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Why bother with Harvard Referencing? Jeannie Alderdice ACES 2011-12

Why bother with referencing?  Shows

you are disciplined  Universally acknowledged as desirable practice (everyone, everywhere uses a referencing system if they are engaged with higher level education)  Demonstrates your capability to research  Combats plagiarism

What is plagiarism?  

Copying directly from a text, word-for-word Using an attractive phrase or sentence you have found somewhere  Using text downloaded from the Internet  Paraphrasing the words of a text very closely  Borrowing statistics from another source or person  Copying from the written work or the notes of another student  Downloading or copying pictures, photographs, or diagrams without acknowledging your sources



what I’m reading is already really good and I can’t write this better than the author!!’

You need to show you are developing your own ideas and arguments and learning to express them.  You are showing that you have learned about and can use other people's work.  These conventions allow you to use other people's work to illustrate and support your own arguments - but you must be honest about it. You must show which parts are your own work, and which parts belong to somebody else. Source:

What is a citation? ďƒ˜A

citation tells readers the source for information you have included in your writing, such as your textbook, a reference book, a website or an article published in a journal. A citation should guide readers to the List of References where the readers can find the full bibliographical information on the source.

What is a bibliographic reference?  This    

is all the details of a book/journal etc

Author(s) and/or Editor(s) Year or Date Title Edition/ Volume/ Number etc Publication details

NB: You don’t usually need the ISBN number unless you want to order a book from a bookshop.

Citations looks like this… (2007, p.36) has stated that ‘it can sometimes be confusing to understand the differences between citations, references and bibliographies’, however, James (2008) has argued that it really is not difficult at all.

 Bloggs

List of References 

The citations within your writing should correspond with the references - so if you have used a citation from Bloggs and James you might have these references;


C., 2007. The Art of Good Student Writing. 3rd edn. London: Pudding Books.


F., 2008. Creative Academia. Oxford: OUP.

List of References  This

comes at the end of your piece of work  you should list everything that you have cited from (in your writing)  You give each a full bibliographic reference  List the references in alphabetical order

When to use page numbers Bloggs (2007, p.36) has stated that ‘it can sometimes be confusing to understand the differences between citations, references and bibliographies’, however, James (2008) has argued that it really is not difficult.

Use page numbers in your citations when you quote directly  Don’t use page numbers when you paraphrase

What is a paraphrase? A paraphrase is where you want to use a person’s ideas but not their words so you rewrite what they have said in your own words. PLEASE NOTE: Any words you use that are the same must be shown as quotations – using ‘inverted commas’ and (Author, Year, page)

While Bloggs (2007) claimed this was not the case, James (2008, p.116) stated he could ‘categorically without any doubt’ argue against this ‘preposterous story.’

What is a bibliography? 

A bibliography is a list of books that you have read but not cited in your work  The bibliography comes after the list of references  You won’t need a bibliography if you have cited from everything you have read  Some examiners do not like bibliographies because you can’t prove you have read what is on your bibliography (check with your tutor)

Finally!  Use

the NCN Harvard Referencing booklet as a template for your citations and references.  You DO NOT NEED to learn this off by heart – you just need to keep the booklet handy as you write your assignments.

Any questions?  Get

in touch with ACES (Academic Coaching an Study Skills team)

 Jeannie

Alderdice 07909990725  Adams Building, City Campus  Via HE and International Office  Email  Ask a librarian!

Why use Harvard Referencing  
Why use Harvard Referencing  

A guide to why and how to...