 1.30 m), which is filled with stone

their favourite spot. After use, the cart-seats are placed in

chippings that ensures a beautiful contrast of texture. The

their storage racks again. The same paving has been used

Street and square

colour of the stone chippings is grey-green and has the

around the grass hill as for the Voorhof. In some spots the

In an abstract fashion the layout of the courtyards

same shade as the natural stone slabs on the façades of

cobbled panels are not filled with stone chippings but with

refers to scenic icons, which are partially taken from

the surrounding building. Variously sized dome-spots in


the surroundings of Arnhem and partially from other

the flooring bring about a cloud of little highlights in the

landscapes. For the visitors, that leads both to a recognition


as well as to an estrangement and a smile. Abstracted giant

Art In the Voorhof a large red seating element has been

pebbles refer to a river beach, pines refer to the Veluwe,


placed, which also acts as a tree basin. The seating element

a green hillside refers to undulating landscapes, ferns to

The Binnenhof has been fitted-out softer and greener

measures approx. 12.5 x 7.5 m and is made of polystyrene

the forest, ladybirds to sunny fields, and a ‘white-picket-

than the Voorhof. This place has been fitted-out like an

with a polyethylene coating. The seating element has

fence’ to horse ranches. The scenic references cause the

ornamental garden and is a pleasantly habitable place for

varying seating profiles, in which one can sit either straight-

visitors to conjure up thoughts about other places and offer

employees. This is the heart of the building, which already

up or one can lounge and hang about. The middle of the

an opportunity to distance oneself somewhat from the

draws attention from the entrance hall due to the large

seating element is filled with soil, in which pines have been

delusion of the day.

green hill. From a weight-saving point of view the grass hill

planted and when these have matured, they will fill the

is made of polystyrene blocks with a covering layer of soil.

space of the Voorhof. The soil around the trees has been topped with erect pine cones.


Situation outline of the building Along Eusebiusingel, near the Rhine River in Arnhem

Expeditiehof [delivery yard]

Binnenhof [inner court]

Voorhof [forecourt]







Cross sections Voorhof







Cross section Binnenhof




Voorhof [forecourt] impression

Tile model


Binnenhof [inner court] impression

Ladybird robot lawn mower

Cart-seat 58

Cart-seat as part of the wooden fence

Cross section of seating element and underlying layer

Cross section of the grass mound and the wooden frame

Grating with waterproof coated pine cones in the plant bed 59

3D model of the seating element 60

Production of the seating element

Voorhof Construction

Construction of

of the Voorhof

the Binnenhof 61

Carmine red polyesther coated seating element as part of Voorhof [forecourt]

Pine cones in the plant bed of the seating element

Concrete cobbled pathways filled with stone chippings

Seating element with pine trees as part of Voorhof [forecourt]


The seating element in the public space of Voorhof [forecourt]

Entrance to the public space of Voorhof [forecourt]

Removable cart-seat as part of the wooden frame in the Binnenhof [inner court]

Removable cart-seat tree from the wooden frame in the Binnenhof [inner court]

Vegetation as part of the Binnenhof [inner court]


8 64

Baena promenade Competition Entry

Ladera Sur-Baena is a walled town near the city of Cordoba

that is logical, but it is no longer necessary. After all, the


The boulevard changes in height by means of slopes and

in the south of Spain. We have designed a promenade on

town no longer needs to defend itself against the landscape.

Because of the boulevard, the southern slope of the town

stairs. Because the boulevard follows the line of the existing

the southern side of the town which, like an urban balcony,

The slope directly opposite the Arco Oscuro gate is a great

changes from a rear end into a front end. In order to

urban periphery, a changing orientation comes about and

provides a view of the terrific landscape. The intervention

place to give stature to this interaction between the old city

increase the accessibility of the landscape, a number of

a stroll along the boulevard will be a cinematic experience:

that we propose is simple, but has a major effect on the

centre and the surrounding landscape.

footpaths will be created from the boulevard all the way to

from high to low, from left to right, with changing

the river. By adding a water feature in this less precipitous

perspectives onto the landscape, the city wall, the existing residences, and the public space in the old city.

town. By adding a spacious boulevard that acts like a balcony of the town, the town’s perspective turns 180


portion of the slope, the diversity of the plants can be

degrees. The rear end becomes the urban periphery’s front

The entrance to the water bar will be positioned centrally

increased. The flowery Jacarandas will blend in with the

end; instead of turning its back towards the landscape, it

along the promenade. The water bar will be incorporated in

pines, the Aloe Vera, and the palms which are present


will be facing it from the front.

