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Cultural clusters as a social magnet Tatyana Polyakova

Abstract Located in the center of Moscow, the White and Red Chambers is a historical architectural complex, rich with cultural life that was built in the seventeenth century. These buildings are excluded from contemporary urban culture because society lacks knowledge of their real value. They are among the few buildings remaining from that time in Moscow. Two of the three buildings from this era were preserved and used later for different functions. There is an issue of reusing the Chambers and creating an appropriate model of organizing cluster for this historic site. All art clusters have a headline idea around which all other functions are attached. In the case of the Chambers, the main anchor for the concept is architectural heritage. The main issues for the concept are: 1) creation of a place for communication and the exchange ideas about architecture and heritage; 2) restoration for this historical site to the status of a public space and implementation in a level of contemporary urban culture; 3) identification of content for engagement of citizens; 4) creation of a sustainable economic model, where business will support social initiatives. One of the key parameters for finding a new function for this unused space is to focus on an analysis of the area and on the lack of certain functions. The aim of this research is to rethink the structure of art clusters in Moscow and to formulate it as a social magnet for the engagement of people.

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Photo by Eric Valeev

Hypothesis The transformation of unused historical sites into socio-cultural clusters gives the city a chance to create a catalyst for area development, drawing on the energy of society. This repurposing also serves as a tool to improve social engagement between different types of people. Finding an appropriate function to maintain and reuse buildings facilitates the preservation of heritage and the integration of these buildings into contemporary urban life.

There may be several ways to repurpose post-industrial or recently abandoned sites after the loss of their original function. Creation of an art or post-industrial cluster is one of them. The main audience for clusters in Moscow is the professional public. Compared with Berlin's experience with cluster organization, there is a lack of social initiatives in the Moscow model. Adding other functions will create an alternative, open and lively model, which will attract more types of people and help to create social engagement. The meaning of profit is changing with time from a purely financial sphere to social capital value. To achieve the aim of formulating a conceptual proposal for the historic dwellings, the Red and White Chambers were analyzed and compared with other structures in Moscow and with Berlin art clusters. Appropriate functions for the neighborhood and types of visitors were identified.


Cluster The general system of the cluster is being considered in order to understand the structure of this particular case, which concerns the formation of an art cluster. In the most basic sense, the cluster is defined as a union of similar business activities targeted at an imaginable client. Many relative functions create more value together because they work together and create some product of collaboration. Rental prices for tenants are calculated differently in order to offer lower rent to anchor tenants who draw customers to the cluster. The success of the cluster depends on the synergy between tenants. This effect could be achieved when the administration makes the right choice of tenants, using deep and non-random logic. Moreover, the driving force of the cluster is management that is really passionate about their work. The vision of the cluster should be easy to remember, contain a challenge and be an attraction for visitors. Art clusters all over the world are characterized by being formed in historical buildings due to the aura of history that highlights artwork. There are a few types of art clusters: an artificially formed object, like a district, and a naturally formed district. An example of a natural formulation is the Chelsea district in New York, where empty spaces were rented by art galleries, leading to the gentrification of the area. This type has a certain set of features: inexpensive abandoned buildings, overgrown infrastructure, free borders or the ability to grow and power of private tenant branding. An example of artificial formulation is Vinzavod in Moscow, where the owners deliberately imitated an art district. This type of cluster has the following advantages: one owner or a long-term lessee, unified policy for rent and information, unified branding and a clear management system. Also, inner systems of the cluster can differentiate according to these parameters: independent businesses or an imitation of independent business according to the ownership of the business and the cluster.