the wall of the boulevard and is connected directly onto the

locally. Due to the improvement of the development

Aside from the boulevard being an architectural

The boulevard will become a place in which to meet and to

central fountain square and the main entrance to the park

circumstances, in the course of time other plant species will

intervention, it is also a ‘sponge’ which catches the surplus

enjoy this fantastic view. At and along the boulevard there

situated lower down. From the fountain square there will be

also come about here. In order to realize the growth of the

rainwater from the town and gives life to the adjacent

will be a new hotel, the school for tourism, the Iberian

a fantastic view across the landscape. In the recessed water

rockery plants in the wall, a mixture of water and Saxifraga

landscape. In the present situation, the water from the

museum, a water bar and a park.

bar one finds oneself on the level of the landscape. Between

seeds is sprayed onto both the wall and the area on the slope

town is discharged, partially via subterranean water pipes,

the natural plants of pines and Aloe Vera, Jacarandas will be

which borders directly onto the wall. Through a natural

directly into the Marbella River. This mainly occurs during

Cultural history

added. Hence a green oasis comes about, which will radiate

spread this will slowly cover over a number of areas on the

bouts of heavy rainfall, when there’s also water flowing

Ladera Sur-Baena has a magnificent positioning at the

a purple glow across the mountain slope in the flowering


down to the river from other areas. Due to the construction

top of the plateau. Due to the geological history of the

season, and cause a differentiation in the natural landscape

development of the plateau with the steep edge on the

on the slope. At the other end of the boulevard, the eastern

Street and square

underneath, the boulevard will act as the catchment area of

southern slope, the town has mainly developed in a

side, the Iberian museum will be incorporated in the wall of

The boulevard measures a total length of 630 metres; the

the water from the town, thus buffering the water that falls

northerly direction. The southern edge of the town is still

the boulevard. Two layers will be incorporated in the wall, a

width varies between 5 and 25 metres. The architecture of

during the rainy season, and dispersing it again in the dry

partially formed by the old urban peripheral with the old

small volume will be placed on the boulevard as an entrance

the wall also partially forms the architecture of the new

season. By concentrating this water storage in a part of the

city wall, the edge of the old city centre at the top of the

and information point. In the recessed museum, because of

buildings which, to a certain degree, are incorporated in

slope which is already less steep naturally, here it is possible

slope. The positioning of the city centre, which links up

the refined interspersal of light slits and windows, there will

this wall. In the earth-coloured brickwork of the wall, areas

to add special plants like the Jacaranda to the existing

directly onto the landscape, provides unique opportunities

be a great view across the landscape and also a view of the

are created for rockery plants. The new buildings, the hotel,


for recreative developments in the adjacent landscape and

solar tower.

the water bar and the museum will be made of contrasting

of the boulevard this will be different: in the hollow areas

for the town, which are currently not being used. The town

materials, particularly wood and glass. Trees and lighting

presently averts from the landscape. Historically speaking

full of atmosphere will be placed along the boulevard. 65


The buildings are build in front

The buildings are build on top

of the Defensive wall

of the Defensive wall

The buildings are the Defensive wall

Urban growth

Frontal view From the Ladera Sur

Olives Pies Jacaranda trees Existing pine trees


Existing buildings

Defensive Wall Elevators Platform

Architectonical concept

Water reserve

Information-Entrance WaterBar


Iberic Museum

View point /Pestaurant


New buildings

Irrigation system

Landscape Concept



Water reserve



421m 420m


416m 414m 412m




View & relation to the city

Water & ecology


Section A

Section B

Detail plan of the competition area


View of the perimeter path along the Defensive Wall

View from the inside of the WaterBar

View of entrance to the WaterBar, on the perimeter path along the Defensive Wall

View of the fountain in the perimeter platform from the urban garden


9 71

Park Saksen Weimar Competition Entry


Housing landscape


Until recently the Saksen Weimar barracks was an off-

The hilly character of the site has reconstructed and

Several parties have been brought together to make the

Client: Rabo Vastgoed, Driegasthuizen,

limits military complex on the edge of Arnhem. Now the

accentuated. Some terracing have been retained for housing

plan: developers, artists, neighbours, care providers and

Slokker Vastgoed en BPF Bouwinvest

area is to be revamped for residential and recreational

clusters in the park. The southern edge of housing terraces

future occupants. Their wishes have been interwoven into a

Team: Strootman Landschapsarchitecten in association with:

use. Landscape is central to the look and the structure

are embedded into the slope, while in the north they are

coherent plan.