Benchmarks To understand the transformation process for local and foreign post-industrial sites, examples from Moscow and Berlin of reused heritage are considered in this paper. The comparison with Berlin is interesting because in Germany the emergence of clusters as a structure for business began in the 1980s, when the country initiated reunification. In Germany, the economy was built on the idea of clusters while in Russia cluster formation does not take place out of necessity. In this way, Russia's cluster formation appears to be a self-upgrade trendy art places, using the Western model as an example. The creation of art clusters in Russia appears to reflect a desire to implement change. Evaluating the formats of the six existing art clusters in Moscow, it was found that most activities are focused on the professional public and only approximately 2% aim for social engagement. By contrast, in the Berlin art cluster social engagement accounts for one-third of the total formats. The main difference between Moscow’s clusters and international clusters is their mission. In Moscow, often the aim is to create a new fancy place for artists and the professional community. These are the headline ideas for Moscow's art clusters: • Vinzavod, contemporary art, 12 galleries • Flacon, fashion, 26 shops and showrooms • Arma is positioning itself to be a creative district, with a concentration in media and fashion to the tune of seven offices for each category • Artplay, main focus is on 72 shops for design materials, but there are also 45 design and architecture studios • Red October, bars and clubs, 15 establishments • Proekt Fabrika, the name lends itself to being considered an industrial center, media companies (8) occupy the largest number of offices

Flacon, Moscow

Red October, Moscow

http://www.panoramio.com/

Arma, Moscow

Proekt Fabrika, Moscow

http://r-p-g.livejournal.com/

http://we-art.ru/proectfabrika/

http://moscowdailyshot.blogspot.com/

Vinzavod, Moscow

http://flacon.ru/

http://www.winzavod.ru/

Overall, these art clusters lack a real connection with the neighborhood and locals. These culture spots operate on a city-wide level.

Artplay, Moscow

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http://www.beton-campus.de/

Another category of clusters focuses on the collaboration between professionals and the neighborhood and community to improve the social atmosphere without raising prices. This goal can be achieved using different methods; it is considered in the following two examples from Berlin.

Aufbau Haus, Berlin The first example is Aufbau Haus, a successful post-industrial space that was transformed into a socio-cultural space. It was reconstructed, and a new exterior wing was built, adding light and space for new offices. The structure of the complex is very unusual because it was formed around a shop for art supplies. Other functions are attached to the shop, which is located in the center of the building on a few floors, including numerous art workshops and designers' offices, which are potential buyers for the materials. There are many other establishments inside the complex: a theater, cafes, a kindergarten, workshops for wood crafts, a tailor, creative industry offices, a club, and art shops. A smart tenants’ organization allows for the formation of a structure where the companies can cooperate and feed each other. In addition to a successful business side, the complex also hosts a social support program for emigrants. In general, the neighborhood that the complex is located in is mostly characterized by its emigrant population, and not a wealthy public. People in this area have the opportunity to find a job in Modulor. Moreover, the complex allows employees to work in different positions in the complex without fear of being fired, so that they can find a place where they are comfortable with the work. Likewise, the kindergarten is open to all residents, including emigrants. Investors provided social support for the kindergarten when they designed the project. In short, these social supports help to avoid a gentrification process in the neighborhood and improve the life of the community. The ExRotaprint project, a benchmark for post-industrial use, is the second example under consideration. Located in the building of a printing press, ExRotaprint still houses part of a working printing press. Transformation of this building was organized by artists and architects who had been renting studios there before. When the government decided to sell the factory, renters joined together and found financial support from a foundation. They bought this factory and created a unique structure in this historical site. The structure consists of three parts: work, art and community. Moreover, ExRotaprint has a system of non-profit enterprise. Social entre54

preneurship is the fundamental base of the cluster. All money received in the form of rent is directed to reconstruction of the building and support for the arts. The work element comprises businesses, which provide the main profit from rentals, while the art component includes artist workshops, which pay less in rent. The community element comprises social projects like a German-language school for emigrants and a school for teenage dropouts who have difficulties with law. In the latter school, the students can find their own professional way and give up crime. ExRotaprint's neighborhood is not wealthy and is mainly composed of emigrants. Involving citizens in the ExRotaprint project helps to improve the area. The process of gentrification is illustrated by an increase of real estate values in the area. In 2007, real estate purchase prices for apartments in the area were about 800 to 1,100 euro per sq. m., but by 2012 apartment purchase prices in the area had increased to about 1200 to 1800 euro per sq. m. Even as rental prices in the neighborhood increased, there have been no increases to rents at ExRotaprint, where rents are 3.5 to 4.5 euro per sq. m per month (ancillary costs and tax not included). However, in the neighborhood rents rose to 6 euro per sq. m. per month (ancillary costs and tax not included). During an interview with ExRotaprint Founder Daniela Brahm on May 10, 2012, she told me the following: “ExRotaprint doesn´t want to be the initiator of gentrification in this district. We won´t be proud of having increased real estate prices or turnovers. What we want is to help precarious businesses, to help startups, people with good ideas, to enable jobless people to return to jobs, to get people off the street, to promote education, to encourage businesses to employ people, to collaborate, to discover new potentials. Nevertheless, with ExRotaprint now being fully rented out there are about 200 permanent jobs on the compound, adding 200 clients daily to it; it has a positive effect on tax income for the city.”

ExRotaprint, Berlin

Summarizing the main structural points of the examples in Berlin, it is important to note that they have a very strong social aspect. When the developers were thinking about financial profit for these new enterprises, they also did not neglect to create social value for society and did not close their eyes to social problems and the plight of emigrants. Moreover, developers helped to integrate these elements into the society. Social support depends on private initiatives.


cinema

clubs

design & architecture studios

education

fashion shops

galleries

interior design stores

media

research institute

restaurants & cafes

space for events

sport activities

15

9

4

16

92

15

56

31

99

59

3

33

6

8

galleries

restaurants & cafes

social projects

4 16

31

33

4

15

4

4

56

31

33

10 8

education fashion shops galleries interior design shops media restaurants & cafes space for events sport activities clubs galleries restaurants & cafes space for events beauty industry cinema clubs fashion shops galleries restaurants & cafes sport activities trip agency fashion shops galleries hotel & hostel restaurants & cafes

8 2 4 3 5 1 5 2 1 5 21 3 18 7 1 13 15 2 4 5 7 15 2 11 5 18 7 15 4 1 18 7 3 15

Vinzavod Moscow core industry: contemporary art

4 2 7 4 4 2 3 1 2 5 6 12 2 11 3 2 1 12 3 2 2 1 2 6 12 3 1 2 2 6 12 3 12 1 3 1 12 3 11

1 1 7 4 11 1 1 11 8 1 1 8 11 8

book & art shops cinema galleries restaurants & cafes

galleries

design & architecture studios

retired

7 2 1 7 15

4 3

15

56

31

3

33

31

10 9

4

31

33

10 4 10

social projects

core industry: fashion book & art shops cinema clubs

core industry: design

Red October Moscow

social projects

Arma Moscow 4 3 4 5 book & art shops

Flacon Moscow

social projects book & art shops restaurants & cafes social projects

26 cinema galleries restaurants & cafes social projects theatre social projects

independent businesses

social projects art workshops restaurants & cafes

4 3 5 2 11 4

students

theatre

media

26

social projects

art workshops book & art shops design & architecture studio interior design stores

3 2 2 4 3 2 4 1 2

restaurants & cafes

restaurants & cafes social projects social projects

18

galleries

galleries

4

cinema

social projects book & art shops cinema

26

book & art shops

galleries

4

social projects

restaurants & cafes

12 social projects

children

restaurants & cafes restaurants & cafes art workshops restaurants & cafes

galleries

fashion shops

2

galleries

restaurants & cafes social projects sport activities art workshops fashion shops

galleries restaurants & cafes social projects sport activities theatre trip agencies art workshops

8

restaurants & cafes

galleries

fashion shops

4 galleries restaurants & cafes galleries

restaurants & cafes space for events sport activities galleries restaurants & cafes space for events art workshops beauty industry cinema

4 11

hotel & hostels

restaurants & cafes space for events art workshops beauty industry cinema fashion shops

media

6 1 2 1 6

galleries

galleries

galleries

4

fashion shops

interior design stores media research institute restaurants & cafes space for events sport activities

fashion shops

core industry: design & architecture

art workshops

galleries

education

object formed as a district

trip agency

fashion shops

design & architecture studios

tourists

theatre

art workshops book & art shops cinema design & architecture studios education

cinema

Active citizens of working age

sport activities

fashion shops

4 1 2 2 4 1 7

cinema

7

beauty industry

4

art workshops

2 7

spaces for events

8 111 2 2 3 111 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 3 1 2 2 2

restaurants & cafes

core industry: media

galleries

book & art shops

Artplay Moscow

clubs

art workshops

4 1 3 2 6

restaurants & cafes restaurants & cafes

naturally formed district

fashion shops

restaurants & cafes trip agencies art workshops fashion shops galleries

NGO members

restaurants & cafes sport activities

restaurants & cafes space for events art workshops cinema fashion shops galleries