Frank Donders project development, Concire, Faro, Drost &

of the plan: soft elements above dominant built form,

raised some meters above the slope and front the park. In

ambiance instead of hard edges and a minimum of urban

other areas private gardens are incorporated in the scheme


elements such as streets, squares and pavement. The plan is

in the form of loggias and verandas, closed blocks, or

The plan provides for natural rainwater runoff. Runoff

composition of space, relief, planting & built form.

collective gardens.

channels and retention basins are an integral component of

van Veen and Architectenbureau K3. Status: invited competition entry, shortlisted. Second prize

the park design.



A central park zone forms the backbone of the proposal.

430 houses are to be built within the park and the existing

The park area stretches out in the form of a branching tree

barracks. Part of the housing stock is designed for target

to the edges of the site. This design has been conceived as

groups such as care houses, studios, eco-housing and

a moving decor, with constantly changing spaces and sight


lines. As a result the park seems larger than it in reality is. Level differences are exploited to create sightlines and views to and through the park.



Footpaths and bicycle paths




Housing typologies and access plan

Situation 73

Movement / spatial sequencing

Model, looking south


New houses, water storage and bunker

Village green and tea-house

Houses in the park 75

10 76

Belvedères Drentsche Aa Family style




In the landscape plan Drentsche Aa, we designed in 2004,

The belvederes will be fitted-out with specially designed

In the north of the Aa River basin, where all sub catchments

we have proposed the designing of new belvederes in the Aa

furnishings, dependent on the situation. A sculptural seat

are merged into a mainstream, an important roadway

River area in Drenthe. On the basis of the contour map we

has been designed for two locations. For the furnishings,

crosses the stream, but you hardly notice that at all. Here a

have selected almost 30 locations and surveyed them in the

use has been made of indigenous and untreated materials,

‘car belvedere’ has been designed, which ensures that road

field in more detail. A house style has been designed for all

like Larchwood and rusty, rugged-looking, perforated Cor-

users have an overwhelming view across the river valley. It’s

the new locations: furnishings, signboards, parking facilities

Ten steel.

for that purpose that a considerable amount of shrubs and

and brand marks. A definite design has been made for 8

trees have been removed from the valley. The crossing of

locations. The design interventions mainly consist of the


removal of shrubs and trees to create views in combination

In general, the belvederes have been designed with reserve,

with the creating of a special place where one can enjoy the

making use of natural means: soil, plants and objects of

view. Implementation commenced at the end of 2008.

untreated wood and rusty Cor-Ten steel. The belvederes

the stream thus becomes a prominent spot in the route. Status: Partly completed

provide a view of the beautiful nature in the Aa River valley

Cultural history

of Drenthe.

In the Aa River area in Drenthe, belvederes have been present since the 19th century. The most famous one, which

Regional design

has also been captured in paintings, is the Kymmelsberg.

On the basis of a detailed contour map and a vast amount of

The new belvederes provide an opportunity to enjoy the

knowledge of the landscape of the Aa River area of Drenthe,

culture-historical and natural qualities of the Aa River area

the most special places over the entire river basin (30,000

in Drenthe at some of the most spectacular places. At the

hectares) have been sought. These places depict the special

Looner Esch the new belvedere will provide a view between

qualities of this National Landscape in a very special way.

the megalith and a small peatbog situated further along, which have an important historical relationship.


View from the Kymmelsberg




2. Potential belvederes in the central part of Drentsche Aa area - contour map


23 1. Potential belvederes in the northerly part of the Drentsche Aa area - contour map


Overview of detailed contour maps in the river valley of the Drentsche Aa

3. Potential belvederes in the southern part of the Drentsche Aa area - contour map


The Schoonloo area seen from an hydraulic platform elevator (30 meter).


Autumn 2007 The trees to the left of the view are removed for about 50 m. The 4 trees to the right of the view will also be removed. The trees with the green circle are image-determining and will remain;

Autumn 2008


Autumn 2007

The small wood behind the megalith will be thinned-out so that a quarter of the trees will remain. These are image-determining trees, now roughly indicated with a green circle. A more accurate picture is gained on site about which trees must remain and which must be removed. The two small benches to be removed. The small bench at the megalith to be replaced with a new bench. The picnic table to be replaced by a new picnic table.