4 2 3 1 2 6

restaurants & cafes space for events sport activities club restaurants & cafes space for events fashion shops

research institute restaurants & cafes space for events galleries

1 4 2 6

media

media

12

interior design stores

interior design shops

75 restaurants & cafes social projects social projects

education fashion shops galleries

3 2 6 restaurants & cafes

design & architecture studios

45 galleries social projects book & art shops cinema galleries

art workshops book & art shops cinema

3 2 1

fashion shops

Proekt Fabrika Moscow

club

restaurants & cafes space for events sport activities social projects theatre galleries restaurants & cafes space for events cinema galleries restaurants & cafes social projects sport activities theatre galleries restaurants & cafes galleries social projects cinema galleries restaurants & cafes social projects theatre social projects

media

cinema galleries

professionals

theatre

book & art shops

1 3

art workshops

Target audiencies

migrants

Structures of clusters

imitation of independent businesses

Analyzes of cultural clusters

core industry: media, design & architecture

ExRotaprint Berlin core industry: art and and community

8

Summary analyzes of Moscow cultural clusters

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the ability to engage people from different classes and communities. The aim of social engagement is to create more resilient and sustainable communities. It can be achieved in different ways: a language program for emigrants, an adult learning center, homework help for children, a music school, job service agency, a library where books can be checked out as well as donated, help for students, care for the disabled and school dropouts, a city garden where citizens can grow plants and take care of them. A mix of activities creates a mutual exchange and help for communication. To formulate a new art cluster, the following steps are necessary:

Clusters might be owned by private companies or by the state. Toby Hyam, the Managing Director of Creative Space Management Limited, made a clear classification of possible cooperation options for the management of government property: the public sector owns and operates, the city/government/ the public sector owns but private sector operates, the public sector retains but social enterprises operate, the public sector retains for a limited period but the social enterprise takes the asset when the delivery model is proven and sell the asset on the open market. Each kind of model has strengths and weaknesses including method of control, bureaucratic restrictions, new ideas and energy/potential for funds.

• Provide transport accessibility: a convenient way to access the art cluster by public and private transport; • Create a communication network for the tenants and with the city: website, blog, events, etc.; • Use non-random logic when choosing tenants, create synergies in the art cluster: tenant-mix conception and networking between them; • Develop a clear concept with a headline idea to which other functions can be attached; • Include economic and business aspects so that the model can be sustainable; • Have a theoretical base: observation of global experience in the post-industrial transformation of buildings, historical overview of the place and creation of new value; • Understand the target group: analyze who is living in the area and might be interested in the formulated space and will be attracted by functions.

http://www.exrotaprint.de/

Non-profit in fact is profit Formulating social initiatives in art clusters might to occur with the help of social entrepreneurship. The main principle of it is social impact: focus on the target solution/mitigation of existing social problems and socially sustainable, positive and measurable results; the unification of social problems with business principles often brings about success. Social entrepreneurs are engaged in tasks, which the state, with a limited role for itself, does not take part in. In other countries, particularly in Europe and South America there is strong engagement of government agencies, both nationally and locally.

ExRotaprint, Berlin

Moreover, the meaning of profit is changing with time, as it transitions from the financial sphere to social capital value. Since the state or city is involved in the formation of the cluster by investing money, it means that places should create a public good for all, not only for the professional public. Indirectly, public good is increased through job creation and the fact that people are starting to pay more taxes. The formulation of social engagement between people through awareness of the difference of identities but with respect for each other's opinions helps to reduce alienation and exclusion in society. Different classes of people, mostly the disabled and ethnic groups, communicate in closed circles. To develop links between people, they have to be in close proximity. Adding social initiatives to the cluster and using principles of social entrepreneurship will help to create a sustainable model with 56