Autumn 2008


3d model and foam model of furnishing

Pasture with furnishing

Pasture with furnishing

Close up of furnishing

Close up of furnishing

360Ë&#x161; Panoramic view from pasture furnishing 83

11 84

Smithfield Plaza Dublin Urban Regeneration Project

Smithfield Plaza is situated just outside Dublin’s city centre,

The intention of the concept is to keep the unity of the

Trees are placed additionally to the ‘drops and ripples’, to

on the north bank of the River Liffey. It is the largest open

existing space and in the same time make it less hard.

introduce a new scale and ambiance in the plaza. At the

space in Dublin with about 13,000 sq m. In 2000 Smithfield

There’s no need to change the present pavement; it’s of high

moment, the lighting masts in combination with the tall

Plaza was upgraded as part of an urban regeneration project

quality and testimony of the historical market square. It just

buildings and the narrowness of the square appear to be

to improve the neighbourhood.

needs some new interventions, to change the atmosphere,

(have an effect that goes) beyond human scale; the place

The regeneration crated new deficiencies to the previous

make it softer, warmer, more articulated and more attractive

is hard to grasp. In this situation, trees provide shade

design. Therefore the new activities on the south side of the

to stay. In the way it functions, is a bit like a park: so, go

and shelter, creating little spaces under the canopy. For a

area have lead to the creation of a new vision for Smithfield

for a walk, sit in the sun, enjoy events. The measures to be

relaxed and loose effect, the trees are placed in a mixture of

Plaza and its surroundings. The location of the area is

taken can be metaphorically seen as dropping a stone in the

three species, planted in clusters, to gives a more intimate,

important when we relate it to the city’s context, which got

water. It disturbs the surface, spreads out in ripples and ties

colourful twist to the square.

virtually closer by the intervention of the LUAS light rail in

to different intensities. Still, the surface is one, perceived as

2004. In Dublin, the River Liffey structures the activity of

an entity. The drops and ripples generated, appear as small

Lights of small dimension will be placed on the floor of the

the city. By linking the area to the river in a visual, physical

places, but the total space is continuous.

square to create an almost romantic atmosphere in the dark

and functional way the position of the square becomes

and connects to the scale of the pedestrian. It contrasts the

recognizable, as the river is one of the most distinctive

Drops and ripples of different grasses will interfere creating

existing lighting masts, accentuating the scale of the whole

urban landmarks of Dublin.

a contrast with the hard layer of granite cobble stones, in

field and connecting the buildings.

New activity and varying functions along the edges of the

order to soften the square. The composition of this new

square create differences of intensity within the space.

pattern is a reaction to the (program in the) facades, but it

Seats, café and terrace will be added in combination with

Different things are needed throughout the square. Precisely

also functions independently to instigate new activities.

the green and soft parts, where people are invited to stay for

these different intensities should be emphasised in creating

Lawn grass provides possibilities for sitting, playing and

a while.

a more diverse plaza. An advantage is the fact that the space

relaxing; the purple blooming meadow grass beautifies

Is important to accentuate the entrance to the new

itself is already specific. The extreme length and width-

the viewing, also from the surrounding buildings, and

buildings, where the plaza functions as a ‘business card’

height proportion make it easy to remember, but difficult to

when walking through the square. It creates a more ‘rural’/

for employers. A bar facility is positioned in the southern

relate to.

‘agricultural’ atmosphere.

centre of the square providing a comfortable place to lunch and relax.




Present situation

Spatial features


Smithfield Plaza / Dublin Masterplan Option 1


Reference image

Option 1



Smithfield Plaza / Dublin Masterplan Option 2


Reference image

Option 2



08:00 am Impression


Option 1 For the southern part of the Smithfield area 2 options are proposed. The first option makes the square more green and soft, and articulates the division in smaller spaces. Larger open spaces are positioned in connection with New Church Street and Hay Market, and more north around Market Square and Thunder Cut Alley. The cafĂŠ is positioned between the new Headquarters and the gas-building.


08:00 pm Impression


Option 2 The second option leaves the square more open and a bit less green and soft. This option leaves more flexibility in the use for events. Larger open spaces are positioned in connection with the new tram line and the new Headquarters and more north around Market Square and Thunder Cut Alley. The cafĂŠ is positioned close to the tram line.



Thresholds For the thresholds of the new Headquarters we propose a pavement of grey granite, consisting of elements of 50x20 centimetres. The top of the granite will be flamed or hammered. The intention of the paving design is to create a representative outdoor space for the new Headquarters and in the same time connect the public space on both sides of the tram line. The area between Smithfield, New Church Street, Bow Street and North Phoenix Street will be treated as one entity. Several trees are proposed on both sides of the tram line, to connect the area between North Phoenix Street and the tram line with the square and the new Headquarters. The trees are also proposed in Arran Street to provide a visual connection between Smithfield and the river Liffey.


Strootman shortlist  

A contemporary survey of projects by Strootman Landscape Architects.