Keep and reuse The research identified the aspects of reusing a historic building. To begin with, the keep and reuse method is far more preferable because demolition and new construction add an extra weight to ecology. Also, reuse pays respect to society and to history. Second, it saves the identity of the place: contemporary cities are very similar in their appearance. Heritage buildings have bright individual characters, and demolition leads to losing variety in the city. Third, the keep and reuse method helps to promote the value of collective memory – for each building an individual way of redevelopment should be used to avoid loss of identity. This concept should propose a new unique function and symbol. In the case of art being the new function, it is creating interesting opportunities for installations and a contrast with history. The transformation of unused buildings to art clusters has a big impact on the neighborhood and the city: it removes dead points. It brings them back to life. It includes the buildings in the urban fabric: transport and social. Abandoned territories become habitable. Some developers are using art clusters in the following way. They decide to build up the outlying areas, and these developments are specifically initiated by the appearance there of the cultural cluster. Then, they wait for the attractiveness of the area and real estate prices to increase. In this way, the cultural city-forming clusters are important for town planning.


Red and White Chambers Returning to the declared purpose of the research, it is important to present a historical overview of the Red and White Chambers in order to find an appropriate new function for this place. The White and Red Chambers is an architectural ensemble from the seventeenth century, which consists of two- and three-storey buildings that were former dwellings. These buildings formulate an angle at two streets and a square. The appearance of the buildings reminds one of a fortress with small windows; it was a feature of middle age architecture. There are just a few dozen stone buildings of this type left in Moscow now. Most construction during this period was done in wood because of ecological and economic aspects. The most interesting part of the buildings is the inner-vault method of construction.

Losing, gaining and warning Aleksey Ilich Komech was an important public figure and a member of the Federal Scientific-Methodological Council for the Protection of Cultural Monuments. Komech was an active defender of architectural heritage in Moscow and was the main editor of books titled Black, White and Red, which concerned the destiny of Russian cultural heritage. Using this publication, Komech and his colleagues hoped to draw attention to the fact that in times of peace no fewer buildings were destroyed and disfigured by the unskilled "restoration" of monuments than the number lost during wars and revolutions.

The black volume presents palpable evidence of beauty of heritage that no longer exists in the architectural landscape. This book is about losing. A historical building from the seventeenth century, the House of the Lopuhov family, which was demolished in 1972, and an architectural ensemble of the In 1972, demolition of these buildings was planned prior to Red and White Chambers is shown in this book. The loss of the visit of United States President Richard Nixon. The Mos- the angular building that people called "the iron" deprived cow government planned to make new park squares and cafes the city of a monument from the seventeenth century and a in this place to show the city in the best light. Having been visual border from the southwest. According to D.P. Vasilevsinhabited for centuries, the buildings' original facades and kya: "It was perfectly a decorated square in state protection, architectural features were so obscured by successive renova- however, it was in a terrible condition." But this building had tion efforts that they appeared to have been constructed dur- been demolished because of the need to put the monument to ing the Soviet Union. But the professional architectural soci- Engels in public view. For this reason, this building will go by ety headed by D. P. Vasilevskaya and E. V. Trubetskaya was the name of Black Chambers in my research, for the Moscow against their demolition and undertook great measures to which does not exist anymore. restore the buildings. Preservationists peeled away the newer layers, revealing the buildings' hidden historical value. By this The white volume is devoted to the results of restoration activtime, the residents of these buildings had been moved from ities in the twentieth century. Tens of thousands of buildings their apartments in preparation for their demolition, but were destroyed, but at the same time thousands of monuactivists wrote a letter to Brezhnev requesting their preserva- ments were restored. The symbolical meaning of this book is tion. The voice of the professional community had an effect, gaining. The White and Red Chambers, which were saved by and two buildings were saved, but the third was demolished. A Brezhnev and the architectural society, are mentioned in this monument to Engels now stands in this place, but the under- book as an example of social activity and respect for heritage. ground cellars with vaults were saved and can be repurposed. The third red volume is similar to the Red book on endangered It must be said that the public fight to rescind the decree to species of flora and fauna and includes photographs of monudemolish the Chambers was an important step in the begin- ments of culture that have remained in dangerous conditions for decades and are almost condemned to failure. Warning is ning of the urban preservation movement. the key word of description in the book.

"Black book" - losing

"White book" - gaining

"Red book" - warning

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The cluster as a social activator in the Red and White Chambers By analyzing the Moscow and Berlin examples of art clusters, I am formulating a concept for a new socio-cultural cluster in Moscow, the Red and White Chambers. Now is the time for social initiatives, places where citizens can meet with art and communicate with the government. Organizing a socio-cultural cluster in a historical site that is not used in a proper way gives the city a chance to create a catalyst for the redevelopment of the territory, which is based on the energy of society. The owner of the Red and White Chambers is the government in the form of the Department of Cultural Heritage. For this reason, the headline idea for the new cluster is architectural preservation. This department understands the value of the place and is now searching of an effective way to use it. In answering to the question “what content is suitable for a repurposed heritage building”, the stakeholder should ask himself the following key questions: • How can the new function respect the heritage of the building? • For whom are the new functions? • How can the new function be financially sustainable in a long term? The answer to the first question is to formulate a concept for developing the architectural heritage within the framework of the stakeholder, Mosgornasledie. Around this headline idea, a respect to history and to people who are defending is shown. The niche of talks about the cultural heritage does not have a permanent place in Moscow. All over the world historical cities have similar places: the Architecture Foundation in Chicago, the Architectural Club in London and The Netherlands Architecture Institute in Rotterdam. But this topic is becoming increasingly important for the public if we pay attention to the growing number of articles and lectures about it. The Red and White Chambers can become such a place in Moscow. As with any other cluster, attention should be paid to which classes of people the project is oriented. In accordance with the main idea of preservation, we have two classes of people: those from non-governmental organizations for conservation and restorers. Comparing these people to the symbolic colors in Komech's books, we see two classes of people. The first ca-

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tegory can be defined as red, or those who defend the life of dying heritage, while the white category represents those who breathe life into monuments through restoration. But if we focus only on these two classes of professionals, we will see a repeat of what has happened in all the existing clusters in Moscow--lack of citizen involvement. Bringing Berlin's experience in forming a new cluster, it can be assumed which kind of people can be involved in the cluster with the main theme of heritage. To formulate social demands and understand who the potential visitors of a socio-cultural cluster might be, it is necessary to analyze the area around the historical site. This area should extend to all areas within a 20 minute walk of the site (transport, formats of cultural spots, dwelling, business, school, public spaces). Potential visitors to the center include residents of the neighborhood (people with a high income, the residents of Ostozhenka and the Golden Mile, foreigners), tourists, students at nearby universities, children, ethnic groups (two ethnic schools: Iraq and Georgia) and Muscovites because of the sites close proximity to transport. The point is not just to involve these people in the cluster but also to create a base where their engagement can occur. For a more illustrative example of how it is possible to engage them, each type is assigned its own color in the scheme: red – people from public non-government organizations of preservation (Archnadzor, Maps, etc.), white – professionals, dark blue - neighborhood residents, violet - tourists, yellow - children, orange - ethnic groups, brown - retired people, blue - students. As the project is oriented on the structure of the White and Red Chambers, a division between the white and red people in these two buildings could be proposed. This division does not mean that other people cannot be there, but it is just the concept idea for the formulation of the inner filling of functions. There is a big courtyard between White and Red Chambers, which could be named Black Chambers and play a role in the place of engagement in the two thematic directions. Black Chambers is a place about the Moscow that no longer exists, a place of nostalgia and a reminder to manage heritage carefully. This courtyard can be a connection between the white and the red, between the citizens and government, locals and emigrants. In most cases, in Moscow these classes are separated from each other, but union in one place will help these classes to hear other opinions, to share ideas and to be more integrated in society.


In the red building, it is proposed to locate an “open office” of Mosgornasledie as the representative organization for preservation and a stakeholder in the place. “Open office” means that this is a place where any visitors can come and receive information about the city: maps, make an inquiry about their house, read archive books. The department of cultural heritage has an enormous amount of information about the city which can be shared with citizens. Around this headline organization, spaces with multiple architectural functions are grouped according to whether the enterprises aim to work with existing heritage, reuse it or create new projects. In the white building, a restoration school will be located that will serve professionals and the common public because this branch of professional education in Russia needs to be strengthened. Since the red building is not in the best condition, practical work can be applied to it. The activities could change throughout the day: in the morning there could be collaboration with city schools conducting lessons on architecture and heritage and during the afternoon there could be a school for dropouts, guided by the example of ExRotaprint in Berlin. Through cooperation with public organizations, teenagers who come from families with social problems could be nominated for the program. Within the socio-cultural cluster,

a special program could be created to familiarize individuals with architecture, design, preservation, and heritage restoration in order to enter the Institute and develop the necessary skills for it. It may be possible to involve volunteers from the art profession in a program to help young children from lowincome families in creative workshops. This may be the next group of people: creative students from nearby institutions or people in retirement who have free time and desire to teach their skills. In the evening, the same workshops can be held for all those interested, but with a fee requirement. Profits from the cluster would go to social programs in addition to fund state support. At the weekends, festivals can be organized. All the aforementioned groups of people can spend their time inside the buildings and outside in the courtyard. In the space named Black Chambers, a schedule with activities is formulated: storytelling about the city through private stories from citizens (Psychogeography), workshops with architects, exhibitions of student work (photography, models, art work), lectures about the city. Bringing together these different types of people from the colors already mentioned facilitates their engagement and communication. One more proposal is to create at the Chambers a temporary residence for Russian and foreign architects, artists, urbanists. Participation in this program will require providing free educational events to the public.

Photo by Eric Valeev

In the form of a sketch, the following possible intersections of people are proposed for the following list of activities in the operational model for different days of the week. On weekdays, this complex aims to create a friendly academic environment in accordance with the colors of the concept.

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Having analyzed the Moscow and Berlin models with a social toolkit and having oriented the main issue of stakeholder to this place, the creation of a non-profit center for organizations interested in social and cultural projects related to architecture, urban design and preservation can be proposed. For the concept of the socio-cultural space for the Red and White Chambers, it is preferable to select one of Toby Hyam's aforementioned classifications: the public sector will retain ownership but social enterprise operates because of the ability to organize non-commercial structure with a profit of social capital. This type is chosen because the government could receive more social profit in cooperation with the organization that will drive relationships in the public-private partnership. The strengths of this method include retaining some control for the public's interest. However, the operator may be more likely to share these objectives and to bring new ideas and energy/potential for funds. But the weaknesses should also be considered. The concepts proposed by these companies may not be economically sustainable. An important component of the partnership is the choice of the curator, who is able to define the development of the project, to determine the topic and find appropriate methods of funding.

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Use of this scheme to implement social entrepreneurship and a public-private partnership will allow for the creation of a cluster in the Chamber buildings. Businesses participating in the Chamber buildings cluster can support society by donating a portion of or all their profits to social programs. This type of cluster can be characterized as social-cultural. Adding new people, which is unusual for Moscow art clusters, and mixing them with the professional community helps people to engage, combining the mutual enrichment of interests and blurring the boundaries between classes. In this way, the cluster becomes a social magnet. Illumination of the questions forming the urban environment, preservation of monuments and heritage will help to create new attitudes and outlooks on the urban environment. Involving new types of people in the conservation effort will strengthen the white and red organizations fighting for heritage, thus creating a new color of people that eventually could lead to a reduction in the number of sites falling into the "Black book�.


Bibliography 1) Christian Schittich. In Detail Building in Existing Fabric. Munchen: Birkh채user Architecture, 2003. 2) Loretta Lees, Tom Slater Elvin Wyly. The Gentrification Reader. London: Routledge, 2007. 3) Ed. A.I.Komech. Black book. White book. Red book. Moscow: Iskusstvo - XXI vek,2003. 4) Charles Landry. Creative city. London: Earthscan, 2000. 5) David T. Beito. The Voluntary City: Choice, Community and Civil Society. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2002. 6) Dr Julie Carr. Creative industries, creative workers and the creative economy. Edinburgh: Queens Printers os Scotland, 2009. 7) Katja Ruutu. New cultural Art Centres in Moscow and St. Peterburg. Helsinki: Helsinki School of Economics, 2010.

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Tatyana Polyakova. Cultural Clusters as a Social Magnet  
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